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Sample records for included smoking alcohol

  1. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  2. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... just be an excuse to avoid facing your nicotine addiction. Most people gain 5 to 10 pounds when they quit smoking. This is much less of a health risk than smoking. Exercising ... between alcohol and nicotine? Can the smell of smoke from others make ...

  4. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses....... These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We...

  5. Smoking Habits and Alcohol Use. Epidemiological data and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Nanou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and smoking among adolescents worldwide is increasing without any apparent differences between developed and developing countries. Increased rates of smoking and alcohol abuse have been documented among university students worldwide. In Greece, smoking habits and alcohol consumption among university students have only been a part of wider epidemiological surveys regarding general health issues. The prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among university students in Greece is presumably high, but so far there haven’t been any targeted efforts to focus on and deal with this issue, as it happens in other countries. Some basic factors that contribute to higher tobacco and alcohol consumption are that those products are readily available, alcoholic beverages are promoted and distributed without any formal restrictions , and smoking ban laws are for the most part neglected. The international scientific community has recently focused on the issue of tobacco and alcohol abuse among young university students and the impact on their health and the health of their social circle. Health policies addressing this issue should include prevention and intervention measures and also treatment strategies aiming both individually and at the entire university student population. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific community about the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in university students, about factors determining this behavior and measures and policies that apply to control this phenomenon.

  6. Cigarette smoking initiation during college predicts future alcohol involvement: A matched-samples study

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, MG; Doran, NM; Edland, SD; Amanda Schweizer, C; Wall, TL

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Method: Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean...

  7. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  8. Smoking Habits and Alcohol Use. Epidemiological data and countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Nanou; Saridi Maria; Souliotis Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking among adolescents worldwide is increasing without any apparent differences between developed and developing countries. Increased rates of smoking and alcohol abuse have been documented among university students worldwide. In Greece, smoking habits and alcohol consumption among university students have only been a part of wider epidemiological surveys regarding general health issues. The prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among university students in ...

  9. Rosacea Triggers: Alcohol and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, Hossein; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Patel, Nupur U; Patel, Nishit; Awosika, Olabola; Bahrami, Naeim; Cardwell, Leah A; Richardson, Irma; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-04-01

    A variety of triggers are thought to exacerbate rosacea. A validated self-assessment tool and survey was used to study the relationship between rosacea severity and triggers. Subjects were adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of rosacea. Increased severity of disease was significantly associated with consumption of many alcoholic beverages in 1 day and employment at a job requiring extensive sun exposure. The authors' findings may inform physician counseling practices; patients may be provided with practical measures for managing their rosacea, such as limiting alcohol consumption over short periods of time and increasing sun protection, especially in the summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Alcohol Use Relapse Among Adults in Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-10-01

    Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 (2004 to 2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N = 9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (nonsmoker, daily cigarette smoker, and nondaily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Both daily and nondaily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 nonsmoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and nondaily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 3 years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment...... for symptomatic gallstone disease. Studies about the impact of alcohol and smoking on the post-cholecystectomy state are few and future studies should be performed. Pancreatitis is associated with both excessive alcohol intake and smoking in observational studies. Interpretation of associations with pancreatitis...... is hampered by an incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms and by the co-existence of excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence is recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis, but higher-level evidence is needed....

  13. Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a cohort of university students. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. Journal Home ... Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and poor dietary habits are inextricably linked to overweight and obesity.

  14. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated risk behaviour for oral health in young Indian males. ... Nigerian Dental Journal ... Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health ...

  15. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Drugs and life style choices such as alcohol consumption and smoking are capable of independently altering levels of essential trace elements as well as tissue or organ function. The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter ...

  16. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...

  17. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  18. Cigarette smoking initiation during college predicts future alcohol involvement: a matched-samples study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G; Doran, Neal M; Edland, Steven D; Schweizer, C Amanda; Wall, Tamaral L

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean American undergraduates who at baseline (freshman year) reported never having smoked a cigarette. Subjects were drawn from 433 participants in a naturalistic longitudinal study of tobacco use who were assessed annually each year in college. Cigarette smoking status was assessed annually as part of a structured interview. Initiators and never-smokers were matched on gender, ethnicity, baseline alcohol use, parental smoking status, and behavioral undercontrol. As predicted, participants who initiated smoking during college reported significantly greater increases in the number of past-30-day total drinks consumed (p involvement. Part of this risk is explained by environmental contextual factors, specifically exposure to situations involving other smokers that also may result in greater exposure to alcohol use.

  19. Association of parental factors with student smoking and alcohol use in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Suzuki, Kenji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Hitsumoto, Shin-ichi

    2011-04-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted on smoking and alcohol use among junior and senior high school students and their parents in Japan. The analyses were performed to assess whether parents' smoking or drinking behavior, health knowledge, and attitude toward their children's smoking or drinking behavior influenced their children's behavior using linked datasets of students and parent answers. The number of schools that responded was 24 out of 40 sampled schools. A total of 11,362 questionnaire data sets from students and parents were applied to the analyses. The influence of parental factors including smoking, alcohol use, knowledge, and attitudes were used as the covariates on students' smoking or alcohol use as independent variables. The data were analyzed using a multiple logistic analysis. The analysis revealed that the parental attitudes of children's smoking or alcohol use were important risk factors as well as parental smoking or drinking behaviors. Conversely, the parental attitude toward warning children of the hazard of smoking or alcohol use was a significant preventive factor for the outcome of their children's behavior.

  20. Alcohol, coffee, fish, smoking and disease progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; De Keyser, J.

    Background: Certain lifestyle factors might influence disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: To investigate the consumption of alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, fish and cigarette smoking in relation to disability progression in relapsing onset and progressive onset MS.

  1. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takvorian, S U; Merola, J F; Costenbader, K H

    2014-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex multisystem autoimmune disease whose pathogenesis is thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors. It is possible that common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, might modify risk of disease development in certain individuals. Here we aim to review the epidemiologic evidence related to the association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and the risk of developing SLE. A growing body of evidence suggests that cigarette smoking confers a short-term increased risk of SLE in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, alcohol consumption in moderate doses may have a protective effect against the development of SLE, although this is still debated. We also have reviewed proposed mechanistic explanations underlying the role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in SLE pathogenesis.

  2. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  3. Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette Smoke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are among social practices of some Nigerian youths. These practices have adverse health consequences but the basis of which is yet to be elucidated. This study was designed to provide information on humoral immune responses in Nigerians that smoke cigarettes, consume ...

  4. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal ... Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated ...

  5. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    situations, the risk of relapse increased when returning to everyday life. Conclusions: The smoking and alcohol cessation intervention was well received by the participants. Cancer surgery served as a kind of refuge and was a useful cue for motivating patients to quit smoking and to reconsider...

  6. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  7. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for non communicable diseases especially among women. Brothel based female sex workers may be at increased risk of exposure to these two substances. Objective: To assess the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among female sex workers in two selected ...

  8. Drug and alcohol abuse inpatients' attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, L M; Seidner, A L; Burling, T A; Thomas, R G; Brenner, G F

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes about quitting cigarette smoking were assessed at admission to a substance abuse treatment program for homeless veterans. The majority were interested in quitting smoking, believed that inpatient drug/alcohol treatment was the best time to quit, and that quitting would not threaten their sobriety. Using cluster analysis, four subgroups of inpatients with different levels of interest, confidence, and motivation regarding quitting smoking were identified. Our inpatients' positive attitudes about quitting smoking stand in contrast with previously reported attitudes of many health professionals, and suggest that inpatient treatment could be an opportune time to provide stop-smoking interventions. Findings also suggest that different treatment approaches may be needed for subgroups of inpatients with varying attitudes about quitting.

  9. Are alcohol intake and smoking associated with mycosis fungoides?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, M.M.M.; Olsen, J.; Kærlev, L.

    2001-01-01

    cases of MF and 2899 controls. Wine intake had no protective effect; on the contrary the consumption of more than 24 g of alcohol per day was associated with a high risk of MF (odds ratio (OR)=3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34-6.79), after adjusting for centre, country, age, sex and education....... There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of MF with increased smoking habits, albeit the observed trend was not statistically significant. A combined exposure to high tobacco and alcohol use yielded a significantly increased risk factor for MF (P=0.0073). Alcohol intake was associated with MF....

  10. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  11. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  12. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  13. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  14. Peer impact on smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use and sports activities in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP

    2001-01-01

    The impact of peer behavior on smoking, alcohol consumption drug use and sports pursuits by pals was followed on a sample of 2616 Slovak adolescents (including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years) within the project Health Inequalities in Adolescents. The data were collected in the form of questionnaires.

  15. Influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; Tuinstra, J.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15

  16. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Beijers

    Full Text Available AIM: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113 or quit (n = 290, and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124 or quit (n = 1403 during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. FINDINGS: Severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: 'conflict with loved ones' (OR = 10.4, p<0.01, 'crime related' (OR= 35.7, p<0.05, 'pregnancy-specific' (OR = 13.4, p<0.05, and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05. Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may be relevant for health

  17. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p......There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  18. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  19. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Nielsen, P R; Lauritzen, J B

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and hazardous drinking are common and important risk factors for an increased rate of complications after surgery. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include organic dysfunctions that can recover with abstinence. Abstinence starting 3-8 weeks before surgery will significantly...... smoking and hazardous drinking, and interventions appropriate for the surgical setting applied....

  20. Food and nutrient intake, anthropometric measurements and smoking according to alcohol consumption in the EPIC Heidelberg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, T; Nagel, G; Altenburg, H-P; Miller, A B; Thorand, B

    2005-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with dietary habits, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and smoking. 24,894 subjects who participated in the baseline examination of the German part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg and were between 35 and 65 years of age at baseline were included in the present cross-sectional analysis (11,617 men, 13,277 women). Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance with age as a covariate was used to analyse the association between alcohol intake and dietary consumption patterns, BMI, WHR and smoking. Alcohol did not replace other food items, but was an addition to the diet. Among alcohol consumers, fat and protein intake as a percentage of energy was slightly higher and carbohydrate intake was slightly lower than among abstainers. Alcohol consumers had a lower intake of fruits, dairy products, cereal products, and added vegetable fat and a higher intake of animal products such as meat, fish, eggs and added animal fat than abstainers. The prevalence of current smoking showed a U-shaped relation to alcohol intake in men and women. In men, a U-shaped association was also seen between the prevalence of former smoking and alcohol intake, while the prevalence of former smoking increased linearly with alcohol intake in women. The results show that alcohol consumption is associated with dietary consumption patterns and smoking. Therefore, it will be important to consider dietary patterns and other lifestyle parameters when investigating the health effects of alcohol intake in the future. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The short- and long-run effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukert, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-term effects of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption using the Lung Health Study, a randomized smoking cessation program. The paper estimates the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption using several self-reported and objective smoking measures, while also implementing a two-stage least squares estimation strategy that utilizes the randomized smoking cessation program assignment as an instrument for smoking. The analysis leads to three salient findings. First, self-reported and clinically verified smoking measures provide mixed evidence on the short-term impact of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption. Second, the long-term impact of smoking on alcohol consumption, measured with the historic 5 years smoking behavior, suggests that those with the highest average cigarette consumption and those with the longest smoking history see the largest increase in alcohol consumption. Specifically, abstaining from smoking or reducing the average cigarette consumption to the mean level lowers alcohol consumption by roughly 25% per week. As a result, these findings present comprehensive evidence that smoking and drinking are complements in the long-term and that the public health and finance benefits in smoking cessations treatments are undervalued.

  3. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Fanny; van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e 0) for the Netherlands up

  4. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Kunst, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e0) for the Netherlands up to

  5. Including the smoking epidemic in internationally coherent mortality projections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Fanny; van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Kunst, Anton E.

    We present a new mortality projection methodology that distinguishes smoking- and non-smoking-related mortality and takes into account mortality trends of the opposite sex and in other countries. We evaluate to what extent future projections of life expectancy at birth (e (0)) for the Netherlands up

  6. Preconception markers of dual risk for alcohol and smoking exposed pregnancy: tools for primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Karen S; Hettema, Jennifer E; Cropsey, Karen L; Jackson, Justin P

    2011-11-01

    Effective preconception primary prevention strategies are needed for women who are at dual risk for alcohol and smoking exposed pregnancies. The current study seeks to identify risk factors that can be used to target intervention strategies at women who are at dual risk. During a 2-year period from January 2007 through December 2009, 109 women at dual risk for alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) and smoking exposed pregnancy (SEP) and 108 women at risk only for AEP were recruited from central Virginia cities. All participants completed a battery of instruments, including assessments of sexual, smoking, and alcohol history and current behavior in each area. Several factors differentiated women at dual risk for SEP/AEP vs. AEP alone, including lower educational level and employment, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, less use of contraception, and higher frequency of alcohol use and mental disorders. Several measurable factors differentiate SEP/AEP women, and these factors could be used to efficiently target primary prevention. The increased severity of women at dual risk of SEP/AEP on a variety of factors demonstrates the importance of preconception prevention efforts for these women.

  7. Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Di Dato, Carla; de Angelis, Cristina; Menafra, Davide; Pozza, Carlotta; Pivonello, Rosario; Isidori, Andrea; Gianfrilli, Daniele

    2018-01-15

    In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health. Alcohol consumption is often considered socially acceptable, but its negative effects on gonadal function have been consistently reported in the last 30 years. Several studies have reported a variety of negative effects on male fertility following drug abuse - a worrying phenomenon, as illicit drug consumption is on the rise, most notably in younger subjects. While evidence in these regards is still far from solid, mostly as a result of several confounding factors, it is safe to assume that cessation of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug addiction might represent the best course of action for any couple trying to achieve pregnancy.

  8. [Smoking and alcohol use among Chilean teenagers aged 10 to 14 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Olivares, Esterbina; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Rengifo, Manuel José; Labbé, Nicolás; Lepe, Leticia; Silva, Magdalena; Yáñez, Cynthia; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and alcohol use are risky behaviors that can start early in life. To determine the lifetime prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in adolescents aged 10 to 14 years and related factors. A survey about smoking and alcohol use was answered by 1,392 teenagers aged 10 to 14 years (46% women) from seven schools in a small city near Santiago. Personal, family, and school factors were evaluated through self-report scales. Smoking and alcohol use, as dichotomous dependent variables, were defined as having consumed any of these substances throughout life. Prevalence was calculated as percentages with 95% confidence intervals. Association analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression models. Six and eleven percent of participants reported having smoked and used alcohol in their life, respectively. Smoking was associated with age, having behavioral problems, mothers’ smoking, perceiving that parents had drug problems, and not living with both parents. Alcohol use was mainly associated with age, having behavioral problems, perceiving that other students consumed drugs, alcohol use by both parents, and perceiving a lack of family support. Tobacco and alcohol use is highly prevalent in adolescents aged 10-14 years. There were common risk factors for smoking and alcohol use such as age and having behavioral problems, while other factors were more specific such as mothers’ smoking, or parental alcohol use.

  9. Neighborhood, Family, and Peer Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F; Guttmannova, Katarina; Hawkins, J David

    2018-02-01

    There is broad agreement that neighborhood contexts are important for adolescent development, but there is less consensus about their association with adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic contexts and smoking and alcohol use while also accounting for differences in family and peer risk factors for substance use. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced (female = 49%), multiethnic, theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking and alcohol use from 5th to 9th grade. Time-varying measures of neighborhood socioeconomic, family, and peer factors were associated with smoking and alcohol use at each wave after accounting for average growth in smoking and alcohol use over time and demographic differences. Results indicated that living in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, lower family income, lower family general functioning, more permissive family smoking environments, and affiliation with deviant peers were independently associated with increased smoking. Lower family functioning, more permissive family alcohol use environments, and deviant peers were independently associated with increased alcohol use. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on smoking was mediated by family income and deviant peers while the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on alcohol use was mediated by deviant peers alone. Family functioning and family substance use did not mediate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and smoking or alcohol use. The results highlight the importance of neighborhood, family, and peer factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Future studies should examine the unique association of neighborhood disadvantage with adolescent smoking net of family socioeconomics, functioning, and substance use, as well as peer affiliations. Better understanding of the

  10. Smoking, alcohol use, socioeconomic background and oral health among young Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tarja; Päkkilä, Jari; Karjalainen, Kaisa; Kämppi, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in association with dental caries experience and signs of periodontal disease in a Finnish male group born in the early 1990s. The impacts of health behaviour and socioeconomic factors were included in the analyses. Oral health of 8539 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study (DT, DMFT and CPI). They also answered a questionnaire covering their habits of smoking and alcohol use as well as other behaviours and background factors. The bleeding on probing index (BOP) was available on 6529 conscripts. Cross-tabulation together with a chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. A mosaic figure was used to illustrate associations of smoking frequency, use of dental services and toothache. Majority (80.9%) in the study group consumed alcohol at least once a month, and 39.4% were daily smokers. Smoking was statistically significantly associated with high caries experience and high bleeding values of gums. Consumption of alcohol was not associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. The high BOP value had the strongest association with infrequent tooth brushing and smoking. The participant's own education level was the main protective factor of oral health. The smokers used dental services more frequently compared to the non-smokers mostly for acute care. Young men's health behaviour, especially of those with low education, does not promote oral health, which may indicate need for extensive healthcare services in the future. Health promotion should not be neglected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunst Anton E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived with one or more disabilities, but it is not fully understood which life style factor has the largest potential for such reductions. Therefore, the primary aim of this paper is to compare the effect of BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on life expectancy with disability, using the Sullivan life table method. A secondary aim is to assess potential improvement of the Sullivan method by using information on the association of disability with time to death. Methods Data from the Dutch Permanent Survey of the Living Situation (POLS 1997-1999 with mortality follow-up until 2006 (n = 6,446 were used. Using estimated relative mortality risks by risk factor exposure, separate life tables were constructed for groups defined in terms of BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were fitted to predict the prevalence of ADL and mobility disabilities in relationship to age and risk factor exposure. Using the Sullivan method, predicted age-specific prevalence rates were included in the life table to calculate years lived with disability at age 55. In further analysis we assessed whether adding information on time to death in both the regression models and the life table estimates would lead to substantive changes in the results. Results Life expectancy at age 55 differed by 1.4 years among groups defined in terms of BMI, 4.0 years by smoking status, and 3.0 years by alcohol consumption. Years lived with disability differed by 2.8 years according to BMI, 0.2 years by smoking and 1.6 by alcohol consumption. Obese persons could expect to live more years with disability (5.9 years than smokers (3.8 years and drinkers (3.1 years. Employing

  12. Bone mass, depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls: Variation by smoking and alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, L.D.; Pabst, S.; Sontag, L.M.; Kalkwarf, H.; Hillman, J.B.; Susman, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of the study was to examine (a) the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms with bone health, (b) the association of smoking or alcohol use with bone health, and, in turn, (c) whether the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms with bone health varied by smoking or alcohol use individually or by combined use. Bone health included total body bone mineral content (TB BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. Previous literature has not examined these issues in adolescence, a time when more than 50% of bone mass is accrued. METHODS An observational study enrolled 262 healthy adolescent girls by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years). Participants completed questionnaires and interviews on substance use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. BMC and BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower TB BMC and BMD (total hip, femoral neck). Those with the lowest level of smoking had higher BMD of the hip and femoral neck whereas no differences were noted by alcohol use. Regular users of both cigarettes and alcohol demonstrated a stronger negative association between depressive symptoms and TB BMC compared with non-users/experimental users and regular alcohol users. Findings were parallel for anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION Depressive and anxiety symptoms may negatively influence bone health in adolescent girls. Consideration of multiple substances, rather than cigarettes or alcohol separately, may be particularly informative with respect to the association of depression with bone health. PMID:22018564

  13. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  14. Smoking, alcohol, diet, dentition and sexual practices in the epidemiology of oral cancer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissowska, J; Pilarska, A; Pilarski, P; Samolczyk-Wanyura, D; Piekarczyk, J; Bardin-Mikolłajczak, A; Zatonski, W; Herrero, R; Munoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2003-02-01

    The effect of smoking, drinking, diet, dental care and sexual habits on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Warsaw, Poland. The study comprised 122 patients (including 44 females) aged 23-80 years with histologically confirmed cancer of oral cavity and pharynx. Controls were 124 subjects (including 52 females) admitted to the hospital for different non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to tobacco and alcohol consumption, with frequency matched to cases by age and sex. Smoking and drinking were strongly associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Among consumers of both products, risks of oral cancer tended to combine in a multiplicative fashion and were increased more than 14-fold among those who consumed more than 15 cigarettes and seven or more drinks per day. Cessation of smoking was associated with reduced risk of this cancer. The risks varied by type of cigarettes smoked, being lower among those consuming filtered cigarettes only (OR = 1.6) than nonfilter (OR = 6.5) or mixed (OR = 4.2) cigarettes. High fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4) with the strongest significant inverse association found for fruit juices and citrus fruits ( sexual practices (including oral sex and intercourse with prostitutes). In terms of attributable risk, smoking accounted for 57% of oral cancer cases in Poland, alcohol for 31% and low fruit intake for 12%. Attributable risks for low frequency of tooth brushing and dental check-ups were 56% and 47%, respectively. In conclusion, smoking and drinking cessation and increase of fresh fruit intake are likely to be effective preventive measures against oral cancer. These findings indicate also that poor oral hygiene may be an independent risk factor.

  15. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal

  16. Comined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, S.N.; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Muller Kobold, A.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Beek, van A.P.; Klauw, van der M.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction - The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods - 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the

  17. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome : The LifeLines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Sandra N; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vonk, Judith M; Boezen, Hendrika; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anna; Feskens, Edith J M; van Beek, André P; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines

  18. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  19. Liver enzymes: interaction analysis of smoking with alcohol consumption or BMI, comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz P Breitling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT, routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI. Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001 and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001. The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. CONCLUSION: The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury.

  20. Liver enzymes: interaction analysis of smoking with alcohol consumption or BMI, comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Lutz P; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury.

  1. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol...... consumption, smoking and patterns of hospitalization, defined as admission and duration of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was based on 12 698 men and women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We related smoking and alcohol to hospital admission from any cause, smoking......- and alcohol-related diseases and duration of hospitalization in a two-part random effects model. RESULTS: Smoking status was strongly associated with admission and duration of hospitalization. For smoking-related admissions, odds ratios (OR) of 2.77 (95% CI 2.13-3.59) in men and 6.30 (95% CI 4...

  2. Beliefs about Alcohol Use and Smoking among Sorority and Fraternity Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Maness, Sarah; Huber, Kathleen; Eggleston, Landon; Naberhaus, Bryce; Nichols, Brooklyn; Burt, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have one of the highest smoking rates among college students, yet little is known about the social influences on smoking within this subculture. The objective of this study was to examine sorority and fraternity member beliefs about smoking and alcohol use. Methods: In-depth individual interviews were…

  3. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use as predictors of disability retirement: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Smeds, Eero; Silventoinen, Karri; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated how cigarette smoking and alcohol use predict disability retirement. Data from the longitudinal nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort study were analyzed, with clustered study design applied when computing 95% confidence intervals (CI). The sample included 21,719 individuals. Smoking and alcohol use were assessed with a questionnaire in 1975. Registry data on retirement events up till end of 2004 were obtained from the Social Insurance Institution and the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Disability pension was granted to 4251 participants. Among men, adjusted for age and alcohol use, former (HR=1.45, 95%CI 1.28, 1.65, p<.001) and daily smokers (HR=1.93, 95%CI 1.71, 2.17, p<.001) showed elevated disability pension risk compared to never smokers. Among women, daily smokers (HR=1.25, 95%CI 1.11, 1.40, <.001) had elevated risk. The age and smoking adjusted risk estimates for alcohol were elevated among abstainers (men HR=1.41, 95%CI 1.21, 1.65, p<.001; women HR=1.36, 95%CI 1.23, 1.52, p<.001) and heavy drinkers (men HR=1.30, 95%CI 1.18, 1.43, p<.001; women HR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04, 1.72, p=.026). Those being persistent smokers and binge drinkers had over three-fold disability risk compared to those who were binge drinkers but had only a few smoking years (men: HR=3.32, 95%CI 2.43, 4.54, p<.001; women: HR=4.05, 95%CI 2.05, 8.00, p<.001). Among men and women who were not binge drinkers, longer smoking duration was needed for elevated disability risk. Both smoking and excess alcohol use significantly predict disability retirement. In order to extend working careers, more attention should be paid to health behaviors, in addition to working conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Airway Antioxidant Levels, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Ellen L; McNally, Alicia; Gaydos, Jeanette; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cigarette smoking are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress, likely related to antioxidant depletion. Pulmonary oxidative stress may adversely affect innate immunity, leading to increased pneumonia susceptibility and severity, including development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In people with AUDs, most of whom smoke, antioxidant therapy can potentially restore immune cell function and attenuate pneumonia development. Challenges to human investigations of antioxidant therapies include an inability to identify pulmonary oxidative stress noninvasively and the optimal route to deliver pulmonary antioxidants. We sought to determine whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) measures of thiol antioxidants from a 50-ml upper airway aliquot approximated those in the alveolar space and to determine whether AUDs and/or smoking affected these relationships. Healthy human subjects with and without AUDs, including smokers and nonsmokers, underwent BAL. Samples obtained after the first 50-ml normal saline aliquot were analyzed as representing bronchial airways; subsequent 50-ml aliquots were analyzed as representative of the alveolar space. Reduced and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, cysteine (Cys), and its oxidized species, cystine, along with mixed disulfides (MDs) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The percent of total thiols present in their oxidized forms, and thiol redox potentials, were calculated. Positive correlations between upper and lower BAL fluid thiol species were observed that were most robust for GSSG (ρ = 0.85), Cys (ρ = 0.83), and MDs (ρ = 0.69), but poor for thiol redox potential measures. In contrast to nonsmokers (either with or without AUDs), in subjects with AUDs who smoked, upper BAL fluid %GSSG, Cys, and MD measures were relatively increased compared to lower. A small volume BAL procedure may be suitable to assess intrapulmonary oxidative stress related to thiol depletion

  5. Respiratory immunohistochemical study in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Magnani,Karla Luciana; Cataneo,Daniele Cristina; Domingues,Maria Aparecida Custódio; Hasimoto,Erica Nishida; Evaristo,Thaiane Cristine; Cataneo,Antônio José Maria

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exposure to cigarette and alcohol on immunohistochemical disorders caused by these attacks to respiratory system of rats.METHODS:Sixty male Wistar rats in four groups: control, cigarette smoke, alcohol and cigarette smoke + alcohol during 260 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed by researching survivin and protein P53 expressions and apoptotic index in parenchymal lung and trachea using TUNEL technique.RESULTS: There was body growth impairment in all...

  6. Effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on pulmonary tuberculosis among Batak ethnic population in Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, B. Y. M.; Siregar, Y.; Amin, M.; Sarumpaet, S.

    2018-03-01

    Simultaneous consumption of tuak, a traditional alcoholic beverage, and smoking is prevalent among Batak ethnic group in Indonesia. This research was to find out the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia. A matched case-control study was conducted on 100 PTB patients and 100 healthy individuals group. Smoking and alcohol consumption was self-reported. Data were analyzed with Epi Info program. Smoking and alcohol consumption habit is a significant difference in case and control group (psmoking and non-alcohol consuming as a comparative, the Odds Ratio (OR) for the smoking-only group was 4.08 (95% CI: 1.28-13.05). For the alcohol-only consuming group was 1.83 (95% CI: 0.11-28.95) and for the smoking and alcohol consuming group was 13.7 (95% CI: 4.02-46.94). There is an association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of PTB in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia.

  7. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  8. [Eating habits, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption in adolescents attending school in the province of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulassi, Andrés H; Hadid, Claudio; Borracci, Raúl A; Labruna, María C; Picarel, Aníbal E; Robilotte, Analía N; Redruello, Marcela; Masoli, Osvaldo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge on dietary habits, tobacco and alcohol consumption in adolescents is crucial to plan early preventive programs. The objective was to assess the eating habits, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Buenos Aires, in order to get information on cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional observational study in adolescents aged 11-16 years of 12 urban and rural, public and private schools of the province of Buenos Aires. An anonymous survey was carried out including demographical data, eating habits, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. 1230 adolescents were surveyed, 46% of rural zones. Of them, 42.5% restrained food intake to control weight; 92% performed physical activity at least 1 h a week; 29.3% were smokers and 38.4% drank alcoholic beverages. Females restrained more food intake (46.3% vs. 37.7%; p=0.003) and were heavier smokers (32.6% vs. 25.2%; p=0.005). Alcohol consumption and smoking were associated (OR 8.27; pAlcohol consumption by the best friend (OR 10.0; palcohol consumption were 29.3% and 38.4%, and were strongly associated. Smoking was more common in females and in rural zones, and more associated to alcohol and a smoker friend.

  9. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups in The Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marlies J; Ikram, Umar Z; Derks, Eske M; Snijder, Marieke B; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-11-01

    We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan origin. We collected self-reported data on PED, current smoking, heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, current drinking, excessive drinking, and alcohol dependence. Logistic regression was used. In general, we observed positive associations in participants of African Surinamese and Ghanaian origin, but no associations in those of South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, or Moroccan origin. In African Surinamese, the associations were positive for current smoking, nicotine, and alcohol dependence (odds ratios of 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.27, 1.34; 1.15-1.57 and 1.40; 1.20-1.64, respectively). In Ghanaians, positive association was observed for current drinking (1.21; 1.08-1.36). The associations of PED with smoking and alcohol consumption considerably varied by ethnicity and outcome measure. This suggests that ethnic minority groups in Europe might use different behavioural strategies to cope with PED.

  10. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups in The Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marlies J.; Ikram, Umar Z.; Derks, Eske M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of

  11. Use of aids for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction: A population survey of adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Beard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important for policy planning to chart the methods smokers and high-risk drinkers use to help them change their behaviour. This study assessed prevalence of use, and characteristics of users, of support for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction in England. Methods Data were used from the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies, which involve monthly face-to-face computer-assisted interviews of adults aged 16+ in England. We included data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 on 1600 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt and 911 high-risk drinkers (defined as scores >8+ on the full AUDIT or 5+ on questions 1–3 of the AUDIT-C who had made an attempt to cut down in the past 12 months. Participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics and use of aids during their most recent quit attempt including pharmacotherapy, face-to-face counselling, telephone support, self-help materials (digital and printed, and complementary medicine. Results A total of 60.3% of smokers used aids in the past year, compared with just 14.9% of high-risk drinkers. Use of pharmacotherapy was high among smokers and very low among drinkers (56.0%versus1.2%. Use of other aids was low for both behaviours: face-to-face counselling (2.6%versus4.8%, self-help materials (1.4%versus4.1% and complementary medicine (1.0%versus0.5%. Use of aids was more common among smokers aged 25–54 compared with 16–24 year olds (25–34,ORadj1.49,p = 0.012; 35–44,ORadj1.93,p 10 relative to 20,ORadj4.23,p = 0.001, and less common among ethnic minorities (ORadj0.69,p = 0.026. For alcohol reduction, use of aids was higher among ethnic minority groups (ORadj2.41;p = 0.015, and those of social-grade D/E relative to AB (ORadj2.29,p = 0.012&ORadj3.13,p < 0.001. Conclusion In England, the use of pharmacotherapy is prevalent for smoking cessation but not alcohol reduction. Other aids are used at a low rate, with

  12. [Cluster analysis of smoking, alcohol drinking and other health risk behaviors in undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai-jun; Yu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Xin; An, Wei-wei; Guo, Li-na; Wang, Jia

    2013-06-18

    To investigate the status of smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors in undergraduate students, and explore the relationship between smoking and alcohol drinking and other health risk behaviors. A total of 7 979 students from 44 universities or colleges across China were sampled with multiple-stage stratified sampling method. A cross-sectional investigation on smoking, alcohol drinking and other health risk behaviors was conducted, and SPSS 13.0 was used to statistically analyze the data. The prevalence of current smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors was 19.6% and 42.2%, respectively. There was significant difference in different genders (male 34.1% vs. female 6.1%), geographical regions (East China 15.7% vs. Mid-China 19.0% vs. West China 29.8%), types of university (key university 17.9% vs. vocational college 21.2%) and majors (arts 15.4% vs. science and engineering 21.5%) in undergraduate students who currently smoked (Pstudents who currently drank (Pabuse, bad personal health habits, intentional and unintentional injuries, in the smoking and alcohol drinking students was higher than that of the control group. The smoking and alcohol drinking status was not optimistic in undergraduate students in China, which is highly related to other health risk behaviors. Comprehensive prevention and intervention programs should be developed according to different demographic distributions.

  13. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with pinternet was a source of information about the impact of smoking cigarettes on health for 52.63% women and 56.52% men, about the alcohol effect on health for 57.02% women and 45.65% men, while about energy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of

  14. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  15. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  16. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  17. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods: Summary-level

  18. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Andersen, Anne T.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To address the possible prospective association between smoking habits and risk of later heavy drinking in the adult population. DESIGN: Pooled population-based long-term cohort studies with repeated assessments of smoking and alcohol habits. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A to...

  19. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week, moderate (181-360 g/week, and heavy (≥361 g/week. Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400-799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1% had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%, bilaterally (29%, and on the left side (21%. Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01, increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01 and smoking (P<0.01, and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01 as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided. Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  20. Negative affect, stress, and smoking in college students: unique associations independent of alcohol and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Viktoriya; Colder, Craig R; Stroud, Laura R; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Stress and negative affect (NA) figure prominently in theoretical models of smoking initiation, maintenance and relapse, yet few studies have examined these associations among college students. Further complicating examination of these associations, smoking often occurs in the context of other substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana) in college populations. Thus, it remains unclear whether stress and NA are associated with cigarette use among college students, and if so, whether these associations are evident after controlling for effects of other substance use. The goals of this study were: a) to examine whether several aspects of stress (objective events, subjective experiences) and NA (sad mood, general emotional distress) were associated with cigarette smoking among college students and b) whether associations remained after accounting for alcohol and marijuana use. A large sample of college freshmen (N=633) followed longitudinally over 35 weeks via internet assessments. Results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that measures of subjective stress and NA were positively related to cigarette use, whereas measures of objective stressful events were negatively related to cigarette use. When alcohol and marijuana use were added to the models, associations between smoking and stress/NA were diminished. Associations between NA and smoking remained significant; however, associations between subjective stress/stressful events and smoking were no longer significant. This is the first study to comprehensively examine links between subjective and objective measures of stress and smoking behavior among college students while also considering the influence of other substance use. Negative affect was the most robust correlate of smoking among college students. Subjective and objective stress do not appear to be strongly associated with college smoking above and beyond alcohol and marijuana use. Stress may not be an important etiological factor for relatively low

  1. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  2. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  3. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  4. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  5. Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasena Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology.We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5, rs578776 (CHRNA3, rs1229984 (ADH1B, rs698 (ADH1C, rs1573496 (ADH7, and rs4767364 (ALDH2.The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively. Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83- 1.22, rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72- 0.98. There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population.The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco.

  6. Respiratory immunohistochemical study in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Karla Luciana; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Evaristo, Thaiane Cristine; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to cigarette and alcohol on immunohistochemical disorders caused by these attacks to respiratory system of rats. Sixty male Wistar rats in four groups: control, cigarette smoke, alcohol and cigarette smoke + alcohol during 260 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed by researching survivin and protein P53 expressions and apoptotic index in parenchymal lung and trachea using TUNEL technique. There was body growth impairment in all experimental groups. Both smoker groups animals had higher trachea survivin expression and bronchial higher apoptotic index. The trachea apoptotic index was also higher in the cigarette smoke group as well as in the alveoli in the cigarette smoke + alcohol group. The three experimental groups showed negative immunoexpression for P53. this model resulted in immunohistochemical changes caused mainly by exposure to cigarette smoke. There was a synergistic action between alcohol and tobacco in the growth impairment in animals as well as in the cellular apoptotic index. The positive immunoexpression for tracheal survivin in animals from both groups exposed to tobacco smoke and associated with a negative P53 immunoexpression suggests that despite the aggression, carcinogenesis has not happened yet. In addition, the bronchial higher apoptotic index in smokers may be responsible for emphysema.

  7. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  8. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  9. Alcohol and smoking affect risk of uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1-180 g/week), moderate (181-360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (Pdiverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral.

  10. Effects of alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use on fetal growth in black infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W; Sokol, R J; Martier, S S; Ager, J W; Shankaran, S

    1994-05-01

    To compare the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs on birth size. Prospective, longitudinal correlational study, with statistical control for confounding. Four hundred seventeen black infants. Mothers recruited at first prenatal clinic visit on the basis of moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol or cocaine or both, plus a 5% random sample of lower-level drinkers and abstainers. Alcohol, smoking, opiates, and cocaine were each correlated with smaller birth weight, length, and head circumference (median r = -0.21; p illicit drug use may be a consequence of simultaneous exposure of the fetus to alcohol and smoking. Opiate exposure is specifically related to reduced head circumference, and the effect of cocaine on birth size is primarily an indirect consequence of shorter gestation and poorer maternal nutrition.

  11. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption to metabolic syndrome in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashita, Yumiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important, aggravating factor in metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some studies have reported that MetS is related to alcohol consumption irrespective of the amount consumed. However, the relationship of the combination of the 2 habits to MetS has not been fully described. In this cross-sectional survey, a questionnaire was used to collect information on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption from 3904 Japanese men aged 20 years or older. MetS was defined according to Japanese criteria. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze relationships of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with MetS, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among the subjects, 581 (14.9%) had MetS. Daily cigarette and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with the prevalence of MetS (P smoked ≥30 cigarettes/day, as compared with nonsmokers; 1.54 (1.06-2.23) for those who consumed ≥69 grams of ethanol/day, as compared with nondrinkers; and 3.63 (1.91-6.90) for those who smoked ≥30 cigarettes/day and consumed ≥69 grams of ethanol/day, as compared with those who neither smoked nor drank. The interaction of smoking ≥30 cigarettes/day with drinking ≥69 grams/day was 2.03 (1.02-4.01, P = 0.043). Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had independent relations to the prevalence of MetS. In addition, the prevalence of MetS was higher among Japanese men who smoked and drank heavily.

  13. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The role of norhaman in alcohol dependence and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, D.; Spijkerman, R.; Bongers, I.M.B.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the endogenous substance norharman in processes of alcohol and nicotine or tobacco dependence in both humans and animals. For this purpose heavy smokers and excessive alcohol drinkers were recruited, and rats were made dependent on alcohol and

  15. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    prevalent among these women. There is limited information on the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among Nigerian FSW's. This study aimed to assess the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among female sex workers in Lagos with a view of generating data for the effective primary prevention of tobacco and alcohol.

  16. Smoking- and alcohol habits in relation to the clinical picture of women with microscopic colitis compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bodil; Gustafsson, Rita J; Jeppsson, Bengt; Manjer, Jonas; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2014-01-23

    Microscopic colitis (MC) induces gastrointestinal symptoms, which are partly overlapping with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), predominately in middle-aged and elderly women. The etiology is unknown, but association with smoking has been found. The aim of this study was to examine whether the increased risk for smokers to develop MC is a true association, or rather the result of confounding factors. Therefore, patients suffering from MC and population-based controls from the same geographic area were studied regarding smoking- and alcohol habits, and other simultaneous, lifestyle factors, concerning the clinical expression of the disease. Women at the age of 73 years or younger, who had been treated for biopsy-verified MC at any of the Departments of Gastroenterology in Skåne, between 2002 and 2010, were invited to the study (240 patients). Women (737) from the population-based prospective cohort study, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), served as controls. A self-administered questionnaire about lifestyle factors, gastrointestinal symptoms, medical conditions and medication at the time for the study was sent by post. Altogether, 131 women with MC could be included after age-matching with controls (median age 56 years) and exclusion of secondary MC. Patients were divided into persistent MC (MC1) and transient MC (MC2). Past smoking was associated with increased risk to develop MC2 (OR = 2.67, 95 CI = 1.15-6.23), whereas current smoking was associated with increased risk to develop MC1 (OR = 3.18, 95 CI = 1.57-6.42). Concomitant symptoms of IBS were associated with smoking (OR = 4.24, 95 CI = 1.92-9.32). Alcohol drinking had no association with MC or IBS. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with transient MC, whereas current smoking is associated with persistent MC. Smoking is associated with MC patients with concomitant IBS-like symptoms.

  17. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  19. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use reported by adolescents aged 12-17 years: United States, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Merino, Mercy C; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Porter, Kathryn S

    2009-05-20

    This report presents national prevalence estimates for self-reported health risk behaviors of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Data in this report are from 6 years (1999-2004) of NHANES, which is conducted on a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. The tables included in this report present weighted percentages and standard errors for smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug use behaviors in U.S. adolescents, by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty level (when sufficient data are available). Selected highlights are presented from information included in the tables.

  1. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  2. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and ea...

  3. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible...... age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age......-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. RESULTS: The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae...

  4. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects......-sectional analyses from 2000, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: In participants with diabetes, leisure time PA levels increased from 2000 to 2010: The percentage of those that were physically active increased from 53.5% to 78.2% (pprevalence of daily smokers...... with diabetes. METHODS: Data comprised level of leisure time PA (inactive; moderate active; medium active; high active); smoking; BMI; and alcohol consumption, provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys. Participants older than 45 years with or without diabetes were included from cross...

  5. The effects of alcohol consumption, psychological distress and smoking status on emergency department presentations in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copeland Jan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite clear links between risky alcohol consumption, mental health problems and smoking with increased morbidity and mortality, there is inconclusive evidence about how these risk factors combine and if they are associated with increased attendance at emergency departments. This paper examines the population-level associations and interactions between alcohol consumption, psychological distress and smoking status with having presented to an emergency department in the last 12 months. Methods This study uses data from a representative sample of 34,974 participants aged 16 years and over from the New South Wales Population Health Survey, administered between 2002 and 2004. Statistical analysis included univariate statistics, cross-tabulations, and the estimation of prevalence rate ratios using Cox's proportional hazard regression model. Results Results show that high-risk alcohol consumption, high psychological distress and current smoking were all significantly and independently associated with a greater likelihood of presenting to an emergency department in the last year. Presenting to an emergency department was found to be three times more likely for women aged 30 to 59 years with all three risk factors and ten times more likely for women aged 60 years or more who reported high risk alcohol consumption and high psychological distress than women of these age groups without these risk factors. For persons aged 16 to 29 years, having high-risk alcohol consumption and being a current smoker doubles the risk of presenting to an emergency department. Conclusion The combination of being a high-risk consumer of alcohol, having high psychological distress, and being a current smoker are associated with increased presentations to emergency departments, independent of age and sex. Further research is needed to enhance recognition of and intervention for these symptoms in an emergency department setting in order to improve patient

  6. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985-2009. DESIGN: A nationwide register-based study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more....... In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use...

  7. A review of epidemiologic research on smoking behavior among persons with alcohol and illicit substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Funk, Allison P.; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) appear to be heavily affected by cigarette smoking. In order to address the consequences of smoking in this population, an understanding of the current state of knowledge is needed. Epidemiologic research provides the opportunity to obtain detailed information on smoking behaviors in large community samples. The aim of this paper was to synthesize the epidemiologic evidence on smoking among persons with AUDs/SUDs and suggest directions for future research. Literature searches of Medline and PubMed were used to identify articles and additional articles were elicited from publication reference lists. To be included in the review, papers had to be published in English, analyze epidemiologic data, and examine an aspect of smoking behavior in persons with AUDs/SUDs. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. In summary, epidemiologic evidence to date suggests greater lifetime and current smoking, nicotine dependence, and non-cigarette tobacco use; lower quitting; and differences in quit attempts and withdrawal symptoms for persons with AUDs/SUDs compared to other people. Most studies examined nationally representative data and were conducted on persons in the United States and Australia. Few publications examined outcomes by demographics (e.g., gender, age) but these studies suggested that specific patterns differ by demographic subgroups. More research is needed on persons with AUDs/SUDs in order to develop the most effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce smoking behaviors, improve cessation outcomes, and reduce the harmful consequences of smoking for those with AUDs/SUDs. PMID:27196143

  8. [Smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption of mothers before, during and after pregnancy--results of the study 'breast-feeding habits in Bavaria'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, B; Kohlhuber, M; Schwegler, U; Koletzko, B; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this analysis of the study 'Breast-feeding habits in Bavaria' is to describe the smoking habits, alcohol and caffeine consumption of mothers in Bavaria before, during and after pregnancy. Furthermore, we asked about the environmental tabacco smoke exposition of pregnant women and infants. The influence of consumption habits on breast-feeding is quantified and the distribution of the risky habits in the population is characterised. The study 'Breast-feeding habits in Bavaria' is a prospective cohort study which was carried out from April 2005 to January 2006. Some 3 822 mothers throughout Bavaria who had delivered a baby in April 2005 participated in the basic survey. Methods and first results have already been published. The participants were asked in 4 follow-up questionnaires about breast-feeding habits, smoking habits, and alcohol and caffeine consumption. The follow-up rate was 82%. Only participants with a complete follow-up were included into this analysis (n=3 103). Some 23.7% of the mothers smoked before pregnancy. The percentage of women reporting any smoking during pregnancy was 9.8%. More than half (53%) of the ex-smokers started to smoke again up to the end of month 9 after delivery. 25.3% of the mothers reported any alcohol consumption during pregnancy, 69.0% of pregnant women were drinking caffeine-containing beverages. The consumption rates were reduced clearly during pregnancy. Smoking had a higher prevalence in the group of young women with low school education, alcohol consumption in the group of elder women with high school education. Mothers born in Germany smoked significantly more than mothers with a migration background. Smoking had a significant, dose-dependent negative influence on a breast-feeding duration of 5 cigarettes/day, OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.42-4.54). Caffeine consumption also had a significant negative influence on the breast-feeding duration (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.25-1.79), whereas alcohol consumption did not. Alcohol

  9. Negative affect, stress, and smoking in college students: Unique associations independent of alcohol and marijuana use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Viktoriya; Colder, Craig R.; Stroud, Laura R.; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stress and negative affect (NA) figure prominently in theoretical models of smoking initiation, maintenance and relapse, yet few studies have examined these associations among college students. Further complicating examination of these associations, smoking often occurs in the context of other substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana) in college populations. Thus, it remains unclear whether stress and NA are associated with cigarette use among college students, and if so, whether these associations are evident after controlling for effects of other substance use. The goals of this study were: a) to examine whether several aspects of stress (objective events, subjective experiences) and NA (sad mood, general emotional distress) were associated with cigarette smoking among college students and b) whether associations remained after accounting for alcohol and marijuana use. Sample A large sample of college freshmen (N=633) followed longitudinally over 35 weeks via internet assessments. Results Results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that measures of subjective stress and NA were positively related to cigarette use, whereas measures of objective stressful events were negatively related to cigarette use. When alcohol and marijuana use were added to the models, associations between smoking and stress/NA were diminished. Associations between NA and smoking remained significant; however, associations between subjective stress/stressful events and smoking were no longer significant. Conclusions This is the first study to comprehensively examine links between subjective and objective measures of stress and smoking behavior among college students while also considering the influence of other substance use. Negative affect was the most robust correlate of smoking among college students. Subjective and objective stress do not appear to be strongly associated with college smoking above and beyond alcohol and marijuana use. Stress may not be an important

  10. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Marlon; Queiroz, Lígia B; Lourenço, Daniela M R; Kozu, Katia; Lourenço, Benito; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate alcohol, smoking and/or illicit drug use, and history of bullying in adolescent childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy controls. 174 adolescents with pediatric rheumatic diseases were selected. All of the 34 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 35 healthy controls participated in this study. A cross-sectional study included demographic/anthropometric data and puberty markers assessments; structured questionnaire and CRAFFT screening interview. McNemar tests indicated an excellent test-retest reliability of the structured questionnaire (p=1.0). The median current age was similar between childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls [15 (12-18) vs. 15 (12-18) years, p=0.563]. The median of menarche age was significantly higher in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls [12 (10-15) vs. 11.5 (9-15) years, p=0.041], particularly in those that lupus had occurred before first menstruation [13 (12-15) vs. 11.5(9-15) years, p=0.007]. The other puberty marker and sexual function parameters were similar in both groups (p>0.05). Alcohol use was similar in both childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls (38% vs. 46%, p=0.628). A trend of lower frequency of CRAFFT score ≥2 (high risk for substance abuse/dependence) was evidenced in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls (0% vs. 15%, p=0.053). Bullying was reported similarly for the two groups (43% vs. 44%, p=0.950). Further analysis in lupus patients regarding alcohol/smoking/illicit drug use showed no differences in demographic data, puberty markers, history of bullying, sexual function, contraceptive use, disease activity/damage scores, clinical/laboratorial features and treatments (p>0.05). This study showed high frequencies of early alcohol use in lupus adolescents and healthy controls, despite of a possible low risk for substance abuse/dependence in

  12. Meat, smoking, alcohol, and colorectal tumors: the role of genetic susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the Western world and is thought to arise mainly from colorectal adenomas. Red meat and alcohol intake and (long-term) cigarette smoking probably increase colorectal tumor risk. Although risk increase was found to be weak, certain

  13. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  14. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for

  15. Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P; Helgason, Asgeir R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Population-based cross-sectional survey. School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84-2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99-1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48-1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20) when controlling for other variables. Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use.

  16. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  17. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops.

  18. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  19. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  20. Tracking of avoidance of alcohol use and smoking behavior in a fifth grade cohort over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, G; Parsons, M A; Ward, D S; Pate, R R; Saunders, R P; Dowda, M; Trost, S

    1999-02-01

    This study examined the maintenance of positive health behavior (avoidance of alcohol use and cigarette smoking) and factors associated with the maintenance of these behaviors from fifth through seventh grade by a cohort of rural students (N = 232). African American and White students showed similar patterns of high avoidance of alcohol until seventh grade. Although more girls avoided use than boys, avoidance decreased in both groups with progression in grade. Mothers', fathers', and best friends' drinking behaviors influenced avoidance behavior; drinking was less likely to occur among those whose parents and friends did not drink. Friends' drinking behavior influenced alcohol use as early as fifth grade. Smoking avoidance was maintained by 74% of the students over the 3 years. Although there were no racial differences in smoking, African Americans started smoking about 1 year earlier than Whites. During seventh grade, an increase in smoking occurred among boys and girls, but was particularly striking among girls. Avoidance of smoking was influenced by mothers' behavior but not fathers'. Best friends' smoking behavior exerted a major influence on avoidance between grades 6 and 7. In grades 5 and 6, those who avoided smoking were more physically active than smokers, but by seventh grade their physical activity declined to a similar level as smokers. Rural adolescent boys seemed to be at early risk for alcohol use and smoking, while rural girls delayed involvement by 1 to 2 years. Communities, schools, and families can help adolescents avoid alcohol use and smoking through early prevention efforts.

  1. The perceptions and habits of alcohol consumption and smoking among Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical students attending the University of Calgary medical school. Of the 327 students enrolled, 175 of students responded to the questionnaire. Six percent of the students currently smoke while 24% of students reported cigarette smoking at some point in their life. Eighty-six percent of students currently drink, with a majority drinking fewer than 11 drinks per week. Fifteen percent of students were at an increased risk for problem drinking according to the CAGE questionnaire. An increased risk for problem drinking was significantly related to believing more strongly that getting drunk is acceptable on occasion and less strongly that increased alcohol has many negative health consequences, as well as feeling less in control of alcohol consumption. Medical students at the University of Calgary consume less alcohol and cigarettes than a comparable population. However, a high proportion of students are at risk for alcohol abuse according to the CAGE questionnaire. The results of this study suggest that although the quantity of alcohol consumed is not a substantial concern at this time, students might be at risk for future alcohol abuse.

  2. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  3. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross...... examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  4. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... of different health care providers. The Danish health survey of 2005 was based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...

  5. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta Miquel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202. Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455. Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol was 7.65 (95%CI, 3.16–18.49; and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day was 5.07 (95%CI, 2.06–12.47. A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1–24 g/d did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend Conclusion Our study shows that the risk of EC, and particularly the squamous cell type, is strongly associated with alcohol drinking. The consumption of any combination of hard liquors seems to be harmful whereas a low consumption of only wine may not. This may relates to the presence of certain antioxidant compounds found in wine but practically lacking in liquors. Tobacco smoking is also a clear risk factor, black more than blond.

  6. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour.

  7. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996...... and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0...

  8. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne T

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To address the possible prospective association between smoking habits and risk of later heavy drinking in the adult population. DESIGN: Pooled population-based long-term cohort studies with repeated assessments of smoking and alcohol habits. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy...

  9. Nontargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to detect hazardous substances including methanol in unrecorded alcohol from Novosibirsk, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hausler, Thomas; Okaru,  Alex O.; Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen; Kuballa, Thomas; Luy, Burkhard; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of alcoholic products in the context of health and safety control. A total of 86 samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in Novosibirsk and nearby cities in Russia. Sampling was based on interviews with alcohol dependent patients, and unrecorded alcohol thus defined included illegally or informally produced alcoholic products (e.g., counterfeit or home-made alcoholic beverages) or surrogate alcohol in the form of c...

  10. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  11. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  12. Replicating cluster subtypes for the prevention of adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Steven F; Velicer, Wayne F; Paiva, Andrea L; Brick, Leslie Ann D; Redding, Colleen A

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse interventions tailored to the individual level have produced effective outcomes for a wide variety of behaviors. One approach to enhancing tailoring involves using cluster analysis to identify prevention subtypes that represent different attitudes about substance use. This study applied this approach to better understand tailored interventions for smoking and alcohol prevention. Analyses were performed on a sample of sixth graders from 20 New England middle schools involved in a 36-month tailored intervention study. Most adolescents reported being in the Acquisition Precontemplation (aPC) stage at baseline: not smoking or not drinking and not planning to start in the next six months. For smoking (N=4059) and alcohol (N=3973), each sample was randomly split into five subsamples. Cluster analysis was performed within each subsample based on three variables: Pros and Cons (from Decisional Balance Scales), and Situational Temptations. Across all subsamples for both smoking and alcohol, the following four clusters were identified: (1) Most Protected (MP; low Pros, high Cons, low Temptations); (2) Ambivalent (AM; high Pros, average Cons and Temptations); (3) Risk Denial (RD; average Pros, low Cons, average Temptations); and (4) High Risk (HR; high Pros, low Cons, and very high Temptations). Finding the same four clusters within aPC for both smoking and alcohol, replicating the results across the five subsamples, and demonstrating hypothesized relations among the clusters with additional external validity analyses provide strong evidence of the robustness of these results. These clusters demonstrate evidence of validity and can provide a basis for tailoring interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Sydney; Hirsch, Lauren; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2017-05-01

    Previous research suggests a relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use, however most studies have focused on adolescents or young adults, or clinically ascertained samples. To analyse population-based data on the relationship between ADHD and at-risk health behaviours in adolescents and adults. Data were derived from a Statistics Canada population-based health survey. The association between the diagnosis of ADHD and smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use was examined. Individuals with ADHD started smoking at a younger age. They consumed more alcoholic drinks on drinking days, and women with ADHD were more likely to engage in binge drinking. Women over the age of 25 and men with ADHD were more likely to meet alcohol-dependence lifetime criteria. People with ADHD were at a greater risk of drug misuse and dependence. People with ADHD are more likely to partake in at-risk behaviours. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  14. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been...... enrolled. Patient accrual is expected to be finalised before the end of 2017 and data will be published in 2018. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02188446. Registered on 28 May 2014....

  15. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly...

  16. Communication of alcohol and smoking lifestyle advice to the gastroenterological patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Khasawneh, Mais; Allen, Patrick B; Addley, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component. This review discusses the clinical impact of these factors and how healthcare professionals can improve communication. We discuss how enhancing verbal communication skills through medical training leads to greater outcomes in patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment and advice. In addition, with the rapid digitalisation of society, platforms such as social media and smartphone applications may be considered as adjuncts to traditional forms of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... as outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9.6 years [interquartile range (IQR), 2.2-17.0 years]. The hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes increased with lower education (p for trend, 0.01). Adjustment for disease-related prognostic factors, comorbidity and metabolic indicators measured as BMI, waist...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  18. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Yan; Ma, Dongying; Hu, Jian; Tang, Chunling; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Lei; Xin, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations and executive function (EF) skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225) in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reaction...

  19. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  20. Sleep Problems in Relation to Smoking and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Bo, Qi-Gui; Jia, Cun-Xian; Liu, Xianchen

    2017-05-01

    This study examined sleep patterns and sleep problems in relation to smoking and alcohol use in Chinese adolescents. A questionnaire survey of 2090 adolescent students was conducted in Lijin County, Shandong, China. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. After adjustment for demographics and internalizing and externalizing problems, poor sleep quality was associated with increased risk of smoking (odds ratio [OR], 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-5.40), alcohol use (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 2.81-3.89), and getting drunk (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.72-4.57); sleeping 7 hours (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.20-2.43) and sleeping 6 hours or less per night on weekdays (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.25-3.10) were significantly associated with increased risk for alcohol use, and sleeping 6 hours or less per night on weekends (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18-3.70) were significantly associated with increased risk for getting drunk; and hypnotic medication use was significantly associated with ever smoking (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.08-2.99). These findings highlight the potential role of sleep intervention in the prevention of adolescent substance use.

  1. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a prevalent disorder that leads to high health care costs as well as a decreased quality of life. Important risk factors include atopic dermatitis, contact allergy and wet work whereas the role of null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex remains to be clarified....... It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (

  2. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men. Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification, using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68 in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65 in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69 and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44. Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89. When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70 in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61 in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23

  3. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, Harvey; Powers, Karen; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D

    2002-04-15

    A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

  4. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  5. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  6. Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among U.S. Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Amber D; Rivera, Anna C; Powell, Teresa M; Williams, Emily C; Peterson, Arthur V; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Street, Amy E; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J

    2017-10-01

    In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318). Men who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had sixfold higher risk for smoking relapse: relative risk (RR) = 6.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.34, 18.73], than men who did not. Women who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had almost twice the risk for alcohol relapse: RR = 1.73; 95% CI [1.06, 2.83]. There were no other significant associations. These findings suggest that men and women may respond differently following sexual trauma, and support future concerted policy efforts by military leadership to prevent, detect, and intervene on sexual assault. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. [Evaluation of the risk of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Owłasiuk, Anna; Litwiejko, Alicja; Wojtal, Mariola

    2012-01-01

    Implementing the National Health Program assumed in Poland for the years 2007 2015, family doctors in their everyday work try to contribute to reducing the popularity of tobacco smoking as well as reducing and changing the structure of alcohol consumption, whose aim is to reduce the negative health effects caused by those substances [9]. Non smoking personnel and prohibition of smoking in health care centres are the basis for effective anti-tobacco counsel. The same dependence occurs in the case of alcohol abuse. The aim of the work was to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of alcohol abuse among students of the 6th year of the Faculty of Medicine of UMB (Medical University of Białystok), as well as to analyze the structure of drinking and smoking among the prospective doctors. The study material was collected by means of anonymous surveys carried out before classes belonging to the family medicine subject block. The obtained data showed that the students had only superficial knowledge of the negative health effects of alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking. 26% of female students and 12% of male students smoke regularly. The results of the shortened Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), so-called AUDIT-C, showed that 50% of prospective female doctors and 61.1% of prospective male doctors drink alcohol in a risky way.

  8. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  9. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  11. The combined effect of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on cause-specific mortality: a 30 year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt Graham CM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and consuming alcohol are both related to increased mortality risk. Their combined effects on cause-specific mortality were investigated in a prospective cohort study. Methods Participants were 5771 men aged 35-64, recruited during 1970-73 from various workplaces in Scotland. Data were obtained from a questionnaire and a screening examination. Causes of death were all cause, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, alcohol-related, respiratory and smoking-related cancer. Participants were divided into nine groups according to their smoking status (never, ex or current and reported weekly drinking (none, 1-14 units and 15 or more. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain relative rates of mortality, adjusted for age and other risk factors. Results In 30 years of follow-up, 3083 men (53.4% died. Compared with never smokers who did not drink, men who both smoked and drank 15+ units/week had the highest all-cause mortality (relative rate = 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.31-3.19. Relative rates for CHD mortality were high for current smokers, with a possible protective effect of some alcohol consumption in never smokers. Stroke mortality increased with both smoking and alcohol consumption. Smoking affected respiratory mortality with little effect of alcohol. Adjusting for a wide range of confounders attenuated the relative rates but the effects of alcohol and smoking still remained. Premature mortality was particularly high in smokers who drank 15 or more units, with a quarter of the men not surviving to age 65. 30% of men with manual occupations both smoked and drank 15+ units/week compared with only 13% with non-manual ones. Conclusions Smoking and drinking 15+ units/week was the riskiest behaviour for all causes of death.

  12. Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England. Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogeneous Input (ARIMAX) modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of (a) smoking and high-risk drinking; (b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and (c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Mean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.185% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking 2 months later [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.033 to 0.337, P = 0.017]. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β = 0.324, 95% CI = -0.371 to 1.019, P = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β = -0.026, 95% CI = -1.348 to 1.296, P = 0.969). Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  14. "Get drunk. Smoke weed. Have fun.": A Content Analysis of Tweets About Marijuana and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-01

    To explore the sentiment and themes of Twitter chatter that mentions both alcohol and marijuana. Cross-sectional analysis of tweets mentioning both alcohol and marijuana during 1 month was performed. The study setting was Twitter. Tweets sent from February 4 to March 5, 2014, were studied. A random sample (n = 5000) of tweets that mentioned alcohol and marijuana were qualitatively coded as normalizing both substances, preferring one substance over the other, or discouraging both substances. Other common themes were identified. More than half (54%) of the tweets normalized marijuana and alcohol (without preferring one substance over the other), and 24% preferred marijuana over alcohol. Only 2% expressed a preference for alcohol over marijuana, 7% discouraged the use of both substances, and the sentiment was unknown for 13% of the tweets. Common themes among tweets that normalized both substances included using the substances with friends (17%) and mentioning substance use in the context of sex or romance (14%). Common themes among tweets that preferred marijuana over alcohol were the beliefs that marijuana is safer than alcohol (46%) and preferences for effects of marijuana over alcohol (40%). Tweets normalizing polysubstance use or encouraging marijuana use over alcohol use are common. Both online and offline prevention efforts are needed to increase awareness of the risks associated with polysubstance use and marijuana use.

  15. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  17. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  18. High fat intake in hyperlipidaemic patients is related to male gender, smoking, alcohol intake and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerbrugge, N; van Domburg, R; van der Zwet, E; van Kemenade, M; Bootsma, A; Simoons, M L

    2001-07-01

    In individuals at high cardiovascular risk, such as patients with hyperlipidaemia, low dietary fat intake is used to reduce this risk. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants of (saturated) fat intake in hyperlipidaemic patients. Cross sectional study in a lipid clinic of a tertiary referral centre. A total of 1169 patients (714 males and 455 females) with hyperlipidemia were studied. Food frequency questionnaires were present of 1026 patients. In 615 patients a detailed diet analysis was performed. The main outcomes measures were determinants of fat intake, indicated by a regression coefficient (beta-coefficient). The following variables were independently related to fat intake: present smoking (beta-coefficient 3.7), male gender ((beta 1.6), familial hypercholesterolemia (beta -1.6), alcohol (beta 0.6 per glass of alcohol), body mass index (beta 0.6). No interaction between gender and smoking or between gender and alcohol intake was observed in relation to fat intake. The percentage of energy from fats were higher in males than in females, 34.2+/-8.3% and 31.7+/-8.3%, respectively (Pfat intake in males is due to a larger consumption of cheese, meat products, bread and potato products. Women had a higher relative intake of carbohydrate 48.5+/-8.7% versus 46.5+/-8.8% in males (Prelatively higher intake of fruit, milk products and pastry and biscuits. A specific gender-oriented approach may improve the results of dietary counselling of hyperlipidaemic patients.

  19. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  20. Alcohol, smoking, and drug use among Inuit women of childbearing age during pregnancy and the risk to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking is a well-known public health concern. This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Two hundred and eight Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Ninety-two percent of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which correspond to 38% of pregnant women. Thirty-six percent of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy, and the number of young children living with the mother. These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [10 years comparative clinico-epidemiological analysis of smoking and alcohol consumption in TB patients (Myc. Tuberculosis) and with mycobacteriosis (Myc. Kansas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Nowakowska-Arendt, Agnieszka; Pilaczyńska-Cemel, Marta; Gołda, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption are a major public health problem. More and more are mentioned, also, these two drugs, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis. Comparative analysis of epidemiological and clinical patients with tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis M.kansasii smoking cigarettes and abuse alcohol. The study included 2025 patients with tuberculosis and 140 patients with diagnosed lung mycobacteriosis hospitalized in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Center of Pulmonology in the years 2003-2013. Data were obtained from the central database of the hospital on admission to the hospital. There were 1403 smokers (69.3%) of tuberculosis patients and 79 (56.4%) with mycobacteriosis, and alcohol dependence were 534 (26.4%) and 16 (11.4%) respectively. Both of smokers and drinkers, men prevailed. Smokers who have developed tuberculosis were significantly younger than patients with mycobacteriosis, often touched their homelessness and unemployment, and often lived in rural areas. Conversely, smokers with mycobacteriosis are people often married, professionally active. In the group of abusers, patients with tuberculosis were younger, living in the country. side, often unemployed, homeless and single compared to patients with my. cobacteriosis. The clinical picture of patients with tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis did not differ significantly between the groups. A retrospective study of patients with tuberculosis and my. cobacteriosis showed significantly more use of tobacco and alcohol abuse than in the general Polish population. It should be noted that cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse are major risk and mycobacteriosis. Therefore, it is important to conduct anti-tobacco education and prevention of alcohol abuse.

  3. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment - A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children's psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children's intelligence quotient (IQ), mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children's development. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children’s psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children’s intelligence quotient (IQ, mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children’s development.

  5. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either...... perioperative administration of dexamethasone, pre-operative smoking or alcohol abuse is, however, uncertain. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of data from the PROXI randomized trial in 1386 patients who underwent emergency or elective laparotomy. We assessed the associations of use of dexamethasone...

  6. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  7. Partner’s and own education: does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual perspective. Recently, applying social–ecological models that include socio-economic factors on various social levels is becoming popular. We argue that partners are an important influence on individual h...

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  9. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  10. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were rare in NT1 compared to controls but not to other

  11. Associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with stomach cancer survival: A prospective patient cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yuko; Kanemura, Seiki; Oikawa, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Miura, Koh; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Fujiya, Tsuneaki

    2018-03-30

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking may affect the prognosis of stomach cancer, but evidence has been inconsistent. We investigated the associations between pretreatment smoking and alcohol drinking and the risk of all-cause and stomach cancer death among 1,576 patients with histologically confirmed stomach cancer diagnosed during 1997-2010 at a single hospital in Japan. Histories of smoking and alcohol drinking were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The patients were followed until December 31, 2013. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 9,625.1 person-years, 670 all-cause and 419 stomach cancer deaths were documented. Among the patients overall, ever-drinking was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.03-1.51), but not stomach cancer death. Positive linear associations with the frequency of drinking (P trend = 0.02) and the amount of alcohol consumed per day (P trend = 0.03) were observed for the risk of all-cause death. Ever-smoking was not related to either the risk of all-cause or stomach cancer death. Conversely, among the patients who underwent curative resection, a significant positive association was found between ever-smoking and the risk of stomach cancer death (HR: 2.44; 95%CI: 1.17-5.08). A positive association was also found for earlier age at start of smoking (P trend = 0.0046). Pretreatment smoking and alcohol drinking have significant effects on stomach cancer survival. Lifestyle adjustments throughout life may improve survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  12. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  13. Association between alcohol, smoking and HLA-DQA1*0201 genotype in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang-Yong; Wei, Sheng-Cai; Shi, Tie-Liu; Li, Yi-Xue

    2004-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease triggered by genetic, environment or other risk factors such as infection, drugs, stress, moisture, alcohol, and smoking. A major psoriasis susceptibility locus at 6p21.3 has been identified. Further studies found that HLA-DQA1*0201 allele was associated with psoriasis. However, there were few data exploring an association between the environmental factors and susceptibility genes. In this study, the samples of 189 patients with psoriasis and 333 healthy controls were collected with their consent and were carried on analysis through polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method. The proportion of male psoriasis patients engaging in the smoking and alcohol was much higher than that of the control group (PHLA-DQA1*0201 allele was present at significantly higher frequency in the patients with psoriasis (OR=4.25, PHLA-DQA1*0201 in male patients with psoriasis (OR>6.91, P<1.0 x 10(-4)).

  14. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Tikellis, G; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Wang, L; Wells, J C K; Cochrane, J; Ponsonby, A-L; Dwyer, T

    2014-07-01

    Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring's long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988-1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77 g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83-8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β = -15.37 g; 95% CI -23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β = -205.49 g; 95% CI -232.91 to -178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta-to-birth weight ratio (β = -2.07 g/kg; 95% CI -4.01 to -0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Nutrition mode evaluation among University of Agriculture students in Szczecin in 2006. Part III. Coffee, tea, alcohol, smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Teresa; Szczuko, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this inquiry study carried out in the midst of Szczecin University of Agriculture students, was to define the alcohol, coffee, tea and drugs consumption and also smoking. About 53-73% of the students declared to drink alcohol. Women preferred bear and men--wine. Smoking was practiced by 40% of men and 27% of women. Students from Szczecin preferred to drink coffee than tea. About 11% of the group of students has had episodic contact with drugs. Mostly with marihuana.

  16. A case-control study of the protective effect of alcohol, coffee, and cigarette consumption on Parkinson disease risk: time-since-cessation modifies the effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Huss, Anke; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (total smoking) and PD risk. Data of a hospital based case-control study was used including 444 PD patients, diagnosed between 2006 and 2011, and 876 matched controls from 5 hospitals in the Netherlands. A novel modeling method was applied to derive unbiased estimates of the potential modifying effects of smoking intensity, duration, and time-since-cessation by conditioning on total exposure. We observed no reduced risk of PD by alcohol consumption and only a weak inverse association between coffee consumption and PD risk. However, a strong inverse association of total smoking with PD risk was observed (OR=0.27 (95%CI: 0.18-0.42) for never smokers versus highest quartile of tobacco use). The observed protective effect of total smoking was significantly modified by time-since-cessation with a diminishing protective effect after cessation of smoking. No effect modification by intensity or duration of smoking was observed indicating that both intensity and duration have an equal contribution to the reduced PD risk. Understanding the dynamics of the protective effect of smoking on PD risk aids in understanding PD etiology and may contribute to strategies for prevention and treatment.

  17. Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhao, J.K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhou, J.Y.; Wang, X.S.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese

  18. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  20. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  1. Tea consumption and its interactions with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on oral cancer in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Liu, F-P; Huang, J-F; Hu, Z-J; Lin, Z; Zheng, X-Y; Lin, L-S; Zhang, Z-F; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of tea consumption on oral cancer stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and demographics. Quantity of tea consumed (ml/day) was categorized into five subgroups based on quartiles and then its interactions was evaluated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at each subgroup. Tea consumption showed an inverse association with oral cancer for non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers (the odds ratios (ORs) were 0.610 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.425-0.876) and 0.686 (95% CI: 0.503-0.934), respectively). For smokers or alcohol drinkers, decreased risk was only observed in those who consumed >800 ml/day. Furthermore, oolong tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of oral cancer in smokers or alcohol drinkers but not in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Tea consumption combined with smoking or/and alcohol drinking had a greater risk than tea consumption alone, but the risk was roughly reduced from zero to Q4 (>800 ml/day). Additionally, when stratified by demographics, the protective effect of tea was especially evident in females, urban residents, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), farmers, office workers and those aged <60 years. Tea consumption protects against oral cancer in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers, but this effect may be obscured in smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, demographics may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer.

  2. Investigation of aggravating psychosocial factors on health and predictability of smoking and alcohol use in post adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrosyni Barmpagianni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  3. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  4. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments m...

  5. Partner's and own education: Does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Lenthe, F.J. van; Graaf, N.D. de; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner's education, adjusted for own education, on self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  6. Impact of alcohol habits and smoking on the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Inger; Reims, Henrik M; Gjesdal, Knut; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Dahlöf, Björn; Wachtell, Kristian

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased by uncontrolled hypertension, and antihypertensive treatment reduces new-onset AF. However, it is unclear whether alcohol intake and smoking influence the risk of new-onset AF during antihypertensive treatment. In the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, a double-blinded, randomized, parallel-group study, 9193 hypertensive patients with electrocardiogram (ECG)-documented left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), randomized to once-daily losartan- or atenolol-based antihypertensive therapy were followed for a mean of 4.8 years. At baseline, 8831 patients (54% women, mean age 67 years, mean blood pressure 174/98 mmHg after placebo run-in) had neither a history of AF nor AF on ECG, and they were thus at risk of developing this condition during the study. New-onset AF occurred in 353 (4%) patients. Univariate Cox analyses showed that intake of alcohol > 10 units/week compared with less or no alcohol intake predicted new-onset AF (Hazard ratio, HR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.02-2.51], p = 0.043). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that intake of alcohol > 10 units/week predicted new-onset AF (p = 0.010) independently of most other univariate predictors, except when also baseline serum cholesterol, serum potassium and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were included in the model (HR = 1.60 [95% CI 0.94-2.72], p = 0.081). Impact of smoking was not significant in Cox univariate or multivariate analyses, and there were no significant interactions between high alcohol intake and either smoking or gender on the risk of getting AF. Up to 10 drinks of alcohol per week appears to be safe with respect to the risk for AF in hypertensive patients with LVH. Our data suggest that alcohol intake above this level may be marginally deleterious, while no effect of smoking on risk of AF was detected in hypertensive patients with LVH.

  7. Is it time for baclofen to be included in the official recommendations concerning the treatment of alcoholism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masternak Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence and its treatment is not an exactly resolved problem. Based on the EZOP [Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Accessibility of Mental Health Care] survey, which included a regular analysis of the incidence of mental disorders in the population of adult Polish citizens, we were able to estimate that the problem of alcohol abuse in any period of life affects even 10.9% of the population aged 18-64 years, and those addicted represent 2.2% of the country’s population. The typical symptoms of alcohol dependence according to ICD-10, include alcohol craving, impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, withdrawal symptoms which appear when a heavy drinker stops drinking, alternating alcohol tolerance, growing neglect of other areas of life, and persistent alcohol intake despite clear evidence of its destructive effect on life. At the moment, the primary method of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy. It aims to change the patient’s habits, behaviours, relationships, or the way of thinking. It seems that psychotherapy is irreplaceable in the treatment of alcoholism, but for many years now attempts have been made to increase the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment with pharmacological agents. In this article we will try to provide a description of medications which help patients sustain abstinence in alcoholism therapy with particular emphasis on baclofen.

  8. Smoking behaviours, access to cigarettes and relationships with alcohol in 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sara K; Hughes, Karen; Atkinson, Amanda M; Bellis, Mark A; Smallthwaite, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Adolescent smoking is a significant public health concern in the UK and across Europe. This study examines smoking behaviours, methods of accessing cigarettes and use of non-commercial (fake, foreign and single) cigarettes across a sample of schoolchildren. Relationships with alcohol consumption, deprivation, personal income and extra-curricular activities are also explored. A cross-sectional survey of 9833 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren in the North West of England. Cigarettes were most commonly accessed from off-licences and newsagents, but pupils also reported non-commercial access through friends, family and street sellers/neighbours. A high percentage of smokers had bought foreign (57%), fake (28%) and single (54%) cigarettes. Frequent binge drinking, not participating in extra-curricular activities, receiving greater personal income, and having parents that smoked were significantly associated with being a regular and heavier smoker. Frequent binge drinking was also significantly associated with buying foreign/fake or single cigarettes. A higher percentage of those living in deprived areas were current smokers, although deprivation was not an independent predictor of cigarette use. Strategies that restrict commercial access to cigarettes among adolescents may increase their reliance on social methods of access, and use of fake, foreign and single cigarettes. Interventions to reduce adolescent smoking must recognize the critical role of parents and communities in discouraging smoking and preventing social access to cigarettes in children. A joint approach to prevention is required that targets children at risk of smoking, heavy alcohol use and associated health-damaging behaviours.

  9. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  10. The impact of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on mortality risk in people of working age – Results of an 8-year study in a large urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of smoking and drinking alcohol on death rates in working-age urban inhabitants in Poland. Material and Methods: In 2001 randomly selected inhabitants of Łódź, aged 18-64 years, were included in the WHO Program Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI. The study sample comprised 1828 people (1002 men, 826 women. In 2009 for all participants of the 2001 study, information was obtained whether they were living or deceased, or moved out of Łódź. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for the evaluation of hazard ratios (HR. Results: The analysis revealed the increased risk of death among Łódź inhabitants of working age. An 8-year follow-up yielded the following values: for active smokers compared with people slightly addicted to nicotine, HR = 2.582 (95% CI: 1.381-4.825, p < 0.003; for people heavily addicted to nicotine, HR = 3.656 (95% CI: 1.544-8.654, p < 0.004; and for passive smokers (risk for persons staying in smoky rooms up to 5 h a day, compared to those not living in smoke-filled rooms, HR = 2.021 (95% CI: 1.111-3.672, p < 0.03. The variable that had a protective effect on the mortality risk of working-age population turned out to be a "reasonable" use of alcohol (HR = 0.411, 95% CI: 0.227-0.744, p < 0.004, compared to non-drinking alcohol at all. Conclusions: Addiction to smoking significantly increases the risk of premature death, and therefore appropriate prevention programs aimed at the reduction of smoking can contribute to closing the gap in the population health status. Med Pr 2014;65(2:251–260

  11. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  13. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  14. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  15. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  16. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.

    2009-01-01

    Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5...... estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Ever regular drinking was associated with an increased risk of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.6), and the risk increased with increasing duration (P = 0.03). Smoking was not related...

  17. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3 gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA concentrations and executive function (EF skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225 in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM and white matter (WM, left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P P P P P P  Conclusions Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412 may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.

  18. Youthful Smoking: Patterns and Relationships to Alcohol and Other Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined smoking patterns in 27,335 junior and senior high school students. Found smoking was more prevalent among girls than boys, and among whites more than members of minority groups. Marijuana use was the best single predictor of whether a student smoked or not. Heavy drinking was the best predictor of quantity smoked among smokers. (Author/KS)

  19. Does the number of previous mood episodes moderate the relationship between alcohol use, smoking and mood in bipolar outpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Meulen, Wendela G; van Zaane, Jan; Draisma, Stasja; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kupka, Ralph W

    2017-05-15

    Evidence suggests that alcohol use and smoking are negatively associated with mood in bipolar disorders (BD). It is unknown if this relationship is moderated by the number of previous mood episodes. Therefore, this paper aims to examine whether the number of previous mood episodes moderates the relationship between alcohol use and smoking, and mood. This study assessed the outcomes of 108 outpatients with BD I and II in a prospective observational cohort study. For 1 year, subjects daily registered mood symptoms and substance use with the prospective Life Chart Method. The relationship between the average daily consumption of alcohol and tobacco units in the whole year and mood were examined by multiple linear regression analyses. Number of previous mood episodes, grouped into its quartiles, was added as effect moderator. Outcome was the number of depressive, hypomanic and manic days in that year. The number of depressive days in a year increased by 4% (adjusted β per unit tobacco = 1.040; 95% CI 1.003-1.079; p = 0.033) per unit increase in average daily tobacco consumption in that same year. Interaction analyses showed that in those subjects with less than 7 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days increased by 100.3% per unit increase in alcohol consumption (adjusted β per unit alcohol = 2.003; 95% CI 1.225-3.274; p = 0.006). In those with 7 to 13 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days decreased by 28.7% per unit increase in alcohol consumption (adjusted β per unit alcohol = 0.713; 95% CI 0.539-0.944; p = 0.019); and in subjects with 14 to 44 previous mood episodes, the number of manic and hypomanic days decreased by 7.2% per unit increase in tobacco consumption (adjusted β per unit tobacco = 0.928; 95% CI 0.871-0.989; p = 0.021). The number of previous mood episodes moderates the relationship between alcohol use and smoking and mood; and smoking is adversely associated with the number of

  20. Regular smokeless tobacco use is not a reliable predictor of smoking onset when psychosocial predictors are included in the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Flaherty, Brian P; Quinio Edwards, Beth; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2003-08-01

    Tomar analyzed the CDC's Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey (TAPS) and reported smokeless tobacco may act as a starter product for or gateway to cigarettes. Regular smokeless tobacco users at baseline were said to be 3.45 times more likely than never users of smokeless tobacco to become cigarette smokers after 4 years (95% CI=1.84-6.47). However, this analysis did not take into account well-known psychosocial predictors of smoking initiation. We reanalyzed TAPS to assess whether including psychosocial predictors of smoking affected the smokeless tobacco gateway effect. Experimenting with smoking, OR=2.09 (95% CI=1.51-2.90); below average school performance, OR=9.32 (95% CI=4.18-20.77); household members smoking, OR=1.49 (95% CI=1.13-1.95); frequent depressive symptoms, OR=2.19 (95% CI=1.25-3.84); fighting, OR=1.48 (95% CI=1.08-2.03); and motorcycle riding, OR=1.42 (95% CI=1.06-1.91) diminished the effect of both regular, OR=1.68 (95% CI=.83-3.41), and never regular smokeless tobacco use, OR=1.41 (95% CI=.96-2.05), to be statistically unreliable. Analyzing results from a sample of true never smokers (never a single puff) showed a similar pattern of results. Our results indicate that complex multivariate models are needed to evaluate recruitment to smoking and single factors that are important in that process. Tomar's analysis should not be used as reliable evidence that smokeless tobacco may be a starter product for cigarettes.

  1. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English from 2000 to April 2015 and evaluating eHealth interventions aiming to change one or multiple SNAPO outcomes, and including young adult (18-35years) participants. Of 2,159 articles identified, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions targeted alcohol (n=26), followed by smoking (n=7), physical activity (n=4), obesity (n=4) and nutrition (n=1). Three interventions targeted multiple behaviors. The eHealth interventions were most often delivered via websites (79.5%). Most studies (n=32) compared eHealth interventions to a control group (e.g. waiting list control, minimal intervention), with the majority (n=23) showing a positive effect on a SNAPO outcome at follow-up. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly lower mean number of drinks consumed/week in brief web or computer-based interventions compared to controls (Mean Difference -2.43 [-3.54, -1.32], Pyoung adults, particularly in the short-term and for alcohol interventions. But there is insufficient evidence for their efficacy in the longer-term, as well as which mode of delivery is most effective. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  3. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  4. Effects of demographic factors, body mass index, alcohol drinking and smoking habits on irritable bowel syndrome: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, N; Ghobaklou, M; Moghimi-Dehkordi, B; Naderi, N; Fadai, F

    2013-07-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. To identify demographic factors in patients with IBS. One-hundred and fifty three IBS patients seen at Taleghani Hospital Gastroenterology Clinic and met the Rome III criteria and 163 peoples who did not meet IBS criteria were consecutively enrolled. Both groups were asked to complete a self-rating questionnaire containing information, which included questions about age, sex, monthly income, education level, marital status, height, weight, alcohol drinking and smoking habits. Student's t-test, Pearson's Chi-square and logistic regression were used to statistical analysis. The mean (SD) age for IBS patients 36.3 (13.5) years and 33.1 (9.9) years in non-IBS group (P < 0.001). Frequency of IBS defined by Rome III criteria was higher in females and younger individuals. Univariate analysis showed that IBS in males was associated with a lower monthly income and educational level and in females younger age, single, lower monthly income and educational level, body mass index (BMI), and unemployment status. Multivariate logistic regression identified a low level of education in males (Odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-9.6) and in females, lower education level (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.2), lower BMI (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99), unemployed (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.85) and smoking (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 1.03-37.2). We identified demographic factors in IBS patients. Being single and having a lower educational level, income, lower BMI and being unemployed were the most important factors associated with IBS, particularly in females.

  5. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  6. Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of food consumption, physical activity, sleep impairment, and alcohol drinking in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shabana; Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson; Xie, Bin

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two-thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Male adults (n = 12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex-, or current smokers (p adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males.

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  8. Is identification of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity by General Practitioners improving? A comparison over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Mazza, Danielle; Carey, Mariko; Walsh, Justin; Bisquera, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    Detection of lifestyle risk factors by GPs is the first step required for intervention. Despite significant investment in preventive health care in general practice, little is known about whether GP detection of lifestyle risk factors have improved over time. To examine whether sensitivity and specificity of GP detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity has increased in patients presenting to see their GP, by comparing results from four Australian studies conducted between 1982 and 2011. Demographic characteristics of patient and GP samples and the prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of detection of each risk factor were extracted from published studies. Differences between GP and patient sample characteristics were examined. To identify trends over time in prevalence of risk factors, sensitivity and specificity of detection across studies and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend were calculated for each risk factor for the overall sample and by male and female subgroups. There were no statistically significant changes in the sensitivity of GP detection of smoking or overweight or obesity over time. Specificity of detection of smoking increased from 64.7% to 98% (P investment to increase GP detection and intervention for lifestyle risk factors, accurate detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity occurs for less than two-thirds of all patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China.We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM.We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years.Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should be developed to focus on these modifiable

  10. [Alcohol consumption, smoking and drug abuse among teenagers - a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, T; Yngvadottir, A; Benediktsdottir, B

    1994-12-01

    Many of the social and health problems of teenagers today are related to the use of intoxicating drugs. In 1990 the use of Lions Quest began in primary schools in Iceland. With Lions Quest the young are taught life skills in order to be helped to live a healthy life without tobacco, alcohol or other intoxicating drugs. The aim of this study, therefore, was to try to determine what factors influence teenage use of intoxicants and whether the attitudes and drug consumption of those teenagers who had participated in Lions Quest were any different from those who had not. The research is a continuation of a comparative study where students were administered questionnaires to ascertain their attitudes toward life and toward the use of intoxicating substances. In 1989 the survey covered 566 students 12-13 years of age and three years later in 1992 reached 500 of the former respondents when they were 15-16 years old. "The schools were chosen such that the study reflected the attitudes of students both in sparsely and in densely settled areas. The study showed that of the 15-16 year olds 18.6% smoked daily, 44.4% had felt the effects of alcohol four times or more, and 5% had a history of repeated drug abuse (cannabis, sniffing solvents, etc.) The use of various intoxicating substances is strongly correlated, a fact that supports the hypothesis that attitudes toward life and conditions that lead to the use of one type of drug also support the use of other drugs. Those teenagers who used drugs had a great deal in common as regards attitudes toward life and the pattern of family relations. They were not as close to their families as were teenagers who did not use drugs, were seldom home in the evening and had few interests in common with their parents. The parents were more often divorced, smoking in the home was more common and alcohol consumption had more frequently caused family problems. These teenagers were more easily influenced, were more dependent on their friends, had

  11. Which modifiable health risk behaviours are related? A systematic review of the clustering of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol and Physical activity ('SNAP') health risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Turon, Heidi; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing body of literature examining the clustering of health risk behaviours, but little consensus about which risk factors can be expected to cluster for which sub groups of people. This systematic review aimed to examine the international literature on the clustering of smoking, poor nutrition, excess alcohol and physical inactivity (SNAP) health behaviours among adults, including associated socio-demographic variables. A literature search was conducted in May 2014. Studies examining at least two SNAP risk factors, and using a cluster or factor analysis technique, or comparing observed to expected prevalence of risk factor combinations, were included. Fifty-six relevant studies were identified. A majority of studies (81%) reported a 'healthy' cluster characterised by the absence of any SNAP risk factors. More than half of the studies reported a clustering of alcohol with smoking, and half reported clustering of all four SNAP risk factors. The methodological quality of included studies was generally weak to moderate. Males and those with greater social disadvantage showed riskier patterns of behaviours; younger age was less clearly associated with riskier behaviours. Clustering patterns reported here reinforce the need for health promotion interventions to target multiple behaviours, and for such efforts to be specifically designed and accessible for males and those who are socially disadvantaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What are the Patterns Between Depression, Smoking, Unhealthy Alcohol Use, and Other Substance Use Among Individuals Receiving Medical Care? A Longitudinal Study of 5479 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate and characterize the structure of temporal patterns of depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care, and to inform discussion about whether integrated screening and treatment strategies for these conditions are warranted. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) we measured depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use and other substance use (stimulants, marijuana, heroin, opioids) and evaluated which conditions tended to co-occur within individuals, and how this co-occurrence was temporally structured (i.e. concurrently, sequentially, or discordantly). Current depression was associated with current use of every substance examined with the exception of unhealthy alcohol use. Current unhealthy alcohol use and marijuana use were also consistently associated. Current status was strongly predicted by prior status (p relationships. Associations in the HIV infected and uninfected subgroups were largely the same with the following exceptions. Smoking preceded unhealthy alcohol use and current smoking was associated with current depression in the HIV infected subgroup only (p smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use were temporally concordant, particularly with regard to depression and substance use. These patterns may inform future development of more integrated screening and treatment strategies.

  13. [Assessment of surveys of adolescents about smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Suelves, Josep M; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring health-related behaviors in adolescence requires instruments capable of providing valid data The objective of this paper is to review and assess existing information sources on smoking and alcohol and cannabis use by age and sex among adolescents in Spain. A search was carried out for studies with repeated observations over time, and their methods and characteristics reviewed. For each study, the number of surveys, their frequency and their sample size are assessed, as well as the instrument used, the available indicators, and the availability, accessibility and comparability of the information. Five sources of information providing data over extended periods of time with accessible data are identified: the National survey on drug use in secondary-school children (Encuesta estatal sobre uso de drogas en estudiantes de secundaria; ESTUDES); the Health behavior in school-aged children study (ECERSHBSC); the Monitoring system for risk factors associated with non-transmissible diseases in young people (Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Enfermedades No Transmisibles dirigido a poblacion juvenil; SIVFRENT-J); the Study of risk factors in secondary school children (Estudio de factores de riesgo en estudiantes de secundaria; FRESC); and the Monitoring study of health behaviors in adolescents (Estudio de monitorizacion de las conductas de salud de los adolescents; EMCSAT). Two of the surveys cover the whole of Spain, one is regional, and two are city-specific. All use solid methods and representative sampling techniques. In some, changes have occurred that make comparison of the evolution of some indicators difficult. Report accessibility is variable; comparability is limited for some surveys. Some provide almost no stratified data. There are valuable sources of data, but all have shortcomings. Changing the measurement instrument in a survey for comparison with others raises dilemmas as to the internal comparability of series.

  14. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G.; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    compared with 7% of controls used illicit drugs within last month (P = 0.260). Conclusion: No significant group differences were found in the prevalence of ever having smoked cigarettes, drinking alcohol or using illicit drugs between adolescents with ADHD and controls. Contrary to expectations, subjects......Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...

  15. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark? A nationwide register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten; Juel, Knud

    2015-05-11

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985-2009. A nationwide register-based study. Denmark. The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more in the period 1985-2009. The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct contribution from smoking and alcohol use on the absolute difference in mortality rates. The secondary outcome is life expectancy in relation to educational attainments. Since 1985, Danish overall mortality rates have decreased. Alongside the improvement in mortality, the absolute difference in the mortality rate (per 100,000 persons) between the lowest and the highest educated quartile grew from 465 to 611 among men and from 250 to 386 among women. Smoking and alcohol use have caused 75% of the increase among men and 97% of the increase among women. Among men the increase was mainly caused by alcohol. In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use are targeted to the lower educated part of the Danish population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette eSimino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP regulation. We used 6,882 (predominantly Caucasian participants aged 20 to 80 years from the Framingham SHARe (SNP Health Association Resource to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures [ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week] on four BP traits [systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, mean arterial (MAP, and pulse (PP pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9 on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively. Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week versus a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value≤1E-06 associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B,ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A , FBX015, and IGSF5. SNP -alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can

  17. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO. Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8 region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4 and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6 but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059. No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  18. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  19. Lifestyle factors of smoking, BMI and alcohol on the risk of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi-Bee, J; Ellison, T; Bath-Hextall, F

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans and the most important risk factors are thought to be age, skin type, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Lifestyle factors may also play a part. To date no systematic review has been performed to collate evidence of the effects of smoking, alcohol or body mass index. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of smoking, alcohol and body mass index on the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer and its subtypes. Adults (18+ years old) of either sex from any ethnicitySmoking, alcohol, or body mass index (including other anthropometric measurements, such as weight, waist to hip ratio, and the percentage body fat)Non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinomaComparative observational epidemiological studies SEARCH STRATEGY: We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and CAB Abstracts from inception to October 2010. We also scanned reference lists to identify further eligible studies. Data from eligible studies were extracted and quality assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale independently by two reviewers. The titles, abstracts and full text identified from the search were assessed independently by two reviewers against pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. For studies with similar exposures, a meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model and results were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed using I. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Data were analysed using Review Manager. Thirty studies were included of which 22 used a case control design and the remaining used a cohort design. The overall quality of the studies was variable with a Newcastle Ottawa Scale median score of 6 out of 9 stars. No evidence of asymmetry was detected in the funnel plots

  20. The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS and 32 healthy controls (C were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF, in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96% and specificity (91%; the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937. There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI, and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  1. [THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SMOKING, ALCOHOL, TOOTH PATHOLOGY AND PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS IN KYRGYZSTAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumabaev, M N; Dzhumanova, R G; Sabirov, I S

    2015-01-01

    The main aim was to study the ethnic and social characteristics of the prevalence of certain risk factors among Kyrgyz ethnic population infected with Helicobacter pylori without clinical signs of the disease of upper gastrointestinal tract. The study involved 116 healthy individuals (57 and 49 Kyrgyz, Russian) who were tested on H. pylori infection, taking into account risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, low or serious teeth damage. The identified H.pylori infection was independent from ethnic affiliation. Significant relation between absence or high damage of the teeth and H. pylori contamination was revealed in surveyed Kyrgyz group.

  2. Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina; Højbjerre, Lise; Riegels, Mette

    2004-01-01

    into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically...... a more than twofold increased risk at all three educational levels among both men and women. The relation between alcohol intake and mortality was J-shaped on all three educational levels. There were decreasing risk functions describing the relations between physical activity and mortality on all three......OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining whether the relation between established risk factors and mortality differs with socioeconomic status as measured by level of education. METHODS: A population-based sample of 14,399 women and 16,236 men aged 20-93 years from Copenhagen was stratified...

  3. Cigarette smoking and its relationship to mood disorder symptoms and co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use disorders following first hospitalization for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; DelBello, Melissa P; Anthenelli, Robert M; Fleck, David E; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and may adversely affect symptoms of the disorder, as well as the co-occurrence of other substance use disorders. However, anecdotal reports suggesting that smoking cessation caused a worsening of mood in smokers with BD have raised concerns about quitting. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the course of BD, alcohol use disorders, and cannabis use disorders in relation to smoking and examined the relationship between smoking abstinence and changes in mood. Participants (N = 161) were adolescents (n=80) and adults (n = 81) with bipolar I disorder who were hospitalized for their initial mixed or manic episode. Participants were followed up to eight years post-hospitalization (median follow-up = 122 weeks) as part of a naturalistic, observational study of the longitudinal course of BD and substance use. The course of BD symptoms in the 12 months following index hospitalization did not differ by smoking status in either the adolescent or the adult subsample. Among adolescents, smoking was associated with an increased risk of having a cannabis or alcohol use disorder, almost all of which were new-onset disorders, in the year following first hospitalization. Neither adolescents nor adults who were abstinent from smoking for at least two months experienced significant increases in depressive or manic symptoms. Although cigarette smoking did not predict a worse course of BD, smoking was associated with an increased risk of developing alcohol and cannabis use disorders in adolescents with BD. Importantly, these data provide no evidence to suggest that abstinence from smoking is associated with worsening symptoms of depression or mania in the short term. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  4. A Descriptive Study of the Prevalence and Typology of Alcohol-Related Posts in an Online Social Network for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zhao, Kang; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Amato, Michael S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Papandonatos, George D; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use and problem drinking are associated with smoking relapse and poor smoking-cessation success. User-generated content in online social networks for smoking cessation provides an opportunity to understand the challenges and treatment needs of smokers. This study used machine-learning text classification to identify the prevalence, sentiment, and social network correlates of alcohol-related content in the social network of a large online smoking-cessation program, BecomeAnEX.org. Data were analyzed from 814,258 posts (January 2012 to May 2015). Posts containing alcohol keywords were coded via supervised machine-learning text classification for information about the user's personal experience with drinking, whether the user self-identified as a problem drinker or indicated problem drinking, and negative sentiment about drinking in the context of a quit attempt (i.e., alcohol should be avoided during a quit attempt). Less than 1% of posts were related to alcohol, contributed by 13% of users. Roughly a third of alcohol posts described a personal experience with drinking; very few (3%) indicated "problem drinking." The majority (70%) of alcohol posts did not express negative sentiment about drinking alcohol during a quit attempt. Users who did express negative sentiment about drinking were more centrally located within the network compared with those who did not. Discussion of alcohol was rare, and most posts did not signal the need to quit or abstain from drinking during a quit attempt. Featuring expert information or highlighting discussions that are consistent with treatment guidelines may be important steps to ensure smokers are educated about drinking risks.

  5. Time trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index in Danish adults with and without COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Molsted, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background: Promotion of a healthy lifestyle and non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has received great attention in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking...... to 2010, Danish individuals aged 25 years with and without COPD, increased their leisure time PA level and reduced smoking. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with a reduced level of PA, smoking and an increased alcohol intake. Future national health campaigns and treatment strategies need......, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) from 2000 to 2010 in Danish individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Analyses were based on data provided by The Danish Health and Morbidity's three cross-sectional surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Data compromised level of leisure time PA, smoking...

  6. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  7. Close Friend and Group Influence on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urberg, Kathryn A.; Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Pilgrim, Colleen

    1997-01-01

    Short-term longitudinal study compared influence of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders' closest friends (CF) and friendship groups (FG) on cigarette and alcohol use. Results showed that CF influenced initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only FG use predicted transition into current cigarette use. Only CF use predicted transition into current alcohol…

  8. Smoking Status and Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake, and Alcohol/Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    cholesterol , cigarette smoking, and body weight. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 200, 470-485. Hodgdon, J.A., Beckett, M.B. (1984a). Prediction of percent body...Cigarette smoking, exercise, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol . Atherosclerosis, 52, 73-83. Stamford, B.A., Matter, S., Fell, R.D...milk, cream, cheeses, ice cream) 6. eat low-fat dairy products (e.g., low-fat milk or cottage cheere, yogurt ) 7. eat (or cook with) butter, lard, or

  9. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  13. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio-economic background to alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    If socio-economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Comparing cohort studies. United Kingdom. Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non-manual) indicated socio-economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765, respectively; P education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socio-economic background being associated in opposite directions with these risk factors. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The effects of alcoholism and smoking on advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute supportive/palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the characteristics and symptom burden of advanced cancer patients with alcoholism problems and smoking, who were referred to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (ASPCU) of a comprehensive cancer center. Patients' characteristics, indications for admission, kind of admission, awareness of prognosis, and anticancer treatments were recorded. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was used to assess physical and psychological symptoms, and the CAGE questionnaire for the diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients were also divided in three groups: persistent smokers (PS), former smokers (FS), and non-smokers (NS). The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) was used to assess the cognitive status of patients. Analgesic drugs and their doses at admission and discharge were recorded, as well opioid escalation index during hospital stay. Three hundred fourteen consecutive cancer patients were surveyed. Forty-seven (14.9%), 143 (45.5%), and 124 (39.5%) subjects were PS-patients, FS-patients, and NS-patients, respectively. Sixteen patients were CAGE-positive. Females were more frequently NS, while males were more frequently FS (p = 0.0005). Statistical differences were also observed in disease awareness among the categories of smoking (p = 0.048). No statistical differences were found in ESAS items, except for drowsiness at T0 in NS-patients. Differences were found in OME and OEI, although the large variability of data did not determined a statistical difference. Higher values of nausea (at T0, p = 0.0005), dyspnea (at T0 and TX, p = 0.08 and 0.023, respectively), and well-being (at TX p = 0.003) were reported in CAGE-positive patients. No correlation was found between CAGE-positive patients and smokers. Although smoking and alcoholism have obvious implications in advanced cancer patients, data remain controversial, as present data did provide limited data to confirm risk factors for advanced cancer patients

  15. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake with CVD-related hospital discharge in people of European, South Asian, or African descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. l; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the beneficial effects of certain lifestyle factors are equally strong in ethnic minority populations in Europe. This study explores whether this association of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hospital discharge differs

  17. Partner’s and own education : does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  18. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases

  19. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  20. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  1. Bidirectional relationship between time preference and adolescent smoking and alcohol use: Evidence from longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae

    2017-07-01

    Scholarly interest in time preference as a potential predictor of risky health behaviors in adolescents has increased in recent years. However, most of the existing literature is limited due to the exclusive reliance on cross-sectional data, precluding the possibility of establishing the direction of causality. Using longitudinal data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (2003-7), which followed up a nationally representative sample of 3449 adolescents aged 14years for five years, this study examines a bidirectional relationship between time preference and smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents. We used discrete time hazard models of smoking and drinking initiation as a function of time preference measured at the baseline and fixed-effects ordered logit model of time preference, respectively. Our measure of time preference was derived from the survey question on a hypothetical choice between immediate enjoyment today and likely higher scores on an exam tomorrow. The overall results provide evidence on the bidirectional relationship; that is, higher time discounting (i.e., greater relative preference for present utility over future utility) results in an increased risk of engaging in smoking and drinking, and conversely, adopting such behaviors leads to a higher discount rate. The bidirectional relationship may function as a mechanism for adolescents to engage in increased smoking and drinking or additional negative health behaviors via gateway effects, strengthening the case for preventing the initiation of risky health behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Chávez, Luz María; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The use of alcohol and drugs is a social issue that constitutes serious problem for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66.6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15.6% have experienced alcohol and the 13.4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems.

  3. [Patterns of drinking alcohol tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the faculty of medicine in Białstok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Ołtarzewska, Alicja; Piotrowska-Depta, Maria; Gomółka, Ewa; Wojtal, Mariola; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco are legal, easily available addictive substances. There are no universal criteria of safe alcohol consumption but some scientific studies have allowed for determination of consumption levels helpful in evaluation of the pattern of drinking and evoking readiness to limit the amount of consumed alcohol. The aim of the work was to evaluate and compare the knowledge of 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Medical University of Biatystok in the academic years 2011/12 and 2012/13 concerning the effects of alcohol abuse, as well as to determine their drinking patterns and tobacco smoking structure. The study material was collected by means of anonymous voluntary surveys carried out before classes concerning the issues of addictions within the framework of family medicine subject block. 356 students took part in the study: 226 (63.5%) women and 130 (36.5%) men (palcohol abuse; 63.43% had an average level of knowledge and 31.71% - a low one. 51,32% women and 62,3% men drank alcohol in a hazardous way. A relation was found between a low level of knowledge and the amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking day (rS=-0.15, p=0.03) as well as between a low level of knowledge and hazardous drinking (rS=-0.13, p=0.03). Among the respondents, 18,58% women and 14,63% men smoked cigarettes regularly. Those who are 6th year students in the academic year 2012/13 usually had started smoking within the first three years of study at the Medical University and drank greater amounts of alcohol on a typical drinking day than students surveyed in the 2011/12 year. A correlation was found between tobacco smoking and a greater frequency of getting drunk occasionally (rS=-0.18, p=0.002) among students of both years. Insufficient knowledge on the effects of alcohol abuse and smoking coexist with a higher risk of drinking alcohol.

  4. Alcohol consumption and smoking and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress in Puerto Rican college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Anaisa M; Cruz, Sonia Y; Ríos, Josué L; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Betancourt, Jesmari; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; González, Michael J; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    College students often use different strategies, such as consuming alcohol and smoking, to cope with stress. We examined the associations between self-perceived academic stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and dietary patterns in graduate students. A representative stratified sample of 275 students from each school of the Medical Science Campus of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR-MSC) completed a 48-item questionnaire that solicited the following: socio-demographic data, estimates of self-perceived stress, estimates of the frequency of alcohol consumption and the type(s) of alcohol consumed, details regarding smoking habits, and information associated with diet (i.e., dietary patterns). Fisher's exact test and the Chi2 test were used to assess the associations between the different study variables. Only 3% were considered smokers (defined as > 1 cigarettes per day), with the greatest number of smokers among those aged 21-30 y (phabits was not associated with academic load/stress or with dietary pattern. Most smokers reported that their main reason for using cigarettes was to cope with stress. About 70% of the students were considered drinkers (defined as > 0 drink/day), with a higher proportion found among women (63.5%), among those aged 21-30 years (90.6%), and among those with a low or moderate household income (p0.05). Most subjects classified as drinkers reported that alcohol consumption was not (in their experience) an effective strategy for the management of stress (81%). Alcohol consumption was only associated with academic stress. No associations were found between smoking habits and academic stress/load and dietary patterns.

  5. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  6. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta N.; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    GPX1 encoding the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and hOGG1 encoding the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) may counteract oxidative stress and resulting DNA damage associated with lifestyle-related exposures. We examined whether the polymorphisms GPX1 Pro198Leu and OGG1 Ser326Cys or low...... and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993–1997. GPX1 Pro198Leu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among...... homozygous GPX1 198Leu carriers, with incidence rate ratios for colorectal cancer of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.17–1.81, P = 0.02) per 10 g alcohol intake per day and 2.56 (95% CI: 0.99–6.61, P = 0.02) among ever smokers compared with never smokers at enrolment. Erythrocyte GPX activity was influenced by the GPX1 Pro...

  7. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  8. The effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity/diet and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile phones for the prevention of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Melissa; Sutherland, Jennifer; Barnard, Sharmani; Wynne, Aileen; Rezel, Emma; Doel, Andrew; Grigsby-Duffy, Lily; Edwards, Suzanne; Russell, Sophie; Hotopf, Ellie; Perel, Pablo; Free, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), diet, and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile technology to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mobile-based NCD prevention interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL (Jan 1990-Jan 2016). Two authors extracted data. 71 trials were included: smoking cessation (n = 18); PA (n = 15), diet (n = 3), PA and diet (n = 25); PA, diet, and smoking cessation (n = 2); and harmful alcohol consumption (n = 8). 4 trials had low risk of bias. The effect of SMS-based smoking cessation support on biochemically verified continuous abstinence was pooled relative risk [RR] 2.19 [95% CI 1.80-2.68], I2 = 0%) and on verified 7 day point prevalence of smoking cessation was pooled RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.06-2.15], I2 = 0%, with no reported adverse events. There was no difference in peak oxygen intake at 3 months in a trial of an SMS-based PA intervention. The effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions on: incidence of diabetes was pooled RR 0.67 [95% CI 0.49, 0.90], I2 = 0.0%; end-point weight was pooled MD -0.99Kg [95% CI -3.63, 1.64] I2 = 29.4%; % change in weight was pooled MD -3.1 [95%CI -4.86- -1.3] I2 0.3%; and on triglyceride levels was pooled MD -0.19 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29, -0.08], I2 = 0.0%. The results of other pooled analyses of the effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions were heterogenous (I2 59-90%). The effects of alcohol reduction interventions were inconclusive. Smoking cessation support delivered by SMS increases quitting rates. Trials of PA interventions reporting outcomes ≥3 months showed no benefits. There were at best modest benefits of diet and PA interventions. The effects of the most promising SMS-based smoking, diet and PA interventions on morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups should be established in adequately powered RCTs.

  9. The effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity/diet and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile phones for the prevention of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Barnard, Sharmani; Wynne, Aileen; Rezel, Emma; Doel, Andrew; Grigsby-Duffy, Lily; Edwards, Suzanne; Russell, Sophie; Hotopf, Ellie; Perel, Pablo; Free, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), diet, and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile technology to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mobile-based NCD prevention interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL (Jan 1990–Jan 2016). Two authors extracted data. Findings 71 trials were included: smoking cessation (n = 18); PA (n = 15), diet (n = 3), PA and diet (n = 25); PA, diet, and smoking cessation (n = 2); and harmful alcohol consumption (n = 8). 4 trials had low risk of bias. The effect of SMS-based smoking cessation support on biochemically verified continuous abstinence was pooled relative risk [RR] 2.19 [95% CI 1.80–2.68], I2 = 0%) and on verified 7 day point prevalence of smoking cessation was pooled RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.06–2.15], I2 = 0%, with no reported adverse events. There was no difference in peak oxygen intake at 3 months in a trial of an SMS-based PA intervention. The effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions on: incidence of diabetes was pooled RR 0.67 [95% CI 0.49, 0.90], I2 = 0.0%; end-point weight was pooled MD -0.99Kg [95% CI -3.63, 1.64] I2 = 29.4%; % change in weight was pooled MD -3.1 [95%CI -4.86- -1.3] I2 0.3%; and on triglyceride levels was pooled MD -0.19 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29, -0.08], I2 = 0.0%. The results of other pooled analyses of the effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions were heterogenous (I2 59–90%). The effects of alcohol reduction interventions were inconclusive. Conclusions Smoking cessation support delivered by SMS increases quitting rates. Trials of PA interventions reporting outcomes ≥3 months showed no benefits. There were at best modest benefits of diet and PA interventions. The effects of the most promising SMS-based smoking, diet and PA interventions on morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups should be established in adequately

  10. Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament use and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbricht Sabina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and opioid medicament (SO use and its relation to tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking is largely unknown. Prevalence data for SO intake and its co-occurrence with tobacco smoking and alcohol risk drinking considering age are presented. Methods Random general population sample of individuals aged 20–79 drawn from a mixed rural and urban area in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP. All medicament intake during the past 7 days prior to the interview was assessed according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification as part of an interview conducted in a health examination center. Results Among men, 3.0%, and among women 5.0% took SO. The proportion of SO users was higher (odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 whereas the proportions of current cigarette smokers and alcohol risk drinkers without SO use were lower among individuals aged 60–79 compared to those aged 20–39. The proportion of individuals with smoking, alcohol risk drinking or SO use was also lower among those aged 60–79 compared to the 20–39 year olds. Conclusion Although proportions of SO users in older adult age are higher than in younger adult age there are less subjects with any of the 3 substance use behaviors at older adult age compared to age 20–39.

  11. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006. Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  12. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  13. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  14. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    an herbal tea, hot cocoa made with nonfat milk , or sparkling water instead of an alcoholic beverage. Consider using medication to help you quit Talk to...warning, kids won’t go hungry if you don’t clean your plate • Follow an Eating Schedule: don’t let yourself get overly hungry as you will more...that you could do as walks instead, such as to the post office? o If you take your kids to sports or activities, dedicate 10-20 minutes of that time to

  15. HIV & smoking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Flanigan, Timothy; Mayer, K H; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in India - the young being particularly vulnerable. The prevalence of smoking has increased in India especially among rural, lower socio-economic and illiterate men. Studies have shown that HIV-infected smokers may be at additional risk for several infectious and non-infectious complications, including malignancies and cardiovascular events. Smoking alters immunological mechanisms and suppresses host defenses in the alveolar environment. HIV-infected smokers have also been found to have a poorer response to antiretroviral therapy and a higher risk of death. HIV-infected individuals who smoke could be at a greater risk for developing TB and subsequently suffer higher morbidity and mortality than those who do not smoke. Currently available smoking cessation interventions like physician's advice, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacological agents like bupropion and varenicline have had varying degrees of success. Smoking cessation intervention in the HIV-infected population might be more complex because of associated psychosocial problems like drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, etc. More research including clinical trials testing the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in HIV infected persons is required in India. In addition to public health measures like banning smoking in public places and raising tobacco tax, comprehensive guidelines for health workers can help address this problem. Counselling on smoking cessation should be one of the main components of primary care, especially in the management of HIV-infected persons. This review highlights the importance of smoking cessation among HIV-infected persons in India.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione S-transferase M1 and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Kato, Hoichi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa; Muto, Manabu; Omori, Tai; Haneda, Tatsumasa; Kumagai, Yoshiya; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Yokoyama, Masako; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Yoshimizu, Haruko

    2002-11-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), ADH3, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) influence the metabolism of alcohol and other carcinogens. The ALDH2*1/2*2 genotype, which encodes inactive ALDH2, and ADH2*1/2*1, which encodes the low-activity form of ADH2, enhance the risk for esophageal cancer in East Asian alcoholics. This case-control study of whether the enzyme-related vulnerability for esophageal cancer can be extended to a general population involved 234 Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 634 cancer-free Japanese men who received annual health checkups. The GSTM1 genotype was not associated with the risk for this cancer. Light drinkers (1-8.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*2 had an esophageal cancer risk 5.82 times that of light drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*1 (reference category), and their risk was similar to that of moderate drinkers (9-17.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (odds ratio = 5.58). The risk for moderate drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 55.84) exceeded that for heavy drinkers (18+ units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (OR = 10.38). Similar increased risks were observed for those with ADH2*1/2*1. A multiple logistic model including ALDH2, ADH2, and ADH3 genotypes showed that the ADH3 genotype does not significantly affect the risk for esophageal cancer. For individuals with both ALDH2*1/2*2 and ADH2*1/2*1, the risk of esophageal cancer was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 30.12), whereas for those with either ALDH2*1/2*2 or ADH2*1/2*1 alone the ORs were 7.36 and 4.11. In comparison with the estimated population-attributable risks for preference for strong alcoholic beverages (30.7%), smoking (53.6%) and for lower intake of green and yellow vegetables (25.7%) and fruit (37.6%), an extraordinarily high proportion of the excessive risk for esophageal cancer in the Japanese males can be attributed to drinking (90.9%), particularly drinking by persons with inactive heterozygous ALDH

  17. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  18. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2014-05-01

    NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. From 1992 to 1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% younger than age 65; 67% postmenopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.007; HR = 1.3 for 15-35 years smoking, HR = 1.6 for ≥ 35 years), lung cancer (P cancer (P breast cancer risk only among women assigned to placebo (P = 0.021 activity main effect, P = 0.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR = 1.4 for the placebo group) and endometrial cancer among all women (P = 0.026, HR = 1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0-1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (P = 0.019; HR = 0.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Among women with elevated risk of breast cancer, smoking has an even greater impact on breast cancer risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  19. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle a...

  20. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Pietinen, Pirjo; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2002-05-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity worldwide are suggested to be caused largely by an environment that promotes sedentariness and excessive food intake. We investigated associations of body mass index (BMI) and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol consumption, and smoking history. In addition, we examined the consistency of these associations over time, with the aim of assessing whether the significance of lifestyle variables as correlates of obesity increased over a 15-y period. Independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. Altogether, 24604 randomly selected men and women (aged 25-64 y) participated in these surveys. The subjects' weights and heights were measured, and data on lifestyle were collected with self-administered questionnaires. In men and women, perceived general health, leisure-time physical activity, and daily vegetable consumption were inversely associated with obesity, as were bread consumption in women and activity at work in men. Consumption of sausages, milk, and sour milk and heavy work (in women only) were positively associated with obesity. Obesity was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking history. Most associations were constant over the 15-y period. However, the inverse associations of BMI with physical activity in women and with perceived health in men seemed to strengthen over time. A physically active lifestyle with abstention from smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, and consumption of healthy foods maximizes the chances of having a normal weight. The significance of avoiding sedentariness increases over time as a factor associated with normal weight.

  1. Secondary prevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in areas where smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing are prevalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Lun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2010-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. With friends like these…: peer delinquency influences across age cohorts on smoking, alcohol and illegal substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C J; Meehan, D C

    2011-01-01

    Discussions and debate about youth smoking, alcohol use, and illegal substance use (collectively referred to as youth substance use) continue to receive wide attention among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. Previous research has suggested that peer delinquency is a particularly strong correlate of youth substance use. The current study focuses on the influence of delinquent peers on substance use, and how peer delinquency influences change across age cohorts of youth. The current study examines multiple correlates for youth substance use in a sample of 8,256 youth (mean age 14), with the goal of identifying the influence of delinquent peers across age cohorts while controlling for other correlates. Data was collected from the Ohio version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Results from multiple regression analyses identified peer delinquency as the strongest correlate of youth substance use even when other relevant factors related to family, neighborhood, and media use were controlled. Correlations between peer delinquency and substance use behavior increased across age cohorts and for individuals who first used in middle teen years (13-16) irrespective of current age. Age appears to be a moderating factor regarding the correlation between peer delinquency and youth substance abuse. Primary and secondary prevention and intervention strategies that focus on peers are potentially more likely to reduce youth substance use and improve peer relationships than those focused on other areas such as schools or media. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  4. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  5. Telomere shortening in the esophagus of Japanese alcoholics: relationships with chromoendoscopic findings, ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes and smoking history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Junko; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimomura, Naotaka; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Terai, Masanori; Poon, Steven; Matsuura, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2013-01-01

    Chromoendoscopy with Lugol iodine staining provides important information on the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In particular, distinct iodine-unstained lesions (DIULs) larger than 10 mm show a high prevalence in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. It has also been reported that inactive ALDH2*1/*2 and less-active ADH1B*1/*1, and smoking, are risk factors for esophageal SCC. We previously examined telomere shortening in the esophageal epithelium of alcoholics, and suggested a high prevalence of chromosomal instability in such individuals. In the present study, we attempted to analyze telomere lengths in 52 DIULs with reference to both their size and multiplicity, ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes, and smoking history. Patients with DIULs smoking history (never-, ex-, light, and heavy smokers = 3, 6, 21, and 22 patients, respectively; p = 0.956). Patients without multiple DIULs (n = 17) had significantly longer telomeres than patients with multiple DIULs (n = 35, p = 0.040). It is suggested that alcoholism reduces telomere length in the esophagus, irrespective of genotype or smoking habit. Telomere shortening may not generate cancer directly, but may create conditions under which SCC can develop more easily, depending on subsequent exposure to carcinogens.

  6. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. El consumo inmoderado de alcohol como factor predictor de la persistencia del consumo de tabaco en jóvenes Immoderate alcohol consumption as predictor of tobacco smoking persistence among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores predictores de la persistencia del tabaquismo en jóvenes estudiantes de Morelos, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de un estudio de cohorte (1998-2001 de estudiantes del sistema público de educación del Estado de Morelos, México. La muestra se integró con 3 699 participantes. El análisis se realizó mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: De los 349 jóvenes que en la medición basal fumaban de modo activo, 192 persistieron en la segunda medición. El consumo inmoderado de alcohol en las mujeres resultó un factor predictor junto con la frecuencia de consumo previo de cigarrillos. En los hombres sólo la frecuencia anterior de consumo de cigarrillos predijo la persistencia en el tabaquismo. CONCLUSIONES: En ambos sexos, el número de cigarros fumados con anterioridad predice la persistencia del tabaquismo. En las mujeres, el consumo inmoderado de alcohol también es un factor predictor. Cualquier medida preventiva del tabaquismo debe considerar de manera integral la prevención del consumo de alcohol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive factors of smoking persistence in young students in Morelos, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from a cohort study (1998-2001 of students in the public education system in the state of Morelos, Mexico was analyzed. The number of participants was 3 699. The analysis was carried out using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 349 students who were active smokers according to the basal measurement, 192 persisted smoking in the second phase. Immoderate alcohol consumption by women, combined with the frequency of previous cigarrette consumption, was a predicting factor. In men, only the frequency of previous cigarette consumption predicted smoking persistence. CONCLUSIONS: For both genders, the number of cigarettes smoked previously was predictive of the persistence in tobacco consumption. In women, the immoderate use of alcohol

  8. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Lujan Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the

  9. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Piñol-Moreso, Josep L I; Martin-Vergara, Nuria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Pascual-Palacios, Irene; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Llopis, Estefania Aparicio; Basora-Gallisa, Maria T; Pedret-Llaberia, Roser

    2011-11-11

    There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain). 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant), comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Smoking cessation at 12 months. Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the intervention group than in the control group. Application of a motivational intervention based on structured information about spirometry results

  10. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  11. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  12. Effect of alcohol, cigarette smoking, and diabetes on occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with transfusion-acquired hepatitis C virus infection who develop cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; De Luca, Massimo; Tritto, Giovanni; Lampasi, Filippo; Addario, Luigi; Lanza, Alfonso Galeota; Tartaglione, Maria Teresa; Picciotto, Francesco Paolo; Ascione, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and diabetes have been claimed as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in case-control studies. The aim of this study was to define the impact of these risk factors on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis. A historical cohort of 138 patients with posttransfusion hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis was selected by reviewing all files of patients referred to our liver unit. Sixty-three of them (46%) developed hepatocellular carcinoma. At univariate analysis, risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma were observed in patients aged above 59 years [P=0.004; relative risk (RR): 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-3.68], male sex (P<0.001; RR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.59-3.87), habit of alcohol drinking (P=0.001; RR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.24-2.88), and duration of alcohol consumption of more than 30 years (P=0.02; RR: 2.08, 95% CI: 0.98-4.40). At Cox regression analysis, only male sex was an independent predictive factor (beta=0.86; P=0.002; hazard ratio=2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.1). Diabetes, smoking, and alcohol drinking were not independently related to the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.

  13. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in primary care settings: examining the moderating roles of smoking status, alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A

    2014-02-01

    Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P symptoms (P > 0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Wallin, Håkan; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Vogel, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome, and are of interest for the study of susceptibility to and protection from diseases. The haplotype at chromosome 19q13.2-3 encompassing the three SNPs ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn have been associated with risk of breast cancer and lung cancer. Haplotype carriers are defined as the homozygous carriers of RAI IVS1 A4364G A , ERCC1 Asn118Asn T and ASE-1 G-21A G . We aimed to evaluate whether the three polymorphisms and the haplotype are associated to risk of colorectal cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were examined, as well as gene-environment interaction, in a Danish case-cohort study including 405 cases and a comparison group of 810 persons. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) were estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model stratified according to gender, and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values were calculated based on robust estimates of the variance-covariance matrix and Wald's test of the Cox regression parameter. No consistent associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption

  15. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (Pweight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk. The minor alleles of both polymorphisms behaved in a recessive fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development. PMID:22024018

  17. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  18. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

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    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  19. Proliferative activity in clinically healthy oral mucosa exposed to tobacco smoking and alcohol: a longitudinal study using the agNOR staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedoz, Luhana; Lauxen, Isabel da Silva; Sant'Ana, Manoel Filho; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate cell proliferation in clinically healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens over a period of 24 months using the AgNOR staining technique. Sixty patients were initially evaluated: 17 were control individuals, 25 were smokers and 18 were smokers and alcohol drinkers. Fifty-two of these patients were reevaluated. Specimens for cytology were obtained from swabs of lower lip mucosa, border of the tongue and floor of the mouth and underwent AgNOR staining for evaluation of mean number and mean area of AgNOR dots per nucleus and percentage of nuclei with > 3 and > 5 AgNOR dots. Student t and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare values obtained. A statistically significant increase was found in mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus in 2 groups. One group showed a tendency toward increase of these values. The results of the longitudinal evaluation (Kruskal-Wallis test) revealed a statistically significant difference in number and area of AgNOR dots in the cells of the lower lip. The increase of the variables suggests that the longitudinal evaluation of changes in cell proliferation in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful monitoring tool.

  20. Medicinal smokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.

  1. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  2. Combinations of Osmolytes, Including Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Sugar Alcohols Act in Concert During Cryopreservation to Improve Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kathryn; Yu, Guanglin; Moller-Trane, Ralph; Koran, Marissa; Dosa, Peter I; McKenna, David H; Hubel, Allison

    2016-11-01

    There is demand for non-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cryoprotective agents that maintain cell viability without causing poor postthaw function or systemic toxicity. The focus of this investigation involves expanding our understanding of multicomponent osmolyte solutions and their ability to preserve cell viability during freezing. Controlled cooling rate freezing, Raman microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to evaluate the differences in recovery and ice crystal formation behavior for solutions containing multiple cryoprotectants, including sugars, sugar alcohols, and small molecule additives. Postthaw recovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in solutions containing multiple osmolytes have been shown to be comparable or better than that of MSCs frozen in 10% DMSO at 1°C/min when the solution composition is optimized. Maximum postthaw recovery was observed in these multiple osmolyte solutions with incubation times of up to 2 h before freezing. Raman images demonstrate large ice crystal formation in cryopreserved cells incubated for shorter periods of time (∼30 min), suggesting that longer permeation times are needed for these solutions. Recovery was dependent upon the concentration of each component in solution, and was not strongly correlated with osmolarity. It is noteworthy that the postthaw recovery varied significantly with the composition of solutions containing the same three components and this variation exhibited an inverted U-shape behavior, indicating that there may be a "sweet spot" for different combinations of osmolytes. Raman images of freezing behavior in different solution compositions were consistent with the observed postthaw recovery. Phase change behavior (solidification patterns and glass-forming tendency) did not differ for solutions with similar osmolarity, but differences in postthaw recovery suggest that biological, not physical, methods of protection are at play. Lastly, molecular substitution of

  3. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS.

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    Younghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI], and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4 and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1 participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years, but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  4. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1985-01-01

    The causes of individuality of the plasma enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) were investigated in a study of 206 pairs of twins. Between-person variance was greater in men than women, while within-person variation was similar in both sexes. Plasma ALT and AST levels were affected by genetic factors, while GGT was affected by some environmental factor shared by co-twins. In the men, alcohol intake had a significant but small effect on all three enzyme levels, and since alcohol consumption was highly heritable, this appeared as a genetic influence on enzyme activities. The major factors involved in the observed correlations between these enzymes were a non-shared environmental factor other than alcohol affecting ALT, AST and GGT, and a genetic factor affecting only ALT and AST.

  5. Persuasive features in web-based alcohol and smoking interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2011-07-22

    In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals' health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user's primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously suggest that most of them were credible. The

  6. Persuasive Features in Web-Based Alcohol and Smoking Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals’ health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. Methods We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. Results The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user’s primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously

  7. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Laura; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-10-10

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed.

  8. The Prognostic Value of Combined Smoking and Alcohol Consumption Habits for the Estimation of Cause-Specific Mortality in Middle-Age and Elderly Population: Results from a Long-Term Cohort Study in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Radisauskas, Ricardas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of combined smoking and alcohol consumption habits for the estimation of cause-specific mortality risk in middle-age and elderly population. The study presents data from the four surveys. A random sample of 6,729 subjects aged 35-64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During the follow-up of 31 years (1983-2014), there were 2,158 deaths from any cause. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality and Competing Risk Regression analysis was used to estimate subdistribution hazard risk (SHR) for cause-specific mortality. Smoking clearly increased the risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but alcohol use had little effect in men aged 35-64 years. However, heavy alcohol consumption (>14 units/week) increased the risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from external causes in the never-smokers men group who drank alcohol of 1-14 units/week (HR 2 = 1.57 and SHR 2 = 2.40, resp.). The smoking habits and alcohol consumption are modifiable risk factors, and thus efforts to support abstinence from alcohol and smoking use should be a public health priority.

  9. Impacto del tabaquismo y del consumo excesivo de alcohol en la mortalidad de la población de la ciudad de Barcelona: 1983-1998 Impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on mortality in the population of Barcelona [Spain]: 1983-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jané

    2003-04-01

    Barcelona from 1983 to 1998. Methods: All deaths among residents of the city of Barcelona from 1983 to 1998 were included. Population data were obtained from the city inhabitants register. The mortality attributable to smoking and alcohol consumption was calculated by population attributable fractions using relative risks from previous studies in the US population. Results: In 1998, 2,205 deaths were attributable to smoking, representing 13.8% of all deaths among the population aged 35 years or older and a decrease of 9.6% compared with deaths in 1983. From 1983 to 1998 there was an increase in smoking-attributable adjusted mortality rates for lung cancer (155.84/100,000 inhabitants in men and 9.39/100,000 in women in 1998 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (95.89/100,000 in men and 11.29/ 100,000 in women in 1998. In 1998, deaths attributed to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.3% of total mortality, representing a reduction of 26% since 1983. Among men, the primary cause of alcohol-attributable mortality was liver cirrhosis (17.1%, although its relative importance decreased (accounting for 17.1% of alcohol-attributable mortality in 1998 compared with 24.3% in 1983. Conclusions: The mortality attributable to smoking and alcohol consumption decreased in the city of Barcelona during the study period. Smoking-attributable mortality from lung cancer and COPD increased in both sexes. Alcohol consumption-attributable mortality from liver cirrhosis decreased in men.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2011-10-25

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P < 0.05), and smoking was only associated with increased risks among 1298A-carriers (P < 0.01), but no significant interaction was seen. There was a synergistic interaction between the A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P < 0.05). The highest risk was seen for the CC-carriers with excessive drinking (OR = 7.24, 95% CI = 1.89 - 27.7) compared with the A-carriers without excessive drinking). The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Koichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133 and A1298C (rs1801131 polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake with CVD-related hospital discharge in people of European, South Asian, or African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S l; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2013-02-01

    It is unclear whether the beneficial effects of certain lifestyle factors are equally strong in ethnic minority populations in Europe. This study explores whether this association of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hospital discharge differs among South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, or Dutch descent living in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort. We obtained baseline data from 370 South Asian, 689 African, and 567 Dutch participants (aged 35-60 years) of the SUNSET study (2001-2003). Follow up ended in December 2007. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the associations of lifestyle factors with CVD-related hospital discharge. In the overall study population, low amount of physical activity (hazard ratio, HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.23-2.86), current smoking (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.22), and nondrinking (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.23) were associated with CVD-related hospital admission. There was no statistically significant effect of ethnicity on these associations. For instance, the adjusted HR for CVD-related hospital discharge regarding a low amount of physical activity was 2.77 (95% CI 1.31-5.87) for Africans, 1.53 (95% CI 0.76-3.05) for South Asians, and 1.55 (95% CI 0.73-3.30) for the Dutch. The p-value for ethnicity by lifestyle interaction was 0.41. We did not find a different association across ethnic groups of South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, or Dutch descent between physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake and 5-year hazard of a CVD-related hospital discharge. We recommend confirmation in multiethnic studies in other contexts.

  14. CYP2E1 rs2031920, COMT rs4680 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Use and Lung Cancer Risk in a Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakino, Kenichi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes may contribute to susceptibility to lung cancer because of their critical involvement in mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We evaluated the role of CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 in a case-control study involving 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in Japanese. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multiplicative and additive interactions with cigarette smoking or alcohol use were also examined. Neither CYP2E1 rs2031920 nor COMT rs4680 was associated with lung cancer risk overall. However, smokers with the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.26-5.63) presented a higher risk of lung cancer than those with at least one T allele (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.70-4.98) as compared to never-smokers with at least one T allele (reference). Subjects with excessive drinking and the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 had a significantly higher risk (OR=2.22, 95% CI =1.39-3.56) than appropriate drinkers with at least one T allele. A similar tendency was observed between COMT rs4680 and either smoking or drinking habits. There were no multiplicative or additive interactions between the polymorphisms and either smoking or alcohol use. Our findings indicate that CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 are not major contributors to lung cancer risk in our Japanese population. Future studies on the genetics of lung cancer in Japanese and their environment interactions are required.

  15. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  17. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P’s ≤ .001. Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P’s < .05. In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P’s < .0. Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P’s = .04, consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P’s < .05. Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth.

  19. Associations between behavioural risk factors and smoking, heavy smoking and future smoking among an Australian population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Jaimi M; Clare, Philip J; Courtney, Ryan J; Martire, Kristy A; Bonevski, Billie; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco smoking co-occurs with behavioural risk factors including diet, alcohol use and obesity. However, the association between behavioural risk factors and heavy smoking (>20cig/day) compared to light-moderate smoking is unknown. The link between behavioural risk factors and future smoking for both ex and current smokers is also unknown. This study sought to examine these relationships. It is hypothesised that behavioural risk factors will be more strongly associated with heavy smoking. Data from Wave 7 (2007) of the Household and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was analysed using logistic regression to determine relationships between diet (fruit and vegetable consumption, and unhealthy diet choices), alcohol consumption, obesity and physical activity with light-moderate smoking and heavy smoking. The association between these risk factors and future smoking (2008) was assessed for current and ex-smokers (2007). Obese respondents were less likely to be light/moderate smokers (RRR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66) but not heavy smokers. Those who consume confectionary weekly were less likely to be light/moderate smokers (RRR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.87), but not heavy smokers. Smokers in 2007 were more likely to continue smoking in 2008 if they consumed 1-4 drinks per occasion (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.62). Ex-smokers in 2007 were less likely to relapse in 2008 if they consumed recommended levels of both fruit and vegetables (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.10, 0.91). The relationships between heavy smoking and behavioural risk factors differ from moderate-light smoking. Future primary care interventions would benefit from targeting multiple risk factors, particularly for heavy smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified cement mortar with silica fume used as matrix including radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakroury, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discussed the mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol - modified cement mortar with silica fume to assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste. The modified cement mortars containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the presence of 10 % silica fume (SF) .The chemical reaction between polymer and cement - hydrated product were investigated by the Infrared Spectral Technology, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction. The leaching of 137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied .The results shown that PVA increases the strength and decreases the porosity. The increase in strength duo to the interaction of PVA with cement , may be forming some new compound that fill the pores or improve the bond between the cement . The pozzolanic reaction of the SF increases the calcium silicate hydrates in the hardening matrix composites. There is distinct change in the refinement of the pore structure in cement composites giving fewer capillary pores and more of the finer gel pores

  1. Education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 gene polymorphisms in the survival of head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.M. López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and interleukin-2 (IL-2 +114 and -384 and -6 (IL-6 -174 DNA polymorphisms with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC was investigated in a cohort study of 445 subjects. IL-2 and IL-6 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI of disease-specific survival according to anatomical sites of the head and neck. Mean age was 56 years and most patients were males (87.6%. Subjects with 5 or more years of schooling had better survival in larynx cancer. Smoking had no effect on HNSCC survival, but alcohol consumption had a statistically significant effect on larynx cancer. IL-2 gene +114 G/T (HR = 0.52; 95%CI = 0.15-1.81 and T/T (HR = 0.22; 95%CI = 0.02-3.19 genotypes were associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer. IL-2 +114 G/T was a predictor of poor survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer and larynx cancer (HR = 1.32; 95%CI = 0.61-2.85. IL-2 -384 G/T was associated with better survival in oral cavity/oropharynx cancer (HR = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.45-1.42 and hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.21-2.20, but an inverse relationship was observed for larynx cancer. IL-6 -174 G/C was associated with better survival in hypopharynx cancer (HR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.26-1.78 and larynx cancer (HR = 0.93; 95%CI = 0.42-2.07, and C/C reduced mortality in larynx cancer. In general, our results are similar to previous reports on the value of education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and IL-2 and IL-6 genetic polymorphisms for the prognosis of HNSCC, but the risks due to these variables are small and estimates imprecise.

  2. Impact of alcohol habits and smoking on the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Reims, Henrik M; Gjesdal, Knut

    2012-01-01

    /week predicted new-onset AF (p = 0.010) independently of most other univariate predictors, except when also baseline serum cholesterol, serum potassium and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were included in the model (HR = 1.60 [95% CI 0.94-2.72], p = 0.081). Impact of smoking was not significant in Cox...

  3. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Audrey H H; Boer, Jolanda M A; Schouten, Leo J; Feskens, Edith J M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Gorgels, Anton P M; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2011-03-24

    Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP), while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI). The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking. Furthermore, the effects of the lifestyle factors on the risk of

  4. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Anton PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking

  5. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the 'Smoking Risk Assessment Target'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-07-07

    Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18-45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ(2) tests ('to be cool', alcohol and cannabis). Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers. The SRAT may help tailor approaches to Indigenous smoking

  6. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  7. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Smoking and drinking among college students: "it's a package deal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Carkoglu, Asli; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on qualitative research on smoking in contexts associated with drinking among college students. Although a plethora of survey research has shown a positive association between smoking and alcohol use, little attention has been given to the utility functions of these co-occurring behaviors. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews with college freshmen at a large Mid-western university in the U.S. (n=35). In addition, eleven focus groups with fraternity and sorority members were conducted (n=70). Interviews and focus groups focused on a range of issues including current smoking behavior, reasons for smoking, and smoking and drinking. A review of qualitative responses reveals that smoking served multiple utility functions for this population including (1) facilitating social interaction across gender, (2) allowing one to structure time and space at a party, (3) enabling "party" smokers to smoke with fewer negative side effects, and (4) helping to calm one down when drunk. Whereas smoking was stigmatized during the context of one's everyday life as a student, at parties while consuming alcohol, smoking was viewed as normative and socially acceptable. Preventive interventions are needed on college campus that target co-substance use and address widespread misperceptions about the harm of tobacco use and addiction. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Kinnunen, Taru; Quiles, Zandra; Leeman, Robert F; Terwal, Donna Medaglia; Garvey, Arthur J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk beh...

  10. Correlates of smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Agrawal (Arpana); C. Sartor (Chiara); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); A.C. Huizink (Anja); M.T. Lynskey (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPersistent cigarette smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correlates of difficulty quitting smoking include psychopathology, such as major depressive disorder, and problems with other substances, such as alcoholism. In addition, socio-demographic risk (e.g.

  11. Correlates of smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.; Sartor, C.E.; Pergadia, M.L.; Huizink, A.C.; Lynskey, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent cigarette smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correlates of difficulty quitting smoking include psychopathology, such as major depressive disorder, and problems with other substances, such as alcoholism. In addition, socio-demographic risk (e.g. poverty) and

  12. The Association Between Mental Health and Cigarette Smoking in Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    to cigarette smoking than to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, homicide, suicide, motor vehicle accidents, substance abuse (including...associates other actions with smoking, such as drinking coffee or drinking alcohol. These associated habits subsequently can make quitting more difficult...gambling behaviors, exercise, nutrition , dietary supplement use, risk taking, impulsive behavior, job satisfaction, deployment, and religiosity

  13. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Graves; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA meta-analysis, involving the secondary analysis of original data from 11 case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease, is presented for alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Five studies included in the meta-analysis of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption was computed in terms

  15. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  16. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile

  17. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  18. Trends in tobacco smoking among adolescents in Lyon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasco, A J; Merrill, R M; Benhaïm-Luzon, V; Gérard, J P; Freyer, G

    2003-03-01

    To provide information that may promote more effective cancer prevention, we identified factors associated with regular smoking among adolescents in Lyon, France. School grades where these factors began to influence regular smoking were also identified. Seven consecutive cross-sectional anonymous surveys were conducted in three public schools, beginning in grade 6ème (average age 11.5 years) in 1993 and ending in grade Terminale (average age 17.4 years) in 1999. All classes in each respective grade were surveyed, with 3650 completed questionnaires for all years combined. Prevalence of current regular smoking is presented according to school grade for 17 variables identified as significantly related to regular smoking in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Important factors associated with regular smoking were identified as early as grade 6ème and included not viewing the taking care of one's health as important, not eating breakfast regularly, associating with groups where smoking occurs, having a best friend who smokes, and having a brother and/or sister who smokes. Not regularly reading was first associated with an increased risk of regular smoking in grade 5ème. Not living with both parents, alcohol drinking, episodes of drunkenness, illicit drug use, and sexual relationships were positively associated with regular smoking in the middle and later grades, when these questions were first asked. Not playing sports and not playing with computers were initially associated with an increased risk of regular smoking in grade 3ème.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors associated with smoking cessation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa. Most reports on the factors that relate to smoking cessation are based on data from developed countries. Since smoking and alcohol abuse are associated with social ...

  20. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  1. Determinants of alcohol usage among youth in Kotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijepčević Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A significant number of alcohol users is being recorded among young people while the limit when young people resorting to alcohol is approaching younger age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the general prevalence and structure of young consumers, as well as risk factors for alcohol use among adolescents. Method: The study included 200 respondents. The sample is defined out of classes of all secondary schools at the territory, where one class per school out all four high school grades entered the sample by random choice. The survey instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and response rate of the classes was 100%. Results: The survey showed that almost half of high school Kotor confirmed to have consumed alcohol. Among children who consume alcohol, almost one half indicated that their parents also use alcoholic beverages and the data show a statistically significant association between alcohol use among parents and their children. Respondents, who do not consume alcoholic beverages, consider the presence of smoking among their friends more often. Students who do not consume alcohol, more frequently point to the harmful effects of using these substances on health and a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of students who do not consume alcohol and those who do was demonstrated in relation to the harmful effects of alcohol on health. Conclusions: Alcohol use is widespread among young people and at the same time there is a significant association between alcohol consumption in parents and their children. The use of alcohol among young people in correlation with the use of tobacco, and the young who consume alcohol are more often found in the company of peers who smoke, compared to their friends who do not use alcohol. Children who do not use alcohol more frequently emphasize the harmful effects of its using on health.

  2. Determinants of alcohol usage among youth in Kotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijepcevic Aleksandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A significant number of alcohol users is being recorded among young people while the limit when young people resorting to alcohol is approaching younger age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the general prevalence and structure of young consumers, as well as risk factors for alcohol use among adolescents. METHOD: The study included 200 respondents. The sample is defined out of classes of all secondary schools at the territory, where one class per school out all four high school grades entered the sample by random choice. The survey instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and response rate of the classes was 100%. RESULTS: The survey showed that almost half of high school Kotor confirmed to have consumed alcohol. Among children who consume alcohol, almost one half indicated that their parents also use alcoholic beverages and the data show a statistically significant association between alcohol use among parents and their children. Respondents, who do not consume alcoholic beverages, consider the presence of smoking among their friends more often. Students who do not consume alcohol, more frequently point to the harmful effects of using these substances on health and a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of students who do not consume alcohol and those who do was demonstrated in relation to the harmful effects of alcohol on health. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is widespread among young people and at the same time there is a significant association between alcohol consumption in parents and their children. The use of alcohol among young people in correlation with the use of tobacco, and the young who consume alcohol are more often found in the company of peers who smoke, compared to their friends who do not use alcohol. Children who do not use alcohol more frequently emphasize the harmful effects of its using on health

  3. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  4. Associação tabagismo-alcoolismo: introdução às grandes dependências humanas Association between smoking and alcoholism: initiation into the major human dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A . Chaieb

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a existência da associação tabagismo-alcoolismo em amostra da população geral e comparar uma amostra alcoolista com outra abstêmia, pareadas pela idade e sexo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Na Unidade Sanitária Murialdo de Porto Alegre, RS numa área delimitada, com uma população estimada de 65.000 habitantes, foi feito estudo por corte transversal em que se definiu uma amostra representativa de indivíduos com 35 anos e mais. Através da Escala CAGE, identificou-se a população alcoolista que foi comparada a uma amostra aleatória de não-alcoolistas, pareada à alcoolista pela idade e sexo. Dentre 1.387 adultos com 35 anos ou mais, identificaram-se 129 indivíduos alcoolistas. Da listagem geral, selecionou-se aleatoriamente, uma amostra-controle de 129 indivíduos não-alcoolistas, criando-se, assim, dois grupos comparativos. Foram obtidos dados comparativos através de 19 itens de um questionário. As informações de caráter genérico eram pessoais ou familiares, como renda e hábito tabágico. O grau de escolaridade, ocupação, doenças e sintomas respiratórios, medida do fluxo expiratório (Pico do Fluxo e história de alcoolismo eram exclusivas dos indivíduos com 35 anos ou mais que responderam ao questionário. RESULTADOS: Dos 129 indivíduos (9,3% alcoolistas, 109 (84,4% eram do sexo masculino e 20 (25,6% do feminino. Entre alcoolistas, é maior a prevalência de fumantes (67% se comparada com a prevalência entre os não-alcoolistas (43% (pOBJECTIVE: To establish the existence of an association between smoking and alcoholism in a general population sample and to compare two samples of alcoholics and non alcoholics matched by age and sex. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Health Teaching Unit Murialdo - State Health Department - RS - Brazil in a limited area of 65,000 predicted population a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which adults of 35 y.o. or more were sampled. Of this sample, the alcoholics were selected by

  5. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  6. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking...... alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Educational inequalities in general and mental health: differential contribution of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtze, Nanna; Eikemo, Terje A; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2013-04-01

    Behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors may explain educational inequalities in general health. To what extent these risk factors have similar or different contributions to educational inequalities in mental health is unknown. Data were derived from the Norwegian Survey of Level of Living from 2005, comprising 5791 respondents aged ≥ 25 years. The study objectives were addressed by means of a series of logistic regression analyses in which we examined: (i) educational inequalities in self-reported general and mental health; (ii) the associations between behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors and general and mental health, controlled for sex, age and education; and (iii) the contribution of risk factors to the observed health gradients. The lower educated were more likely to be in poor health [odds ratio (OR): 3.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.84-4.21)] and to be in poor mental health [OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12-1.78)] than the highest educated. The joint contribution of behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors explained all the variations of mental health inequalities, whereas these were able to explain ~40% of the inequalities in general health. Both behavioural and material risk factors contributed substantially to the explanation of general and mental health inequalities, whereas the psychosocial risk factor (i.e. having close persons to communicate with) only seemed to make a larger difference for the explanation of mental health inequalities. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities should have a broad focus. Combined strategies should be applied to improve physical activity, decrease smoking and improve material and psychosocial conditions among lower educated groups, to achieve the true potential of reducing inequalities in both general and mental health.

  8. Association of tobacco habits, including bidi smoking, with overall and site-specific cancer incidence: results from the Mumbai cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Yeole, Balkrishna B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bidis are hand-rolled cigarettes commonly smoked in South Asia and are marketed to Western populations as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. This study examined the association between bidis and other forms of tobacco use and cancer incidence in an urban developing country population. Methods Using data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai cohort study, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from Cox proportional hazards regression models in order to compare the relative effect of various forms of tobacco use on cancer incidence. Results During 649,228 person-years of follow-up 1,267 incident cancers occurred in 87,222 male cohort members. Incident oral cancer in bidi smokers (HR = 3.55; 95% CI = 2.40,5.24) was 42% higher than in cigarette smokers (HR = 2.50;95% CI = 1.65,3.78). For all respiratory and intrathoracic organs combined, the increase was 69% (HR = 5.54; 95% CI = 3.46,8.87 vs. HR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.99,5.39); for lung and larynx, the increases were 35 and 112%, respectively. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive, respiratory, and intrathoracic organs. Conclusions Despite marketing claims to the contrary, we found that smokeless tobacco use and bidi smoking are at least as harmful as cigarette smoking for all incident cancers and are associated with increased risk of oral and respiratory/intrathoracic cancers. PMID:21431915

  9. Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Widome, Rachel; Perry, Cheryl L.; Forster, Jean L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify distinct smoking trajectories during adolescence and assess how smoking-related factors relate to trajectory membership. Methods The sample includes 3637 youth from across the state of Minnesota. Measures include tobacco use, smoking behaviors of parents and friends, youth smoking-related attitudes and beliefs, and home smoking policies. A cohort-sequential design was used to identify smoking trajectories, including five cohorts of youth (ages 12–16) followed for 3 years. Results Six distinct trajectories of tobacco use were found: nonsmokers (54%), triers (17%), occasional users (10%), early established (7%), late established (8%), and decliners (4%). Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of being in a smoking trajectory group (vs. the nonsmoking group): parental smoking, friend smoking, greater perceptions of the number of adults and teenagers who smoke, and higher functional meaning of tobacco use. In contrast, higher perceived difficulty smoking in public places, negative perceptions of the tobacco industry, and home smoking policies were associated with less likelihood of being in one of the smoking trajectories (vs. the nonsmoking trajectory). Conclusions Adolescents exhibit diverse patterns of smoking during adolescence and tobacco-related influences were strong predictors of trajectory membership. PMID:18809130

  10. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, distress, and smoking among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, Huiguo; Johnson, Renee M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage may increase smoking by increasing distress, while neighborhood affluence may reduce smoking by increasing positive affect. We examined whether relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and daily smoking operated through distress and positive affect. Simultaneous multivariate path models used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (15,963 respondents; weighted N = 10,753) and the 2000 Decennial Census. Multiple groups analysis assessed differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Covariates included neighborhood immigrant concentration and individual-level demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage significantly increased smoking and neighborhood affluence significantly decreased smoking, with no indirect paths through either distress or positive affect. Unique among Hispanics, affluence resulted in decreased smoking indirectly through reduced distress. Relationships between affect and smoking also varied by race/ethnicity, with no significant differences by gender. Interventions targeting neighborhood socioeconomic status and distress may help reduce smoking, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities.

  12. [Smoking and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2007-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.

  13. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  14. Study protocol of a pragmatic, randomised controlled pilot trial: clinical effectiveness on smoking cessation of traditional and complementary medicine interventions, including acupuncture and aromatherapy, in combination with nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Cho, Chung-Sik; Go, Ho-Yeon; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-06-02

    Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial. This trial will evaluate whether adding T&CM methods (ie, ear and body acupuncture, aromatherapy) to conventional cessation methods (ie, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), counselling) increases smoking cessation rates. Forty participants over 19 years old who are capable of communicating in Korean will be recruited. They will be current smokers who meet one of the following criteria: (1) smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day, (2) smoke less than 10 cigarettes a day and previously failed to cease smoking, or (3) smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes a day and have a nicotine dependence score (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) of 4 points or more. The trial will consist of 4 weeks of treatment and a 20 week follow-up period. A statistician will perform the statistical analyses for both the intention-to-treat (all randomly assigned participants) and per-protocol (participants who completed the trial without any protocol deviations) data using SAS 9.1.3. This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (IRB reference no: DJDSKH-15-BM-11-1, Protocol No. version 4.1.).The protocol will be reapproved by IRB if it requires amendment. The trial will be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, 7th version (2013). This study is designed to minimise the risk to participants, and the investigators will explain the study to the

  15. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms of glucose metabolizing genes and smoking and alcohol consumption in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiping; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Jinjin; Liu, Zichen; Li, Jianna; Li, Linlin; Wang, Bingyuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Yaxi; Cao, Yunkai; Ohno, Kinji; Zhai, Rihong; Liang, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    The impact of gene-environment interaction on diabetes remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate if interaction between glucose metabolizing genes and lifestyle factors is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interactions between genotypes of 4 glucose metabolizing genes (MTNR1B, KCNQ1, KLF14, and GCKR) and lifestyle factors were estimated in 722 T2DM patients and 759 controls, using multiple logistic regression. No significant associations with T2DM were detected for the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MTNR1B, KLF14 and GCKR. However, rs151290 (KCNQ1) polymorphisms were found to be associated with risk of T2DM. Compared with AA, the odds ratios (ORs) of AC or CC genotypes for developing T2DM were 1.545 (P = 0.0489) and 1.603 (P = 0.0383), respectively. In stratified analyses, the associations were stronger in smokers with CC than smokers with AA (OR = 3.668, P = 0.013); drinkers with AC (OR = 5.518, P = 0.036), CC (OR = 8.691, P = 0.0095), and AC+CC (OR = 6.764, P = 0.016) than drinkers with AA. Compared with nondrinkers with AA, drinkers who carry AC and CC had 12.072-fold (P = 0.0007) and 8.147-fold (P = 0.0052) higher risk of developing T2DM. In conclusions, rs151290 (KCNQ1) polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of T2DM, alone and especially in interaction with smoking and alcohol.

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  17. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson's Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S; Rose, Tanith C; Hughes, Clarissa J; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    The association between Parkinson's disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Relevant literature from 2000-2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias.

  19. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  20. Smoking and risk of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie Kamstrup; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most acknowledged risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause of liver cirrhosis even though a few studies have suggested the opposite. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of smoking on alcoholic liver cirrhosis and liver...

  1. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: A European population-based multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (> 1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had...... better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high......A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure...

  2. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  4. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  5. The relationship of early-onset regular smoking to alcohol use, depression, illicit drug use, and other risky behaviors during early adolescence: results from the youth supplement to the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, E Z; Yi, H Y; Dufour, M C; Whitmore, C C

    2001-01-01

    Recently we found that the early onset of regular tobacco use is as predictive of lifetime drug use and depressive disorders as it is of alcohol use disorders [Alcohol.: Clin. Exp. Res. 23 (1999) 513.]. This finding, which paralleled findings regarding early onset of alcohol use [J. Subst. Abuse 10 (1998) 59.], suggested that early regular use of any drug might simply be an indicator of risk for a constellation of problem behaviors. The purpose of the present study is to test this hypothesis as well as to study the strength and patterns of associations among these problem behaviors already present among youth. The results will permit description of more precise profiles to identify groups of children at risk. Using data for respondents aged 12-16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression models were estimated. Descriptive analyses indicated that in comparison with those who never smoked, or who simply experimented, early-onset regular smokers, both those who began at age 13 or younger and those who did so between 14 and 16, were those most likely to use alcohol and other drugs as well as have school problems and early sexual experiences culminating in pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations among these high-risk behaviors. These results support the hypothesis that early onset of smoking is but an indicator of a syndrome of problem behaviors already in place during childhood. They also suggest that the significance of an age onset variable may differ depending on the age of the sample used. As follow-up data are collected, we expect to learn much about the natural course of the distinct risk groups identified in the analyses by studying longitudinally this nationally representative group of early adolescents.

  6. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  7. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  8. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villiers-Tuthill, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour patterns in older groups, including tobacco and alcohol use, are key factors in chronic disease prevention. We explore ageing self-perceptions as motivating factors behind smoking and drinking alcohol in older adults, and the complex reasons why individuals engage harmfully in these behaviours.

  9. Smoking is rank! But, not as rank as other drugs and bullying say New Zealand parents of pre-adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Min, Sandar; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Despite the established risks associated with smoking, 21% of New Zealand adults smoke. Prevalence among Māori (indigenous) and Pacific Island New Zealanders is disproportionately high. Prevention of smoking initiation is a key component of tobacco control. Keeping Kids Smokefree--a quasi-experimental trial--aimed to do this by changing parental smoking behaviour and attitudes. However, little is known about parents' attitudes to smoking in comparison with other concerns. Parents of 4,144 children attending five urban schools in a high smoking prevalence population in Auckland, New Zealand, were asked to rank seven concerns on a paper-based questionnaire, including smoking, alcohol and bullying, from most to least serious. Methamphetamine and other illicit 'hard' drugs were ranked as most serious followed by marijuana smoking, alcohol drinking, bullying, cigarette smoking, sex and obesity. Never smokers ranked cigarette smoking as more serious than current or ex-smokers. Parents' under-estimation of the serious nature of tobacco smoking relative to other drugs could partly explain low participation rates in parent-focused smoking initiation prevention programs.

  10. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A total of 1096 students were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.4±2.2 years. The regular smoking prevalence rate was 25.5%, occasional smoking rate was 9.5%, alcohol consumption rate was 28.0%, and drug abuse rate was 5.0%. The mean age for attempting to smoke was 16.6±2.2 years. The leading causes of smoking were curiosity, spiritual space, affection, and to comply with friends. According to the Fagerström questionnaire, the level of nicotine dependence was low in 53.0% of the participants, moderate in 8.7%, and high in 28.4%. The average smoking prevalence rate was 23.6% in first-grade students, whereas it was 44.8% in last-grade students. The factors that influence smoking were as follows: being in the last grade, mother, siblings, and friends who smoke, higher allowance, use of alcohol and drugs. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among males. Conclusion: Last-grade students had a higher smoking prevalence rate than the first-grade students. Family, social environment, and smoking behavior of friends have an influence on smoking. All risk factors, including past history and university period, should be considered together in tobacco control.

  11. Prenatal Coke: What's Behind the Smoke?: Prenatal Cocaine/Alcohol Exposure and School-Age Outcomes: The SCHOO-BE Experiencea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Covington, Chandice; Templin, Tom; Ager, Joel; Martier, Sue; Compton, Scott; Sokol, Robert

    1998-06-01

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgment of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected Perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be composed

  12. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  13. Associations between nicotine dependence, anhedonia, urgency and smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roys, Melanie; Weed, Keri; Carrigan, Maureen; MacKillop, James

    2016-11-01

    Models of nicotine dependence have suggested that the association between urgency, a subconstruct of impulsivity, and smoking behaviors may be mediated by motivations. Motives that are driven by expectations that smoking will relieve negative affect or increase positive affect may be especially salient in persons who have depression symptoms such as anhedonia. Support for associations between symptoms of depression, urgency, and addiction has been found for alcohol dependence, but empirical analysis is lacking for an interactive effect of urgency and depression symptoms on nicotine dependence. The current study investigated relationships among the urgency facet of impulsivity, anhedonia, smoking motives, and nicotine dependence with secondary analyses of a sample of 1084 daily smokers using simultaneous moderation and multiple mediation analyses. The moderation analysis revealed that although urgency was significantly associated with smoking at average or higher levels of anhedonia, it was unrelated to smoking when few anhedonia symptoms were endorsed. Further, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the smoking motives of craving, cue exposure, positive reinforcement, and tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between urgency and nicotine dependence. Results suggest that models of alcohol addiction that include an interactive effect of urgency and certain symptoms of depression may be applied to nicotine dependence. Examination of the multiple mediational pathways between urgency and nicotine dependence suggests directions for intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanistic characterization of aerobic alcohol oxidation catalyzed by Pd(OAc)(2)/pyridine including identification of the catalyst resting state and the origin of nonlinear [catalyst] dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Bradley A; Guzei, Ilia A; Stahl, Shannon S

    2004-09-15

    The Pd(OAc)(2)/pyridine catalyst system is one of the most convenient and versatile catalyst systems for selective aerobic oxidation of organic substrates. This report describes the catalytic mechanism of Pd(OAc)(2)/pyridine-mediated oxidation of benzyl alcohol, which has been studied by gas-uptake kinetic methods and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal that turnover-limiting substrate oxidation by palladium(II) proceeds by a four-step pathway involving (1) formation of an adduct between the alcohol substrate and the square-planar palladium(II) complex, (2) proton-coupled ligand substitution to generate a palladium-alkoxide species, (3) reversible dissociation of pyridine from palladium(II) to create a three-coordinate intermediate, and (4) irreversible beta-hydride elimination to produce benzaldehyde. The catalyst resting state, characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, consists of an equilibrium mixture of (py)(2)Pd(OAc)(2), 1, and the alcohol adduct of this complex, 1xRCH(2)OH. These in situ spectroscopic data provide direct support for the mechanism proposed from kinetic studies. The catalyst displays higher turnover frequency at lower catalyst loading, as revealed by a nonlinear dependence of the rate on [catalyst]. This phenomenon arises from a competition between forward and reverse reaction steps that exhibit unimolecular and bimolecular dependences on [catalyst]. Finally, overoxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzoic acid, even at low levels, contributes to catalyst deactivation by formation of a less active palladium benzoate complex.

  15. Bias in estimating the cross-sectional smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes associations with moderate-severe periodontitis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study: comparison of full versus partial-mouth estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Saraiya, Veeral M; Preisser, John S; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether partial-mouth protocols (PRPs) result in biased estimates of the associations between smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis. Using a sample (n = 6129) of the 1996-1998 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we used measures of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level to identify moderate-severe periodontitis. Adjusting for confounders, unconditional binary logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence limits. Specifically, we compared POR for smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis derived from full-mouth to those derived from 4-PRPs (Ramfjörd, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey-III, modified-NHANES-IV and 42-site-Random-site selection-method). Finally, we conducted a simple sensitivity analysis of periodontitis misclassification by changing the case definition threshold for each PRP. In comparison to full-mouth PORs, PRP PORs were biased in terms of magnitude and direction. Holding the full-mouth case definition at moderate-severe periodontitis and setting it at mild-moderate-severe for the PRPs did not consistently produce POR estimates that were either biased towards or away from the null in comparison to full-mouth estimates. Partial-mouth protocols result in misclassification of periodontitis and may bias epidemiologic measures of association. The magnitude and direction of this bias depends on choice of PRP and case definition threshold used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interactions of smoking with rs833061 polymorphism on the risk of non-alcoholic fat liver disease in Hubei Han population: a preliminary case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Wu

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that both rs833061 and rs3025039 are associated with NAFLD risk. Furthermore, rs833061 is likely to have an interaction with smoking, and they have synergistic effects on risk of NAFLD in Hubei Han population.

  17. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups were asked to complete a self‑rating questionnaire containing information, which included questions about age, sex, monthly income, education level, marital status, height, weight, alcohol drinking and smoking habits. Student's t‑test, Pearson's Chi-square and logistic regression were used to statistical analysis ...

  18. Using ecological momentary assessment to identify common smoking situations among Korean American emerging adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N=78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n=2,614) and non-smoking prompts (n=2,136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one’s average stress level (all p’s smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50%) and most often studying/working (28%). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38%) and socializing (54%). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39%) and studying/working (25%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  19. Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2014-01-03

    Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men. A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels was conducted. High levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol were defined as serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl or ≥190 mg/dl. For men with Mt5178A, cigarette smoking may increase serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.004). On the other hand, for men with Mt5178C, after adjusting for age and body mass index, alcohol consumption may decrease serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend = 0.043) and the risk of high levels of non-HDL cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.005). These gene-environment interactions on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels may contribute to the establishment of individualized prevention of the risk of high levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol.

  20. Accuracy of the Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ACASI ASSIST) for identifying unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pritika C; Cleland, Charles M; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rotrosen, John; Strauss, Shiela; Russell, Linnea; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    An Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) could reduce barriers to substance use screening and assessment in primary care settings. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ACASI ASSIST for identification of unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). 399 adult patients were consecutively recruited from an urban safety-net primary care clinic. ACASI ASSIST scores for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine were compared against reference standard measures to assess the instrument's diagnostic accuracy for identifying unhealthy use and SUD, first using empirically-derived optimal cutoffs, and second using the currently recommended ASSIST cutoffs. For identifying any unhealthy use, at the empirically-derived cutoffs the ACASI ASSIST had 93.6% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity (AUC=0.90) for tobacco, 85.9% sensitivity and 60.3% specificity (AUC=0.73), for alcohol in men, 100% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (AUC=0.81) for alcohol in women, 94.6% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity (AUC=0.88) for marijuana, and 86.1% sensitivity, 84.0% specificity (AUC=0.85) for cocaine. For SUD, sensitivity ranged from 79% (for alcohol in males), to 100% (for tobacco), and specificity was 83% or higher (AUCs ranged 0.83-0.91). For substances other than tobacco, empirically-derived cutoff scores were lower than the standard cutoffs, and resulted in higher sensitivity and lower specificity for identifying unhealthy substance use. The ACASI ASSIST is a valid measure of unhealthy use and SUD for substances that are commonly used by primary care patients, and could facilitate effective and efficient screening for substance use in medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking Cessation and Improvement in Physical Performance Among Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    trainees and can also be linked to other military databases including administrative training records. The confidential survey instrument includes...miles was replaced with a timed 3.0-mile run. Run-time data were part of administrative training records, linked to RAP survey data for this... Nicotine Tob Res 2011; 13(10): 965-71. 26. Marti B, Abelin T. Minder CE, Vader JP: Smoking, alcohol consump­ tion, and endurance capacity: an analysis of

  2. Smoking and health-related quality of life in the general population. Independent relationships and large differences according to patterns and quantity of smoking and to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Joël; Quinquis, Laurent; D'Almeida, Samuel; Audureau, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population remain unclear. To quantify the independent associations between smoking patterns and HRQoL and to identify any threshold or non-linear tendencies in these associations. A national representative, cross-sectional household survey of the French general non institutionalized population included 7525 men and 8486 women, aged 25-64 year in 2003. Scores on the eight subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form were the primary outcomes. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between HRQoL and smoking history, quantity of smoking and smoking cessation while controlling for various socio-economic variables, depression, alcohol dependence and pathological conditions. Analyses were conducted in 2013. Independent associations between smoking and HRQoL were found, including small positive associations for occasional or light smoking (up to 5 cigarettes per day), and larger and diffuse negative associations above this threshold. Much weaker associations and higher thresholds for negative HRQoL were found for women than for men. For ex-smokers of both genders, HRQoL was found to be better between 2 and 5 years after quitting. Smoking was independently related to HRQoL, with large differences according to the pattern and quantity of smoking, and to gender. These results may have considerable relevance both for public health action and care of smokers.

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  4. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  5. [Smoking in school: Cocody, Abidjan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, B A; Horo, K; Nigue, L; Kassi, O; Ahui, B J M; Koffi, N; Ngom, A; Aka-Danguy, E

    2007-02-01

    A cross-sectional study on smoking in school was conducted in public, private, and international secondary schools in Cocody, Abidjan, between March 18 and May 4, 2003. Data were collected with an anonymous individual questionnaire from 1000 pupils. Pupils smoked for the first time at an early age, 13.9 years on average. The prevalence of smoking was 15.9%, with a strong proportion of girls who smoked (10.6%). Smoking was particularly prevalent in private and international schools. Many pupils (37.7%) stated their teachers also smoked in the school and in their presence. Only 13.8% of parents knew their children smoked. Favoring factors observed were the influence of smoking parents (26.5%), influence of smoking peers (67.6%). Two motivations were predominant: curiosity and imitation. Most pupils bought their cigarettes with their pocket money (62.7%). Most smokers smoked in night clubs and bars (74.3%) and drank alcohol (69%). Less than two-thirds of the pupils were knowledgeable about the consequences of smoking: basically they knew about lung diseases (62.9%), and particularly lung cancer (63% of lung diseases). The majority of the pupils were aware of the nicotine content of cigarettes (52.8%).

  6. Lung morphology and growth of rats exposed to tobacco smoke and alcohol Estudo morfológico dos pulmões e crescimento de ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro e ao álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Luciana Magnani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigate the morphological effects of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke inhalation and alcohol consumption on the lungs and on the growth of rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco, alcohol, tobacco + alcohol, for a period of study 260 days. Morphological analysis was conducted by optical and electron microscopy. Rat growth was investigated by measuring the snout-anus length, body mass index and body weight. RESULTS: The three groups exposed to the drugs presented lower growth and lower weight than the control group. The percentages of alveolitis, bronchiolitis and the mean alveolar diameter were greater, particularly in the groups exposed to tobacco smoke, but were not significantly different from the control group. Electron microscopy revealed more intense apoptotic and degenerative lesions in the smoking group, while degenerative lesions in the lamellar bodies were more intense with the association of both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model showed morphological alterations observed by electron microscopy, principally due to tobacco smoke exposure. Alcohol and tobacco hindered the growth of rats, such that tobacco showed a greater effect on body length and alcohol on body weight.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos morfológicos da exposição crônica à inalação de fumaça do tabaco e o do consumo de álcool nos pulmões e no crescimento de ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: controle, tabaco, álcool e tabaco + álcool, e acompanhados por um período de 260 dias. No final do periodo foi realizada análise morfológica dos pulmões por microscopia óptica e eletrônica. O crescimento dos ratos foi investigado através da medição do comprimento focinho-ânus, peso corporal e índice de massa corporal. RESULTADOS: Os três grupos expostos às drogas apresentaram peso e comprimento significativamente menores que os do grupo controle

  7. Factors Predictive of Alcohol Consumption among Elderly People in a Rural Community: A Case Study in Phayao Province Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongthong, D.; Wongchaiya, P.; Somrongthong, R.; Kumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is recognized as a public health issue. Study objectives were to identify factors predictive of alcohol consumption among elderly people in Phayao province Thailand, where there was high prevalence of alcohol consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Four hundred elderly people participated in a survey. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the factors predictive of alcohol consumption among the study subjects. Results: One thirds of elderly (31.7 percent) had consumed alcohol in their lifetime, and (15.7 percent) of them were current drinkers. Following univariate analysis, seven factors included gender, working, sickness, smoking, quality of life (QOL), daily activities and economic recession were identified as being significantly associated with drinking (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed four factors to be predictive of alcohol among elderly people: gender (OR=6.02, 95 percent CI=3.58-10.13), smoking (OR=4.34, 95 percent CI=2.57-7.34), economic recession (OR=2.79, 95 percent, CI=1.66-4.71), and QOL (OR=1.86, 95 percent, CI=1.09-3.16). Conclusion: Gender (male) and smoking were strongly predictive factors of elderly alcohol consumption. Hence, an effort to reduce alcohol consumption should be placed on male elderly and those who smoke. (author)

  8. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  9. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  10. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  11. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Taveras, Elsie M; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resnick, Elissa A; Lee, Grace M; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A

    2005-09-01

    Good hand hygiene may reduce the spread of infections in families with children who are in out-of-home child care. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers rapidly kill viruses that are commonly associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multifactorial campaign centered on increasing alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand-hygiene education reduces illness transmission in the home. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted of homes of 292 families with children who were enrolled in out-of-home child care in 26 child care centers. Eligible families had > or =1 child who was 6 months to 5 years of age and in child care for > or =10 hours/week. Intervention families received a supply of hand sanitizer and biweekly hand-hygiene educational materials for 5 months; control families received only materials promoting good nutrition. Primary caregivers were phoned biweekly and reported respiratory and GI illnesses in family members. Respiratory and GI-illness-transmission rates (measured as secondary illnesses per susceptible person-month) were compared between groups, adjusting for demographic variables, hand-hygiene practices, and previous experience using hand sanitizers. Baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 1802 respiratory illnesses occurred during the study; 443 (25%) were secondary illnesses. A total of 252 GI illnesses occurred during the study; 28 (11%) were secondary illnesses. The secondary GI-illness rate was significantly lower in intervention families compared with control families (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.90). The overall rate of secondary respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups (IRR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.30). However, families with higher sanitizer usage had a marginally lower secondary respiratory illness rate than those with less usage (IRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65-1.09). A

  12. Development of a Conceptual Model for Smoking Cessation: Physical Activity, Neurocognition, and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Herod, Skyla M.; Walker, Jerome F.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Mahoney, Sara E.; Kane, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has shown adverse neurobiological effects of chronic alcohol use, including long-term and potentially permanent changes in the structure and function of the brain; however, much less is known about the neurobiological consequences of chronic smoking, as it has largely been ignored until recently. In this article, we…

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  14. Socioeconomic status and trends in alcohol drinking in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-92

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level...... of education, age and smoking. In total, 6,695 Danish men and women aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years were included. RESULTS: Alcohol drinking decreased in both men and women during the study period, but changes were only significant among the highest educated. In the highest educated men the prevalence...... of moderate alcohol use increased from 77 to 82%, while heavy alcohol use declined from 19 to 12%. In the highest educated women the prevalence of abstention increased from 15 to 22%, while moderate alcohol use declined from 78 to 68%. CONCLUSION: During the 1980s, alcohol drinking decreased among the highest...

  15. Mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and smoking/drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college stu...

  16. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kit S; Nelson, Nanette M; Feldman, Laura L

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) living in the United States or Canada. We extracted the following data from each study selected: the measure of initiation used, age range of initiation, age range of study population, data source, target population, sampling method, and sample size. We summarized the primary findings of each study according to 3 research questions and categories of data (eg, sociodemographic) that emerged during the data extraction process. Of 1,072 identified studies, we found 27 articles that met our search criteria, but several included a larger age range of initiation (eg, 18-30, 18-36) than we initially intended to include. Disparities in young adult smoking initiation existed according to sex, race, and educational attainment. The use of alcohol and illegal drugs was associated with smoking initiation. The risk of smoking initiation among young adults increased under the following circumstances: exposure to smoking, boredom or stress while serving in the military, attending tobacco-sponsored social events while in college, and exposure to social norms and perceptions that encourage smoking. Effective prevention efforts include exposure to counter-marketing, denormalization campaigns, taxation, and the presence of smoke-free policies. Much remains to be learned about young adult smoking initiation, particularly among young adults in the straight-to-work population. Dissimilar measures of smoking initiation limit our knowledge about smoking initiation among young adults. We recommend developing a standardized

  17. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  18. Tobacco and alcohol use in adolescents with unplanned pregnancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In adolescents with unplanned pregnancies, the prevalence of active smoking was 21.2% and of alcohol consumption, 41.5%. The percentage of smoking at home was 57.4% and alcohol consumption, 77.5%. Approximately, 80.3% of adolescents with unplanned pregnancies had friends who smoked and 90.6% ...

  19. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  20. Increased cigarette tax is associated with reductions in alcohol consumption in a longitudinal U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves 1 (2001 to 2002) and 2 (2004 to 2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among nonsmokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette taxation on alcohol consumption and

  1. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Parental smoking, closeness to parents, and youth smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007;31:261. Guide to ... cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2015;314:700. ...

  2. Handbook of smoke control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Klote, John H; Turnbull, Paul G; Kashef, Ahmed; Ferreira, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering extends the tradition of the comprehensive treatment of smoke control technology, including fundamental concepts, smoke control systems, and methods of analysis. The handbook provides information needed for the analysis of design fires, including considerations of sprinklers, shielded fires, and transient fuels. It is also extremely useful for practicing engineers, architects, code officials, researchers, and students. Following the success of Principles of Smoke Management in 2002, this new book incorporates the latest research and advances in smoke control practice. New topics in the handbook are: controls, fire and smoke control in transport tunnels, and full-scale fire testing. For those getting started with the computer models CONTAM and CFAST, there are simplified instructions with examples. This is the first smoke control book with climatic data so that users will have easy-to-use weather data specifically for smoke control design for locations in the U.S., Can...

  3. Alcoholism & depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  4. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  5. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD and alcohol dependence. 25 Such interventions include cognitive–behavioral therapies, such as exposure-based therapies, in which the ... et al. Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: Psychobiology and clinical considerations. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews ...

  6. Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and its predictivity increases when combined with functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B [rs1229984] and ADH1C [rs698]) and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 [rs671]). Whether these genetic variants can influence abuse in alcohol drinking and MCV has never been examined in drunk-driving traffic offenders. We examined 149 drunk drivers, diagnosed as alcohol abusers according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls), all Caucasian males. Alcohol intake was assessed according to self-reported drink-units/d and MCV unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multivariable models were used to compute MCV adjusted means. Genotype analyses were performed by PCR on DNA from blood. The adjusted MCV mean was higher in drunk-driving abusers than in controls (92 vs. 91fL; Pdrunk-driving abusers (P=.008), reported higher drink-units/d (P=.0126), and had larger MCV (P=.035). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with MCV. ADH1B*1/*1 polymorphism is significantly associated with being a drunk-driving abuser, higher alcohol drinking, and MCV enlargement. This suggests that drunk drivers with augmented MCV modulated by the alcohol metabolic ADH1B*1/*1 genotype may be at higher risk of driving incapability and of alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... intervals and a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. Date of death and cause of death were obtained by record linkage with nationwide registers. By means of Cox proportional hazards models, heavy smokers (>or=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their daily tobacco intake by at least 50% without quitting between...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...

  8. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  9. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  10. Risk factors influencing smoking behavior: a Turkish twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M; Maes, Hermine H; Alıev, Fazil

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were observed for the Turkish population. Genetic

  11. Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Roh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.

  12. Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungwon

    2018-01-01

    Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others'. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one's choice by free will.

  13. Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Lopes Devóglio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Results: We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8% had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3% resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1% were smokers, 5 (6.0% were former smokers, 74 (89.2% regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8% used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4% were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%. The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271 and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001, although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651 Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted.

  14. Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults in a Nigerian university. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Abstract. The study investigated whether parenting style, parental level of education and smoking peers have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults.

  15. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  16. Alcohol consumption among Oklahoma women: before and during pregnancy. The PRAMS Working Group. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, S J; Baker, K M; DePersio, S R; DeCoster, E C; Lorenz, R R

    1997-01-01

    The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) utilizes a population-based survey of Oklahoma women with a recent live birth to examine the rates of alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy. Nearly one-half of Oklahoma women report using alcohol during the three months before pregnancy and one in thirteen women consume alcohol during the three months prior to delivery. Moderate to heavy alcohol use before pregnancy was associated with additional perinatal risk factors including unintended pregnancy, inadequate prenatal care, smoking, and physical abuse. Health providers play an important role in the prevention of alcohol related birth impairments such as fetal alcohol syndrome through early detection of problem drinking, patient education and appropriate referrals. However, one in four Oklahoma mothers report their health care provider did not talk to them about the harmful effects alcohol can have on their baby.

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  18. Tabagismo e etilismo em funcionários da Universidade Estadual do Ceará Smoking and alcohol drinking practices among employees of Universidade Estadual do Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olganê Dantas Sabry

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretendeu identificar os hábitos de tabagismo e etilismo de funcionários da Universidade Estadual do Ceará, em Fortaleza. O estudo abrangeu 317 funcionários. Aplicou-se um questionário contendo dados de identificação, socioeconômicos e referentes ao tabagismo e etilismo, que foram tabulados e analisados pelo Epi-Info 6.0. O grupo entrevistado foi constituído de 157 homens e 160 mulheres, com faixa etária predominante de 30-49 anos e alta escolaridade. A renda familiar para 146 funcionários situou-se na faixa igual ou superior a 10 salários mínimos mensais. Declararam-se fumantes 83 funcionários, observando-se maior prevalência no sexo masculino (56. Em média, o consumo de cigarros foi de 12,3/dia e tal atividade era exercida havia 23,2 anos. Quanto ao etilismo, 183 indivíduos ingeriam bebida alcóolica, também encontrando-se maior prevalência nos homens. A freqüência do consumo foi principalmente em fins de semana ou raramente. A bebida mais citada foi a cerveja - 96, seguida pela aguardente de cana - 20 pessoas. O consumo médio diário de etanol foi de 29,9g. Os consumidores simultâneos de tabaco e álcool foram eminentemente do sexo masculino. A escolaridade e a renda foram maiores nas mulheres exclusivamente fumantes e a renda foi maior entre as exclusivamente etilistas. Apesar de as prevalências de tabagismo e etilismo encontradas não terem sido elevadas, ainda configuram um risco para doenças crônico-degenerativas, principalmente quanto à quantidade de etanol ingerida pelos homens, devendo haver aprofundamento do estudo em relação à associação com outras diferentes variáveis ambientais.The aim of the present study was to identify smoking and alcohol drinking practices among Universidade Estadual do Ceará employees in the city of Fortaleza. The study used 317 employees as subjects. An interview questionnaire containing personal, socioeconomic, tobacco and alcohol consumption data was

  19. Who smokes in smoke-free public places in China? Findings from a 21 city survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L.; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free...

  20. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  1. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  2. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  3. Negative affect combines with smoking outcome expectancies to predict smoking behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee M; McCarthy, Denis M; Brown, Sandra A; Myers, Mark G

    2002-06-01

    The present study examined whether the tendency to experience negative affective states combines with smoking outcome expectancies to predict smoking behavior over time. Participants were 121 young adults and resource people recruited from 3 alcohol and drug treatment programs and through community advertisements. Each participant completed 3 interviews over a 4-year period. Results indicated that dispositional negative affect and positive smoking expectancies were significantly correlated with smoking behavior both within and across time. Expectations of positive and negative reinforcement partially mediated negative affect's relation with smoking across time. Positive expectancies did not function as a moderator of negative affect's relation with smoking behavior. These results represent an important step in incorporating smoking outcome expectancies into multivariate models of smoking risk.

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 Differences in secondhand smoke exposure related to people’s jobs decreased over the past 20 years, but large differences still exist. Some groups continue to have high levels of ...

  5. The use of alcohol by Miami's adolescent public school students 1992: peers, risk-taking, and availability as central forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnold, B M

    1998-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable.

  6. The association between parental attitudes and alcohol consumption and adolescent alcohol consumption in Southern Ireland: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol plays a complex role in society. A recent study showed that over half of Irish adults drink hazardously. Adolescents report increased levels of alcohol consumption. Previous research has inferred the influence of the parent on their adolescent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the association between adolescent alcohol consumption and their parent’s consumption pattern and attitude toward alcohol use in Southern Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in November 2014. This involved distributing a survey to adolescents (n = 982 in their final two years of second level education and at least one of their parents from a local electorate area in Southern Ireland. This survey included: alcohol use, self- reported height and weight, smoking status, mental health and well-being along with attitudinal questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were utilised. Results A 37 % response rate was achieved. Over one-third (34.2 % of adolescents and 47 % of parents surveyed reported hazardous drinking. Over 90 % of parents disagreed with allowing their adolescent to get drunk and rejected the idea that getting drunk is part of having fun as an adolescent. The majority (79.5 % of parents surveyed believed that their alcohol consumption pattern set a good example for their adolescent. Multivariate logistic regression highlights the association between adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking by the father. Furthermore either parent permitting their adolescent to drink alcohol on special occasions was associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in the adolescent. Conclusion The findings of this research notes a liberal attitude to alcohol and increased levels of consumption by the parent are linked to hazardous adolescent drinking behaviour. Future action plans aimed at combatting adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption should also be aimed

  7. The association between parental attitudes and alcohol consumption and adolescent alcohol consumption in Southern Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Ian; O'Donovan, Derry; Hope, Ann; Davoren, Martin P

    2016-08-18

    Alcohol plays a complex role in society. A recent study showed that over half of Irish adults drink hazardously. Adolescents report increased levels of alcohol consumption. Previous research has inferred the influence of the parent on their adolescent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the association between adolescent alcohol consumption and their parent's consumption pattern and attitude toward alcohol use in Southern Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in November 2014. This involved distributing a survey to adolescents (n = 982) in their final two years of second level education and at least one of their parents from a local electorate area in Southern Ireland. This survey included: alcohol use, self- reported height and weight, smoking status, mental health and well-being along with attitudinal questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were utilised. A 37 % response rate was achieved. Over one-third (34.2 %) of adolescents and 47 % of parents surveyed reported hazardous drinking. Over 90 % of parents disagreed with allowing their adolescent to get drunk and rejected the idea that getting drunk is part of having fun as an adolescent. The majority (79.5 %) of parents surveyed believed that their alcohol consumption pattern set a good example for their adolescent. Multivariate logistic regression highlights the association between adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking by the father. Furthermore either parent permitting their adolescent to drink alcohol on special occasions was associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in the adolescent. The findings of this research notes a liberal attitude to alcohol and increased levels of consumption by the parent are linked to hazardous adolescent drinking behaviour. Future action plans aimed at combatting adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption should also be aimed at tackling parents' attitudes towards and consumption of alcohol.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  9. Alcohol intake during pregnancy among parturients in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess alcohol intake prevalence and identify associated factors among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. Methods: this was a crosssectional study which included all parturient women residing in the municipality who gave birth in 2013. Two outcomes were characterized: alcohol intake during pregnancy and excessive alcohol intake during pregnancy. In the analysis, proportions were tested using the Chisquare test, whilst Poisson regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Results: 9.4% (CI95%= 8.210.5 of the 2,685 parturient women studied reported having consumed alcohol during pregnancy, with beer being most common beverage. Following adjustment, the factors associated with alcohol intake in pregnancy were: age ≥30 years, brown skin colour, living without a partner, low schooling, tobacco smoking and illicit drug use, having had more children and late onset of prenatal care. Excessive alcohol intake was found in 12.7% (CI95%= 8.616.9 of those who reported drinking during pregnancy and the factors associated with this practice were age ≥30 years, lower schooling and illicit drug use. Conclusions: this study found high alcohol intake during the gestation period and identified women more susceptible to this practice. There is an evident need for health professionals to work on preventing and handling alcohol intake among pregnant women in the municipality

  10. A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pam; Skirrow, Helen; George, Abraham; Memon, Anjum

    2018-02-16

    Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations. The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies. Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.

  11. Cigarette Smoking Causes Hearing Impairment among Bangladeshi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63±2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06±11.06, 40.79±20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7±3.8, 13.27±8.4, 30.66±12.50 and 56.88±21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16±19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52±19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID:25781179

  12. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  13. Individual and combined effects of multiple high-risk triggers on postcessation smoking urge and lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Y; Businelle, Michael S; Aigner, Carrie J; McClure, Jennifer B; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect, alcohol consumption, and presence of others smoking have consistently been implicated as risk factors for smoking lapse and relapse. What is not known, however, is how these factors work together to affect smoking outcomes. This paper uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) collected during the first 7 days of a smoking cessation attempt to test the individual and combined effects of high-risk triggers on smoking urge and lapse. Participants were 300 female smokers who enrolled in a study that tested an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed EMA, which recorded negative affect, alcohol consumption, presence of others smoking, smoking urge, and smoking lapse, for 7 days starting on their quit date. Alcohol consumption, presence of others smoking, and negative affect were, independently and in combination, associated with increase in smoking urge and lapse. The results also found that the relationship between presence of others smoking and lapse and the relationship between negative affect and lapse were moderated by smoking urge. The current study found significant individual effects of alcohol consumption, presence of other smoking, and negative affect on smoking urge and lapse. Combing the triggers increased smoking urge and the risk for lapse to varying degrees, and the presence of all 3 triggers resulted in the highest urge and lapse risk.

  14. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  15. Smoking and the risk of diverticular disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, F; Wolk, A; Håkansson, N

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between smoking and the risk of diverticular disease is unclear. An observational cohort study was undertaken to investigate the association between smoking and diverticular disease. Women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort born between 1914 and 1948 were followed from 1997 to 2008. Information on smoking and other lifestyle factors was collected through questionnaires. Patients with symptomatic diverticular disease were identified from Swedish national registers. Relative risks (RRs) of symptomatic diverticular disease (resulting in hospital admission or death) according to smoking status were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 35 809 women included in the study, 561 (1·6 per cent) had symptomatic diverticular disease. In multivariable analysis, current smokers had an increased risk of symptomatic diverticular disease compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, intake of dietary fibre, diabetes, hypertension, use of acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid medication, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity and level of education (RR 1·23, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·99 to 1·52). Past smokers also had an increased risk (RR 1·26, 1·02 to 1·56). Smokers had a higher risk of developing a diverticular perforation/abscess than non-smokers (RR 1·89, 1·15 to 3·10). Smoking is associated with symptomatic diverticular disease. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  17. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... smoking, tell your health care provider. Why is smoking during pregnancy harmful? Smoking during pregnancy is bad ...

  18. Smoking history, cigarette yield and smoking behavior as determinants of smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, R B; Humble, J W; Turbek, J A; Rehm, S R

    1986-01-01

    This study examines how smoking history, cigarette yield and smoking behavior relate to smoke exposure as determined by smoke constituents and their metabolic products in peripheral blood. Recruited without regard to the nicotine yield of their cigarette, male smokers smoked their own cigarettes ad libitum, including one cigarette five minutes prior to venipuncture. Smokers had significant (p = 0.0001) elevations of serum thiocyanate, blood carboxyhemoglobin, plasma nicotine, and cotinine concentrations each of which was significantly associated with past 24-hour cigarette consumption. The nicotine yield of the cigarette significantly correlated with plasma cotinine concentrations and with the smoking behavior variables. Most notably, smokers consuming lower nicotine yielding cigarettes exhibited an increased total puff volume per cigarette, suggesting that smokers of low nicotine yielding cigarettes compensate for these low yields by their smoking behavior. However, the fact that lower plasma cotinine concentrations are present in smokers of low-nicotine cigarettes suggests that this compensation is incomplete. That smoking behavior variables relate to smoke exposure was demonstrated by a significant linear correlation between plasma nicotine and mean puff interval in the total smoking population and between plasma nicotine and total puff volume per cigarette in a subpopulation smoking a single brand of cigarette. These data suggest that smoking history, nicotine yield of the cigarette and smoking behavior are all determinants of smoke exposure. Further, although smokers of low-yield cigarettes appear to compensate by puffing larger volumes per cigarette, this compensation appears to be inadequate to attain an equivalent smoke exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Comparison of anamnestic history, alcohol intake and smoking, nutritional status, and liver dysfunction between thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyosawa, K.; Imai, H.; Sodeyama, T.; Franca, S.T.; Yousuf, M.; Furuta, S.; Fujisawa, K.; Kido, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the differences in past history, nutritional condition and, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and liver dysfunction between the thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not, 103 persons who had no primary liver cancer in January 1980 were studied. All subjects were military men who had undergone angiography with thorotrast between 1943 and 1946. Twenty persons developed hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 developed intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma by April 1987, whereas 67 are still alive without any cancer. There was no difference in age or period after thorotrast infusion between those two groups of patients in January 1980. A difference in history of hepatitis and/or jaundice and presence of hepatic dysfunction was found between the subjects who developed primary liver cancers and those who did not. These findings suggest that an anamnestic history of hepatitis and liver dysfunction are risks for development of thorotrast-induced liver cancer. On the basis of the above findings, early detection of liver dysfunction offers a possibility of early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

  20. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  1. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  2. Alcohol as a cause of cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D B

    1995-01-01

    This is a review of the epidemiologic literature on alcohol and risks of various cancers. Alcohol has consistently been related to risks of squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth, oral pharynx, larynx, and esophagus in multiple studies of varying design. The joint effects of alcohol and smoking are greater than additive, and are probably multiplicative, suggesting biological synergism. All major types of alcoholic beverages have been casually implicated in the genesis of these diseases. The in...

  3. Daily Patterns of Conjoint Smoking and Drinking in College Student Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate a robust association between smoking and alcohol use. However, a critical question that is less resolved is the extent to which the smoking event takes place during the time of alcohol consumption. The present study used data from an eight-week prospective web-based study of college student smokers to examine daily associations between smoking and alcohol use, using measures of both likelihood and level of use. Findings indicated that within a person, consumption...

  4. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  5. Analysis of qualitative data from the investigation study in pregnancy of the ASSIST Version 3.0 (the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Elizabeth D; Ali, Robert L; White, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    to utilise qualitative data from investigation of the screening tool ASSIST Version 3.0 with pregnant women to help determine its appropriateness for this cohort, thus informing potential innovations to enhance the questionnaire׳s utility. pregnant women were co-administered the ASSIST Version 3.0 and three established substance use questionnaires (the T-ACE for alcohol, the Timeline FollowBack for cannabis and the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire for tobacco). antenatal clinics and the antenatal ward of the Women׳s and Children׳s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia. 104 pregnant substance-users. as well as the quantitative date (reported elsewhere), rich qualitative data documenting participants' perspectives and experiences in antenatal care were thematically analysed. Women constantly reported friends and family urging them to stop use. Although care providers also advocated cessation or curtailment of use, this advice was reported as unpredictable, with only some providers strongly attuned to such recommendations. Some women voiced suggestions for the appropriate level of provider advice. While pregnancy was often reported as a motivator for changing substance-using behaviour, others reported continued attachment to use which was clearly linked to dependence. Those who reported successful control of use were in contrast to others who were more pragmatic, sceptical in relation to attributable harms, and disinterested in change. There were limited reports of experiences of discrimination directed to pregnant substance users. However, those instances were clearly linked with subsequent lack of honest discussions with care providers, resulting in an absence of appropriate support. current absence of universal screening for substance use has the potential for less than optimal consequences for both mother and baby. appropriate screening accompanied by honest, non-judgmental dialogue can guide the necessary interventions to achieve better outcomes. The recent

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  7. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. We do not smoke but some of us are more susceptible than others: a multilevel analysis of a sample of Canadian youth in grades 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaai, Susan C; Brown, K Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Stephen R; Murnaghan, Donna

    2014-09-01

    Smoking susceptibility has been found to be a strong predictor of experimental smoking. This paper examined which student- and school-level factors differentiated susceptible never smokers from non-susceptible never smokers among a nationally representative sample of Canadian students in grades 9 to 12. Student-level data from the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey were linked with school-level data from the 2006 Census, and one built environment characteristic (the density of tobacco retailers surrounding schools). These data were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. The likelihood of a never smoker being susceptible to smoking significantly varied across schools (p=0.0002). Students in this study were more likely to be susceptible never smokers if they reported low self-esteem, held positive attitudes towards smoking, used alcohol or marijuana, had close friends who smoked, and came from homes without a total ban on smoking. The school location (rural versus urban), the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood surrounding a school, and the density of tobacco retailers that were located within 1-km radius of each school were not associated with students' smoking susceptibility. These findings underscore the continued need to develop school-based tobacco use prevention policies and/or programs that enhance students' self-esteem, address tobacco use misinformation and substance use, and include strategies targeting friends who smoke, and students who come from homes without a total ban on smoking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: tests with studies of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  13. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  14. Population attributable risk of tobacco and alcohol for upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anantharaman, Devasena

    2011-08-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.

  15. Occupational correlates of smoking among urban transit operators: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Aniruddha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers in blue-collar and service occupations smoke at higher rates than workers in white-collar and professional occupations. Occupational stress may explain some of the occupational class differences in smoking and quitting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over a ten year period among a multiethnic cohort of urban transit operators, while accounting for demographic factors and alcohol. Methods The sample consists of 654 San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI transit operators who participated in two occupational health studies and biennial medical examinations during 1983–85 and 1993–95. Workers who had initiated, increased, or maintained their smoking over the ten year period were compared to workers who remained non-smokers. Occupational factors included self-rated frequency of job problems (e.g., difficulties with equipment, passengers, traffic, job burnout (i.e., the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, time needed to unwind after work, and years employed as a transit operator. A series of logistic regression models were developed to estimate the contribution of occupational factors to smoking behavior over time. Results Approximately 35% of the workers increased, initiated, or maintained their smoking over the ten-year period. Frequency of job problems was significantly associated with likelihood of smoking increase, initiation, or maintenance (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09, 1.55. Black operators were significantly more likely to have smoked over the ten-year period compared to operators in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Understanding the role of work-related stress vis-à-vis smoking behavior is of critical importance for crafting workplace smoking prevention and cessation interventions that are applicable to blue-collar work settings, and for developing policies that mitigate occupational stress.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  17. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  18. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, M; Nonnemaker, J; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K; Bauer, U

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities.

  19. Russian Federation university student alcohol use: Smolensk City-a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Alexander; Isralowitz, Richard; Gritsenko, Valentina; Khalepo, Olga; Kovaleva, Yulia

    2018-01-08

    Alcohol use that causes damage to health and adverse events is a significant public health concern. However, there is a dearth of information about alcohol use among Russian Federation university students. This cross sectional study of 626 students examined their background characteristics, alcohol use, heavy drinking and related problem behavior. Males were more inclined to use alcohol and drink heavily than females; however, no other gender related behavior differences were found. Regression analysis showed heavy drinking more prevalent among students who worked, lived on campus, missed class because of party habits, smoked cigarettes, mixed alcohol and energy drinks, and drank more because of stress. Study findings contribute to usable information for promoting university student health and well-being including academic success through policy and prevention practices as well as for examining the issue elsewhere for comparison and generalization purposes.

  20. Alcohol drinking frequency is more directly associated with alcohol use disorder than alcohol metabolizing enzymes among male Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyori, Atsushi; Shibata, Akira; Ogimoto, Itsuro; Uchimura, Naohisa; Egami, Hideki; Nakamura, Jun; Sakata, Ritsu; Fukuda, Katsuhiro

    2005-02-01

    The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is related to various social, economic, cultural, environmental and hereditary factors. Several potential risk factors have been proposed for AUD in addition to alcohol consumption, including alcohol dehydrogenase2 (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2), marital status, educational, occupational or past medical history (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, lung, digestive tract, or chronic liver disease) or smoking habits. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between the aforementioned potential risk factors and AUD in Japan. A case-control study was performed on 153 male Japanese AUD patients and age-, gender-, or other confounder-matched controls to investigate the relation multivariately between ADH2, ALDH2 or alcohol drinking and AUD. Genomic DNA were extracted from nail clippings by the guanidium method, and genotyping of ADH2 and ALDH2 were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Univariate analyses by the conditional logistic regression model revealed statistically significant odds ratios due to ADH2*1/1 genotype, ALDH2*1/1 genotype, middle school as the final school attended, longest occupations as farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, miners, production process or construction workers, and past histories of chronic liver disease and AUD. However, multivariate analyses under a hierarchically well-formulated model strategy with interaction and confounding assessment indicated that (i) heavy alcohol intake was a significant risk factor (odds ratio per 1.0 g of daily ethanol intake; 1.096, 95% confidence interval; 1.026-1.171) for developing AUD after adjusting for other confounders; and (ii) ADH2*1/1 genotype and ALDH2*1/1 genotype were not risk factors after adjusting for daily ethanol intake and other confounders. The present study shows that AUD was more directly and strongly associated with alcohol drinking than with

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Raees A; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m(2). In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  2. Smoking and Tobacco Use Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis. Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year. Secondhand smoke causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease ...

  3. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  4. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  5. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption as risk indicators for missing teeth in late middle-aged Danes. METHOD: In all, 1,517 Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) participants received a clinical oral examination that included number of teeth. Information on smoking......, drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs.

  6. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  7. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  8. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  9. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  10. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  11. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  12. Study of an ionic smoke sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Z; Holé, S; Lewiner, J

    2013-01-01

    Ionization smoke sensors are among the best smoke sensors; however, the little radioactive source they include is no longer desirable since it makes recycling more complicated. In this paper, we discuss an electrostatic system in which a corona discharge is used to generate the ions needed for smoke detection. We show how the velocity of ions is reduced in our system for a better interaction between smoke and drifting ions. The influence of smoke, temperature and moisture is studied. It is shown that the proposed sensor has good sensitivity compared with conventional ionic and optical smoke sensors. (paper)

  13. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  14. Tabagismo em usuários de um centro de atenção psicossocial alcool e drogas: um estudo piloto Tabaquismo en usuarios de un centro de atención psicosocial alcohol y drogas: un estudio piloto Smoking among users of a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2011-01-01

    servicio especializado ayudará a repensar sobre las acciones preventivas y educativas en el área de la salud.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pattern of tobacco consumption in clients of a service specializing in the treatment of psychoactive substance dependence. METHODS: This was a descriptive quantitative approach, undertaken in 2009, in an Alcohol and Drugs Psychosocial Care Center, located within the State of São Paulo. We used a questionnaire containing sociodemographic information and the Fargeström test in 48 attendees in a single day at this service. RESULTS: The sample was characterized as predominantly adult males, unmarried, with low educational levels, and who were currently employed. In relation to smoking, we identified a high frequency of current smokers, with moderate level of tobacco dependence, motivated to change their smoking habits. CONCLUSION: Knowing the smoking behavior among users of a specialized service can help professionals rethink preventive and educational actions in the area of health.

  15. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ventilation and separate non-smoking sections can eliminate secondhand smoke exposure. True False 8. A healthy non-smoker must ... limit where a person can smoke and reduce secondhand smoke exposure: a) Hurt only small businesses a) Hurt only ...

  16. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on ... than if you were to stop smoking. Quit Smoking Quitting smoking is the best thing you can ...

  17. Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: A quality of life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Carla BENINCÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the quality of life between patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and controls, and between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, correlating clinical, sociodemographic, and nutritional factors with their quality of life scores. Methods: Forty-three outpatients of the pancreas and biliary tract clinic diagnosed with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis were assessed. Quality of life was measured by the Brazilian version of the Short Form-36. The control group consisted of 43 healthy companions. Nutritional status was classified according to body mass index and triceps, biceps, suprailiac, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, using the appropriate methods. The percentage of body fat was given by adding the four skinfold thicknesses and by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The statistical tests included the Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman's correlation tests, with the significance level set at p<0.05. Results: The sociodemographic variables of the case and control groups did not differ. Quality of life was lower in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients than in controls. The only quality of life domain that differed between diabetics and non-diabetics was functional capacity, lower in diabetics (p=0.022. Smoking duration, alcohol intake in grams, and time since pancreatic surgery correlated negatively with the quality of life of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients. Old age, skinfold thicknesses, and percentage of body fat correlated positively with quality of life. Conclusion: Quality of life is low in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients because of the negative influence of certain factors, such as smoking duration, amount of alcohol consumed, and time since pancreatic surgery.

  18. Relationship between carotid intima-media thickness, physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic/inflamatory profile, body fatness, smoking and alcohol consumption in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Maillane-Vanegas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIM The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze the relationship between sleep disorder and intima-media thickness. METHOD Baseline measurements included carotid intima-media thickness, assessed by an ultrasound device; questionnaires about sleep and other behavioral variables; physical activity was measured by pedometer; body fatness was estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry; fasting glucose, lipid profile and C-reactive protein were collected. RESULTS The occurrence rate of sleep-related disorders was 47% (95%CI= 37.2%-56.7%. Carotid intima-media thickness was related to symptoms of insomnia (r= 0.328 [0.141 to 0.493] and, after adjustments for potential confounders, the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and insomnia remained statistically significant (β= 0.121 [95%CI= 0.017; 0.225]. CONCLUSIONS In young adults, sleep disorder was significantly related to premature increase in carotid intima-media thickness.

  19. Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Tove; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To study whether participation in organized sports during adolescence predicts increased smoking of tobacco, alcohol intoxication and cannabis use from late adolescence to adulthood when controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, to study whether such increased drug use varies according to type of sport (team versus individual), main skills needed (endurance, strength or technical) and level of competition. Survey of national sample of Norwegian high school students (aged 13-19 years) in 1992 (T1) followed-up in 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2006 (T4) (n = 3251). Outcome measures included smoking of tobacco and 12-month prevalences of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use, respectively. Confounders included pubertal timing, friends' drug use, perceived social acceptance, grades and parental socio-economic status. Latent growth curve analyses showed that initial level of participation in organized sports predicted growth in alcohol intoxication. Those involved initially in team sports had greater growth in alcohol intoxication, but lower growth in tobacco use and cannabis use, during the adolescent and early adult years compared to those involved in technical or strength sports. Practising endurance sports, as opposed to technical or strength sports, predicted reduced growth in alcohol intoxication and tobacco use. Sports participation in adolescence, and participation in team sports in particular, may increase the growth in alcohol intoxication during late adolescent and early adult years, whereas participation in team sports and endurance sports may reduce later increase in tobacco and cannabis use.

  20. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may be worthwhile targeting this population group when developing smoking cessation strategies. Nicotine dependence. Tobacco products contain nicotine, which is the drug that produces dependence in smokers.6. Nicotine affects the dopaminergic system in the brain, causing a sense of well- being, and also increases ...

  1. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  2. School-level substance use: effects on early adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Gaines, Joanna; Su, Wei; Windle, Michael

    2010-07-01

    School-level use of tobacco and alcohol are related to individual students' use in high school, but few studies have examined the effects of school-level substance use in early adolescence. In addition, little is known about factors modifying individuals' vulnerability to school-level influences. This study examined school-wide levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in relation to early adolescents' substance use and the role of peer deviance and parenting practices as modifiers of school-level effects. This cross-sectional study included 542 students attending 49 public middle schools in a single metropolitan area. Students reported on their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, and friends' deviant behavior in the last 12 months. Parents provided information about parental nurturance and harsh and inconsistent discipline. School-wide levels of substance use were obtained from the Pride Surveys completed by all students in Grades 6-8 at each school. Multilevel logistic regressions modeled individual use as a function of school-level use for each substance. Interactions of friends' deviance and poor parenting with school-level substance use evaluated differential susceptibility. Among the three substances, only school-level rates of cigarette smoking were associated with individual smoking. The relationships of school-level smoking and alcohol use with individual use were stronger for students whose parents reported poorer parenting practices. Antismoking programs may need to preferentially target middle schools with high rates of cigarette smoking. Students who receive suboptimal parenting may benefit from increased support to deter them from early initiation of smoking and alcohol use, especially in high-risk schools.

  3. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  4. Antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailaku, SI; Syakir, M.; Mulyawanti, I.; Syah, ANA

    2017-06-01

    Coconut shell liquid smoke is produced from the pyrolysis and condensation of smoke from the burning process of coconut shell. It is known to have considerably high content of polyphenol. Beside acting as antioxidant, polyphenol is also a good antimicrobial. This research was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke. Coconut shell liquid smoke used in this study was produced from three different processing stages, which obtained three different grades of liquid smoke (grade 1, 2 and 3). Each sample of coconut shell liquid smoke was extracted using ethyl alcohol and petroleum ether. The extract was then analyzed for its antimicrobial activity against S. aereus, E. coli and C. albicans using well diffusion method. Total phenol and microbial microscopic structure of the liquid smoke were also examined. The results showed that there was influence of coconut shell liquid smoke on the inhibition of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albican growth. This fact was marked by the forming of clear area surrounding the well on the dish agar media. The highest percentage of inhibition showed by the extract of grade 3 coconut shell liquid smoke. This may be explained by the highest total phenol content in grade 3 liquid smoke. Microscopic examination showed that there was a breakage of microbial cell walls caused by the antimicrobial property of the liquid smoke. It was concluded that coconut shell liquid smoke was beneficial as antimicrobial agent, and while all grades of liquid smoke contains polyphenol, the content was influenced by the processing stage and thus influenced its level of microbial growth inhibition.

  5. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  6. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and after they are born. 1,3 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Pregnancies Women who smoke have more difficulty ... that can harm unborn babies. 1,2 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Babies Mothers who smoke are more likely ...

  7. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoki