WorldWideScience

Sample records for included small group

  1. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  2. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  3. Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

  4. Small Group Teaching in Epidemiology Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Goshtasebi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: small group teaching(SGT in is a known method for developing intellectual skills, changing attitudes and encouraging the taking of responsibilities for learning. This study was an attempt to compare students’ attitudes and knowledge scores on SGT and lecture -based teaching (LBT.Methods: 22 first year medical students were enrolled in a course using two methods (lecture- based and small group discussion for teaching basic epidemiology. Data about attitudes and knowledge scores of the two methods were collected at the end of the course and analyzed using a two-sided Wilcoxon test.Results: The students were satisfied and preferred SGT in terms of Evaluation method for the course, Participatory learning and team working, effectiveness and developing self learning skills (p<0.001,and scored higher on topics of SGT(p<0.01, but believed that they needed longer discussion of the topics.Conclusion: Better question design and course organization and creating a safe, comfortable environment is essential for good performance. Integrating this teaching strategy in medical education curricula with appropriate professional and organizational development is suggested.Key words: MEDICAL EDUCATION, SMALL GROUP TEACHING, COURSE EVALUATION

  5. Teaching Small Group Communication: A Do Good Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Minei, PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the parameters of a semester-long project called the “Do Good” project, geared towards developing small group communication skills in undergraduate students. This project highlights participation in a social engagement project that allows students to bridge concepts learned in small group communication lectures (e.g., team dynamics, project management, conflict resolution, decision making, leadership with community outreach. Included are an overview of the project, and examples for how each component both challenges students’ ability to communicate in groups and provides motivation that foster students’ ability to link in-class knowledge with practical, real world application.

  6. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  7. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  8. The Role of Small Groups in Christian Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Russel Marion

    Centering on a historical review and analysis of adult Christian education in small groups, this study was designed to identify certain conditions surrounding the formation and operation of selected small groups, to discover their distinctive educational features, and to suggest guidelines for effective use of the small group approach. The role of…

  9. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  10. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  11. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  12. Assessment Intelligence in Small Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanli; Wu, Yonghe

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of groups in CSCL context is a challenging task fraught with many confounding factors collected and measured. Previous documented studies are by and large summative in nature and some process-oriented methods require time-intensive coding of qualitative data. This study attempts to resolve these problems for teachers to assess groups…

  13. Orientation and Mobility Training Using Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgerty, Moira Jane; Williams, Allison Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a group training program for sighted trainee orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors in South Africa, where the need for O&M instructors is great and the availability of services is limited. The outcome was positive and encouraging and provides the initiative for the findings to be more broadly applied and for…

  14. Small group presentations for each session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This section presents the results of the questionnaires with the recommendations from the 3 discussion groups. The questions approached are as follows: 1 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Senior Management / Organizational Issues: Do Senior Managers understand the root cause analysis (RCA) process? Who in the organization is responsible for RCA? Are there regulatory requirements / influence? Does the culture of the organization affect the RCA process? Specific Recommendations. 2 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Systematic Methodology / Tools: What are the challenges in using available analyses tools for identification of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA? How do you 'handle' the perceived qualitative/subjective nature of HOF? Is the vocabulary used in RCA methodologies consistent? Will organizational issues be identified in analyses less intensive than RCA? Are you able to identify organizational issues from a single event? Is it difficult to make a clear link between RCA and CAs? What do you do if your scope expands? Recommendations. 3 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Team Composition / Attributes: What are the challenges associated in team / individual competence? Is there management / HOF representation on the team? Does the level of the management sponsor affect the willingness of the organization to accept the HOF in RCA? Are RCA results presented to management? Who presents? Recommendations. 4 - Discussion Group 1, 2 and 3 - Learning: How many RCAs are done in a year? Is this sufficient? Could you identify organizational issues using an 'Apparent Cause Analysis' method? Are events with HOF issues trended in your organization? How do you know you have a learning organization? How can you measure the effectiveness of CAs?

  15. Small-Group Instruction. Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia, June 1963. Lange, Carl J., Rittenhouse, Carl H., Atkinson, Richard C. Films and Group Discussions as a...sentation or class discussion. 13. References Beckhard , R. How to Plan and Conduct Workshops and Conferences, Associated Press, New York, 1956, pp. 35-37...Harper and Bibliographic Review, Industrial Brothers, New York, 1954. Relations Center, University of Chicago, Beckhard , R. How to Plan and Conduct

  16. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  17. Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of United States Congregational Life Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew L; Stroope, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Prior research suggests that church-goers are more civically engaged than their non-church-going counterparts. Little is known, however, about how the popular phenomenon of small groups factors into this equation. In the present study, we examine relationships between small group participation at individual and congregation levels and civic engagement. Using multilevel modeling and national data on congregations and individuals from the U.S. Congregational Life Study (n=82,044), we find that: (1) individual-level small group involvement is associated with four measures of civic engagement; (2) congregation-level small group participation is associated with both lower and higher civic engagement in the case of two outcomes; and (3) in the case of three civic outcomes, congregation-level small group participation moderates individual-level small group involvement such that small group members' civic activity more closely resembles the lower civic engagement of small group nonparticipants. In the case of one civic outcome, at high levels of overall small group participation, small group members' civic engagement drops below that of small group nonparticipants. Explanations for these findings, including a "crowding out" effect, are examined including their complex implications for debates regarding small groups, religious involvement, and civic engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of Small Group Social Skills Lessons with Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    This action research study (ARS) describes the effectiveness of small group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured small group of 4th grade students in 8…

  19. Teaching Small Group Communication: The Do Good Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the parameters of a semester-long project called the "Do Good" project, geared towards developing small group communication skills in undergraduate students. This project highlights participation in a social engagement project that allows students to bridge concepts learned in small group communication lectures…

  20. Emergent Leaders and Small Groups in the EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Ian Paul

    2014-01-01

    Small groups are integral for many activities in the foreign language classroom and their pedagogical importance is well established. Despite the widespread use of groups in foreign language education, there is a dearth of research investigating group processes and the impact of emergent leaders within these groups. This mixed-methods,…

  1. Cooperative behavior evolution of small groups on interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Yang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Small groups are modeled on interconnected networks. • Players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups. • Impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution are studied. - Abstract: Understanding the behavioral evolution in evacuation is significant for guiding and controlling the evacuation process. Based on the fact that the population consists of many small groups, here we model the small groups which are separated in space but linked by other methods, such as kinship, on interconnected networks. Namely, the players in the same layer belong to an identical small group, while the players located in different layers belong to different small groups. And the players of different layers establish interaction by edge crossed layers. In addition, players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups, in detail, the players in the same layer play prisoner’s dilemma, but players in different layers play harmony game. By means of numerous simulations, we study the impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution. Because the framework of this work takes the space distribution into account, which is close to the realistic life, we hope that it can provide a new insight to reveal the law of behavioral evolution of evacuation population.

  2. A small-group approach to teaching family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, L; Devieux, J; Huff, F; Barker, P; Arradondo, J E; Devieux, R

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe a method for teaching preclinical medical students some important family medicine concepts utilizing a seminar format which allows for improved student-teacher interaction and individualization of material. These seminars, on family health behavior, compliance, behavioral interventions for life-style change, and managing stress, were designed to encourage freshman medical students to understand and apply concepts concerning health behavior and attitudes, both personally and professionally. The format of these sessions included the use of self-assessment instruments, discussion, role play, and case studies. Results of student evaluations indicate they perceived the seminars positively. Specific areas of positive value included the content and small-group related processes. The seminars also provided data useful for developing programs for students.

  3. Implicit Contracts Regulating Small Group Leadership: The Influence of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Perrin Orr; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    1983-01-01

    Examined culture variables in the negotiation of implicit rules which govern leadership behavior in small groups. American, French, and Arab students (N=42) were assigned identical decision-making tasks. Results showed monocultural groups presented homogeneous rules governing leadership prior to interaction, while intercultural groups presented…

  4. A Cooperative Small-Group Methodology in the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Yael

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of the effects of two small-group cooperative techniques and the whole-class method on academic achievement in English as a foreign language for seventh-graders (N=665) revealed that the group methods (Discussion Group and Student Teams and Achievement Divisions) registered significantly greater improvement than the whole-class method.…

  5. Emergency Medicine Curriculum: Complications of Pregnancy Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L Herman

    2017-07-01

    encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, improve the educational experience of our residents, and allow assessment by the faculty concerning the knowledge base and ability of the residents. Methods: Core obstetric emergency medicine content will be delivered through small group modules and case-based content authored by faculty and content experts. Suggested resources for self-directed learning are tied to each module. The Socratic Method, as used during small group sessions, drives learner participation and critical evaluation of the core topics. Open-ended questions developed by the faculty andresidents for each module stimulate further discussion and integration with real-life experience. Learners (as well as faculty are encouraged to utilize free open access medical (FOAM education resources both in the preparatory self-directed learning phase as well as afterwards to continue integration of core content with real-life experience. Suggested obstetric simulations are included and encouraged as well.

  6. Enhancing Leadership Abilities through Small-Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, James; Culp, William

    1988-01-01

    The article describes a 14-week program (one hour per week) of the Punxsutawney (Pennsylvania) schools in which 29 gifted high school students learned and practiced fundamentals of small group dynamics to enhance their leadership abilities. (DB)

  7. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  8. 76 FR 45878 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...,420B] Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation...., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  9. Small-Group Learning in Undergraduate STEM Disciplines: Effect of Group Type on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar; Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Small-group learning in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has been widely studied, and it is clear that this method offers many benefits to students. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which small learning groups differ from one another, and how these differences may affect student learning and…

  10. Group purchasing of workplace health promotion services for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Hammerback, Kristen R; Hannon, Peggy A; McDowell, Julie; Katzman, Avi; Clegg-Thorp, Catherine; Gallagher, John

    2014-07-01

    Small employers are underserved with workplace health promotion services, so we explored the potential for group purchasing of these services. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews of member organizations serving small employers, as well as workplace health promotion vendors, in Washington State. We interviewed 22 employer organizations (chambers of commerce, trade associations, and an insurance trust) and vendors (of fitness facilities, healthy vending machines, fresh produce delivery, weight management services, and tobacco cessation quitlines). Both cautiously supported the idea of group purchasing but felt that small employers' workplace health promotion demand must increase first. Vendors providing off-site services, for example, quitline, found group purchasing more feasible than vendors providing on-site services, for example, produce delivery. Employer member organizations are well-positioned to group purchase workplace health promotion services; vendors are receptive if there is potential profit.

  11. Net Based Examination: Small Group Tutoring, Home Assignments, and Large Group Automatic and Peer Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karlsson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with net based examination,tutoring and scaffolding of groups of different sizes: Firstfor very small groups, then for normal sized groups around100 students and finally for very large groups. The threedifferent methods can be applied to internationally basedcourses. Methods which support deep learning throughtutoring, scaffolding, project work and peer learning arealso mentioned.

  12. Meta-analysis of targeted small-group reading interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew S; Burns, Matthew K

    2018-02-01

    Small-group reading interventions are commonly used in schools but the components that make them effective are still debated or unknown. The current study meta-analyzed 26 small-group reading intervention studies that resulted in 27 effect sizes. Findings suggested a moderate overall effect for small-group reading interventions (weighted g=0.54). Interventions were more effective if they were targeted to a specific skill (g=0.65), then as part of a comprehensive intervention program that addressed multiple skills (g=0.35). There was a small correlation between intervention effects and group size (r=0.21) and duration (r=0.11). Small-group interventions led to a larger median effect size (g=0.64) for elementary-aged students than for those in middle or high school (g=0.20), but the two confidence intervals overlapped. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 26794 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC, and Amway Corporation, Ada, MI; Amended... of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park...

  14. THE APPLICABILITY OF SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION IN ENGLISH READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Success of learning is not only a matter of using an appropriate teaching resources, instead, the interference of teaching method is found to be essential to determine the students’ learning achievement. Teacher as a captain of class has the right to choose type of method used in the classroom for sake of students’ improvement. This study was designed as an attempt to help Master Students from a well established private university improve their reading comprehension skill through small group discussion. This study was participated by 30 students, later divided into two classes and served differently as an experimental group for the class A and a control group for the class B. Referring to the final data analysis of the study, it is found that there is an improving learning achievement in the experimental group, indicated by higher performance of posttest (20.333 than the pretest. Apart from this, further analysis was also conducted to find out whether or not small group discussion was able to show better performance than another teaching method applied in another different class. Based on the result of statistical calculation, it shows that small group discussion got better result 12.334 than that of another group. As a result, some suggestions were made by referring to result of the study.

  15. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  16. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  17. The Importance of Forming a Work Group in Small Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Sinikka; Keski-Luopa, Leila

    This article discusses the themes of individual and group processes, on the conscious level, as well as the main purpose of a work group, and asserts that psychoanalytical theory and knowledge are a tool for educators. The two problems studied are motivating student teachers to creative action within the small group structure and dealing with…

  18. Dynamical networks of influence in small group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Noriega Campero, Alejandro; Almaatouq, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task. We propose a model describing how group members gradually influence each other and revise their judgments over the course of the discussion. The main component of the model is an influence network-a weighted, directed graph that determines the extent to which individuals influence each other during the discussion. In simulations, we first study the optimal structure of the influence network that yields the best group performances. Then, we implement a social learning process by which individuals adapt to the past performance of their peers, thereby affecting the structure of the influence network in the long run. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of efficient or maladaptive networks and show that the influence network can converge towards the optimal one, but only when individuals exhibit a social discounting bias by downgrading the relative performances of their peers. Finally, we find a late-speaker effect, whereby individuals who speak later in the discussion are perceived more positively in the long run and are thus more influential. The numerous predictions of the model can serve as a basis for future experiments, and this work opens research on small group discussion to computational social sciences.

  19. Commons Dilemma Choices in Small vs. Large Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Boyle, William

    The purpose of the Commons Game is to teach students how social traps work; that is, that short-term individual gain tends to dominate long-term collective gain. Simulations of Commons Dilemma have grown considerably in the last decade; however, the research has used small face-to-face groups to study behavior in the Commons. To compare the…

  20. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  1. The electrocardiogram made (really) easy: Using small-group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicine designed small-group tutorials using animations and analogies as methods to improve the ECG interpretation skills of students. Objectives. To improve students' ability to interpret ECGs and assess their perceptions of the tutorials. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 67 final-year medical students after ...

  2. Small arms proliferation. Report on working group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The working group reported on the proliferation of small arms, light weapons non-lethal weapons, which have traditionally been given little attention in international talks on peace on the contrary to nuclear weapons which have been tested during the Second World War but never used in war later

  3. 76 FR 14101 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions; Morristown, TN; Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Chicago, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Adjustment Assistance on May 5, 2010, applicable to workers of Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on...

  4. 75 FR 32221 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers from... Business Group International, LLC and Amway Corporation. The notice was published in the Federal Register... issued as follows: All workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and...

  5. Preparation of small group constants for calculation of shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, V.F.; Shejno, I.N.; Tkachev, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the shielding calculation error connected with neglect of the angular and spatial neutron flux dependences while determining the small-group constants on the basis of the many-group ones. The economical method allowing for dependences is proposed. The spatial dependence is substituted by the average value according to the zones singled out in the limits of the zones of the same content; the angular cross section dependence is substituted by the average values in the half-ranges of the angular variable. To solve the transfer equation the ALGOL-ROSA-M program using the method of characteristic interpolation and trial run method is developed. The program regards correctly for nonscattered and single scattered radiations. Compared are the calculation results of neutron transmission (10.5 MeV-0.01 eV) in the 21-group approximation with the 3-group calculations for water (the layer thickness is 30 cm) and 5-group calculations for heterogeneous shielding of alternating stainless steel layers (3 layers, each of the 16 cm thickness) and graphite layers (2 layers, each of the 20 cm thickness). The analysis shows that the method proposed permits to obtain rather accurate results in the course of preparation of the small-group cross sections, decreasing considerably the number of the groups (from 21 to 3-5) and saving the machine time

  6. Learning and teaching in small groups: characteristics, benefits, problems and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    2007-08-01

    Small group learning may be defined as a group of learners demonstrating three common characteristics; active participation, a specific task and reflection. This article provides an overview of small group learning and teaching, describes the characteristics of this form of small group work, benefits, problems, potential causes of less than optimal sessions, and summarises specific approaches. These include tutorials, free-discussion groups, brainstorming, snowballing, buzz groups, paired (or one-to-one) discussion, clinical teaching, simulations, seminars, plenary sessions, problem-based learning, team-based learning, role plays, games and IT approaches. The article concludes with an emphasis on the importance of the teacher and a check list for use when planning, teaching and evaluating a small group session.

  7. Using social media to support small group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Duncan; Rengasamy, Emma; Batchelor, Shafqat; Pope, Charles; Riley, Stephen; Cunningham, Anne Marie

    2017-11-10

    Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.

  8. Using social media to support small group learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Cole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Results Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Conclusions Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.

  9. 40 CFR 35.4140 - What must be included in my group's work plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in my group's work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  10. Analysis of pCERC7, a small antibiotic resistance plasmid from a commensal ST131 Escherichia coli, defines a diverse group of plasmids that include various segments adjacent to a multimer resolution site and encode the same NikA relaxase accessory protein enabling mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert A; Hall, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    The ampicillin resistance plasmid pCERC7, carrying transposon Tn2 with an IS4 insertion, was detected in the draft genome of a commensal Escherichia coli isolate. The genome data also revealed that this isolate belongs to ST131, clade B. pCERC7 is 9712bp comprised of a 3319bp backbone, Tn2::IS4 (6388bp) and 5bp of target site duplication, and was present at a copy number of 40. pCERC7 is related to several plasmids composed of only the backbone, or the backbone with the Tn2 insertion in the same position. These plasmids have been found previously in Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica recovered in several different countries from as early as the 1970s. This group was named the NTP16 group after the best studied example. pCERC7 was annotated using available information about plasmids in this group and additional analyses. The backbone includes genes for RNA I and RNA II to initiate replication and the Tn2 interrupts a gene found here to encode a protein 66% identical to the Rom regulatory protein of ColE1. NTP16 family plasmids include a gene, previously designated mobA, that was found to encode a homologue (53% identical) of the NikA relaxase accessory protein of the conjugative IncI1 plasmid R64, which is known to bind to the R64 oriT. However, a nikB relaxase gene is not present, indicating that a relaxase must be supplied in trans for mobilisation by R64 to occur, as demonstrated previously for NTP16. Hence, MobA of NTP16 and relatives was renamed NikA. Upstream of nikA, we found a region closely related to the oriT of R64. pCERC7 and all members of the NTP16 family also include a multimer resolution site, nmr, similar to the cer site of ColE1. The backbone of the NTP16 family also includes genes for a demonstrated toxin-antitoxin system, LsoAB. Several more distantly related groups of plasmids that include a very closely related nmr-nikA-oriT segment (99.4-93.7% DNA identity) were identified in the GenBank non-redundant DNA database. All use an RNA I/RNA II

  11. Facilitating small groups: how to encourage student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  12. Volunteer patients and small groups contribute to abdominal examination's success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields HM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Shields,1 Nielsen Q Fernandez-Becker,2 Sarah N Flier,2 Byron P Vaughn,2 Melissa H Tukey,2 Stephen R Pelletier,3 Douglas A Horst2 1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 2Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Center for Evaluation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Prior to 2007, we taught the abdominal examination in a hospital based group to 40 students, at one hospital. We used volunteer patients, small groups, repetition, and required faculty development sessions. In 2007, our medical school changed its “Introduction to Physical Examination” session so that the entire class was to be taught in a geographically central session. Our hospital was selected to lead the abdominal examination portion of the session. Aim: Our aim was to answer three questions. First, could we quadruple the recruitment of volunteer patients, and faculty? Second, was it volunteer patients, small groups, repetition, or faculty training that was most valued by the students? Third, would volunteer patients and/or faculty agree to participate a second time? Methods: A total of 43-46 patients and 43-46 faculty were recruited and 43-46 examining rooms were obtained for each of the 5 years of this study. Teachers were required to attend a 1-hour faculty development session. The class of about 170 students was divided into 43–46 groups each year. The teacher demonstrated the abdominal examination and each student practiced the examination on another student. Each student then repeated the full abdominal examination on a volunteer patient. Results: Over the 5-year time period (2008–2012, the abdominal examination ranked first among all organ systems’ “Introductory Sessions”. The abdominal examination ratings had the best mean score (1.35 on a Likert scale where 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. The students gave the most

  13. Practice-based small group learning in GP specialty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacVicar, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) is an approach to continuing professional development (CPD) for general practitioners (GPs) that originated in Canada. It involves small groups of GPs who work through clinical modules. PBSGL is now an established method of learning in Scotland, found to be effective in GP, practice nurse and multi-professional cohorts. However, the effectiveness of PBSGL has not been examined in GP specialty training, where it is becoming widely employed. This research aimed to explore GP Specialty Trainees' (GPSTs') perspectives of the impact of PBSGL on curriculum needs, preparation for independent practice, and facilitator learning. To avoid the risk of extrapolating assumptions from others who have used PBSGL as a learning strategy, this study adopted a qualitative approach, and conducted one-to-one interviews with 16 GPSTs from a range of Scottish deaneries and stages in training. Data took the form of verbatim transcripts, and the constant comparative technique from grounded theory was used to analyse the data, through the establishment of codes and categories. Findings were arranged in four main areas: • learning as a group was appreciated at this career stage, and group membership should consist of trainees at a similar career stage, as this supports psychological safety • PBSGL helped in locating a 'one best way' for future care planning, but was also used to find alternatives to trainees' current approaches • discussion during PBSGL helped GPSTs devise plans for how they would handle patients in the future • some facilitators moderated their involvement for the perceived benefit of the group. Learning is experienced in a very unique way for GPSTs, and the views of the cohort are formed on the basis of the delicate stage in their career. Aiding the transition from structured education into independent practice is a more immediate need for GPSTs than curriculum needs.

  14. The cyclopentyl group, as a small but bulky terminal group, allows rapid and efficient active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Junya; Makita, Yoshimasa; Kihara, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-02

    Secondary ammonium salts bearing a cyclopentyl terminal group rapidly formed pseudorotaxane with 1.5 equiv of DB24C8. Acylation of the pseudorotaxane with 50 equiv of benzoyl chloride in the presence of 50 equiv of triethylamine in toluene afforded rotaxane, the product of active transport, in 95% yield. The cyclopentyl group is small enough to allow rapid formation of pseudorotaxane, and bulky enough to facilitate the quantitative active transport by steric repulsion.

  15. Task Type and Group Motivation: Implications for a Behavioral Approach to Leadership in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Van M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a theory of leadership effectiveness in small discussion/decision making groups developed to facilitate discussion and goal efficacy. Develops four leadership styles (coordinator, inventor, enthusiast, and director) focusing on two critical questions the leader must address. Discusses implications of the model for leadership training and…

  16. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzini, Andrea; Cini, Alessandro; Bagnoli, Franco; Ramasco, José

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality), the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time) playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication) are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  17. Opinion dynamics within a virtual small group: the stubbornness effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGuazzini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of opinion dynamics is social systems has attracted a good deal of attention in the last decade. Even though based on intuition and observation, the mechanisms behind many of these models need solid empirical grounding. In this work, we investigate the relation among subjective variables (such as the personality, the dynamics of the affinity network dynamics, the communication patterns emerging throughout the social interactions and the opinions dynamics in a series of experiments with five small groups of ten people each. In order to ignite the discussion, the polemic topic of animal experimentation was proposed. The groups essentially polarized in two factions with a set of stubborn individuals (those not changing their opinions in time playing the role of anchors. Our results suggest that the different layers present in the group dynamics (i.e., individual level, group dynamics and meso-communication are deeply intermingled, specifically the stubbornness effect appears to be related to the dynamical features of the network topologies, and only in an undirected way to the personality of the participants.

  18. SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Borůvková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Building relationships in the classroom is an essential part of any teacher's career. Having healthy teacher-to-learner and learner-to-learner relationships is an effective way to help prevent pedagogical failure, social conflict and quarrelsome behavior. Many strategies are available that can be used to achieve good long-lasting relationships in the classroom setting. Successful teachers’ pedagogical work in the classroom requires detailed knowledge of learners’ relationships. Good understanding of the relationships is necessary, especially in the case of teenagers’ class. This sensitive period of adolescence demands attention of all teachers who should deal with the problems of their learners. Special care should be focused on children that are out of their classmates’ interest (so called isolated learners or isolates in such class and on possibilities to integrate them into the class. Natural idea how to do it is that of using some modern non-traditional teaching/learning methods, especially the methods based on work in small groups involving learners’ cooperation. Small group education (especially problem-based learning, project-based learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning or inquire-based learning as one of these methods involves a high degree of interaction. The effectiveness of learning groups is determined by the extent to which the interaction enables members to clarify their own understanding, build upon each other's contributions, sift out meanings, ask and answer questions. An influence of this kind of methods (especially cooperative learning (CL on learners’ relationships was a subject of the further described research. Within the small group education, students work with their classmates to solve complex and authentic problems that help develop content knowledge as well as problem-solving, reasoning, communication, and self-assessment skills. The aim of the research was to answer the question: Can the

  19. Rate increase disclosure and review: definitions of "individual market" and "small group market." Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    This final rule amends a May 23, 2011, final rule entitled "Rate Increase Disclosure and Review". The final rule provided that, for purposes of rate review only, definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" under State rate filing laws would govern even if those definitions departed from the definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to the final rule requested comments on whether this policy should apply in cases in which State rate filing law definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" exclude association insurance policies that would be included in these definitions for other purposes under the PHS Act. In response to comments, this final rule amends the definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" that apply for rate review purposes to include coverage sold to individuals and small groups through associations even if the State does not include such coverage in its definitions of individual and small group market. This final rule also updates standards for health insurance issuers regarding disclosure and review of unreasonable premium increases under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act.

  20. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  1. Students' attitudes to small-group work in community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, D E; Hoffman, M

    1987-07-01

    To encourage fourth-year medical students to review their ethnocentric attitudes to the politicized issues of population and undernutrition in South Africa, small-group work (SGW) was introduced during a month's teaching in community health at the University of Cape Town. We tested several formats for these sessions and chose one which seemed effective. This study examined the remaining students' attitudes to SGW as a means of briefly examining complex emotive topics. Sixty-nine students of a class of 168 were asked to complete a Likert questionnaire on their attitudes to SGW. Fifty-five students (79.7%) agreed that group work had allowed them to engage the topics briefly but usefully and 62 (90%) thought that the topics lent themselves to SGW. While 52 (75.3%) were not confused, 5 (7.2%) were confused by SGW. Thirty-nine students (56.5%) preferred lectures, tutorials or seminars to SGW. Thirty-seven students (53.6%) needed more fact to benefit fully from the SGW. Students found SGW appropriate for briefly examining these topics but wanted more fact to benefit fully from the sessions. The survey yielded valuable feedback from students on SGW as a means of addressing controversial and attitude-laden issues of central importance to the delivery of effective health care in Southern Africa.

  2. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,326] Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering...

  3. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Cognizant, IBM, Infosys, Kana, Patni, Siemens, Tapfin, Veritas... Workers From At&T Solutions, Chimes, Cognizant, Patni, Siemens, Xerox Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Revised...

  4. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  5. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  6. A qualitative assessment of faculty perspectives of small group teaching experience in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abubakir M; Shabila, Nazar P; Dabbagh, Ali A; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2015-02-15

    Although medical colleges in Iraq started recently to increasingly use small group teaching approach, there is limited research on the challenges, opportunities and needs of small group teaching in Iraq particularly in Kurdistan Region. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the small group teaching experience in the 4(th) and 5(th) year of study in Hawler College of Medicine with a focus on characterizing the impressions of faculty members about how small group teaching is proceeding in the college. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 20 purposively selected faculty members was conducted. An interview guide was used for data collection that was around different issues related to small group teaching in medical education including planning, preparation, positive aspects, problems facing its implementation, factors related to it and recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data analysis comprised identifying themes that emerged from the review of transcribed interviews. Participants reported some positive experience and a number of positive outcomes related to this experience including better controlling the class, enhancing students' understanding of the subject, increasing interaction in the class, increasing the students' confidence, enhancing more contact between teachers and students, improving the presentation skills of the students and improving the teacher performance. The participants emphasized poor preparation and planning for application of this system and highlighted a number of problems and challenges facing this experience particularly in terms of poor infrastructure and teaching facilities, poor orientation of students and teachers, inadequate course time for some subjects and shortage of faculty members in a number of departments. The main suggestions to improve this experience included improving the infrastructure and teaching facilities, using more interactive teaching methods and better organization and management

  7. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  8. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Small group activities within academic communities improve the connectedness of students and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Katharina; Schneid, Stephen D; Smith, Sunny; Winegarden, Babbi; Mandel, Jess; Kelly, Carolyn J

    2017-08-01

    The University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine implemented a curriculum change that included reduction of lectures, incorporation of problem-based learning and other small group activities. Six academic communities were introduced for teaching longitudinal curricular content and organizing extracurricular activities. Surveys were collected from 904 first- and second-year medical students over 6 years. Student satisfaction data with their sense of connectedness and community support were collected before and after the implementation of the new curriculum. In a follow-up survey, medical students rated factors that contributed to their sense of connectedness with faculty and students (n = 134). Students' perception of connectedness to faculty significantly increased following implementation of a curriculum change that included academic communities. Students ranked small group clinical skills activities within academic communities significantly higher than other activities concerning their sense of connectedness with faculty. Students' perception of connectedness among each other was high at baseline and did not significantly change. Small group activities scored higher than extracurricular activities regarding students' connectedness among themselves. The implementation of a new curriculum with more small group educational activities including academic communities enhanced connectedness between students and faculty and resulted in an increased sense of community.

  10. Evaluation of multiple small-angle neutron scattering including magnetic interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaroun, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, s1 (2007), s701-s705 ISSN 0021-8898. [XIII International Conference on Small - Angle Scattering . Kyoto, 09.07.2006-13.07.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : multiple small - angle scattering * neutron scattering * ferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2007

  11. Risk Factor-tailored Small Group Education for Patients with First-time Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seon Young; Kim, Jin Shil

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a risk factor-tailored small group education on anxiety and depressive symptoms, self-efficacy and self-care compliance in patients with first-time acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for 12-month follow-up. A quasi-experimental pretest and post-test design was used. Patients were recruited from a national university hospital from 2010 to 2011 in Korea. The group education consisted of a 60-minute long video developed using multimedia contents including voice-recorded texts, flash animation, and video clips, with nurses' dialogue. The intervention group (n = 34) participated in group education using the multimedia video in a small group of patients with similar risk factors, and received periodic telephone counseling and text messages. The control group (n = 40) received usual care and counseling upon request. Depressive symptoms decreased, and self-efficacy and self-care compliance in the areas of medication, exercise, and healthy diet practice significantly increased in patients in the intervention group, compared with those in the control group. Risk factor-tailored small group education and periodic text message were an effective strategy for decreasing depression, and increasing self-efficacy and long-term compliance with lifestyle changes in patients with first-time ACS. We suggested that risk factor-tailored small group education need to be given for first-time ACS patients for psychological support and behavioral change in clinical practice. It is also comparable to individual approach to encourage psychological and behavioral change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Basic steps in establishing effective small group teaching sessions in medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    Small-group teaching and learning has achieved an admirable position in medical education and has become more popular as a means of encouraging the students in their studies and enhance the process of deep learning. The main characteristics of small group teaching are active involvement of the learners in entire learning cycle and well defined task orientation with achievable specific aims and objectives in a given time period. The essential components in the development of an ideal small group teaching and learning sessions are preliminary considerations at departmental and institutional level including educational strategies, group composition, physical environment, existing resources, diagnosis of the needs, formulation of the objectives and suitable teaching outline. Small group teaching increases the student interest, teamwork ability, retention of knowledge and skills, enhance transfer of concepts to innovative issues, and improve the self-directed learning. It develops self-motivation, investigating the issues, allows the student to test their thinking and higher-order activities. It also facilitates an adult style of learning, acceptance of personal responsibility for own progress. Moreover, it enhances student-faculty and peer-peer interaction, improves communication skills and provides opportunity to share the responsibility and clarify the points of bafflement. PMID:24353692

  13. Collective Motivation Beliefs of Early Adolescents Working in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined collective efficacy, group cohesion, and group performance in 125 randomly assigned groups of older (mean age 13.45 years) and younger (mean age 11.41 years) early adolescents working on three cooperative tasks. Collective motivation significantly predicted performance, even after controlling for past performance and…

  14. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R

    2016-06-13

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Dosimetry in CBCT with different protocols: emphasis on small FOVs including exams for TMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Helena Aguiar Ribeiro; Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz, E-mail: eduarda.hln@gmail.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Departmento de Diagnose Oral; Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departmento de Energia Nuclear; Frazão, Marco Antonio Gomes [Faculdade de Odontologia de Recife (FOR), Recife, PE (Brazil). Divisao de Radiologia Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria Moraes [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departmento de Clinica e Odontologica Preventiva

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to estimate the absorbed dose in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams according to different exposure parameters and size and position of the field of view (FOV). In addition was compared the absorbed dose of two smaller FOV scans with that of a larger FOV scan for evaluation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), as it is a bilateral structure. CBCT scans were obtained on OP300 Maxio unit varying scanning mode (standard, high and endo) as well as size (5 x 5, 6 x 8 and 8 x 15 cm) and positioning of FOV. With a small FOV, different areas were scanned (maxilla or mandible, anterior or posterior and TMJ). Absorbed doses were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin surface of sensitive organs of an anthropomorphic phantom. Endo mode showed the highest dose, followed by the high and standard modes in all FOV positions. With small FOV, doses were higher in the posterior region, especially in the mandible. Dose reduction occurred when small FOVs were used, but it was not proportional to FOV size reduction. For TMJ, the dose in a single acquisition with large FOV was greater than two acquisitions with small FOV, but lower than two acquisitions with medium FOV (6x8 cm). In conclusion, scanning mode, size and FOV position have great influence on the absorbed dose. Small FOV decreases the dose, but there is no linear relation between FOV size and dose. For bilateral exams of TMJ, double acquisition with small FOVs produces decrease in absorbed dose relative to a large FOV. (author)

  16. Teaching as Interaction: Challenges in Transitioning Teachers' Instruction to Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha; Chapman-DeSousa, Brook

    2017-01-01

    Although small group instruction is often endorsed in teaching young children, teachers are rarely given explicit instruction on how to move instruction into small groups where effective adult-child interactions can take place. This study examines how 14 early childhood educators transitioned their instruction from whole to small group teaching…

  17. Leader Communication Style: Effects on Members of Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Sally; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined effects of different leader verbal styles on group members. Results indicated leader verbal style is a factor influencing communication style of members and that it affects members' perceptions of leader orientation; however, it does not affect members' satisfaction with leaders, nor the self-concept of group members. (Author/RC)

  18. Toward Understanding Tip Leakage Flows in Small Compressor Cores Including Stator Leakage Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work was to provide additional data to supplement the work reported in NASA/CR-2015-218868 (Berdanier and Key, 2015b). The aim of that project was to characterize the fundamental flow physics and the overall performance effects due to increased rotor tip clearance heights in axial compressors. Data have been collected in the three-stage axial research compressor at Purdue University with a specific focus on analyzing the multistage effects resulting from the tip leakage flow. Three separate rotor tip clearances were studied with nominal tip clearance gaps of 1.5 percent, 3.0 percent, and 4.0 percent based on a constant annulus height. Overall compressor performance was previously investigated at four corrected speedlines (100 percent, 90 percent, 80 percent, and 68 percent) for each of the three tip clearance configurations. This study extends the previously published results to include detailed steady and time-resolved pressure data at two loading conditions, nominal loading (NL) and high loading (HL), on the 100 percent corrected speedline for the intermediate clearance level (3.0 percent). Steady detailed radial traverses of total pressure at the exit of each stator row are supported by flow visualization techniques to identify regions of flow recirculation and separation. Furthermore, detailed radial traverses of time-resolved total pressures at the exit of each rotor row have been measured with a fast-response pressure probe. These data were combined with existing three-component velocity measurements to identify a novel technique for calculating blockage in a multistage compressor. Time-resolved static pressure measurements have been collected over the rotor tips for all rotors with each of the three tip clearance configurations for up to five loading conditions along the 100 percent corrected speedline using fast-response piezoresistive pressure sensors. These time-resolved static pressure measurements reveal new knowledge about the

  19. Renormalization group theory for fluids including critical region. II. Binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jianguo; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Yi-Gui

    2005-06-01

    In our previous work [J. Mi, C. Zhong, Yi.-G. Li, J. Chen, Chem. Phys., 305 (2004) 37-45], an equation of state (EOS) based on the combination of renormalization group theory (RG) and the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) was proposed for describing pure fluid thermodynamic properties both inside and outside critical region, which was extended to binary mixtures in this work. A variety of binary systems were considered in this work, including nonpolar/nonpolar, nonpolar/polar, nonpolar/associating and associating/associating mixtures. Two adjustable parameters are required by the new EOS for each binary system, which are obtained by fitting the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data at one temperature. The calculated results show that the new EOS gives satisfactory predictions for critical properties as well as the VLE at other temperatures, both inside and outside critical region. This work demonstrates that RG theory is a very useful tool for accurately describing fluid properties inside critical region, and a combination of it with SAFT EOS can lead to a new EOS possessing the advantages of both theories, applicable to the whole phase equilibrium region of binary mixtures.

  20. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, M. P.; O& #x27; Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  1. Clients' Preferences for Small Groups vs. Individual Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Margaret E.; And Others

    Test takers' preferences for group versus individual administration of the Micro-TOWER System of Vocational Evaluation are reported. The system was administered to 211 clients at a vocational rehabilitation center, and consisted of work samples measuring the following job skills: record checking, filing, lamp assembly, message-taking, zip coding,…

  2. Small-Group Discourse: Establishing a Communication-Rich Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a communication-rich classroom can be difficult. This article describes the process and findings of a practitioner action research study addressing the question of how teachers can interact with their students while they are working in groups to encourage and enhance student-to-student communication. Recommended research-based teacher…

  3. Risk Transfer Formula for Individual and Small Group Markets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  4. Large and small sets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gusso

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the behaviour of large, small and medium subsets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups. Then we introduce the definition af a P-small set in abelian groups and we investigate the relations between this kind of smallness and the previous one, giving some examples that distinguish them.

  5. Connecting, interacting and supporting : Social capital, peer network and cognitive perspectives on small group teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Jasperina

    2017-01-01

    No mass lectures anymore but small-group teaching; this is the current trend in higher education and the way universities hope to attract future students. Students get to know each other easily when they collaborate in small groups. The question arises whether dividing a cohort of students in small

  6. Key Informant Models for Measuring Group-Level Variables in Small Groups: Application to Plural Subject Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesheimer, René; Bagozzi, Richard P.; Dholakia, Utpal M.

    2018-01-01

    We offer a new conceptualization and measurement models for constructs at the group-level of analysis in small group research. The conceptualization starts with classical notions of group behavior proposed by Tönnies, Simmel, and Weber and then draws upon plural subject theory by philosophers Gilbert and Tuomela to frame a new perspective…

  7. Small-Group Oral Presentations in Historical Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, R. Heather

    1989-01-01

    Discusses using the geologic history of the Paleozoic era for presentations. Describes methodology involved including data collection, summarizing and presentations. Notes the approach has received an enthusiastic response from students and is a rewarding change from the traditional lecture format. (Author/MVL)

  8. Generational Differences among a Small Group of Hmong Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Pa Der

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the differences in culture, language, and educational attainments among generations of Hmong in the United States since the beginning of their immigration to the United States. This study of 195 Hmong participants examines the effects of generational status on Hmong immigrants across several factors including marriage…

  9. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance

  10. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  11. Framing Negotiation: Dynamics of Epistemological and Positional Framing in Small Groups during Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soo-Yean; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined students' epistemological and positional framing during small group scientific modeling to explore their context-dependent perceptions about knowledge, themselves, and others. We focused on two small groups of Korean eighth-grade students who participated in six modeling activities about excretion. The two groups were…

  12. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  13. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... workers are related to the supply of service desk/help desk services providing the first level of... Employment and Training Administration Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group... Assistance on October 20, 2010, applicable to workers of Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery...

  14. Sharing Map Annotations in Small Groups: X Marks the Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, Ben; Cerretani, Jacqueline; Newman, Mark W.; Ackerman, Mark S.

    Advances in location-sensing technology, coupled with an increasingly pervasive wireless Internet, have made it possible (and increasingly easy) to access and share information with context of one’s geospatial location. We conducted a four-phase study, with 27 students, to explore the practices surrounding the creation, interpretation and sharing of map annotations in specific social contexts. We found that annotation authors consider multiple factors when deciding how to annotate maps, including the perceived utility to the audience and how their contributions will reflect on the image they project to others. Consumers of annotations value the novelty of information, but must be convinced of the author’s credibility. In this paper we describe our study, present the results, and discuss implications for the design of software for sharing map annotations.

  15. Improving learning and confidence through small group, structured otoscopy teaching: a prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Peng; Chahine, Saad; Husein, Murad

    2017-12-28

    Otologic diseases are common and associated with significant health care costs. While accurate diagnosis relies on physical exam, existing studies have highlighted a lack of comfort among trainees with regards to otoscopy. As such, dedicated otoscopy teaching time was incorporated into the undergraduate medical curriculum in the form of a small group teaching session. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of a small-group, structured teaching session on medical students' confidence with and learning of otoscopic examination. Using a prospective study design, an otolaryngologist delivered an one-hour, small group workshop to medical learners. The workshop included introduction and demonstration of otoscopy and pneumatic otoscopy followed by practice with peer feedback. A survey exploring students' confidence with otoscopy and recall of anatomical landmarks was distributed before(T1), immediately after(T2), and 1 month following the session(T3). One hundred and twenty five learners participated from February 2016 to February 2017. Forty nine participants with complete data over T1-T3 demonstrated significant improvement over time in confidence (Wilk's lambda = .09, F(2,48) = 253.31 p learning (Wilk's lambda = 0.34, F(2,47) = 24.87 p confidence with otoscopy and identification of otologic landmarks. Dedicated otoscopy teaching sessions may be a beneficial addition to the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  16. 77 FR 57451 - Regulations Regarding the Application of Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... the treatment of corporate equity reduction transactions (CERTs), including the treatment of multiple.... Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C. 6103... of the loss. The corporate equity reduction transaction rules of section 172(b)(1)(E) and (h) were...

  17. [The Positionality of Caring Action: Small Group Dialogue in a Course on Nursing Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2016-12-01

    The content of nursing-ethics education has typically focused on the external standards of caring behavior and neglected the relationship between the ethical attitudes and internal experiences of caregivers. To explore the embodied experience in order to define the positionality of caring action, which is necessary to enrich the content of nursing ethics through small-group-learning-based dialogue. The researcher, as a participant observer, teaches a course on nursing ethics. Reflective analysis was used to analyze the data from the process of small group learning, a reflective group of faculty members, and 30 reflective journals submitted by 10 students. The results identified three items that were related to the positionality of caring action: the attitudes of belief, including the choice to belief and deep understanding; articulating the value system, including exploring affectivity and positionality; and cultivating the self through self-dialogues and dialogues with others. The attitudes of belief promote trust in interpersonal relationships. Articulating the value system deepens the meaning of caring. Cultivating the self may facilitate the ethical self.

  18. The effect of small peer group continuous quality improvement on the clinical practice of midwives in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Y.; Verheijen, Nicole; Fleuren, M; Mokkink, Henk; Grol, R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). INTERVENTION: The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal

  19. The effect of small peer group continuous quality improvement on the clinical practice of midwives in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Y.; Verheijen, N.; Fleuren, M.; Mokkink, H.; Grol, R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. Design: Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). Intervention: The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal

  20. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    2017-06-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  1. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  2. Peer-led small groups: Are we on the right track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Fraser

    2017-10-01

    Peer tutor-led small group sessions are a valuable learning strategy but students may lack confidence in the absence of a content expert. This study examined whether faculty reinforcement of peer tutor-led small group content was beneficial. Two peer tutor-led small group sessions were compared with one faculty-led small group session using questionnaires sent to student participants and interviews with the peer tutors. One peer tutor-led session was followed by a lecture with revision of the small group content; after the second, students submitted a group report which was corrected and returned to them with comments. Student participants and peer tutors identified increased discussion and opportunity for personal reflection as major benefits of the peer tutor-led small group sessions, but students did express uncertainty about gaps in their learning following these sessions. Both methods of subsequent faculty reinforcement were perceived as valuable by student participants and peer tutors. Knowing in advance that the group report would be corrected reduced discussion in some groups, potentially negating one of the major benefits of the peer tutor-led sessions. Faculty reinforcement of peer-tutor led small group content benefits students but close attention should be paid to the method of reinforcement.

  3. 75 FR 55614 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North One Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... North One Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc... Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower, and... reports that workers leased from Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital...

  4. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of Express Personnel Services and the La Salle Network, Bloomingdale, IL; Havi Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL..., applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP, including on-site...

  5. Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers toward the Facilitation of Small-Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabach, Michal; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative work in small groups is often a suitable context for yielding substantial individual learning outcomes. Indeed, small-group collaboration has recently become an educational goal rather than a means. Yet, this goal is difficult to attain, and students must be taught how to learn together. In this paper, we focus on how to prepare…

  6. 45 CFR 159.120 - Data submission for the individual and small group markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data submission for the individual and small group... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH CARE REFORM INSURANCE WEB PORTAL § 159.120 Data submission for the individual and small group markets. (a) Health insurance issuers (hereinafter referred to as issuers) must...

  7. Effects of Small-Group Learning on Transfer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hui-Hua; Sears, David A.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential benefit of small-group learning on transfer performance using the method of meta-analysis. Results showed positive support for the hypothesis that small-group learning can increase students' transfer performance (average effect size of 0.30). Unlike reviews of effects of cooperation on learning, this…

  8. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  9. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion

  10. Assessing the Internal Dynamics of Mathematical Problem Solving in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the problem-solving behaviors and perceptions of (n=27) seventh-grade students as they worked on solving a mathematical problem within a small-group setting. An assessment system was developed that allowed for this analysis. To assess problem-solving behaviors within a small group a Group…

  11. The Mentoring Lab: A Small Group Approach for Managing Emotions from Multicultural Counselor Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Woodrow M.; Freytes, Magaly; Kaufman, Cindy J.; Woodruff, Rew; Hord, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to enable counselors-in-training to work through the strong emotional reactions experienced during the multicultural counseling course, a small group approach called the Multicultural Mentoring Lab has been developed. The purpose of the Multicultural Mentoring Lab is to provide a supportive, nonjudgmental, small group environment for…

  12. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

  13. "I Hate Group Work!": Addressing Students' Concerns about Small-Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies the strategies used by architecture professors and their undergraduate students to mitigate common issues that students raise about group work. Based on participant-observation, interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of instructional materials and student work, this IRB-approved ethnographic case study…

  14. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  15. The Effects of Small Group Vocabulary Instruction on Second Grade Students' Expressive Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Laura Lester

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group vocabulary instruction above and beyond whole group, read aloud vocabulary instruction, on second grade students' expressive vocabularies. This experimental study reflected a between-subjects design as three treatment groups were compared using a pretest, posttest within…

  16. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  17. Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Application of a Motor Learning Treatment for Speech Sound Disorders in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Steven L; Richard, Jennifer T

    2016-06-01

    Speech sound treatment in the public schools is often conducted in small groups, but there are minimal data on the efficacy of group treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a motor learning-based treatment (Concurrent Treatment) provided to elementary-school students in small groups. Concurrent Treatment incorporates the randomized sequencing of various practice tasks (e.g., words, sentences, or storytelling) and can result in rapid speech sound acquisition during individual treatment settings. Twenty-eight 6- to 9-year-old children participated in a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group received Concurrent Treatment, while the control group received treatment (if needed) after the study. Participants in the experimental group acquired their target speech sounds within 40 30-minute sessions in groups of up to four participants (effect size, d = 1.31). © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Clinical course teaching in transport of critically ill patients: Small group methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.

  20. Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. II. Properties of the NGC 4756 Group of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützbauch, R.; Kelm, B.; Focardi, P.; Trinchieri, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is part of a series that focuses on investigating galaxy formation and evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies in low-density environments. We present results from a study of the NGC 4756 group, which is dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 4756. The characteristics of the group are investigated through (1) the detailed investigation of the morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties of nine galaxies among the dominant members of the group; (2) the determination of the photometric parameters of the faint galaxy population in an area of 34'×34' centered on NGC 4756 and (3) an analysis of the X-ray emission in the area based on archival data. The nine member galaxies are located in the core part of the NGC 4756 group (a strip ~300 kpc in diameter, H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1), which has a very loose configuration. The central part of the NGC 4756 group contains a significant fraction of early-type galaxies. Three new group members with previously unknown systemic velocities are identified, one of which is type dE. At about 7.5 arcmin southwest of NGC 4756 a substructure of the group is detected, including IC 829, MCG -2-33-35, MCG -2-33-36, and MCG -2-33-38, that meets the Hickson criteria for being a compact group. Most of the galaxies in this substructure show interaction signatures. We do not detect apparent fine structure and signatures of recent interaction events in the early-type galaxy population, with the exception of a strong dust lane in the elliptical galaxy MCG -2-33-38. However, this galaxy displays signatures of nuclear activity. Strong [O III], [N II], and [S II] line emission, combined with comparatively weak but broad Hα emission, suggests an intermediate Seyfert type classification. Although the area is heavily contaminated by the background cluster A1631, X-ray data suggest the presence of a hot intergalactic medium related to the detected X-ray emission of the group. The present results are discussed in the context of

  1. Problem-based learning: facilitating multiple small teams in a large group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Jennifer H; Raidal, Sharanne L

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is often described as resource demanding due to the high staff-to-student ratio required in a traditional PBL tutorial class where there is commonly one facilitator to every 5-16 students. The veterinary science program at Charles Sturt University, Australia, has developed a method of group facilitation which readily allows one or two staff members to facilitate up to 30 students at any one time while maintaining the benefits of a small PBL team of six students. Multi-team facilitation affords obvious financial and logistic advantages, but there are also important pedagogical benefits derived from uniform facilitation across multiple groups, enhanced discussion and debate between groups, and the development of self-facilitation skills in students. There are few disadvantages to the roaming facilitator model, provided that several requirements are addressed. These requirements include a suitable venue, large whiteboards, a structured approach to support student engagement with each disclosure, a detailed facilitator guide, and an open, collaborative, and communicative environment.

  2. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  3. Observational Learning of Academic and Social Behaviors during Small-Group Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that small-group direct instruction is effective and efficient for teaching students with and without disabilities, although relatively few studies have been conducted with heterogeneous groups of preschool participants. In addition, previous studies have primarily assessed whether observational learning occurred for…

  4. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  5. Lexical Language-Related Episodes in Pair and Small Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Maria Del Pilar Garcia; Zeitler, Nora

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates whether learner set up in interaction, namely in pairs or small groups, influences the frequency and outcome of lexical language-related episodes (LREs) and L2 vocabulary learning. Thirty Spanish English as a foreign language (EFL) university learners took part in the study. They worked in four groups and seven pairs…

  6. Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2010-01-01

    Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

  7. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  8. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  9. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  10. 76 FR 35025 - Nokia, Inc.; a Subsidiary of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and Electronics and Adecco Fort... workers from ATC Logistics and Electronics, Fort Worth, Texas. The workers supplied planning and materials... ATC Logistics and Electronics, and Adecco, Fort Worth, Texas, who became totally or partially...

  11. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  12. 75 FR 11916 - Chrysler Group LLC, Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC, Conner Avenue Assembly Plant, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group LLC, Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC, Conner Avenue Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, CDI, Syncreon and Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC; Detriot, MI; Amended...

  13. An interactive online approach to small-group student presentations and discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Der; Xiao, Nan; Zheng, Meixun; Ma, Ruidan; Yu, Xiao Xi

    2017-12-01

    Student presentations had been widely implemented across content areas, including health sciences education. However, due to various limitations, small-group student presentations in the classroom may not reach their full potential for student learning. To address challenges with presentations in the classroom, we redesigned the assignment by having students present and discuss online using VoiceThread, a cloud-based presentation and discussion tool. First-year students pursuing a Doctor of Dental Surgery degree were assigned into small groups to present physiology content and to discuss that content online. This assignment was similar to traditional student classroom presentations, with the exception that the entire assignment was conducted online. The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of the online format on the discussion quality. Another purpose of the study was to examine students' perceptions of using VoiceThread for presenting and learning, as well as the online interactions between the presenter and audience. Students posted a higher number of questions and comments than required by the assignment. The questions from students were also higher level questions, and the answers to these questions were more thorough compared with what we had previously observed in classroom presentations. The survey results showed that students preferred using VoiceThread for presenting, learning from other presentations, and discussing presentation content over performing this process in the classroom. Preliminary findings suggested that having dental students make presentations and hold discussions online might help address the challenges of student presentations in the classroom. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. A small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with Alzheimer disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Julie D; Drake, Jamie Michelle; Marino, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) have a higher risk of falls than their cognitively intact peers. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a small-group balance exercise program for individuals with AD in a day center environment. Seven participants met the inclusion criteria: diagnosis of AD or probable AD, medical stability, and ability to walk (with or without assistive device). We used an exploratory pre- and post-test study design. Participants engaged in a functional balance exercise program in two 45-minute sessions each week for eight weeks. Balance activities were functional and concrete, and the intervention was organized into constant, blocked, massed practice. Outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and gait speed (GS; self-selected and fast assessed by an instrumented walkway). Data were analyzed by comparing individual change scores with previously identified minimal detectable change scores at the 90% confidence level (MDC90). Pre- and post-test data were acquired for five participants (two participants withdrew). The BBS improved in all five participants, and improved > or = 6.4 points (the MDC90 for the BBS in three participants. Four participants improved their performance on the TUG, and three participants improved > or = 4.09 seconds (the MDC90 for the TUG). Self-selected GS increased > or = 9.44 cm/sec (the MDC90 for gait speed) in three participants. Two participants demonstrated post-test self-selected GS comparable with their pretest fast GS. This pilot study suggests that a small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with AD is feasible and effective. Although participants had no explicit memory of the program, four of five improved in at least two outcome measures. Larger scale functional balance intervention studies with individuals with AD are warranted.

  15. Small group learning: effect on item analysis and accuracy of self-assessment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.

  16. A Project Team Analysis Using Tuckman's Model of Small-Group Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Deborah; Stark, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about equitable workloads for nursing faculty have been well documented, yet a standardized system for workload management does not exist. A project team was challenged to establish an academic workload management system when two dissimilar universities were consolidated. Tuckman's model of small-group development was used as the framework for the analysis of processes and effectiveness of a workload project team. Agendas, notes, and meeting minutes were used as the primary sources of information. Analysis revealed the challenges the team encountered. Utilization of a team charter was an effective tool in guiding the team to become a highly productive group. Lessons learned from the analysis are discussed. Guiding a diverse group into a highly productive team is complex. The use of Tuckman's model of small-group development provided a systematic mechanism to review and understand group processes and tasks. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(12):675-681.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. How do Small Groups Promote Behaviour Change? An Integrative Conceptual Review of Explanatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts. Texts were reviewed for explanatory concepts or theories describing change processes in groups, which were integrated into the developing conceptual structure. This was designed to be a parsimonious conceptual framework that could be applied to design and delivery. Five categories of interacting processes and concepts were identified and defined: (1) group development processes, (2) dynamic group processes, (3) social change processes, (4) personal change processes, and (5) group design and operating parameters. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of theorised mechanisms explaining individual change in small groups. The final conceptual model, together with the design issues and practical recommendations derived from it, provides a practical basis for linking research and theory explaining group functioning to optimal design of group-based, behaviour-change interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. A Rapid Review of the Factors Affecting Healthcare Students' Satisfaction with Small-Group, Active Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, James M; Grundy, Lisa; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Problem-based learning (PBL) and other small-group, active learning methodologies have been widely adopted into undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare curricula across the world. Although much research has examined student perceptions of these innovative teaching pedagogies, there are still questions over which factors influence these views. This article aims to identify these key elements that affect healthcare student satisfaction with PBL and other small-group learning methods, including case-based and team-based learning. A systematic rapid review method was used to identify high-quality original research papers from the healthcare education literature from between 2009 and 2014. All papers were critically appraised before inclusion in line with published guidelines. Narrative synthesis was achieved using an inductively developed, thematic framework approach. Fifty-four papers were included in the narrative synthesis. The evidence suggests that, despite an initial period of negative emotion and anxiety, the perspectives of healthcare students toward small-group, active learning methods are generally positive. The key factors influencing this satisfaction level include (a) the facilitator role, (b) tutorial structure, (c) individual student factors, (d) case authenticity, (e) increased feedback, (f) group harmony, and (g) resource availability. Insights: Student satisfaction is an important determinant of healthcare education quality, and the findings of this review may be of value in future curriculum design. The evidence described here suggests that an ideal curriculum may be based on an expert-led, hybrid PBL model.

  19. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are critical to the American economy and require a robust workforce. The scarcity of women in this workforce is a well-recognized problem, but data-driven solutions to this problem are less common. We provide experimental evidence showing that gender composition of small groups in engineering has a substantial impact on undergraduate women’s persistence. Women participate more actively in engineering groups when members are mostly ...

  20. Second teaching: An exploration of cognitive factors in small group physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novemsky, Lisa Forman

    This inquiry was focused on an exploration of introductory physics teaching. Alan Van Heuvelen's Overview Case Study (OCS) physics was the pedagogical approach involving guided small group problem solving and stressing concepts first, before mathematics. Second teaching is a new pedagogical construct based on Vygotsky's ideas. Structured small group activity follows traditional instruction facilitating learning for non-traditional students. It is a model of structured small group activity designed to follow traditional instruction to facilitate the learning process for students who find a physics optic (way of seeing) and physics language foreign. In informal small group settins students describe, explain, elaborate, test, and defend ideas in their own familiar vernacular as they collaborate in solving problems. Collective wisdom of a collaborative group, somewhat beyond the level for each individual member, is created then recreated through self-correction. Students improved significantly in physics knowledge. In a classroom setting, small groups of non-traditional physics students engaged in second teaching were observed. Written explanations to conceptual physics questions were analyzed. Development of language usage in relationship to introductory physics concept learning was studied. Overall physics learning correlated positively with gains in language clarity thus confirming the hypothesis that language development can be linked with gains in physics knowledge. Males and females were found to be significantly different in this respect. Male gains in language clarity were closely coupled with physics learning whereas female gains in the two measures were not coupled. Physics discourse, particularly in relationship to force and motion, seems to resonate with natural developmentally acquired sex-typical male but not female discourse. Thus, for males but not for females, physics learning proceeds in a seamless fashion wherein knowledge gains are coupled with

  1. Group O low titre only emergency donor panels for small combat teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Heidi; Maguire, A; Fitchett, G; Parker, P

    2017-12-01

    Military elements increasingly operate in small teams in remote areas with no immediate blood product support. Planners and operators may endorse collection of fresh whole blood from pretested donors in emergency situations. The biggest risk of transfusion is the accidental use of ABO incompatible blood which can be fatal. The risk may be mitigated by using only group O LOw (OLO) titre donors with plasma containing low levels of the naturally occurring antibody to group A and B red cells. This paper reviews the ABO blood group distribution in potential blood donors from a high readiness UK medical regiment and explores the feasibility of using only group OLO donors in small teams. A retrospective review of routine volunteer blood donor samples was undertaken at 6 monthly intervals during a 2-year period. Personnel were tested in groups when available during training to create multiple donor panels to simulate small teams. 206 donation samples were collected from 157 potential donors. All donors were acceptable based on the lifestyle questionnaire, serology and microbiology screen. Of the 206 samples reviewed, 85 (41%) were group O (D pos and D neg). 14 group O (16.5%) were shown to have high titre of anti-A or B. Therefore, 71, that is, 34% overall were suitable as OLO donors. The donor panel size varied from 15 to 44. The absolute number of OLO donors in each panel ranged from 4 to 17 and the number of O neg donors was 0-3. A third of samples were suitable as OLO donors; however, there were insufficient 'universal' donors within smaller subgroups (group O and group A donors or the use of a buddy-buddy blood group matrix. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Developing Employment Interview and Interviewing Skills in Small-group Project Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of communications skills in geographical education. Describes the use of realistic interviews that were a part of small-group project work. Explains that students wrote job specifications, a curriculum vitae, a cover letter, and conducted interview panels. (CMK)

  3. Developing Reflective Dispositions through Collaborative Knowledge-Building during Small Group Bible Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tze Keong; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Chai, Ching Sing

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of a constructivist pedagogical approach to cultivate reflective dispositions during small group Bible study. Conducted in a local church Bible class setting (n = 12), the instructional design emulated the reflective thinking process, while adopting collaborative knowledge-building as its pedagogical framework.…

  4. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  5. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  6. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  7. Creating in the Collective: Dialogue, Collaboration, and the Search for Understanding in the Jazz Small Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branker, Anthony Daniel John

    2010-01-01

    What would happen if college students involved in jazz small group performance were given the opportunity to be musically independent and self-directed while working in their own collaborative space? What sorts of things would they experience? What kind of learning space would they create for themselves? The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  9. The Study of Small Groups and Microevolution: A Project for Physical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a hands-on project in which anthropology students play the role of professional physical anthropologist in collecting and analyzing data on a small group of contemporary humans. Use of simulated data to represent ancestral populations results in an analysis of microevolution. (KH)

  10. Exploring Young Children's Response to Three Genres of Literature in Small-Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jennifer Adams

    2010-01-01

    This teacher research studied second graders' small-group, peer-led discussions about three genres of literature--realistic fiction, biography picture books, and science information books--across one school year (during three units in the fall, winter, and spring). It set out to explore how this peer talk, in general, mediated children's responses…

  11. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  12. Teaching Macroeconomics to the Visually Impaired: New Tactile Methods, Verbal Precision, and Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Michele I.

    2017-01-01

    Visually-impaired students require tailored pedagogies to ensure their instruction is as high quality as for sighted students. They follow board work during class by referring to typed class notes provided ahead of time via a Braille reader, and in-class small groups solving problems create an inclusive "esprit de corps" and promote…

  13. Worrying about What Others Think: A Social-Comparison Concern Intervention in Small Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Small-group learning has become commonplace in education at all levels. While it has been shown to have many benefits, previous research has demonstrated that it may not always work to the advantage of every student. One potential problem is that less-prepared students may feel anxious about participating, for fear of looking "dumb" in…

  14. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  15. Small-Group Cooperative Learning. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Annotations from 12 entries in the ERIC database were selected as significant and useful sources of information about small-group cooperative learning. Five of the citations are literature reviews. Among these is a meta-analysis, drawn from 217 studies, about the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement and interpersonal attraction;…

  16. Enactment of Teacher Identity in Resolving Student Disagreements in Small Group Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a sequential analysis of the enactment of teacher identity in closing disagreements among students in small group peer interactions in an advanced academic writing class. In doing so, it discusses: (a) the micro-details of how oppositional stances and opinions are constructed, challenged and/or defended; (b) the sequential…

  17. Exploring Small Group Analysis of Instructional Design Cases in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    The case-based approach is a constructivist instructional strategy that helps students apply their emerging knowledge by studying design problems in authentic real-world situations. One important instructional strategy in case-based instruction is to analyze cases in small groups before discussing them with the whole class. This study investigates…

  18. Power and status within small groups: An analysis of students' verbal and nonverbal behavior and responses to one another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lynnae Carol

    The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures

  19. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  20. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

  1. Risk transfer formula for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory C; Bachofer, Henry; Pearlman, Andrew; Kautter, John; Hunter, Elizabeth; Miller, Daniel; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group health insurance markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the third of three in this issue of the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review that describe the ACA risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk transfer formula. In our first companion article, we discussed the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In our second companion paper, we described the risk adjustment model that is used to calculate risk scores. In this article we present the risk transfer formula. We first describe how the plan risk score is combined with factors for the plan allowable premium rating, actuarial value, induced demand, geographic cost, and the statewide average premium in a formula that calculates transfers among plans. We then show how each plan factor is determined, as well as how the factors relate to each other in the risk transfer formula. The goal of risk transfers is to offset the effects of risk selection on plan costs while preserving premium differences due to factors such as actuarial value differences. Illustrative numerical simulations show the risk transfer formula operating as anticipated in hypothetical scenarios.

  2. Assessment of impact of small group teaching among students in community medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted a study to assess the impact of small group teaching (SGT among students by feedback analysis to identify intricacy so that learning can be facilitated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 182 MBBS students studying at a teaching hospital at Gangtok. Students were provided with a questionnaire following an assignment on a scheduled topic. Students were asked to provide feedback on the modes of teaching-learning practiced in community medicine with the parameters of evaluation including assessment of presentation by faculty member in reference to relevance, sequencing, depth, interaction, etc., to the overall rating of presentations in different teaching-learning methods. Results: The faculty members were on the positive evaluation by the students in the SGT, which was preferred over "lectures" as the teaching-learning methods. Among SGTs "tutorials" were graded better than "practical," "seminar" and "field posting" on the basis of longer duration at a stretch. Among the parameters for evaluation, relevance, depth, and interaction in regard to scheduled topic of presentations, the rating was significantly higher in SGT than different other teaching-learning methods. Largely the students noted that the time devoted and number of hours/sessions allotted for each topic was adequate. Conclusion: All forms of SGT were on the positive appraisal by the students on their learning experience and were considered as a comprehensive tool for in-depth teacher-student interaction.

  3. Directions for new developments on statistical design and analysis of small population group trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Roes, Kit; Stallard, Nigel

    2016-06-14

    Most statistical design and analysis methods for clinical trials have been developed and evaluated where at least several hundreds of patients could be recruited. These methods may not be suitable to evaluate therapies if the sample size is unavoidably small, which is usually termed by small populations. The specific sample size cut off, where the standard methods fail, needs to be investigated. In this paper, the authors present their view on new developments for design and analysis of clinical trials in small population groups, where conventional statistical methods may be inappropriate, e.g., because of lack of power or poor adherence to asymptotic approximations due to sample size restrictions. Following the EMA/CHMP guideline on clinical trials in small populations, we consider directions for new developments in the area of statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. We relate the findings to the research activities of three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which have received funding since 2013 within the FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1 framework of the EU. As not all aspects of the wide research area of small population clinical trials can be addressed, we focus on areas where we feel advances are needed and feasible. The general framework of the EMA/CHMP guideline on small population clinical trials stimulates a number of research areas. These serve as the basis for the three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which use various approaches to develop new statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. Small population clinical trials refer to trials with a limited number of patients. Small populations may result form rare diseases or specific subtypes of more common diseases. New statistical methodology needs to be tailored to these specific situations. The main results from the three projects will constitute a useful toolbox for improved design and analysis of small

  4. Small group gender ratios impact biology class performance and peer evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya

    2018-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.

  5. Individual and small group interactions in learning to teach with a hypermedia case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi-Lee Ahn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences of individual and small group preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case. Preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case were defined in terms of their (1) goals and perception of accomplishments of the goals, (2) use of features of the hypermedia case, and (3) types of questions and conflicts raised. Two individuals and two small groups of three preservice teachers participated by interacting with the hypermedia case which was developed to illustrate conceptual change science teaching in an elementary classroom. Most of the previous studies in this area have addressed large group use of hypermedia cases, and this study attempted to address the gap in the literature related to different social contexts, individuals and small groups, from the constructivist perspective. The assumptions of symbolic interactionism guided data collection from think-alouds and interviews. These multiple sources of data were used to understand the participants' construction of knowledge; data were analyzed and interpreted by a process of analytic induction. The major assertion was that the preservice teachers perceived the hypermedia case to be like a tool to link theory and practice of teaching. Three sub-assertions, and several supporting categories, also emerged from the data. These findings indicated that group learning experiences with the hypermedia case were more valuable than those of individuals. In general, preservice teachers benefited from learning how to teach with the hypermedia case in both settings. However, the individuals were not as satisfied as those in small groups, and the members of small groups interacted more actively with the hypermedia case as well as with the peers. The results of this study suggest that effective use of hypermedia cases takes place in a community of learners where the learners share the context and can draw upon the resources afforded by the

  6. Small Groups, Big Change: Preliminary Findings from the Sparks for Change Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, R.; Batchelor, R. L.; Habtes, S. Y.; King, B.; Crockett, J.

    2017-12-01

    The geoscience professoriate continues to under represent women and minorities, yet the value of diversity, both for science as well as recruiting and retaining diverse students, is well known. While there are growing numbers of early career tenure-track minority faculty, low retention rates pose a challenge for sustained diversity in the professoriate. Part of this challenge is the lack of institutional support and recognition in tenure and promotion pathways for faculty who undertake broadening participation efforts. Sparks for Change is a NSF Geoscience Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD)-funded project that aims to change departmental culture to better value and reward inclusion and broadening participation efforts. By encouraging, recognizing, and rewarding diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts at the department level, we aim to support and retain underrepresented minority (URM) faculty, who often disproportionately undertake these efforts, and to build more inclusive environments for faculty, staff and students alike. Sparks for Change utilizes a small group theory of change, arguing that the effort of a small group of committed individuals inside the organization is the best way to overcome the institutional inertia of academic departments that makes them resistant to change. For this effort, we propose that the ideal composition of these small groups is a junior faculty URM who is interested in DEI in the geosciences, a senior member of that same department who can lend weight to efforts and is positioned to help enact department policy, and an external broadening participation expert who can share best practices and provide accountability for the group. Eleven of these small groups, representing a range of institutions, will be brought together at the Sparks for Change Institute in Boulder, CO, in September. There they will receive leadership training on adaptive, transformative, and solidarity practices, share DEI experiences and

  7. Student satisfaction and perceptions of small group process in case-based interprofessional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Vernon R; Sharpe, Dennis; Forristall, Jennifer; Flynn, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The small group, case-based learning approach is believed to be a useful strategy for facilitating interprofessional learning and interaction factors are said to have a significant effect on student interest, learning and satisfaction with such approaches. The purpose of our study was twofold: assess students' satisfaction with a blended approach to interprofessional learning which combined computer-mediated and face-to-face, case-based learning; and examine the relationship between student satisfaction and perceptions of the collaborative learning process. We introduced six interprofessional learning modules to approximately 520 undergraduate health professional students from medicine (61), nursing (351), pharmacy (20), and social work (89). All students were invited to complete an evaluation survey which assessed student satisfaction with the interprofessional learning experience and students' perceptions of the small group learning process. Students' satisfaction with interprofessional education was related to professional background. Students from across professions reported greater satisfaction with face-to-face, case-based learning when compared with other learning methods. A more positive perception of face-to-face, case-based learning was related to greater satisfaction with interprofessional learning. The findings support the case-based method in facilitating interprofessional learning and highlight the importance of effective facilitation of small-group collaborative learning to enhance student satisfaction with interprofessional learning experiences.

  8. Pioneering small-group learning in Tanzanian emergency medicine: Investigating acceptability for physician learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emergency medicine (EM is a relatively new, but growing medical specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. African EM training programmes have used small-group learning (SGL modalities in their curricula. However, there is little knowledge of whether SGL modalities are perceived to be effective in these African EM training programmes. Objectives. To investigate the acceptability of SGL for physicians’ training in an academic Tanzanian emergency department using a novel EM curriculum. Methods. Using responses to a written questionnaire, we explored the perceived effectiveness of SGL compared with traditional didactic lectures among 38 emergency department physician learners in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Perceptions of SGL were identified from qualitative responses, and regression analyses were used to determine strength of association between quantitative outcomes. Results. Reported benefits of SGL included team building, simulation training, enhancement of procedural skills, and the opportunity to discuss opinions on clinical management. SGL scored more favourably with regard to improving clinical practice, enjoyment of learning, and building peer-to-peer relations. Lectures scored more favourably at improving medical knowledge. Preference towards SGL over lectures for overall training increased with years of clinical experience (95% confidence interval (CI 0.16 - 0.62, p=0.002, Spearman’s rho 0.51, and the perception that SGL reinforces learner-teacher relationships correlated with seniority within residency training (95% CI 0.14 - 0.86, p=0.007, Spearman’s rho 0.47. Conclusion. Techniques of SGL were perceived as effective at improving clinical practice in the emergency department setting. These modalities may be more favourably accepted by more experienced physician learners – therefore, new EM teaching programmes in Africa should consider these factors when targeting educational strategies for their respective regions and learner

  9. What Factors Influence Well-being of Students on Performing Small Group Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.

  10. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F.; Dixon, David A.

    2016-08-09

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n ( M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1 – 4 ) and (MO3)n ( M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1 – 3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation DFT functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs, and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer.

  11. Evolution of project-based learning in small groups in environmental engineering courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Requies

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the assessment of the development and evolution of an active methodology (Project-Based Learning –PBL- implemented on the course “Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering”, within the bachelor’s degree in Environmental Engineering, with the purpose of decreasing the dropout rate in this course. After the initial design and implementation of this methodology during the first academic year (12/13, different modifications were adopted in the following ones (13-14, 14-15 & 15-16 in order to optimize the student’s and professor’s work load as well as correct some malfunctions observed in the initial design of the PBL. This active methodology seeks to make students the main architects of their own learning processes. Accordingly, they have to identify their learning needs, which is a highly motivating approach both for their curricular development and for attaining the required learning outcomes in this field of knowledge. The results obtained show that working in small teams (cooperative work enhances each group member’s self–learning capabilities. Moreover, academic marks improve when compared to traditional learning methodologies. Nevertheless, the implementation of more active methodologies, such as project-based learning, in small groups has certain specific characteristics. In this case it has been implemented simultaneously in two different groups of 10 students each one. Such small groups are more heterogeneoussince the presence of two highly motivated students or not can vary or affect the whole group’s attitude and academic results.

  12. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  13. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  14. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    One of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) major goals is cleanup and protection of the waters of the Tennessee River system. Although great strides have been made, point source and nonpoint source pollution still affect the surface water and groundwater quality in the Tennessee Valley and nationally. Causes of this pollution are poorly operating wastewater treatment systems or the lack of them. Practical solutions are needed, and there is great interest and desire to abate water pollution with effective, simple, reliable and affordable wastewater treatment processes. In recognition of this need, TVA began demonstration of the constructed wetlands technology in 1986 as an alternative to conventional, mechanical processes, especially for small communities. Constructed wetlands can be downsized from municipal systems to small systems, such as for schools, camps and even individual homes.

  15. Discovery of group I introns in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, R J; Fuerst, P A; Byers, T J

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of group I introns in small subunit nuclear rDNA (nsrDNA) is becoming more common as the effort to generate phylogenies based upon nsrDNA sequences grows. In this paper we describe the discovery of the first two group I introns in the nsrDNA from the genus Acanthamoeba. The introns are in different locations in the genes, and have no significant primary sequence similarity to each other. They are identified as group I introns by the conserved P, Q, R and S sequences (1), and the ability to fit the sequences to a consensus secondary structure model for the group I introns (1, 2). Both introns are absent from the mature srRNA. A BLAST search (3) of nucleic acid sequences present in GenBank and EMBL revealed that the A. griffini intron was most similar to the nsrDNA group I intron of the green alga Dunaliella parva. A similar search found that the A. lenticulata intron was not similar to any of the other reported group I introns. Images PMID:8127708

  16. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  17. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  18. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  19. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Gastrointestinal Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-01-01

    -directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts, based on core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions encourages active participation; small groups also focus on synthesis and application of knowledge through discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy in resident learning.

  20. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Genitourinary Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-07-01

    -life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core emergency medicine content. This program also includes resident submitted questions that were developed during review of the content. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.

  1. Embryonic neurogenesis in Pseudopallene sp. (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) includes two subsequent phases with similarities to different arthropod groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on early neurogenesis have had considerable impact on the discussion of the phylogenetic relationships of arthropods, having revealed striking similarities and differences between the major lineages. In Hexapoda and crustaceans, neurogenesis involves the neuroblast, a type of neural stem cell. In each hemi-segment, a set of neuroblasts produces neural cells by repeated asymmetrical and interiorly directed divisions. In Euchelicerata and Myriapoda, neurogenesis lacks neural stem cells, featuring instead direct immigration of neural cell groups from fixed sites in the neuroectoderm. Accordingly, neural stem cells were hitherto assumed to be an evolutionary novelty of the Tetraconata (Hexapoda + crustaceans). To further test this hypothesis, we investigated neurogenesis in Pycnogonida, or sea spiders, a group of marine arthropods with close affinities to euchelicerates. Results We studied neurogenesis during embryonic development of Pseudopallene sp. (Callipallenidae), using fluorescent histochemical staining and immunolabelling. Embryonic neurogenesis has two phases. The first phase shows notable similarities to euchelicerates and myriapods. These include i) the lack of morphologically different cell types in the neuroectoderm; ii) the formation of transiently identifiable, stereotypically arranged cell internalization sites; iii) immigration of predominantly post-mitotic ganglion cells; and iv) restriction of tangentially oriented cell proliferation to the apical cell layer. However, in the second phase, the formation of a central invagination in each hemi-neuromere is accompanied by the differentiation of apical neural stem cells. The latter grow in size, show high mitotic activity and an asymmetrical division mode. A marked increase of ganglion cell numbers follows their differentiation. Directly basal to the neural stem cells, an additional type of intermediate neural precursor is found. Conclusions Embryonic neurogenesis of Pseudopallene

  2. PBL curriculum improves medical students' participation in small-group tutorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wun, Y T; Tse, Eileen Y Y; Lam, T P; Lam, Cindy L K

    2007-09-01

    Group learning is the core of problem-based learning (PBL) but has not been extensively studied, especially in Asian students. This study compared students of PBL and non-PBL curricula in students' talking time and participation in small-group tutorials in a medical school in Asia. The proportions of student talking of 46 tutorials in three teaching rotations of the PBL curriculum and those of 43 corresponding tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum were counted. Twelve videotapes of tutorials (six from each curriculum), stratified for tutor, case scenario and students' learning stage, were randomly selected and transcribed. They were rated with the group-interaction (5 items) and active-participation (four items) tutorial assessment scales developed by Valle et al. These outcomes were compared between the students of PBL and non-PBL curricula. Students from the PBL curriculum talked significantly more. In only two (4.7%) of 43 tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum did the students talk more than the tutors; but students talked more than the tutors in 17 (37.0%) of 46 tutorials in the PBL curriculum. PBL students scored significantly higher than non-PBL students in all items except one item (respect to peers) of the tutorial assessment scales, and in the mean scores of both the group interaction scale (items 1-5) and the active participation scale (items 6-9). The results suggested that PBL starting from the early years of a medical curriculum was associated with more active student participation, interaction and collaboration in small-group tutorials.

  3. Teachers' and students' verbal behaviours during cooperative and small-group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M

    2006-06-01

    Teachers play a critical role in promoting interactions between students and engaging them in the learning process. This study builds on a study by Hertz-Lazarowitz and Shachar (1990) who found that during cooperative learning teachers' verbal behaviours were more helpful to and encouraging of their students' efforts while during whole-class instruction, their verbal behaviours tended to be more authoritarian, rigid, and impersonal. This study seeks to determine if teachers who implement cooperative learning engage in more facilitative learning interactions with their students than teachers who implement group work only. The study also seeks to determine if students in the cooperative groups model their teachers' behaviours and engage in more positive helping interactions with each other than their peers in the group work groups. The study involved 26 teachers and 303 students in Grades 8 to 10 from 4 large high schools in Brisbane, Australia. All teachers agreed to establish cooperative, small-group activities in their classrooms for a unit of work (4 to 6 weeks) once a term for 3 school terms. The teachers were audiotaped twice during these lessons and samples of the students' language, as they worked in their groups, were also collected at the same time. The results show that teachers who implement cooperative learning in their classrooms engage in more mediated-learning interactions and make fewer disciplinary comments than teachers who implement group work only. Furthermore, the students model many of these interactions in their groups. The study shows that when teachers implement cooperative learning, their verbal behaviour is affected by the organizational structure of the classroom.

  4. Comparison of small-group training with self-directed internet-based training in inhaler techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumas, Mariam; Basheti, Iman A; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2009-08-28

    To compare the effectiveness of small-group training in correct inhaler technique with self-directed Internet-based training. Pharmacy students were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: small-group training (n = 123) or self-directed Internet-based training (n = 113). Prior to intervention delivery, all participants were given a placebo Turbuhaler and product information leaflet and received inhaler technique training based on their group. Technique was assessed following training and predictors of correct inhaler technique were examined. There was a significant improvement in the number of participants demonstrating correct technique in both groups (small group training, 12% to 63%; p training, 9% to 59%; p groups in the percent change (n = 234, p > 0.05). Increased student confidence following the intervention was a predictor for correct inhaler technique. Self-directed Internet-based training is as effective as small-group training in improving students' inhaler technique.

  5. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market...

  6. 76 FR 13667 - Chrysler Group LLC; Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC; Kenosha Engine Plant; Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Prodriver Leasing Systems, Inc., Teksystems, Inc., Arcadis and the PIC Group, Kenosha, WI; Amended.... The workers at the subject firm were engaged in employment related to the production of V-6 automobile... Leasing Systems, Inc., Teksystems, Inc., Arcadis, and The PIC Group, Kenosha, Wisconsin, who became...

  7. Prospecting for customers in the small employer market: the experience of Arizona Health Care Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, J B; Liu, C F; Schroeder, C M

    1994-01-01

    The findings of this study provide an interesting profile of the small employer "prospects" for prepaid health plans, where a prospect is defined as an employer that responds to a mass mailing effort with a request for information and further contact. About 60% of these prospects already have insurance, with 40% having group insurance. Therefore, a substantial portion of prospects are seeking to replace their existing health benefit package with a different one. Of those who do not offer existing insurance, the most common reason is that it is "too expensive" or the employer is "not profitable." A very small proportion do not offer insurance because they do not qualify for it due to medical underwriting considerations. Prospects tend to be larger than non-prospects in terms of sales, but employ lower wage employees, on average. About half of prospects are in service industries, a proportion typical of small employers in general. Somewhat surprisingly, most prospects have been in operation for over five years. They are not new firms attempting to establish their benefit packages. This is consistent with the findings on gross sales, suggesting that some maturity is necessary before an employer considers offering group health insurance as a benefit. The prepaid plans in this study also appeared to target established employers for their marketing efforts. In responding to questions about their attitudes towards health insurance, over one-quarter of prospects indicated that they would be unwilling to offer insurance at rates so low that they would not normally apply to the coverages offered by prepaid plans. Thus, although they were "prospects" by the study's definition, they were unlikely to eventually contract with prepaid plans. Those prospects that had offered insurance previously, but had discontinued it, tended to cite premium increases as the reason. This suggests that prospects among small employers are likely to be very price sensitive, and that further

  8. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  9. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  10. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Newell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts.

  11. Population structure and characterization of viridans group streptococci (VGS) including Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunori; Elborn, J Stuart; Parkins, Michael D; Reihill, James; Goldsmith, Colin E; Coulter, Wilson A; Mason, Charlene; Millar, B Cherie; Dooley, James S G; Lowery, Colm J; Ennis, Madeleine; Rendall, Jacqueline C; Moore, John E

    2011-03-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Freshly expectorated sputa (n=58) from 45 adult CF patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 190 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 12 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis. The most frequently VGS organism isolated was S. salivarius (47/190; 24.7%), followed by S. mitis (36/190; 19%), S. sanguinis (25/190; 13.2%), S. oralis (20/190; 11.0%), S. pneumoniae (19/190; 10.0%), S. parasanguinis (16/190; 8.4%), S. infantis (11/190; 5.8%), S. gordonii (7/190; 3.7%), S. anginosus (4/190; 2.1%), S. cristatus (2/190; 1.1%), S. australis (1/190; 0.5%), S. mutans (1/190; 0.5%) and S. agalactiae (1/190; 0.5%). All, but four, patients harboured at least one VGS species, which ranged from one to five streptococcal species, with a mean of 2.85 species per patient. There was no clonality at the subspecies level employing ERIC RAPD PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing against penicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Overall, resistance to penicillin with all VGS was 73/190 (38.4%) and 167/190 (87.9%) for erythromycin. With regard to ciprofloxacin, 27/190 (14.2%) were fully resistant, whilst a further 21/190 (11.1%) showed intermediate resistance, which equated to approximately three quarters (74.7%) of isolates being fully sensitive to this agent. In addition, as a comparator control population, we examined antibiotic susceptibility, as above, in a non-CF population comprising 12 individuals (50 VGS isolates), who were not receiving chronic antibiotics. In comparison, 8% and 38% of VGS

  12. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S; Hay, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5-0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3-6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3-5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260-280% as much coral cover and only 5-25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs.

  13. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  14. Small Group Learning in Medical Education: A Second Look at the Springer, Stanne, and Donovan Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; Feltovich, Paul J.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the studies on which a meta-analysis by Springer, Stanne, and Donovan (1999) were based; the meta-analysis had concluded that small group learning in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education is effective. Concludes that the meta-analysis' call for more widespread implementation of small group learning is not supported.…

  15. Informal Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: The Effect of Scaffolding on Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christopher; Costley, Jamie; Han, Seung Lock

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of group work scaffolding on participation. The procedural scaffolding of two cooperative learning techniques, Numbered Heads Together and Think-Pair-Share, are compared based on levels of participation, learning, and satisfaction they elicit. Aspects of participation that are examined include levels of group…

  16. Development of active learning modules in pharmacology for small group teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Raakhi K; Sarkate, Pankaj V; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Rege, Nirmala N

    2015-01-01

    Current teaching in pharmacology in undergraduate medical curriculum in India is primarily drug centered and stresses imparting factual knowledge rather than on pharmacotherapeutic skills. These skills would be better developed through active learning by the students. Hence modules that will encourage active learning were developed and compared with traditional methods within the Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai. After Institutional Review Board approval, 90 second year undergraduate medical students who consented were randomized into six sub-groups, each with 15 students. Pre-test was administered. The three sub-groups were taught a topic using active learning modules (active learning groups), which included problems on case scenarios, critical appraisal of prescriptions and drug identification. The remaining three sub-groups were taught the same topic in a conventional tutorial mode (tutorial learning groups). There was crossover for the second topic. Performance was assessed using post-test. Questionnaires with Likert-scaled items were used to assess feedback on teaching technique, student interaction and group dynamics. The active and tutorial learning groups differed significantly in their post-test scores (11.3 ± 1.9 and 15.9 ± 2.7, respectively, P active learning session as interactive (vs. 37/90 students in tutorial group) and enhanced their understanding vs. 56/90 in tutorial group), aroused intellectual curiosity (47/90 students of active learning group vs. 30/90 in tutorial group) and provoked self-learning (41/90 active learning group vs. 14/90 in tutorial group). Sixty-four students in the active learning group felt that questioning each other helped in understanding the topic, which was the experience of 25/90 students in tutorial group. Nevertheless, students (55/90) preferred tutorial mode of learning to help them score better in their examinations. In this study, students preferred an active learning environment, though to pass examinations, they

  17. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  18. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The ''pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at ∼0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Shaping of macroinvertebrate structures in a small fishless lowland stream exposed to anthropopressure, including the environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krepski Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of abiotic and biotic factors influencing macroinvertebrate assemblages, there is always the problem of which factor – fish predation or environmental conditions – has the strongest impact on the invertebrates and whether the impact is positive or negative. The aim of our study was to determine the impact on the structures of macrozoobenthos in a small field watercourse exerted by abiotic conditions, with the concurrent lack of predators and varied intensity of anthropopressure. During the entire study period, the presence of 49 taxa of macroinvertebrates was recorded. The highest number of taxa and value of biodiversity was observed in the upper part of the watercourse, and subsequently decreased down the stream, reaching the lowest value at the sites located near the outlet. The tributaries significantly differed between each other in the number of taxa. In the tributary carrying water from wetland, a much higher number of taxa was noted than in the tributary carrying municipal water where the density achieved a significantly higher value of individuals than the remaining sites. The most limiting factors for the abundance of the investigated taxa were the oxygen concentration, nutrients and ammonia.

  20. Franchising as a Strategy for Combining Small and Large Group Advantages (Logics) in Social Entrepreneurship: A Hayekian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Markus; Zeyen, Anica

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a Hayekian perspective on social franchising that distinguishes between the end-connected logic of the small group and the rule-connected logic of the big group. Our key claim is that mission-driven social entrepreneurs often draw on the small-group logic when starting their social ventures and then face difficulties when the process of scaling shifts their operations toward a big-group logic. In this situation, social franchising offers a strategy to replicate the small...

  1. Global transcriptome responses including small RNAs during mixed-species interactions with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine L; Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Chen, Ping; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2017-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus mixed-species biofilm infections are more resilient to biocide attacks compared to their single-species counterparts. Therefore, this study used an in vitro model recapitulating bacterial burdens seen in in vivo infections to investigate the interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in biofilms. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was utilized to identify the entire genomic response, both open reading frames (ORFs) and small RNAs (sRNAs), of each species. Using competitive indexes, transposon mutants validated uncharacterized PA1595 of P. aeruginosa and Panton-Valentine leukocidin ORFs of S. aureus are required for competitive success. Assessing spent media on biofilm development determined that the effects of these ORFs are not solely mediated by mechanisms of secretion. Unlike PA1595, leukocidin (lukS-PV) mutants of S. aureus lack a competitive advantage through contact-mediated mechanisms demonstrated by cross-hatch assays. RNA-seq results suggested that during planktonic mixed-species growth there is a robust genomic response or active combat from both pathogens until a state of equilibrium is reached during the maturation of a biofilm. In mixed-species biofilms, P. aeruginosa differentially expressed only 0.3% of its genome, with most ORFs necessary for growth and biofilm development, whereas S. aureus modulated approximately 5% of its genome, with ORFs suggestive of a phenotype of increased virulence and metabolic quiescence. Specific expression of characterized sRNAs aligned with the genomic response to presumably coordinate the adaptive changes necessary for this homeostatic mixed-species biofilm and sRNAs may provide viable foci for the design of future therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Accumulation of small heat shock proteins, including mitochondrial HSP22, induced by oxidative stress and adaptive response in tomato cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzet, N.; Richaud, C.; Deveaux, Y.; Kazmaier, M.; Gagnon, J.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression, by application of H2O2, O2.- generating agents (methyl viologen, digitonin) and gamma irradiation to tomato suspension cultures, were investigated and compared to the well-described heat shock response. Two-dimensional gel protein mapping analyses gave the first indication that at least small heat shock proteins (smHSP) accumulated in response to application of H2O2 and gamma irradiation, but not to O2.- generating agents. While some proteins seemed to be induced specifically by each treatment, only part of the heat shock response was observed. On the basis of Northern hybridization experiments performed with four heterologous cDNA, corresponding to classes I-IV of pea smHSP, it could be concluded that significant amounts of class I and II smHSP mRNA are induced by H2O2 and by irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in plants some HSP genes are inducible by oxidative stresses, as in micro-organisms and other eukaryotic cells. HSP22, the main stress protein that accumulates following H2O2 action or gamma irradiation, was also purified. Sequence homology of amino terminal and internal sequences, and immunoreactivity with Chenopodium rubrum mitochondrial smHSP antibody, indicated that the protein belongs to the recently discovered class of plant mitochondrial smHSP. Heat shock or a mild H2O2 pretreatment was also shown to lead to plant cell protection against oxidative injury. Therefore, the synthesis of these stress proteins can be considered as an adaptive mechanism in which mitochondrial protection could be essential

  3. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  4. 76 FR 16450 - Management Resources Group, Inc., Including Workers in the States of Georgia and New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Connecticut Workforce Office representative filed a petition for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) with the... employment related to the supply of asset reliability engineering consulting services. The worker group does... worker adjustment assistance under Section 222(a) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2272(a), the following criteria...

  5. Numerical and experimental study of a radiotherapy treatment planning system including Monte Carlo calculations: heterogeneities and small beams applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Bouchra

    2009-09-01

    Improvements relative to the MC dose calculation speed have been made within the European project MAESTRO by the development of the fast MC code PENFAST and within the TELEDOS project by the parallelization of this code. This PhD work, based on these two projects, focuses on the evaluation of the technical and dosimetric performances of the MC code. These issues are crucial before the use of the MC code in clinical applications. First, variance reduction techniques included in the MC code as well as the parallelization of the calculation have been validated and evaluated in terms of gain in the computing time. The second part of this work has exposed a new, fast and accurate method to determine the initial energy spectrum of the accelerator. This spectrum is required for the MC dose calculation. Afterwards, dose calculations with the fast MC code PENFAST have been evaluated under metrological and clinical conditions. The results showed the ability of the MC code to quickly calculate an accurate dose in both photon and electron modes, even in electronic disequilibrium situations. However, this study revealed an uncertainty, in the TPS-MC, in the conversion of the CT image to voxelized geometry which is used for MC dose calculation. The quality of this voxelization may be improved through an artefacts correction software and by including additional materials in the database of the code. (author)

  6. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  7. Effects of longitudinal small-group learning on delivery and receipt of communication skills feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Masters, Dylan E; Chang, Anna; Kruidering, Marieke; Hauer, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Although feedback is a critical component of learning, recent data suggest that learners may discount feedback they receive. The emotional threat inherent in feedback can contribute to its ineffectiveness, particularly for sensitive topics like communication skills. Longitudinal relationships among peers may increase their sense of safety and soften the perceived threat of feedback to allow students to give, receive and potentially more effectively incorporate feedback. We studied the effects of prior shared learning experiences among medical students in the delivery and receipt of feedback on clinical (communication) skills. During a formative clinical skills examination, we divided Year 3 students at a US medical school into two subgroups comprising, respectively, small-group classmates from a 2-year longitudinal pre-clerkship clinical skills course (with prior peer-learning relationships), and peers with no prior shared small-group coursework. Students in both subgroups observed peers in a simulated clinical case and then provided feedback, which was videotaped, transcribed and coded. Feedback recipients also completed a survey on their perceptions of the feedback. Students valued the feedback they received and intended to enact it, regardless of whether they had prior peer-learning relationships. Coding of feedback revealed high specificity. Feedback providers who had prior peer-learning relationships with recipients provided more specific corrective feedback on communication skills than those with no such relationships (p = 0.014); there was no significant difference between subgroups in the provision of reinforcing feedback on communication skills. Year 3 medical student peers can deliver specific feedback on clinical skills; prior peer-learning relationships in pre-clerkship clinical skills courses enrich the provision of specific corrective feedback about communication skills. Feedback between peers with pre-existing peer-learning relationships represents

  8. Revision of Dadagulella gen. nov., the “Gulella radius group" (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae of the eastern Afrotropics, including six new species and three new subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rowson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Dadagulella gen. nov. is described to include 16 species of small, dentate, ovate-acuminate Afrotropical snails. An identification key is provided and biogeography, anatomy and systematics are discussed. The type species is the Kenyan D. radius (Preston, 1910 comb. nov., whose name has informally been used for part of the group in the past. Substantial intraspecific variation occurs in three species: D. radius itself, D. browni (van Bruggen, 1969 comb. nov. and D. minuscula (Morelet, 1877 comb. nov. (= Ennea fischeriana Morelet, 1881 (non Gulella minuscula Emberton & Pearce, 2000 . We recognise subspecies within each of these: D.radius radius (Preston, 1910 comb. nov., D. r. calva (Connolly, 1922 comb. et stat. nov., D. browni browni (van Bruggen, 1969 comb. nov., D. b. mafiensis subsp. nov., D. b. semulikiensis subsp. nov., D. minuscula minuscula (Morelet, 1877 comb. nov., D. m. mahorana subsp. nov. Six new Tanzanian species are described: D. cresswelli sp. nov., D. delta sp. nov., D. ecclesiola sp. nov., D. frontierarum sp. nov., D. minareta sp. nov., and D. pembensis sp. nov. The genus includes seven other previously described species: D. cuspidata (Verdcourt, 1962 comb. nov.; D. rondoensis (Verdcourt, 1994 comb. nov.; D. conoidea (Verdcourt, 1996 comb. nov.; D. selene (van Bruggen & Van Goethem, 1999 comb. nov.; D. meredithae (van Bruggen, 2000 comb. nov.; D. nictitans (Rowson & Lange, 2007 comb. nov.; and D. delgada (Muratov, 2010 comb. nov.

  9. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  10. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  11. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  12. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,072] Android Industries..., 2010, applicable to workers of Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from... Belvidere, Illinois location of Android Industries Belvidere, LLC. The Department has determined that these...

  13. Found in translation: exporting patient-centered communication and small group teaching skills to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Benjamin; Kallenberg, Gene; Lang, Forrest; Mahoney, Patrick; Patterson, JoEllen; Dugan, Beverly; Sun, Shaobang

    2009-06-26

    The Chinese Medical Doctor's Association asked us to develop a train-the-trainers program in doctor-patient communication and in teaching skills for a select group of Chinese health care professionals, who would then serve as trainers for practicing physicians throughout China. The request came in the context of increasing doctor-patient friction related, in part, to the dissolution of the socialist health care safety net in China. In this article we recount the implementation of our 5-day training program in Beijing. We explore cross-cultural issues that arose in presenting the program's two principal training domains: small group teaching and patient-centered doctor-patient communication. We also explore the linguistic challenges we encountered as non-Chinese speaking teachers. Finally, we reflect on the lessons learned from this project that may be of value to others called upon to export Western doctor-patient communications training to other cultures. In this age of increasing globalization, cross-cultural sharing of medical education represents a growing trend.

  14. Educational network comparative analysis of small groups: Short- and long-term communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chepurov, E. G.; Kokovin, A. V.; Ranyuk, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The present study is devoted to the discussion of small group communication network structures. These communications were observed in student groups, where actors were united with a regular educational activity. The comparative analysis was carried out for networks of short-term (1 hour) and long-term (4 weeks) communications, it was based on seven structural parameters, and consisted of two stages. At the first stage, differences between the network graphs were examined, and the random corresponding Bernoulli graphs were built. At the second stage, revealed differences were compared. Calculations were performed using UCINET software framework. It was found out that networks of long-term and short-term communications are quite different: the structure of a short-term communication network is close to a random one, whereas the most of long-term communication network parameters differ from the corresponding random ones by more than 30%. This difference can be explained by strong "noisiness" of a short-term communication network, and the lack of social in it.

  15. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  16. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  17. Oregon department of transportation small business group twice-monthly payments pilot project : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) recently completed a pilot study on small business payment practices. In the study, three pilot projects were tested where payments to small business contractors were changed from a monthly payment to twice-...

  18. Spontaneous mass generation and the small dimensions of the Standard Model gauge groups U(1, SU(2 and SU(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Fernández

    2017-02-01

    The result follows from strong antiscreening of the running coupling for those larger groups (with an appropriately small number of flavors together with scaling properties of the Dyson–Schwinger equation for the fermion mass.

  19. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Pertaining to Team and Small Group Performance (1989 to 1999)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaJoie, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    .... Training and military doctrine has been evolving to reflect this emphasis on teamwork. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to review literature published over the last ten years concerning team and small group performance...

  20. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  1. Whistles of small groups of Sotalia fluviatilis during foraging behavior in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivari, Daniela; Rosso, Sergio

    2005-10-01

    Whistle emissions were recorded from small groups of marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) in two beaches located in an important biological reserve in the Cananéia estuary (25°03'S, 47°58'W), southeastern Brazil. A total of 17 h of acoustic data was collected when dolphins were engaged in a specific feeding foraging activity. The amount of 3235 whistles was recorded and 40% (n=1294) were analyzed. Seven acoustic whistle parameters were determined: duration (ms), number of inflection points, start and end frequency (kHz), minimum and maximum frequency (kHz), and frequency range (kHz). Whistles with up to four inflection points were found. Whistles with no inflection points and rising frequency corresponded to 85% (n=1104) of all analyzed whistles. Whistle duration varied from 38 to 627 ms (mean=229.6+/-109.9 ms), with the start frequency varying between 1 and 16 kHz (mean=8.16+/-3.0 kHz) and the end frequency between 2 and 18 kHz (mean=14.35+/-3.0 kHz). The importance of this study requires an accurate measurement of the whistles' emissions in an unusual foraging feeding behavior situation on two beaches where several tucuxis, mostly mother-calf pairs, are frequently present. These two beaches are located in a federal and state environment Environmental Protected Area threatened by the progressive increase of tourism.

  2. Standard Setting in a Small Scale OSCE: A Comparison of the Modified Borderline-Group Method and the Borderline Regression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan M.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    When setting standards, administrators of small-scale OSCEs often face several challenges, including a lack of resources, a lack of available expertise in statistics, and difficulty in recruiting judges. The Modified Borderline-Group Method is a standard setting procedure that compensates for these challenges by using physician examiners and is…

  3. Evolution of small putative group I introns in the SSU rRNA gene locus of Phialophora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Lorena B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group I introns (specifically subgroup IC1 are common in the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of fungi. While most range in length from more than 200 to nearly 1800 nucleotides (nt in length, several small putative (or degenerate group I introns have been described that are between 56 and 81 nt. Although small, previously we demonstrated that the PaSSU intron in the rRNA small subunit gene of Phialophora americana isolate Wang 1046 is capable of in vitro splicing using a standard group I intron pathway, thus qualifying it as a functional ribozyme. Findings Here, we describe eight short putative group I introns, ranging in length from 63 to 75 nt, in the rRNA small subunit genes of Phialophora isolates, a fungal genus that ranges from saprobic to pathogenic on plants and animals. All contain putative pairing regions P1, P7, and P10, as well as a pairing region formed between the middle of the intron and part of the 3' exon. The other pairing regions common in the core of standard group I introns are absent. However, parts of the 3' exon may aid in the stabilization of these small introns. Although the eight putative group I introns were from at least three species of Phialophora, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eight are monophyletic. They are also monophyletic with the small introns of two lichen-forming fungi, Porpidia crustulata and Arthonia lapidicola. Conclusions The small putative group I introns in Phialophora have common features that may represent group I introns at their minima. They appear to have a single origin as indicated by their monophyly in phylogenetic analyses.

  4. Task Performance in Small Group Settings: The Role of Group Members' Self-Efficacy And Collective Efficacy and Group's Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Jerrine Z. N.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study extends the literature by investigating the relative salience of self- and collective efficacy in predicting group performance among early adolescents in Indonesia. A total of 435 early adolescents (mean age 11.70 years, 53% female) were randomly assigned to groups of three to four and completed three group tasks (task 1:…

  5. Introduction of small and medium reactors in developing countries. Proceedings of two advisory group meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This publication presents material submitted both by vendor and interested buyer organizations and conclusions drawn from the discussions of these contributions at two Advisory Group meetings on the SMR introduction in developing countries. A few papers were prepared as follow-up contributions to the proceedings. The summary presents a review of the main areas related to SMR introduction and of relevant situations and activities in both industrialized and developing countries. It includes an assessment of the expected potential market and of relevant experience that may help developing countries in their efforts to introduce SMRs. Owing to the inclusion of several new designs, this TECDOC provides an update of the SMR status report (IAEA-TECDOC-881) published in 1996. It also reviews real time compact nuclear power plant simulators

  6. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. This meeting will... held via the Internet using a Webcast and teleconference. Registrants will receive an Internet access... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. Based upon input...

  7. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  8. THINKING ALOUD, TALKING, AND LEAThinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups Thinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bejanaro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness. Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness.

  9. INFRARED AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL GROUP OF PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MOLECULAR CORE, L1251-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Francesco, James Di [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingeniera, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission in the east–west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 μm with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and James Clerk Maxwell telescopes, tracing dense envelope material around L1251A. The single-dish data from the Korean VLBI Network and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular emission lines and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The Submillimeter Array interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2–1 and {sup 13}CO 2–1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in the Infrared Array Camera image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust-continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving source of the newly detected compact CO 2–1 outflow. Over the entire region (14′ × 14′) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three young stellar objects (YSOs) in L1251A. A comparison between the average projected distance among the 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among the 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests that L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation where protostellar objects form in a small group.

  10. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  11. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun

    2013-01-01

    the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...

  12. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team

  13. An Analysis of Small Group Interactions of Vietnamese Students under the Bourdieusian Theoretical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh; Pham, Lam

    2018-01-01

    Group work has been increasingly encouraged and applied in Vietnamese universities. However, very little has been known about how Vietnamese university students work in a group and what the conditions are that help establish an effective group. This study attempted to redress this gap. The research applied Bourdieu's social field theory to examine…

  14. Individual and small-group market health insurance rate review and disclosure: state and federal roles after PPACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2011-09-28

    Oversight of private insurance, including health insurance, is primarily a state responsibility. Each state establishes its own laws and regulations regarding insurer activities, including premium increases for the insurance products within its purview. The authority that state regulators have to review and deny requests for premium changes varies from state to state, as do the amount of resources available to state insurance departments for reviewing premium changes. In some markets where insurers have proposed or implemented steep increases, such changes have received considerable attention from the press, state regulators, and policymakers. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) requires annual review of premium increases and disclosure of those increases determined unreasonable beginning in September 2011. Under PPACA, each state will conduct these reviews for individual and small-group health insurance unless the federal government concludes they do not have an effective review program and assumes review responsibility. As they did prior to PPACA, state laws govern whether rates go into effect and establish the parameters of regulators' authority. This issue brief outlines specific state and federal roles in the rate review process and changes to rate review processes since PPACA was enacted.

  15. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is effective in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia of any size including a small prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Ho; Yang, Hee Jo; Kim, Doo Sang; Lee, Chang Ho; Jeon, Youn Soo

    2014-11-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered the standard surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is replacing TURP. We compared TURP with HoLEP with matching for prostate size. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients who underwent TURP and HoLEP performed by one surgeon at our institute. All patients were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of prostate size (group 1, 80 g), and 45 patients were selected for each method. No major intraoperative complications were encountered. The mean resected tissue weight was 6.3, 18.3, and 28.0 g for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, for TURP and 8.7, 25.0, and 39.8 g, respectively, for HoLEP. The mean operation time was 51.8, 89.3, and 101.9 minutes for TURP and 83.6, 122.8, and 131.2 minutes for HoLEP in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. HoLEP had better resection efficacy than TURP for any size prostate, but there was no statistical difference between the methods. Both methods resulted in an immediate and significant improvement of International Prostate Symptom Score, peak urinary flow rates, and postvoid residual urine volume. HoLEP is effective for BPH treatment, regardless of prostate size, even in a small prostate. The perioperative morbidity of HoLEP is also comparable to that of TURP.

  16. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

  17. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  18. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  19. The Application of Video Clips with Small Group and Individual Activities to Improve Young Learners' Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslem, Asnawi; Mustafa, Faisal; Usman, Bustami; Rahman, Aulia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether the application of video clips with small groups or with individual teaching-learning activities improved the speaking skills of young EFL learners the most; accordingly a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test design was done. The instrument used in this study was a test in the form of an oral test or…

  20. Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

  1. A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

  2. Among Friends: The Role of Academic-Preparedness Diversity in Individual Performance within a Small-Group STEM Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students…

  3. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  4. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  5. Supporting Small-Group Learning Using Multiple Web 2.0 Tools: A Case Study in the Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laru, Jari; Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    In this single-case study, small groups of learners were supported by use of multiple social software tools and face-to-face activities in the context of higher education. The aim of the study was to explore how designed learning activities contribute to students' learning outcomes by studying probabilistic dependencies between the variables.…

  6. Assessing the Role of Peer Relationships in the Small Group Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Shimotsu, Stephanie; Byrnes, Kerry; Frisby, Brandi N.; Durbin, James; Loy, Brianna N.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the typology posited by Kram and Isabella (1985) that identifies three peer relationships present in organizations (i.e., information, collegial, and special), this assessment examined the association between students' perceptions of their in-class group members and six group outcomes (i.e., grouphate, cohesion, relational satisfaction,…

  7. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  8. 45 CFR 146.150 - Guaranteed availability of coverage for employers in the small group market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... (and their dependents) or any health status-related factor relating to those employees and dependents... status-related factor relating to those employees and dependents. (2) An issuer that denies group health...

  9. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  10. Administrative Leadership in Three Small, Private Tennessee Colleges: Working Groups, Real Teams, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Diversity of knowledge and multiple perspectives are characteristic advantages of group leadership as compared to transactional or bureaucratic forms of leadership. When groups are engaged in administrative functions, they are more likely to realize a higher level of performance and more relevant and innovative solutions than may be achieved by a…

  11. Report of the advisory group meeting on elemental analysis of extremely small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains summary of discussions held at the meeting with brief description and comparative characteristics of most common nuclear analytical techniques used for analysis of very small samples as well as the conclusions of the meeting. Some aspect of reference materials and quality control are also discussed. The publication also contains individual contributions made by the participants, each of these papers haven provided with an abstract and indexed separately

  12. Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Tarleton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a

  13. Online Self-Tracking Groups to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Small-Scale Study on Mechanisms of Group Effect on Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; Peng, Wei; Shin, Soo Yun; Chung, Minwoong

    2017-03-06

    between a focal participant and his/her group members during the experiment), such that participants who had a low performance discrepancy from other group members had greater fruit and vegetable consumption than participants who had a high performance discrepancy from other group members (P=.002). A mediation test showed that low performance discrepancy led to greater downward contrast (b=-0.78, 95% CI -2.44 to -0.15), which in turn led to greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Online self-tracking groups were more effective than self-tracking alone in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for early young adults. Low performance discrepancy from other group members lead to downward contrast, which in turn increased participants' fruit and vegetable consumption over time. The study highlighted social comparison processes in online groups that allow for sharing personal health information. Lastly, given the small scale of this study, nonsignificant results with small effect sizes might be subject to bias. ©Jingbo Meng, Wei Peng, Soo Yun Shin, Minwoong Chung. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.03.2017.

  14. Expeditionary Strike Group: New Label, or New Concept - for Future Naval Warriors of America's Small Wars?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, Daryl

    2003-01-01

    ... as, emergent contingency operations, and major theater wars. In the near future they will accomplish this mission while deployed around the globe under the new concept of Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESG...

  15. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  16. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  17. Scottish pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of a practice-based small group learning pilot: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, David E; Zlotos, Leon; Power, Ailsa

    2014-05-01

    CPD is an important feature of healthcare professions and regulatory bodies consider it mandatory. Studies of CPD activity of pharmacists showed that 10% were undertaking no CPD. Practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) is a well-received and popular learning resource for GPs in Scotland. From 2011, a pharmacy pilot was undertaken: pharmacists were trained as peer-facilitators and existing PBSGL modules were adapted. Four NHS boards took part and this study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of pharmacists. A qualitative research approach was adopted using focus groups and in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcriptions made. Transcripts were coded and themes developed using grounded theory methods. Participants welcomed PBSGL: it was a feasible learning method, acceptable and had educational impact. They appreciated its interactive nature and discussions founded on their experiences in practice. Participants liked the self-reliance of PBSGL in that they were not dependent on specialist practitioners. There were logistical challenges that impacted on the success of group discussion; some pharmacists were less familiar with small group work. Pharmacists felt isolated during work and appreciated peer discussion. There was a tentative welcome to inter-professional learning but group composition and module topics might impact on the success of this. Pharmacists were able to change their learning practice in uni-professional PBSGL groups and were able to learn from each other. There may be further learning opportunities if pharmacists participate in inter-professional groups.

  18. Student recognition of visual affordances: Supporting use of physics simulations in whole class and small group settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A. Lynn

    The purpose of this study is to investigate student interactions with simulations, and teacher support of those interactions, within naturalistic high school physics classroom settings. This study focuses on data from two lesson sequences that were conducted in several physics classrooms. The lesson sequences were conducted in a whole class discussion format in approximately half of the class sections and in a hands-on-computer small group format in matched class sections. Analysis used a mixed methods approach where: (1) quantitative methods were used to evaluate pre-post data; (2) open coding and selective coding were used for transcript analysis; and (3) comparative case studies were used to consider the quantitative and qualitative data in light of each other and to suggested possible explanations. Although teachers expressed the expectation that the small group students would learn more, no evidence was found in pre-post analysis for an advantage for the small group sections. Instead, a slight trend was observed in favor of the whole class discussion sections, especially for students in the less advanced sections. In seeking to explain these results, qualitative analyses of transcript and videotape data were conducted, revealing that many more episodes of support for interpreting visual elements of the simulations occurred in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions; not only teachers, but, at times, students used more visual support moves in the whole class discussion setting. In addition, concepts that had been identified as key were discussed for longer periods of time in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions in six of nine matched sets. For one of the lesson sequences, analysis of student work on in-class activity sheets identified no evidence that any of the Honors or College Preparatory students in the small groups had made use in their thinking of the key features of the sophisticated and popular

  19. Inference With Difference-in-Differences With a Small Number of Groups: A Review, Simulation Study, and Empirical Application Using SHARE Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Slawa; Cohen, Jessica; Fink, Günther; Salomon, Joshua A; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2018-01-01

    Difference-in-differences (DID) estimation has become increasingly popular as an approach to evaluate the effect of a group-level policy on individual-level outcomes. Several statistical methodologies have been proposed to correct for the within-group correlation of model errors resulting from the clustering of data. Little is known about how well these corrections perform with the often small number of groups observed in health research using longitudinal data. First, we review the most commonly used modeling solutions in DID estimation for panel data, including generalized estimating equations (GEE), permutation tests, clustered standard errors (CSE), wild cluster bootstrapping, and aggregation. Second, we compare the empirical coverage rates and power of these methods using a Monte Carlo simulation study in scenarios in which we vary the degree of error correlation, the group size balance, and the proportion of treated groups. Third, we provide an empirical example using the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. When the number of groups is small, CSE are systematically biased downwards in scenarios when data are unbalanced or when there is a low proportion of treated groups. This can result in over-rejection of the null even when data are composed of up to 50 groups. Aggregation, permutation tests, bias-adjusted GEE, and wild cluster bootstrap produce coverage rates close to the nominal rate for almost all scenarios, though GEE may suffer from low power. In DID estimation with a small number of groups, analysis using aggregation, permutation tests, wild cluster bootstrap, or bias-adjusted GEE is recommended.

  20. Some laelapine mites (Acari: Laelapidae) ectoparasitic on small mammals in the Galapagos Islands, including a new species of Gigantolaelaps from Aegialomys galapagoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettinger, Donald; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-08-01

    A collection of laelapine mites from small mammals in the Galapagos Islands are identified and their host distributions reviewed. Two species of native rodents, Aegialomys galapagoensis and Nesoryzomys narboroughii, were infested only with laelapine species typical of Neotropical oryzomyine rodents; Rattus rattus was infested with Laelaps nuttalli, a host-specific ectoparasite endemic to Old World Rattus. A synopsis of Gigantolaelaps Fonseca is provided and we describe a new laelapine mite, Gigantolaelaps aegialomys n. sp., from the pelage of the rodent A. galapagoensis on Santa Fe Island. The new species has strong morphological affinities with a subgroup of Gigantolaelaps associated with a group of semiaquatic oryzomyine rodents ( Holochilus, Nectomys, Sooretamys, Pseudoryzomys , Oryzomys palustris). The other nominal species of this group, Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Fonseca, 1935) and Gigantolaelaps goyanensis Fonseca, 1939 , are characterized by 10 setae on Tibia IV, large metapodal shields, and spiniform setae on Coxae I. Gigantolaelaps aegialomys is distinguished from these species by a lack of clearly spiniform setae on Coxa I, with setiform distal seta longer than the proximal; metapodal shields about the same size as the stigma; less than 100 µm separating the first pair of sternal setae.

  1. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Hunting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cymindis (Pinacodera limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are.This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.. Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included.

  2. Small Group Dynamics and the Watergate Coverup: A Case Study of Groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J.

    The decisions President Richard Nixon and his closest advisors made in the Watergate coverup were products of what Irving Janis calls "groupthink." Groupthink, a type of decision-making emphasizing unanimity over objective evaluation, develops when the decision makers (1) form a group of marked cohesiveness, (2) insulate themselves from…

  3. Can't You Just Talk to Them? Small Group Work in a Senior Thesis Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Teresa; Mackey-Kallis, Susan

    At Villanova University, the Senior Projects Course is designed to serve as a capstone course. Students are required to integrate the pieces of the discipline acquired from previous course work into a comprehensive, fully developed research project. This paper looks critically at one aspect of effectively managing a group project course: conflict…

  4. On the suitability of group lending model in South Sudan's small and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of this mode of SME funding in selected jurisdictions, namely Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burundi, and Colombia underscores such a position. The socio-economic, legal and political environment of the three jurisdictions studied in this paper where group lending has been successful closely mirror that of ...

  5. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    , it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  6. The Multiple Family Group as a Small Society: Fitting Theory and Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David; And Others

    This is a comprehensive report of a study of the mechanisms by which the family regulates its interaction with the immediate social environment. Subjects were four multiple family groups, each composed of six or more families, meeting in both hospital and home settings. In each family, at least one member was either an alcoholic or an adolescent…

  7. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  8. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  9. Applying information theory to small groups assessment: emotions and well-being at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Antonio León; Moreno, Blanca; García-Izquierdo, Mariano

    2010-05-01

    This paper explores and analyzes the relations between emotions and well-being in a sample of aviation personnel, passenger crew (flight attendants). There is an increasing interest in studying the influence of emotions and its role as psychosocial factors in the work environment as they are able to act as facilitators or shock absorbers. The contrast of the theoretical models by using traditional parametric techniques requires a large sample size to the efficient estimation of the coefficients that quantify the relations between variables. Since the available sample that we have is small, the most common size in European enterprises, we used the maximum entropy principle to explore the emotions that are involved in the psychosocial risks. The analyses show that this method takes advantage of the limited information available and guarantee an optimal estimation, the results of which are coherent with theoretical models and numerous empirical researches about emotions and well-being.

  10. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY PRACTICE BY SMALL SCALE RIVER CONSERVATION GROUPS. (R826600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    River¯floodplain systems, and riparian forests in particular, offer physical contributions to human society such as flood mitigation and the maintenance of water quality, social benefits including the opportunity for recreation and solitude, as well as numerous...

  11. A collaborative working environment for small group meetings in Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cintia Rc; Garcia, Ana Cristina B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the SLMeetingRoom, a virtual reality online environment to support group meetings of geographically dispersed participants. A prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using the Second Life platform. Ten additional components had to be added to Second Life environment to support group work essential activities such as participants' communication, tasks' and participants' coordination, participants' collaboration and work evolution's perception. Empirical studies, both pilot and experiment, were developed comparing four different meeting settings: face-to-face, videoconference, stand Second Life and SLMeetingRoom. The study involved graduate students enrolled in the Interface and Multimedia discipline at the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) in Brazil. Results indicated that groups working within SLMeetingRoom environment presented similar results as face-to-face meeting as far as sense of presence is concerned and with low cognitive effort. Task completion and degree of participation were not affected by the meeting set up. It was concluded that Second Life, in conjunction with the SLMeetingRoom components, is a good tool for holding synchronous remote meetings and coexists with other electronic meeting technologies.

  12. Long-term evolution of the S788 fungal nuclear small subunit rRNA group I introns

    OpenAIRE

    HAUGEN, PEIK; RUNGE, HENRY JOSEPH; BHATTACHARYA, DEBASHISH

    2004-01-01

    More than 1000 group I introns have been identified in fungal rDNA. Little is known, however, of the splicing and secondary structure evolution of these ribozymes. Here, we use a combination of comparative and biochemical methods to address the evolution and splicing of a vertically inherited group I intron found at position 788 in the fungal small subunit (S) rRNA. The ancestral state of the S788 intron contains a highly conserved core and an extended P5 domain typical of IC1 introns. In con...

  13. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection with a combination of small-caliber-tip transparent hood and flex knife for large superficial colorectal neoplasias including ileocecal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Horiki, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Michitaka; Setoyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    Large superficial neoplasias of the ileocecal region pose an increased degree of complexity for endoscopic resection. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for large superficial colorectal neoplasias including ileocecal lesions. A total of 33 superficial colorectal neoplasias, including eight neoplasias in the ileocecal region, were treated with ESD from December 2005 to April 2009. Therapeutic efficacy, complications, and follow-up results were retrospectively evaluated among three groups: ileocecal region, colon, and rectum. The mean size of all resected neoplasias was 35 +/- 15 mm (range, 20-80 mm) and that of all resected specimens was 41 +/- 15 mm (range, 23-82 mm). The mean procedural time was 121 +/- 90 min (range, 22-420 min). The difference in mean values among the three groups was not significant. The overall rate of en bloc resection was 91% (30/33). Histopathologically, both the lateral and vertical margins in the specimens resected en bloc tested negative (30/30). The rate for en bloc resection in the ileocecal region did not differ significantly from that for the other two groups (p = 0.20 compared with the rate for the colon and p = 0.12 compared with the rate for the rectum). Complications such as perforation and postoperative bleeding did not occur in the ileocecal group. No recurrence was observed in any cases during the mean follow-up period of 20 +/- 12 months (range, 4-44 months). The ESD approach is safe and effective for treating large superficial neoplasias of the ileocecal region such as other colorectal neoplasias.

  15. Level one algebraic cusp forms of classical groups of small rank

    CERN Document Server

    Chenevier, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The authors determine the number of level 1, polarized, algebraic regular, cuspidal automorphic representations of \\mathrm{GL}_n over \\mathbb Q of any given infinitesimal character, for essentially all n \\leq 8. For this, they compute the dimensions of spaces of level 1 automorphic forms for certain semisimple \\mathbb Z-forms of the compact groups \\mathrm{SO}_7, \\mathrm{SO}_8, \\mathrm{SO}_9 (and {\\mathrm G}_2) and determine Arthur's endoscopic partition of these spaces in all cases. They also give applications to the 121 even lattices of rank 25 and determinant 2 found by Borcherds, to level o

  16. Just forest governance: how small learning groups can have big impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others

    2009-10-15

    Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.

  17. Including screening in van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations: The case of atoms and small molecules physisorbed on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Ambrosetti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Density Functional Theory (DFT)/van der Waals-Quantum Harmonic Oscillator-Wannier function (vdW-QHO-WF) method, recently developed to include the vdW interactions in approximated DFT by combining the quantum harmonic oscillator model with the maximally localized Wannier function technique, is applied to the cases of atoms and small molecules (X=Ar, CO, H 2 , H 2 O) weakly interacting with benzene and with the ideal planar graphene surface. Comparison is also presented with the results obtained by other DFT vdW-corrected schemes, including PBE+D, vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, rVV10, and by the simpler Local Density Approximation (LDA) and semilocal generalized gradient approximation approaches. While for the X-benzene systems all the considered vdW-corrected schemes perform reasonably well, it turns out that an accurate description of the X-graphene interaction requires a proper treatment of many-body contributions and of short-range screening effects, as demonstrated by adopting an improved version of the DFT/vdW-QHO-WF method. We also comment on the widespread attitude of relying on LDA to get a rough description of weakly interacting systems

  18. History of the evaluation and exploitation of a group of small uranium mines in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1980-01-01

    In the period 1945-1962 a multiple small-scale uranium mining project was successfully operated in Portugal by the Companhia Portuguesa de Radium Lda, the Urgeirica Mine and some 28 smaller mines produced ore between 1951 and 1962 and provided uranium concentrates for export under an agreement between the Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States Governments. The uranium deposits occur in near-vertical fractures in the granites of the Beiras mostly having a NE-SW strike trend. The veins are the siliceous-pyrite-galena type with red jasper and black and white quartz gangue and much wall rock alternation and shearing. The primary uranium mineral is pitchblende and the secondary minerals tobernite and autunite occur in the near-surface zones. Of the 63 concessions controlled in 1945, the Urgeirica Mine, dating from the radium period, was by far the biggest, but by mid-1946, after a very rapid preliminary evaluation, it was concluded that a total ''possible'' ore reserve of 1080 tons U 3 O 8 might exist in the concessions. On this basis an agreement was reached with the Portuguese Government for the production and export of between 120 and 150 t U 3 O 8 per year for a twelve-year period up to the end of 1962, and for a maximum of 1325 t U 3 O 8 . Production commenced on a regular basis at the beginning of 1952 and the total production quota of 1325 t U 3 O 8 was produced by 31 March 1962

  19. CNA Small Group Discussion: Aiding Cameroon’s Effort to Counter Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    Cameroon is an important partner to the U.S. in Africa, and the two have cooperated on issues including economic development, public health, and...to the growth of Boko Haram within Cameroon . In addition, participants discussed the idea of increasing U.S. assistance to Nigeria’s other...continues to wreak havoc inside Nigeria, it has also been launching attacks and raids into neighboring countries, Cameroon chief among them. Cameroon

  20. Genomic selection accuracies within and between environments and small breeding groups in white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor K; MacKay, John; Rainville, André; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-12-02

    Genomic selection (GS) may improve selection response over conventional pedigree-based selection if markers capture more detailed information than pedigrees in recently domesticated tree species and/or make it more cost effective. Genomic prediction accuracies using 1748 trees and 6932 SNPs representative of as many distinct gene loci were determined for growth and wood traits in white spruce, within and between environments and breeding groups (BG), each with an effective size of Ne ≈ 20. Marker subsets were also tested. Model fits and/or cross-validation (CV) prediction accuracies for ridge regression (RR) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator models approached those of pedigree-based models. With strong relatedness between CV sets, prediction accuracies for RR within environment and BG were high for wood (r = 0.71-0.79) and moderately high for growth (r = 0.52-0.69) traits, in line with trends in heritabilities. For both classes of traits, these accuracies achieved between 83% and 92% of those obtained with phenotypes and pedigree information. Prediction into untested environments remained moderately high for wood (r ≥ 0.61) but dropped significantly for growth (r ≥ 0.24) traits, emphasizing the need to phenotype in all test environments and model genotype-by-environment interactions for growth traits. Removing relatedness between CV sets sharply decreased prediction accuracies for all traits and subpopulations, falling near zero between BGs with no known shared ancestry. For marker subsets, similar patterns were observed but with lower prediction accuracies. Given the need for high relatedness between CV sets to obtain good prediction accuracies, we recommend to build GS models for prediction within the same breeding population only. Breeding groups could be merged to build genomic prediction models as long as the total effective population size does not exceed 50 individuals in order to obtain high prediction accuracy such as that

  1. Building life-long learning capacity in undergraduate nursing freshmen within an integrative and small group learning context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico C L; Leung, Sharron S K; Chui, Caroline Y Y; Leung, Angela Y M; Mak, Y W

    2013-10-01

    Life-long learning involves the development of skills in critical thinking (CT), effective group process (GP), and self-directedness (SDL). Recent studies have shown that small group learning with active interactions is effective in enabling students to develop themselves as independent learners beyond graduation. With a view to integrative learning, the purpose of this study was to evaluate life-long learning outcomes through the work of small group teaching and learning for a class of undergraduate nursing freshmen during one academic year. A mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate the CT, GP and SDL of 99 freshmen with a self-assessment questionnaire before and after their learning activities in three nursing courses, and to identify themes from a total of six focus group interviews with the students and teachers. The CT, GP and SDL results obtained from self-assessment did not indicate significant differences. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis. Many factors contributed to the results on life-long learning skill development of students in this study. The qualitative analysis provided good insights for future teaching and learning development. With a developmental perspective, life-long learning may be better developed and evaluated over a longer period of time in the nursing program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ssDNA Pairing Accuracy Increases When Abasic Sites Divide Nucleotides into Small Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Peacock-Villada

    Full Text Available Accurate sequence dependent pairing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules plays an important role in gene chips, DNA origami, and polymerase chain reactions. In many assays accurate pairing depends on mismatched sequences melting at lower temperatures than matched sequences; however, for sequences longer than ~10 nucleotides, single mismatches and correct matches have melting temperature differences of less than 3°C. We demonstrate that appropriately grouping of 35 bases in ssDNA using abasic sites increases the difference between the melting temperature of correct bases and the melting temperature of mismatched base pairings. Importantly, in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites mismatches near one end of a long dsDNA destabilize the annealing at the other end much more effectively than in systems without the abasic sites, suggesting that the dsDNA melts more uniformly in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites. In sum, the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites allows temperature to more accurately discriminate correct base pairings from incorrect ones.

  3. Small-Group Learning in an Upper-Level University Biology Class Enhances Academic Performance and Student Attitudes Toward Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J.; Ramer, Matt S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students – even term high achievers –could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom. PMID:21209910

  4. Report of two cases of pseudoprogression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with nivolumab-including histological analysis of one case after tumor regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Junko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Masatomo; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takeda, Masayuki; Shimizu, Shigeki; Ito, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-12-01

    The recent approval of nivolumab and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of certain solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed cancer therapy. However, it will be important to characterize effects of such agents not seen with classical cytotoxic drugs or other targeted therapeutics. We here report two cases of NSCLC showing so-called pseudoprogression during nivolumab treatment. In both cases, imaging assessment revealed that liver metastatic lesions initially progressed but subsequently shrank during continuous nivolumab administration, with treatment also resulting in a decline in serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen. Histological evaluation of the liver metastatic lesion of one case after regression revealed fibrotic tissue containing infiltrated lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, or CD8 but no viable tumor cells, suggestive of a durable immune reaction even after a pathological complete response. Given the increasing use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in patients with NSCLC or other solid tumors, further clinical evaluation and pathological assessment are warranted to provide a better understanding of such pseudoprogression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive processing of high-throughput small RNA sequencing data including quality checking, normalization, and differential expression analysis using the UEA sRNA Workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew; Applegate, Christopher; Dalmay, Tamas; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revealed compelling details about the small RNA (sRNA) population in eukaryotes. These 20 to 25 nt noncoding RNAs can influence gene expression by acting as guides for the sequence-specific regulatory mechanism known as RNA silencing. The increase in sequencing depth and number of samples per project enables a better understanding of the role sRNAs play by facilitating the study of expression patterns. However, the intricacy of the biological hypotheses coupled with a lack of appropriate tools often leads to inadequate mining of the available data and thus, an incomplete description of the biological mechanisms involved. To enable a comprehensive study of differential expression in sRNA data sets, we present a new interactive pipeline that guides researchers through the various stages of data preprocessing and analysis. This includes various tools, some of which we specifically developed for sRNA analysis, for quality checking and normalization of sRNA samples as well as tools for the detection of differentially expressed sRNAs and identification of the resulting expression patterns. The pipeline is available within the UEA sRNA Workbench, a user-friendly software package for the processing of sRNA data sets. We demonstrate the use of the pipeline on a H. sapiens data set; additional examples on a B. terrestris data set and on an A. thaliana data set are described in the Supplemental Information A comparison with existing approaches is also included, which exemplifies some of the issues that need to be addressed for sRNA analysis and how the new pipeline may be used to do this. © 2017 Beckers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kaoru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clock molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to cardiometabolic disorders. The existence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL in the circulation, an abnormality of lipid metabolism, in part associated with lifestyle, is also one of risk parameters for cardiometabolic disorders. The 3111 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the Clock gene has been reported to be associated with lifestyle including morning/evening preference. We investigated whether the Clock 3111 T/C SNP may affect lipids and lipoproteins including sdLDL. Methods In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years, the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system. Results The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p Conclusion Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.

  7. xGASS: gas-rich central galaxies in small groups and their connections to cosmic web gas feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Saintonge, Amélie; Brown, Toby; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We use deep H I observations obtained as part of the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey (xGASS) to study the cold gas properties of central galaxies across environments. We find that below stellar masses of 1010.2 M⊙, central galaxies in groups have an average atomic hydrogen gas fraction ˜0.3 dex higher than those in isolation at the same stellar mass. At these stellar masses, group central galaxies are usually found in small groups of N = 2 members. The higher H I content in these low-mass group central galaxies is mirrored by their higher average star formation activity and molecular hydrogen content. At larger stellar masses, this difference disappears and central galaxies in groups have similar (or even smaller) gas reservoirs and star formation activity compared to those in isolation. We discuss possible scenarios able to explain our findings and suggest that the higher gas content in low-mass group central galaxies is likely due to the contributions from the cosmic web or H I-rich minor mergers, which also fuel their enhanced star formation activity.

  8. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  9. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    in humans and different animal species and which can be isolated from a number of environments including food, as a model organism to develop and implement a two-step statistical approach to the identification of phylogenetic clades that are significantly associated with different source populations......, including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source......Stats test identified 10 clades with significant (P animal-, and food-associated clusters. Epidemiological and virulence phenotype data supported the fact that the source-associated clonal groups identified here...

  10. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Capa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.

  11. Effects of coaching on educators' and preschoolers' use of references to print and phonological awareness during a small-group craft/writing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121) were randomly assigned to an experimental group (21 hr of in-service workshops plus 5 coaching sessions) and a comparison group (workshops alone). The in-service workshops included instruction on how to talk about print and phonological awareness during a post-story craft/writing activity. All educators were video-recorded during a 15-min craft/writing activity with a small group of preschoolers at pretest and posttest. All videotapes were transcribed and coded for verbal references to print and phonological awareness by the educators and children. Although at posttest, there were no significant group differences in the educators' or the children's references to print as measured by rate per minute, both the educators and the children in the experimental group used a significantly higher rate per minute of references to phonological awareness relative to the comparison group. Professional development that included coaching with a speech-language pathologist enabled educators and children to engage in more phonological awareness talk during this activity.

  12. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Obstetric and Gynecologic Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian McGrath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This curriculum, created and implemented at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, was primarily designed to educate our emergency medicine (EM residents (PGY1-3 and emergency medicine/internal medicine (EM/IM residents (PGY1-5 on core obstetrics and gynecology topics in EM. Additional audience members include medical students and faculty physicians. Introduction: In 2013, there were over 1 million emergency department visits in the United States which resulted in primary obstetric or gynecologic diagnoses.1 EM Residents must be proficient in the differential diagnosis and management of the wide variety of obstetric and gynecologic emergencies. To do this, we developed a flipped classroom curricular model, which consists of self-directed learning activities completed by learners, followed by small group discussions pertaining to the topic reviewed. The active learning fostered by this type of curriculum increases faculty and learner engagement and interaction time typically absent in traditional lecture-based formats.2-4 Studies have revealed that the application of knowledge through case studies, personal interaction with content experts, and integrated questions are effective learning strategies for EM residents.4-6 The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center EM residency didactic curriculum recently transitioned to a “flipped classroom” approach.7-10 Our didactic curriculum is delivered over the course of 18 months; however, it could easily be adapted to other academic calendar cycles. The flipped classroom curriculum maximizes didactic time and resident engagement, fosters intellectual curiosity and active learning, and meets the needs of today’s learners. 3,6,11 Objectives: We aim to teach the presentation and management of obstetric and gynecologic emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident

  13. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  14. Problem-based, small-group tutorial learning in clinical neurology for second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H Y; Wu, Z A; Su, M S; Yen, D J; Luk, H R; Chao, Y C; Liao, K K; Lin, K P; Yu, S M; Liu, H C

    2000-08-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) in small-group tutorials has been a trend in medical education. Chinese students are known to be reserved and passive; thus, they may not be adaptable to PBL. Neuroanatomy, important to clinical neurology, is difficult to learn. We incorporated clinical neurology with PBL, complementary to the traditional neuroanatomy curriculum, to evaluate the feasibility of PBL for Chinese students in Taiwan. Forty-two second-year medical students and seven tutors participated in the clinical neurology PBL small-group tutorials. Twelve case reports were discussed weekly beginning in February, 1999. Each case was designed to meet the progressive curriculum of the neuroanatomy course. The tutors evaluated the students by the degree of their preparation, participation, key-point comprehension and interaction. All tutors and students filled out questionnaires at the end of each session. The majority of the students and tutors agreed that the case materials were clearly written. Ninety percent of the students agreed that the case materials matched the traditional content of neuroanatomy. Eighty-five percent of students and 71% of tutors were satisfied and found the class rewarding. Ninety-one percent of students and 74% of tutors were in favor of PBL being continued. This preliminary PBL, small-group tutorial learning in clinical neurology showed satisfactory results and was, indeed, complementary to a traditional neuroanatomy course. The students, as early as during the second year of their medical school education, were able to learn through the PBL. More integration of basic and clinical sciences by PBL may be considered in future curricula designs.

  15. Small Groups: Student Productive Interactions in Learning Cooperative (Case Study of Mathematics Learning at Junior High School in Pakis, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tri Utaminingtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the process of student interaction in solving problems through cooperative learning. The subject of this research are 7th grade students of a junior high school in Malang, Indonesia. Data were collected by recording directly when learning takes place especially when pairing or forming small groups. This interaction is built with heterogeneous student skills. The results showed that the interaction that occurs in students provides an understanding of the concept of opportunity. Consequently, the students solved the problem correctly. This interaction is known as productive interaction.

  16. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Conjugation Impedes Transcriptional Silencing by the Polycomb Group Repressor Sex Comb on Midleg*

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-te...

  17. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy. PMID:26317608

  18. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  19. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Briese

    Full Text Available The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904 and New South Wales (12005. Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV, NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV, and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV, isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  20. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  1. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  2. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly, we are completing the synthesis and characterization of a titanium nitride anion and formation of the first example of boryl and aluminyl imido titanium complexes.

  4. DFT Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of Small Oligothiophenes Based on Terthiophene End-capped by Several Donor Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight small molecules based on terthiophene end-capped by several donor groups have been carried out using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TDDFT methods in neutral and doped states. The theoretical ground-state geometry, electronic structure and optical properties of the studied molecules were obtained by the DFT and TD-DFT methods at the B3LYP level with 6-31G(d basis set. Theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels the gap energy (Eg and the open-circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds are calculated and discussed. The effects of the donor group substituents on the geometries and optoelectronic properties of these materials are discussed to investigate the relationship between molecular structure and optoelectronic properties. The results of this work suggest some of these materials as a good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.995

  5. Use of care management practices in small- and medium-sized physician groups: do public reporting of physician quality and financial incentives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Maeng, Daniel; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane

    2013-04-01

    To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Benefits of adding small financial incentives or optional group meetings to a web-based statewide obesity initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Subak, Leslee L; Fava, Joseph; Schembri, Michael; Thomas, Graham; Xu, Xiaomeng; Krupel, Katie; Kent, Kimberly; Boguszewski, Katherine; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether adding either small, variable financial incentives or optional group sessions improves weight losses in a community-based, Internet behavioral program. Participants (N = 268) from Shape Up Rhode Island 2012, a 3-month Web-based community wellness initiative, were randomized to: Shape Up+Internet behavioral program (SI), Shape Up+Internet program+incentives (SII), or Shape Up+Internet program+group sessions (SIG). At the end of the 3-month program, SII achieved significantly greater weight losses than SI (SII: 6.4% [5.1-7.7]; SI: 4.2% [3.0-5.6]; P = 0.03); weight losses in SIG were not significantly different from the other two conditions (SIG: 5.8% [4.5-7.1], P's ≥ 0.10). However, at the 12-month no-treatment follow-up visit, both SII and SIG had greater weight losses than SI (SII: 3.1% [1.8-4.4]; SIG: 4.5% [3.2-5.8]; SI: 1.2% [-0.1-2.6]; P's ≤ 0.05). SII was the most cost-effective approach at both 3 (SII: $34/kg; SI: $34/kg; SIG: $87/kg) and 12 months (SII: $64/kg; SI: $140/kg; SIG: $113/kg). Modest financial incentives enhance weight losses during a community campaign, and both incentives and optional group meetings improved overall weight loss outcomes during the follow-up period. However, the use of the financial incentives is the most cost-effective approach. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. A path less traveled: A self-guided action science inquiry among a small group of adult learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, Daniel Vance

    This dissertation provides an analysis of the dialogue that occurred among a small group of adult learners who engaged in a self-guided action science inquiry into their own practice. The following pages describe how this group of five practitioners ventured into a critical, self-reflective inquiry into their own values, feelings, and intentions in search of personal and professional growth. It is a deeply revealing story that shows how, through group dialogue, the members gradually unravel the interconnections between their values, feelings, and intention. They uncover surprising and unanticipated patterns in their reasoning-in-action that reflect lessons from present day experiences as well as childhood axioms about what constitutes appropriate behavior. They push their learning further to recognize emotional triggers that are useful in confronting old habits of mind that must be overcome if new Model II strategies are to be learned and internalized. They conclude that becoming Model II requires a centering on basic values, a personal commitment to change, a willingness to persist in the face of resistance, and the wisdom to act with deliberate caution. The transformative power of this insight lies in the realization of what it takes personally and collectively to make the world a truly respectful, productive, democratic, and socially just place in which to live and work. The action science literature holds the assumption that a trained facilitator is needed to guide such an inquiry and the learning of Model II skills. Unfortunately, there are few educator-trainers available to facilitate the learning of Model II proficiencies over the months and years that may be required. The data presented here show that it is possible for a group of highly motivated individuals to initiate and sustain their own action science inquiry without the aid of a highly skilled facilitator. A model of the group dialogue is presented that highlights the salient characteristics of an

  8. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  9. Commercial Laboratory Testing of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadfar, Nosha; Sivapiragasam, Abirami; Geller, Matthew; Islam, Shahidul; Selbs, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported to predict resistance to platinum-based therapies. On this basis, several commercial laboratories have offered ERCC1 testing to facilitate clinical decision making, but the reliability of such assays has recently been called into question. Methods. First, three large commercial laboratories were queried for their cumulative ERCC1 test results in NSCLC patients to compare their independent rates of ERCC1 expression. Second, identical tumor blocks from individual NSCLC patients underwent round-robin analysis to evaluate interlaboratory concordance for ERCC1 expression. Third, a retrospective review of medical records from NSCLC patients identified those who were both highly responsive and resistant to platinum-based chemotherapies. Tumor blocks from these patients were then used in a gold standard analysis to determine individual laboratory sensitivity and specificity for ERCC1 results. Results. Significant differences were observed in independent laboratory ERRC1 expression rates (Clarient 70% vs. Genzyme 60% vs. Third Laboratory 44%, p marketed laboratory assays achieved a specificity of greater than 50%. Conclusion. The results of commercial laboratory testing for ERCC1 are inconsistent and unreliable. Better validation and postmarketing surveillance should be mandated before tumor biomarker assays are allowed to enter the clinical arena. PMID:24705979

  10. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation impedes transcriptional silencing by the polycomb group repressor Sex Comb on Midleg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R; Simon, Jeffrey A; Courey, Albert J

    2011-04-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) domain, is crucial for the efficient sumoylation of Scm. Scm is associated with the major Polycomb response element (PRE) of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and efficient PRE recruitment requires an intact Scm SAM domain. Global reduction of sumoylation augments binding of Scm to the PRE. This is likely to be a direct effect of Scm sumoylation because mutations in the SUMO acceptor sites in Scm enhance its recruitment to the PRE, whereas translational fusion of SUMO to the Scm N terminus interferes with this recruitment. In the metathorax, Ubx expression promotes haltere formation and suppresses wing development. When SUMO levels are reduced, we observe decreased expression of Ubx and partial haltere-to-wing transformation phenotypes. These observations suggest that SUMO negatively regulates Scm function by impeding its recruitment to the Ubx major PRE.

  11. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Conjugation Impedes Transcriptional Silencing by the Polycomb Group Repressor Sex Comb on Midleg*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) domain, is crucial for the efficient sumoylation of Scm. Scm is associated with the major Polycomb response element (PRE) of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and efficient PRE recruitment requires an intact Scm SAM domain. Global reduction of sumoylation augments binding of Scm to the PRE. This is likely to be a direct effect of Scm sumoylation because mutations in the SUMO acceptor sites in Scm enhance its recruitment to the PRE, whereas translational fusion of SUMO to the Scm N terminus interferes with this recruitment. In the metathorax, Ubx expression promotes haltere formation and suppresses wing development. When SUMO levels are reduced, we observe decreased expression of Ubx and partial haltere-to-wing transformation phenotypes. These observations suggest that SUMO negatively regulates Scm function by impeding its recruitment to the Ubx major PRE. PMID:21278366

  12. Updates on the treatment of gout, including a review of updated treatment guidelines and use of small molecule therapies for difficult-to-treat gout and gout flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskind, Rose; Abazia, Daniel T; Bridgeman, Mary Barna

    2017-08-01

    Gout is a rheumatologic condition associated with elevated serum uric acid levels and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and soft tissues. Areas covered: In this article, we describe the role of currently available drug therapies for managing acute gout flares and used in reducing serum urate levels. Further, we explore the role of novel small molecular therapies and biologic agents in the treatment of refractory or severe gout symptoms. A literature search of MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Databases (1996-June 2017) was conducted utilizing the key words 'gout', 'interleukin-1 inhibitors', 'acute gout', 'gout treatment', 'urate lowering therapies', 'hyperuricemia', 'colchicine', 'pegloticase', 'lesinurad', 'xanthine oxidase', 'xanthine oxidase inhibitors', 'allopurinol', 'febuxostat', 'uricosurics', 'probenecid', and 'benzbromarone'. All published articles regarding therapeutic management of gout and hyperuricemia were evaluated. References of selected articles, data from poster presentations, and abstract publications were additionally reviewed. Expert opinion: Numerous therapies are currently available to managing acute gout flares and for lowering serum urate levels; advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder has led to the emergence of targeted therapies and novel biologic preparations currently in development which may improve the clinical management of severe or refractory cases of disease that fail to respond to traditional therapies.

  13. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    Full Text Available Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03 worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025 increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05 decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  14. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  15. Evaluating effectiveness of small group information literacy instruction for Undergraduate Medical Education students using a pre- and post-survey study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Powelson, Susan; Lang, Eddy; Aghajafari, Fariba; Edworthy, Steven

    2015-06-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education (UME) programme at the University of Calgary is a three-year programme with a strong emphasis on small group learning. The purpose of our study was to determine whether librarian led small group information literacy instruction, closely integrated with course content and faculty participation, but without a hands on component, was an effective means to convey EBM literacy skills. Five 15-minute EBM information literacy sessions were delivered by three librarians to 12 practicing physician led small groups of 15 students. Students were asked to complete an online survey before and after the sessions. Data analysis was performed through simple descriptive statistics. A total of 144 of 160 students responded to the pre-survey, and 112 students answered the post-survey. Instruction in a small group environment without a mandatory hands on component had a positive impact on student's evidence-based information literacy skills. Students were more likely to consult a librarian and had increased confidence in their abilities to search and find relevant information. Our study demonstrates that student engagement and faculty involvement are effective tools for delivering information literacy skills when working with students in a small group setting outside of a computer classroom. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  16. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  17. Markedly Increased High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in a Patient with Small-for-Size Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren G. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS occurs in the presence of insufficient liver mass to maintain normal function after liver transplantation. Murine mortality following 85% hepatectomy can be reduced by the use of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE to scavenge damage-associated molecular patterns and prevent their engagement with membrane-bound RAGE. Aims. To explore serum levels of sRAGE, high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 protein, and other soluble inflammatory mediators in a fatal case of SFSS. Methods. Serum levels of HMGB1, sRAGE, IL-18, and other inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA in a case of SFSS, and the results were compared with 8 patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure (ALF and 6 healthy controls (HC. Results. HMGB1 levels were markedly higher in the SFSS patient (92.1 ng/mL compared with the ALF patients (median (IQR 11.4 (3.7–14.8 ng/mL and HC (1.42 (1.38–1.56 ng/mL. In contrast, sRAGE levels were lower in the SFSS patient (1.88 ng/mL compared with the ALF patients (3.53 (2.66–12.37 ng/mL and were similar to HC levels (1.40 (1.23–1.89 ng/mL. Conclusion. These results suggest an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory innate immune pathways in SFSS. Modulation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis may represent a future therapeutic avenue in this condition.

  18. Trimodality therapy for superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer: Southwest Oncology Group-Intergroup Trial S0220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernstine, Kemp H; Moon, James; Kraut, Michael J; Pisters, Katherine M W; Sonett, Joshua R; Rusch, Valerie W; Thomas, Charles R; Waddell, Thomas K; Jett, James R; Lyss, Alan P; Keller, Steven M; Gandara, David R

    2014-08-01

    Although preoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin-etoposide) and radiotherapy, followed by surgical resection, is considered a standard of care for superior sulcus cancers, treatment is rigorous and relapse limits long-term survival. The Southwest Oncology Group-Intergroup Trial S0220 was designed to incorporate an active systemic agent, docetaxel, as consolidation therapy. Patients with histologically proven and radiologically defined T3 to 4, N0 to 1, M0 superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer underwent induction therapy with cisplatin-etoposide, concurrently with thoracic radiotherapy at 45 Gy. Nonprogressing patients underwent surgical resection within 7 weeks. Consolidation consisted of docetaxel every 3 weeks for 3 doses. The accrual goal was 45 eligible patients. The primary objective was feasibility. Of 46 patients registered, 44 were eligible and assessable; 38 (86%) completed induction, 29 (66%) underwent surgical resection, and 20 (45% of eligible, 69% surgical, and 91% of those initiating consolidation therapy) completed consolidation docetaxel; 28 of 29 (97%) underwent a complete (R0) resection; 2 (7%) died of adult respiratory distress syndrome. In resected patients, 21 of 29 (72%) had a pathologic complete or nearly complete response. The known site of first recurrence was local in 2, local-systemic in 1, and systemic in 10, with 7 in the brain only. The 3-year progression-free survival was 56%, and 3-year overall survival was 61%. Although trimodality therapy provides excellent R0 and local control, only 66% of patients underwent surgical resection and only 45% completed the treatment regimen. Even in this subset, distant recurrence continues to be a major problem, particularly brain-only relapse. Future strategies to improve treatment outcomes in this patient population must increase the effectiveness of systemic therapy and reduce the incidence of brain-only metastases. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  19. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Revealing the Value of “Green” and the Small Group with a Big Heart in Transportation Mode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To address issues of climate change, people are more and more being presented with the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their alternatives. Statements of pounds or kilograms of CO2 are showing up in trip planners, car advertisements, and even restaurant menus under the assumption that this information influences behavior. This research contributes to the literature that investigates how travelers respond to such information. Our objective is to better understand the “value of green” or how much travelers are willing to pay in money in order to reduce the CO2 associated with their travel. As with previous work, we designed and conducted a mode choice experiment using methods that have long been used to study value of time. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we employ revealed preference data, whereas previous studies have been based on stated preferences. Second, we provide new insight on how the value of green is distributed in the population. Whereas previous work has specified heterogeneity either systematically or with a continuous distribution, we find that a latent class choice model specification better fits the data and also is attractive behaviorally. The best fitting latent class model has two classes: one large class (76% of the sample who are not willing to spend any time or money to reduce their CO2 and a second class (24% of the sample who value reducing their CO2 at a very high rate of $2.68 per pound of reduction—our so-called small group with a big heart. We reanalyzed three datasets that we had previously collected and found considerable robustness of this two class result.

  1. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans.

  2. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  3. The challenge of NSCLC diagnosis and predictive analysis on small samples. Practical approach of a working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunnissen, Erik; Kerr, Keith M; Herth, Felix J F

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the division of pulmonary carcinomas into small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was adequate for therapy selection. Due to the emergence of new treatment options subtyping of NSCLC and predictive testing have become mandatory. A practical approach to...

  4. Transition to farming more likely for small, conservative groups with property rights, but increased productivity is not essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Elizabeth M; Shennan, Stephen J; Thomas, Mark G

    2015-11-17

    Theories for the origins of agriculture are still debated, with a range of different explanations offered. Computational models can be used to test these theories and explore new hypotheses; Bowles and Choi [Bowles S, Choi J-K (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(22):8830-8835] have developed one such model. Their model shows the coevolution of farming and farming-friendly property rights, and by including climate variability, replicates the timings for the emergence of these events seen in the archaeological record. Because the processes modeled occurred a long time ago, it can be difficult to justify exact parameter values; hence, we propose a fitting to idealized outcomes (FIO) method to explore the model's parameter space in more detail. We have replicated the model of Bowles and Choi, and used the FIO method to identify complexities and interactions of the model previously unidentified. Our results indicate that the key parameters for the emergence of farming are group structuring, group size, conservatism, and farming-friendly property rights (lending further support to Bowles and Choi's original proposal). We also find that although advantageous, it is not essential that farming productivity be greater than foraging productivity for farming to emerge. In addition, we highlight how model behaviors can be missed when gauging parameter sensitivity via a fix-all-but-one variation approach.

  5. A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...

  6. Efficacy of an internet-based learning module and small-group debriefing on trainees' attitudes and communication skills toward patients with substance use disorders: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanken, Paul N; Novack, Dennis H; Daetwyler, Christof; Gallop, Robert; Landis, J Richard; Lapin, Jennifer; Subramaniam, Geetha A; Schindler, Barbara A

    2015-03-01

    To examine whether an Internet-based learning module and small-group debriefing can improve medical trainees' attitudes and communication skills toward patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). In 2011-2012, 129 internal and family medicine residents and 370 medical students at two medical schools participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial, which assessed the effect of adding a two-part intervention to the SUDs curricula. The intervention included a self-directed, media-rich Internet-based learning module and a small-group, faculty-led debriefing. Primary study outcomes were changes in self-assessed attitudes in the intervention group (I-group) compared with those in the control group (C-group) (i.e., a difference of differences). For residents, the authors used real-time, Web-based interviews of standardized patients to assess changes in communication skills. Statistical analyses, conducted separately for residents and students, included hierarchical linear modeling, adjusted for site, participant type, cluster, and individual scores at baseline. The authors found no significant differences between the I- and C-groups in attitudes for residents or students at baseline. Compared with those in the C-group, residents, but not students, in the I-group had more positive attitudes toward treatment efficacy and self-efficacy at follow-up (Pcommunication skills toward patients with SUDs among residents. Enhanced attitudes and skills may result in improved care for these patients.

  7. The conundrum of Hodgkin lymphoma nodes: to be or not to be included in the involved node radiation fields. The EORTC-GELA lymphoma group guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Specht, Lena; Ghalibafian, Mithra

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop easily applicable guidelines for the determination of initially involved lymph nodes to be included in the radiation fields. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma. All the imaging procedures were carried out with patients in the treatment......: The classic guidelines for determining the involvement of lymph nodes were not easily applicable and did not seem to reflect the exact extent of Hodgkin lymphoma. Three simple steps were used to pinpoint involved lymph nodes. First, FDG-PET scans were meticulously analysed to detect lymph nodes that were...

  8. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: a morphologically heterologous group including carcinosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma with stromal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye Jin; Wolpowitz, Deon; Scott, Glynis; Gilmore, Elaine; Bhawan, Jag

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with osteoclast-like giant cells (hereafter, osteoclastic cells) is very rare; eight cases have been reported since 2006. Whether the osteoclastic cells represents a reactive or neoplastic change remains a matter of debate. Osteoclastic cells are often observed in the sarcomatous component of cutaneous carcinosarcoma. SCC with osteoclastic cells is a heterogeneous condition that includes SCC with stromal changes containing osteoclastic cells (also known as osteoclast-like giant cell reaction) and carcinosarcoma. In some cases, SCC with an associated osteoclast-like giant cell reaction has been differentiated from carcinosarcoma based on the degree of cytologic atypia in non-epithelial components. We summarized the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of 11 patients of SCC with osteoclastic cells, including our two cases of SCC with an osteoclast-like giant cell reaction and one case of carcinosarcoma. The affected patients were old and more likely to be male (64%). Seven cases (64%) were in the head and neck. Moreover, multiple features of high risk SCC were observed, such as a tumor size greater than 2 cm (56%), moderate or poor differentiation (100%), recurrence (33%) and nodal metastasis (17%) after excision and immunosuppression (27%). Interestingly, half of the previously reported cases of SCC with osteoclastic giant cell reaction had histopathologic findings that were overlapping with those of carcinosarcoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Electronic Structure of the Azide Group in 3¢-Azido-3¢-deoxythymidine (AZT Compared to Small Azide Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations for some structural and electronic properties of the azide moiety in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitor 3¢-azido-3¢-deoxythymidine (AZT are reported. These properties, which include geometrical properties in three dimensional space, Hirshfeld charges, electrostatic potential (MEP, vibrational frequencies, and core and valence ionization spectra, are employed to study how the azide group is affected by the presence of a larger fragment. For this purpose, two small but important organic azides, hydrazoic acid and methyl azide, are also considered. The general features of trans Cs configuration for RNNN fragments[1] is distorted in the large AZT bio-molecule. Hirshfeld charge analysis shows charges are reallocated more evenly on azide when the donor group R is not a single atom. Infrared and photoelectron spectra reveal different aspects of the compounds. In conclusion, the electronic structural properties of the compounds depend on the specific property, the local structure and chemical environment of a species.

  11. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency.

  12. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  13. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will carry out an analysis of production and market conditions in the fresh fruit and vegetable, dairy and (in one case) beef, and chicken sectors in a selected province or district of each country. Against this baseline data, ... Institution. International Institute for Environment and Development. Pays d' institution.

  14. Populus GT43 family members group into distinct sets required for primary and secondary wall xylan biosynthesis and include useful promoters for wood modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Christine; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Naumann, Marcel; Duncranz, Mathilda Lönnäs; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gorzsás, András; Endo, Satoshi; Ezcurra, Ines; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    The plant GT43 protein family includes xylosyltransferases that are known to be required for xylan backbone biosynthesis, but have incompletely understood specificities. RT-qPCR and histochemical (GUS) analyses of expression patterns of GT43 members in hybrid aspen, reported here, revealed that three clades of the family have markedly differing specificity towards secondary wall-forming cells (wood and extraxylary fibres). Intriguingly, GT43A and B genes (corresponding to the Arabidopsis IRX9 clade) showed higher specificity for secondary-walled cells than GT43C and D genes (IRX14 clade), although both IRX9 and IRX14 are required for xylosyltransferase activity. The remaining genes, GT43E, F and G (IRX9-L clade), showed broad expression patterns. Transient transactivation analyses of GT43A and B reporters demonstrated that they are activated by PtxtMYB021 and PNAC085 (master secondary wall switches), mediated in PtxtMYB021 activation by an AC element. The high observed secondary cell wall specificity of GT43B expression prompted tests of the efficiency of its promoter (pGT43B), relative to the CaMV 35S (35S) promoter, for overexpressing a xylan acetyl esterase (CE5) or downregulating REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) family genes and thus engineering wood acetylation. CE5 expression was weaker when driven by pGT43B, but it reduced wood acetyl content substantially more efficiently than the 35S promoter. RNAi silencing of the RWA family, which was ineffective using 35S, was achieved when using GT43B promoter. These results show the utility of the GT43B promoter for genetically engineering properties of wood and fibres. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Enhancement in evaluating small group work in courses with large number of students. Machine theory at industrial engineering degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Jordi Nebot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process. Machine Theory is a required course with a large number of students. These students are divided into groups of three, and required to carry out a supervised work constituting 20% of their final mark. These new evaluation methods were proposed in response to the significant increase of students in spring semester of 2010-2011, and were pilot tested during fall semester of academic year 2011-2012, in the previous Industrial Engineering degree program. Pilot test results were highly satisfactory for students and teachers, alike, and met proposed educational objectives. For this reason, the new evaluation methodology was adopted in spring semester of 2011-2012, in the current bachelor’s degree program in Industrial Technology (Grau en Enginyeria en Tecnologies Industrials, GETI, where it has also achieved highly satisfactory results.

  16. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, YU-CHIN; HO, CHING-LIANG; KAO, WOEI-YAU; CHEN, YUH-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata, a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolera...

  17. Dental students\\' satisfaction of applying a combination of lecture and work in small groups compared to applying only lecture: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Amini Shakib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Choosing an appropriate style of teaching-learning by educators is a way to reach high quality education. The objective of this study conducted in Babol Dental School was to compare dental students, satisfaction of teaching theoretical general pathology course by means of a combination of lecture and work in small groups with their satisfaction of teaching the course by means of only lecture. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the second semester of school year 2011-12 and 2012-13. In 2012 (intervention group, response rate=92%, the teaching of theoretical general pathology course was implemented by means of a combination of lecture and work in small groups, but in 2013 (control group, response rate=81% by means of only lecture. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess students, satisfaction of the teaching methods. To compare the mean total score of satisfaction (ranging from 18 through 90 between the two groups, T-test was used. Results: Comparing the mean total scores between the two groups revealed that students, satisfaction of the combined teaching method was significantly higher (P<0.001. The difference of satisfaction between genders (separately for each group was not significant in combination group and lecture group (P=0.63 and P=0.87,   respectively. Conclusion: Regarding learning, combining lecture with other teaching methods such as work in small groups may increase health sciences students' satisfaction. In regard to teaching theoretical general pathology course, our findings could confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  19. The Iterative Decision Method (IDM): Academy of Health Sciences Reports, Small Group Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Bibliography, and Statistical References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    475. IDM Bibliography 11 * 89. James , J. A preliminary study of the size determinant in small group . interaction. American Sociological Review, 1951...Social Psydology, 1969, 12, 144-150. 109. Laughlin, P. R., & Jaccard , J. J. Social facilitation and observational learning of individuals and

  20. Perceived occupational and environmental health hazards among workers in small scale industries in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a focus group discussion study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Haan, S. de; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Naerssen, A.L. van; Heerderik, D.; Rongo, L.M.B.

    2003-01-01

    While the informal sector is rapidly emerging as the major source of employment in poor countries, little is known to the health hazards encountered by the workers in small-scale industries (SSI). We conducted 11 focus group discussions (FGD) among the workers in SSI to assess felt occupational

  1. Improving Executive Functions in 5- and 6-year-olds: Evaluation of a Small Group Intervention in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patriza; Michel, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a central role of executive functions for children's cognitive and social development during preschool years, especially in promoting school readiness. Interventions aiming to improve executive functions are therefore being called for. The present study examined the effect of a small group intervention implemented in kindergarten…

  2. Comparison of Two Small-Group Learning Methods in 12th-Grade Physics Classes Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…

  3. Effects of Small-Group Tutoring with and without Validated Classroom Instruction on At-Risk Students' Math Problem Solving: Are Two Tiers of Prevention Better than One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Craddock, Caitlin; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rd-grade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problem-solving instruction (Hot Math, schema-broadening instruction). Students identified as at…

  4. The Effectiveness of the Smart Board-Based Small-Group Graduated Guidance Instruction on Digital Gaming and Observational Learning Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattik, Melih; Odluyurt, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to teach digital gaming skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a SMART board with a graduated guidance teaching method in a small-group instructional format, to determine the participants' levels of learning by observation, and to determine the views of their families on the conducted…

  5. The "Project": Putting Student Controlled, Small Group Work and Transferable Skills at the Core of a Geography Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Brian Paul

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a cooperative group project has become a foundation of the first two years of a three-year program in college-level geography. Discusses the origin, development, and topic selection for each of the cohort groups working in the program. Asserts that the program has been favorably received by both students and faculty members. (CFR)

  6. More Perspectives, New Politics, New Life: How a Small Group UsedThe Integral Process For Working On Complex Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ross

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a small research project with citizens who wanted to address their community’s chronically adversarial behaviors and atmosphere. It complements a longer research report on the same project, which is also published in this issue of Integral Review. The project used a structured public discourse process, The Integral Process For Working On Complex Issues (TIP). This article supplies background on TIP’s origins, then focuses on two areas. First, it explains the process st...

  7. Prognostic Factors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Less Than 3 Centimeters: Actuarial Analysis, Accumulative Incidence and Risk Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalver Cuesta, Juan C; Jordá Aragón, Carlos; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; Cerón Navarro, José A; de Aguiar Quevedo, Karol; Arrarás Martínez, Miguel; Vera Sempere, Francisco J; Padilla Alarcón, Jose D

    2015-09-01

    In TNM classification, factors determining the tumor (T) component in non-small cell lung cancer have scarcely changed over time and are still based solely on anatomical features. Our objective was to study the influence of these and other morphopathological factors on survival. A total of 263 patients undergoing lung resection due to stage I non-small cell lung cancer ≤3cm in diameter were studied. A survival analysis and competing-risk estimate study was made on the basis of clinical, surgical and pathological variables using actuarial analysis and accumulative incidence methods, respectively. A risk model was then generated from the results. Survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.8 and 74.3%, respectively. The best prognostic factors were presence of symptoms, smoking habit and FEV1>60%, number of resected nodes>7, squamous histology, absence of vascular invasion, absence of visceral pleural invasion and presence of invasion more proximal than the lobar bronchus. All these were statistically significant according to the actuarial method. The factor "age60%. Pleural invasion and vascular invasion determine survival or risk of death due to non-small cell lung cancer ≤3cm and can be used for generating a predictive risk model. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Common arm comparative outcomes analysis of phase 3 trials of cisplatin + irinotecan versus cisplatin + etoposide in extensive stage small cell lung cancer: final patient-level results from Japan Clinical Oncology Group 9511 and Southwest Oncology Group 0124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Primo N; Chansky, Kari; Shibata, Taro; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Tamura, Tomohide; Crowley, John; Redman, Mary W; Natale, Ronald; Saijo, Nagahiro; Gandara, David R

    2010-12-15

    Southwest Oncology Group 0124 was a large North American phase 3 trial that failed to confirm a survival benefit for cisplatin/irinotecan over cisplatin/etoposide in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). These results were contrary to Japan Clinical Oncology Group 9511, a phase 3 trial exclusively in Japanese patients. Because 0124 and 9511 used identical treatment regimens and similar eligibility criteria, patient-level data were pooled from both trials, and a common arm analysis was performed to explore potential reasons for the divergent results. Patients with documented extensive stage SCLC and adequate end-organ function were randomized to intravenously receive either cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) Day 1 + irinotecan 60 mg/m(2) Days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) Day 1 + etoposide 100 mg/m(2) Days 1-3 every 3 weeks. Demographic and outcome data were compared among 805 patients enrolled in 9511 and 0124 receiving identical treatment using a logistic model adjusted for age, sex, and performance status (PS). Of 671 patients in 0124, 651 eligible patients were included, as were all 154 patients from 9511. Significant differences in sex and PS distribution as well as toxicity were seen between trials. There were also significant differences in response rates (87% vs 60%, Pglobalization, warrant: 1) consideration of differential patient characteristics and outcomes among populations receiving identical therapy; 2) utilization of the common arm model in prospective trials; and 3) inclusion of pharmacogenomic correlates in cancer trials where ethnic/racial differences in drug disposition are expected. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  9. The Effect of Education-Based Intervention Using Small Group Discussion in Empowering Adolescent Girls to Prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemehsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Results: At baseline, independent T-test showed no significant difference between the two groups in the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self efficacy, all of which could be regarded as empowerment process components (P>0.05. However, significant differences were observed after intervention. Also, the paired T-test showed a significant difference before and after the intervention in the test group in means of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self efficacy and, in the grand scheme, adolescent girls' empowerment (P

  10. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  11. Contextualizing the relevance of basic sciences: small-group simulation with debrief for first- and second-year medical students in an integrated curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg SB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samara B Ginzburg,1 Judith Brenner,1 Michael Cassara,2 Thomas Kwiatkowski,1 Joanne M Willey,1 1Department of Science Education, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY, USA Aim: There has been a call for increased integration of basic and clinical sciences during ­preclinical years of undergraduate medical education. Despite the recognition that clinical simulation is an effective pedagogical tool, little has been reported on its use to demonstrate the relevance of basic science principles to the practice of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that simulation with an integrated science and clinical debrief used with early learners would illustrate the importance of basic science principles in clinical diagnosis and management of patients.  Methods: Small groups of first -and second-year medical students were engaged in a high-fidelity simulation followed by a comprehensive debrief facilitated by a basic scientist and clinician. Surveys including anchored and open-ended questions were distributed at the conclusion of each experience.  Results: The majority of the students agreed that simulation followed by an integrated debrief illustrated the clinical relevance of basic sciences (mean ± standard deviation: 93.8% ± 2.9% of first-year medical students; 96.7% ± 3.5% of second-year medical students and its importance in patient care (92.8% of first-year medical students; 90.4% of second-year medical students. In a thematic analysis of open-ended responses, students felt that these experiences provided opportunities for direct application of scientific knowledge to diagnosis and treatment, improving student knowledge, simulating real-world experience, and developing clinical reasoning, all of which specifically helped them understand the clinical relevance of basic sciences.  Conclusion: Small-group simulation followed by a debrief that integrates basic and clinical

  12. O pequeno grupo "Oficina de Capoeira" no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica The small "Capoeira Workshop" group in the context of psychiatric reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristiane Alves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A Oficina de Capoeira nasceu a partir da necessidade de inter-relação entre o Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro e a Vila São Pedro, haja vista a construção dos Serviços Residenciais Terapêuticos em parte da área territorial da vila. Composta de moradores da vila e usuários do hospital, esta oficina foi escolhida como objeto de estudo devido a sua singularidade, diversidade e contextualização na reforma psiquiátrica. Este estudo objetiva esclarecer como se produz e se organiza o sistema Pequeno Grupo Oficina de Capoeira, utilizando como principal referencial o Paradigma da Complexidade de Edgar Morin. As informações foram registradas a partir de observações e anotações em diário de campo. Participaram da pesquisa os sujeitos que constituíram a Oficina de Capoeira. Esta proposta nos sugere outras possibilidades de intervenção em pequenos grupos no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica. Todavia, precisamos viver a heterogeneidade e a incerteza do sistema como possibilidade de produção de sujeitos criativos.The Capoeira workshop was formed from the need to strengthen the relationship between the Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro and the Vila São Pedro neighborhood, considering the construction of the Residential Therapeutic Services unit in the neighborhood. Composed of local residents and users of the hospital, the workshop was chosen as an object of study due to its uniqueness, its diversity and for the way it places psychiatric reform in context. The study aimed to understand how the small Capoeira Workshop group is produced and organized. The principal theoretical reference for the study was the Complexity Paradigm of Edgar Morin. The data was collected from observations and notations in a field notebook. Study participants included the subjects who composed the Capoeira Workshop. This created other possibilities for intervention in small groups in the context of psychiatric reform. Nevertheless, we need to experience the

  13. Prevalence of R5 strains in multi-treated HIV subjects and impact of new regimens including maraviroc in a selected group of patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Isabella; Clò, Alberto; Borderi, Marco; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Cricca, Monica; Gibellini, Davide; Re, Maria Carla

    2013-10-01

    Maraviroc currently represents an important antiretroviral drug for multi-experienced and viremic HIV patients. This study focused on two main points: (1) determining the prevalence of R5 and X4 HIV strains in antiretroviral-experienced patients using two main tests currently in use to determine viral tropism, and (2) the follow-up to 3 years of a limited number of patients who started a new antiretroviral protocol including maraviroc. A group of 56 HIV patients, previously multi-treated, were first analyzed by genotyping assay and Trofile™ to establish their eligibility for maraviroc treatment. In addition, 25 subjects selected to follow a new therapeutic protocol including a CCR5 antagonist were monitored by HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ cell count. The determination of viral tropism showed a large percentage of patients with an R5 profile (72% by genotyping assay and 74% by Trofile). The follow-up of most (21 out 25) patients who started the new antiretroviral protocol showed an undetectable viral load throughout the observation period, accompanied by a major improvement in CD4 cell count (cells/mm(3)) (baseline: median CD4 cell count 365, interquartile range (IQR) 204-511; 12 months: median value 501, IQR 349-677, p=0.042; 24 months: median value 503, IQR 386-678, p=0.026; 36 months: median value 601, IQR 517-717, p=0.001). Among the four non-responder subjects, two showed a lack of drug compliance and two switched from R5 to X4. Although our patient cohort was small, the results showed a high prevalence of R5 viral strains in multi-experienced patients. As well as showing the advantages of genotyping, which can be performed in plasma samples with low viral load replication, the follow-up of HIV patients selected for an alternative drug protocol, including a CCR5 antagonist, showed a persistent undetectable viral replication and a good recovery of CD4 cell count in most treated HIV patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases

  14. Middle-school students of United Arab Emirates: effects of heterogeneous small group work on attitudes toward mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, H M; Jumaa, M

    2000-10-01

    This study compared the effects of two instructional strategies, small heterogeneous cooperative learning experience versus lecture and discussion, on students' attitudes toward mathematics. 54 boys and 57 girls in Grade 8 of four middle-school mathematics classes participated. Two classes (57 students) were taught using a cooperative learning method and the other two classes (54 students) were taught using traditional lecture and discussion. Differences between attitudes of boys and girls were also investigated and discussed in the light of Arabic culture. The results suggested that cooperative learning might be a valuable method with which to teach mathematics concepts to boys.

  15. Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.

  16. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel A.; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed "positive psychology interventions" (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth's lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget,…

  17. The Skilled Use of Interaction Strategies: Creating a Framework for Improved Small-Group Communicative Interaction in the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Yael; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the need to provide English-as-a-Second-Language learners with preparatory training to ensure more effective communicative interaction during group work conducted in the classroom. Findings indicate that Israeli students exposed to training in the skilled use of interaction strategies used significantly more modified-interaction and…

  18. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  19. Ethnocultural Groups--The Making of Canada: Economic Contributions to Canadian Life. Report 2: Seven Successful Small Business Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, S.; And Others

    Immigrants and refugees come to Canada for many reasons and are often risk-takers. Some ethnic groups follow identifiable patterns of distinctive economic development, while others meld and blend into Canadian society so that no discernible pattern can be identified. This publication provides an overview of the contributions made by seven…

  20. Social Resources Generated by Group Support Networks May Not Be Beneficial to Asian Immigrant-Owned Small Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    Data from the Census Bureau's Characteristics of Business Owners, 1979-87, suggest that the success and survival patterns of businesses owned by Asian immigrants derive from large investments of financial capital and the business owners' superior educational credentials. Questions the validity of attributing this group's self-employment success to…

  1. Relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensor using the regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component. III. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaya, S; Maeda, H; Funaki, M; Fukui, H

    2008-12-14

    The relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in hydrogen halides is performed using the second-order regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component (SORA-NESC) method with the inclusion of the perturbation terms from the metric operator. This computational scheme is denoted as SORA-Met. The SORA-Met calculation yields anisotropies, Delta sigma = sigma(parallel) - sigma(perpendicular), for the halogen nuclei in hydrogen halides that are too small. In the NESC theory, the small component of the spinor is combined to the large component via the operator sigma x piU/2c, in which pi = p + A, U is a nonunitary transformation operator, and c approximately = 137.036 a.u. is the velocity of light. The operator U depends on the vector potential A (i.e., the magnetic perturbations in the system) with the leading order c(-2) and the magnetic perturbation terms of U contribute to the Hamiltonian and metric operators of the system in the leading order c(-4). It is shown that the small Delta sigma for halogen nuclei found in our previous studies is related to the neglect of the U(0,1) perturbation operator of U, which is independent of the external magnetic field and of the first order with respect to the nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model is also discussed.

  2. [Benefits of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Kyushu Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Hara, N; Ichikawa, Y; Kanda, T; Shima, K; Tamura, K; Hokama, M

    1988-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. One hundred nineteen patients with adenocarcinoma or large cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin and mitomycin C (CAPM) or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside and tegafur (MCT), and 48 patients with squamous cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cisplatin, adriamycin and peplomycin (PAP) or mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide, tespamine, toyomycin and tegafur (MCTTT). Radiation was given to the chest in patients with stage I-III disease. The response rates were CAPM, 34.5%; MCT, 13.1% (p less than 0.01) and PAP, 63.3%; MCTTT, 42.3%. A significant difference in response rate between the CAPM and MCT regimens was observed only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients. The median survival was 9.5 months in the CAPM arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCT arm (p less than 0.007), and 8.5 months in the PAP arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCTTT arm. Improved median survival for the CAPM regimen was noted only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients when compared to patients given the MCT regimen, respectively. Nausea and vomiting were significantly increased in patients with cisplatin-based polychemotherapy. Myelosuppression was more severe with the CAPM regimen than with the other chemotherapy regimens. We concluded that cisplatin-based polychemotherapy, CAPM and PAP therapy were of more benefit to patients with disseminated non-small-cell lung cancer than MCT and MCTTT therapy.

  3. Benefits of foraging in small groups: An experimental study on public information use in red knots Calidris canutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Allert I; van Gils, Jan A; Jouta, Jeltje; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Social foraging is common and may provide benefits of safety and public information. Public information permits faster and more accurate estimates of patch resource densities, thus allowing more effective foraging. In this paper we report on two experiments with red knots Calidris canutus, socially foraging shorebirds that eat bivalves on intertidal mudflats. The first experiment was designed to show that red knots are capable of using public information, and whether dominance status or sex affected its use. We showed that knots can detect the foraging success of conspecifics and choose a patch accordingly. Neither dominance status nor sex influenced public information use. In the second experiment, by manipulating group size, we investigated whether public information use affected food-patch discovery rates and patch residence times. We showed that the time needed before locating a food patch decreased in proportion to group size. Also, an individual's number of patch visits before locating the food declined with group size, and, to our surprise, their average patch residence time did as well. Moreover, knots differed in their search strategy in that some birds consistently exploited the searching efforts of others. We conclude that socially foraging knots have the potential to greatly increase their food-finding rate by using public information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media (Facebook) towards the aquaculture knowledge and financial improvement of small scale fish farmers (SSFF) in rural areas of Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfitasari, T.; Nugroho, R. A.; Nugroho, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Internet is now widely used by people all over the world, including small scale fisheries communities such as fish farmers. Many applications are being created including social media Facebook which are used by small scale fish farmers (SSFF) for its ease and convenience. The objective of this research is to identify the impact of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media Facebook towards the improvement of aquaculture knowledge and financial condition of small scale fish farmers in Central Java. This research used quantitative approach where questionnaires were distributed into two groups: SSFF who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and who are not. Sampling technique used random sampling, used 60 samples of SSFF in Central Java. Data obtained were tested using the test statistic Independent t-test using SPSS v.20. Result showed a significant effect of group who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and those who are not, towards the aquaculture knowledge (t count -7.424 and sig 0.000) and financial improvement (t -3.775 and sig 0.000). The results of the average value of the SSFF who are ACG member in Facebook are also higher than farmers who are not.

  5. Recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke: does the distinction between small and large vessel disease remain true to type? Dutch TIA Trial Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelle, L J; van Latum, J C; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; Koudstaal, P J; van Gijn, J

    1995-01-01

    The incidence and vascular type of recurrent ischaemic stroke was studied in patients with supratentorial transient ischaemic attacks or non-disabling ischaemic strokes, who were treated with aspirin (30 or 283 mg). Patients were divided into groups with small vessel disease (SVD) (n = 1216) or large vessel disease (LVD) (n = 1221) on the grounds of their clinical features and CT at baseline. Patients with evidence of both SVD and LVD (n = 180) were excluded from further analyses. During foll...

  6. 76 FR 54969 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review: Definitions of “Individual Market” and “Small Group Market”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... requirements related to rate review, and for HIPAA purposes it was irrelevant how a State defined its markets... status-related factor relating to an individual (including an employee of an employer or a dependent of... members regardless of any health status-related factor relating to the members (or individuals eligible...

  7. Lifting the mask: identification of new small molecule inhibitors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli group 2 capsule biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Carlos C; Arshad, Mehreen; Noah, James W; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Evans, Carrie W; Nebane, N Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda; Tower, Nichole A; White, E Lucile; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Porubsky, Patrick; Maki, Brooks E; Rogers, Steven A; Schoenen, Frank; Seed, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), with over 100 million UTIs occurring annually throughout the world. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among UPEC limits ambulatory care options, delays effective treatment, and may increase overall morbidity and mortality from complications such as urosepsis. The polysaccharide capsules of UPEC are an attractive target a therapeutic, based on their importance in defense against the host immune responses; however, the large number of antigenic types has limited their incorporation into vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify small-molecule inhibitors of UPEC capsule biogenesis. A large-scale screening effort entailing 338,740 compounds was conducted in a cell-based, phenotypic screen for inhibition of capsule biogenesis in UPEC. The primary and concentration-response assays yielded 29 putative inhibitors of capsule biogenesis, of which 6 were selected for further studies. Secondary confirmatory assays identified two highly active agents, named DU003 and DU011, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 1.0 µM and 0.69 µM, respectively. Confirmatory assays for capsular antigen and biochemical measurement of capsular sugars verified the inhibitory action of both compounds and demonstrated minimal toxicity and off-target effects. Serum sensitivity assays demonstrated that both compounds produced significant bacterial death upon exposure to active human serum. DU011 administration in mice provided near complete protection against a lethal systemic infection with the prototypic UPEC K1 isolate UTI89. This work has provided a conceptually new class of molecules to combat UPEC infection, and future studies will establish the molecular basis for their action along with efficacy in UTI and other UPEC infections.

  8. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Small-group, computer-mediated argumentation in middle-school classrooms: the effects of gender and different types of online teacher guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B; Gil, Julia

    2012-09-01

    Research has shown the importance of careful teacher support during collaborative group work to promote productive discourse between students (Webb, 2009). However, this research has traditionally focused on face-to-face communication. The role of online teacher guidance of small-group computer-mediated discussions has received little attention, especially in secondary school classroom settings. Researchers of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), on the other hand, have traditionally focused on software-embedded features, such as scripts, to support a-synchronous peer dialogue, and less so on human guidance of synchronous group discussions. The main aim of the present in vivo, experimental study is to examine whether online teacher guidance can improve the quality of small-group synchronous discussions, and whether different types of guidance (epistemic or interaction guidance) affect these discussions differently, when compared to an unguided condition. The second goal of this study is to explore potential differences between all-female and all-male discussion groups. Eighty-two 9th graders (three classrooms) and six teachers from a rural high school in Israel. Whereas epistemic guidance only improved aspects of the argumentative quality of the discussion, interaction guidance only improved aspects of collaboration. Discussions of all-girls groups scored higher on aspects of collaboration and argumentative quality, compared to all-boys groups. The findings show that teacher guidance of synchronous, online discussions in classrooms is realizable and reasonably reaches its intended goals. Training should be focused on acquiring various guidance strategies to augment their beneficial effects. Furthermore, future research should pay more attention to potential gender differences in peer-to-peer argumentation. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Thermal properties of some small peptides (N-acetyl-amino acid-N′-methylamides) with non-polar side groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, Elena; Della Gatta, Giuseppe; Pałecz, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • T fus and Δ fus H m of methylamides of N-acetyl substituted non-polar amino acids were measured. • T fus and Δ fus H m increased as a function of the molar mass of the alkyl side chains. • DL racemates showed T fus of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers. • Ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K was estimated based on their T fus and Δ fus S m . - Abstract: Temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of a series of uncharged small peptides, namely the methylamides of N-acetyl substituted glycine, α-amino-butyric acid, alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, and proline, were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.), and molar entropies of fusion were derived. Both L- and DL-compunds were taken into account for the chiral molecules. No solid-to-solid transitions were detected from room temperature to fusion except for N-acetyl-N′-methyl alaninamide. Comparisons were made with the values for the N-acetyl amides of the corresponding amino acids previously reported. Both L enantiomers and DL racemates of α-aminobutyric acid, alanine, valine and isoleucine methylamides displayed temperatures of fusion sharply increasing as a function of molar mass, whereas much lower values, in countertendency with their molar mass increase, were found for proline and leucine methylamides. The racemic DL crystals showed temperatures of fusion of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers, except for proline and leucine derivatives. The enthalpies and entropies of fusion also varied as a function of molar mass following a similar trend with that of temperatures of fusion, except for alanine derivatives which showed lower values than expected. The values of ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K were estimated based on their temperatures and molar entropies of fusion. Results were discussed with reference to the packing patterns based on hydrogen bonding and

  11. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Small Rodents from Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Freitas, Renata N.; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvão, Márcio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region. PMID:23509125

  12. Small power and heat generation systems on the basis of propulsion and innovative reactor technologies. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    In the future for developing regions and remote areas one or two power reactors in the 50 MWe to 100 MWe range could be appropriately applied for electricity and heat generation. Introducing and managing such a small program with conventional reactor systems would require a mature supporting technological infrastructure and many skilled highly-trained staff at the site, which might be a problem in some countries. An increased number of small conventional reactors would increase the burden and expenditure for assuring security and non-proliferation. To this end, the time has come to develop an innovative small reactor concept which meets the following requirements: reliable, safe operation with a minimum maintenance and supporting infrastructure, economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites, and significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. Successful resolution of such a problem requires a comprehensive system approach that considers all aspects of manufacturing, transportation, operation and ultimate disposal. Some elements of this approach have been used previously in the development of propulsion nuclear power systems, with consideration given to many diverse requirements such as highly autonomous operation for a long period of time, no planned maintenance, no on-site refueling and ultimate disposition. It is with this focus that the IAEA convened the Advisory Group on Propulsion Reactor technologies for Civilian Applications

  13. Review of Australian Scirtes Illiger, Ora Clark and Exochomoscirtes Pic Coleoptera: Scirtidae) including descriptions of new species, new groups and a multi-gene molecular phylogeny of Australian and non-Australian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steven J B; Saint, Kathleen M

    2017-11-14

    The phylogenetic relationships of 26 Australian species of Scirtes Illiger, Ora Clark and Exochomoscirtes Pic (Scirtidae) were investigated using adult morphology, particularly male and female genitalia, larval morphology and molecular data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear genes elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1- a) and topoisomerase I (TOP1). Four species of Scirtes and one of Ora from Europe, Southeast Asia and Japan were included. The genus Scirtes is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to the genera Ora and Exochomoscirtes. Australian Scirtes were shown to belong to four species groups: Scirtes elegans group (Yoshitomi 2009); S. helmsi group (Watts 2004); S. japonicus group (Nyholm 2002); and S. haemisphaericus group (Yoshitomi 2005). The prehensor and bursal sclerite of 15 species are illustrated as well as habitus illustrations of S. zwicki sp. nov. and S. albamaculatus Watts. Three new species from Australia are described: Scirtes lynnae, S. zwicki and S. serratus spp. nov. Scirtes nehouensis Ruta & Yoshitomi 2010 is synonymised with S. emmaae Watts 2004. Scirtes pygmaeus Watts, 2004 is synonymised with S. pinjarraensis Watts, 2006. Scirtes rutai nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for S. beccus Ruta, Kiałka & Yoshitomi, 2014 from Sabah as it is preoccupied by S. beccus Watts, 2004 from Australia.

  14. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Detection of homogeneous distribution of functional groups in mesoporous silica by small angle neutron scattering and in situ adsorption of nitrogen or water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Monir; Marschall, Roland; Wilhelm, Michaela; Wallacher, Dirk; Wark, Michael

    2011-05-03

    The distribution of SO(3)H-functional groups attached to the ordered inner pore walls of mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials based on SiO(2) was investigated by gas adsorption combined with in situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The functionalization was performed by two different methods, (i) grafting and (ii) co-condensation. The adsorbates N(2) at 77 K or a H(2)O/D(2)O mixture of 42:58 at 298 K possess neutron scattering length densities (SLD) similar to that of SiO(2) and therefore quench the diffraction signals of the nonmodified silica. SANS measurements show that N(2) matches completely not only with the pristine mesoporous Si-MCM-41 but also with Si-MCM-41-SO(3)H functionalized by grafting. Thus, full access of adsorbate into the entire length of the pores is proven. For the analysis of the distribution of functional groups within the pores in dependence on the used functionalization method, grafting or co-condensation, however, the more specific adsorbate H(2)O/D(2)O (42:58) is necessary, because it reacts more sensitively toward small changes in the SLD of the host material. For grafted Si-MCM-41-SO(3)H materials, an incomplete quenching was observed, indicating that only some regions, probably the pore mouths, have been modified. For a sample functionalized by co-condensation, almost no quenching of the neutron diffraction was found, indicating a very homogeneous distribution of the functional groups along the entire pores.

  16. Distribution of functional groups in periodic mesoporous organosilica materials studied by small-angle neutron scattering with in situ adsorption of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Sharifi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mesoporous materials of the type (R′O3Si-R-Si(OR′3 with benzene as an organic bridge and a crystal-like periodicity within the pore walls were functionalized with SO3H or SO3− groups and investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS with in situ nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. If N2 is adsorbed in the pores the SANS measurements show a complete matching of all of the diffraction signals that are caused by the long-range ordering of the mesopores in the benzene-PMO, due to the fact that the benzene-PMO walls possess a neutron scattering length density (SLD similar to that of nitrogen in the condensed state. However, signals at higher q-values (>1 1/Å are not affected with respect to their SANS intensity, even after complete pore filling, confirming the assumption of a crystal-like periodicity within the PMO material walls due to π–π interactions between the organic bridges. The SLD of pristine benzene-PMO was altered by functionalizing the surface with different amounts of SO3H-groups, using the grafting method. For a low degree of functionalization (0.81 mmol SO3H·g−1 and/or an inhomogeneous distribution of the SO3H-groups, the SLD changes only negligibly, and thus, complete contrast matching is still found. However, for higher amounts of SO3H-groups (1.65 mmol SO3H·g−1 being present in the mesopores, complete matching of the neutron diffraction signals is no longer observed proving that homogeneously distributed SO3H-groups on the inner pore walls of the benzene-PMO alter the SLD in a way that it no longer fits to the SLD of the condensed N2.

  17. Distribution of functional groups in periodic mesoporous organosilica materials studied by small-angle neutron scattering with in situ adsorption of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Monir; Wallacher, Dirk; Wark, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Periodic mesoporous materials of the type (R'O)(3)Si-R-Si(OR')(3) with benzene as an organic bridge and a crystal-like periodicity within the pore walls were functionalized with SO(3)H or SO(3) (-) groups and investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with in situ nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. If N(2) is adsorbed in the pores the SANS measurements show a complete matching of all of the diffraction signals that are caused by the long-range ordering of the mesopores in the benzene-PMO, due to the fact that the benzene-PMO walls possess a neutron scattering length density (SLD) similar to that of nitrogen in the condensed state. However, signals at higher q-values (>1 1/Å) are not affected with respect to their SANS intensity, even after complete pore filling, confirming the assumption of a crystal-like periodicity within the PMO material walls due to π-π interactions between the organic bridges. The SLD of pristine benzene-PMO was altered by functionalizing the surface with different amounts of SO(3)H-groups, using the grafting method. For a low degree of functionalization (0.81 mmol SO(3)H·g(-1)) and/or an inhomogeneous distribution of the SO(3)H-groups, the SLD changes only negligibly, and thus, complete contrast matching is still found. However, for higher amounts of SO(3)H-groups (1.65 mmol SO(3)H·g(-1)) being present in the mesopores, complete matching of the neutron diffraction signals is no longer observed proving that homogeneously distributed SO(3)H-groups on the inner pore walls of the benzene-PMO alter the SLD in a way that it no longer fits to the SLD of the condensed N(2).

  18. Intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in recalcitrant wart: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial including an extra group of candidates for cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnia, Mehdi; Khodaeiani, Effat; Fouladi, Daniel F; Masoudnia, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Due to paucity of randomized clinical trials, intralesional immunotherapy has not been yet accepted as a standard therapeutic method. To examine the efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) for treating recalcitrant wart. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, a total of 69 patients with recalcitrant warts received either intralesional PPD antigen (n = 35) or intralesional saline (n = 34) for six times at 2-week intervals. A third group of candidates for cryotherapy (n = 33) was also included. The decrease in lesion size (good: complete response, intermediate: 50-99% improvement, poor: cryotherapy patients, respectively (PPD versus placebo: p cryotherapy: p cryotherapy groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Intralesional immunotherapy with PPD antigen is highly effective and safe for treating recalcitrant warts. IRCT201407089844N3 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).

  19. Context matters: volunteer bias, small sample size, and the value of comparison groups in the assessment of research-based undergraduate introductory biology lab courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Kloser, Matthew J; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  20. Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0050 trial: the utility of positron emission tomography in staging potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carolyn E; Harpole, David H; Posther, Katherine E; Woolson, Sandra L; Downey, Robert J; Meyers, Bryan F; Heelan, Robert T; MacApinlac, Homer A; Jung, Sin-Ho; Silvestri, Gerard A; Siegel, Barry A; Rusch, Valerie W

    2003-12-01

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group undertook a trial to ascertain whether positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose could detect lesions that would preclude pulmonary resection in a group of patients with documented or suspected non-small cell lung cancer found to be surgical candidates by routine staging procedures. A total of 303 eligible patients registered from 22 institutions underwent positron emission tomography after routine staging (computed tomography of chest and upper abdomen, bone scintigraphy, and brain imaging) had deemed their tumors resectable. Positive findings required confirmatory procedures. Positron emission tomography was significantly better than computed tomography for the detection of N1 and N2/N3 disease (42% vs 13%, P =.0177, and 58% vs 32%, P =.0041, respectively). The negative predictive value of positron emission tomography for mediastinal node disease was 87%. Unsuspected metastatic disease or second primary malignancy was identified in 18 of 287 patients (6.3%). Distant metastatic disease indicated in 19 of 287 patients (6.6%) was subsequently shown to be benign. By correctly identifying advanced disease (stages IIIA, IIIB, and IV) or benign lesions, positron emission tomography potentially avoided unnecessary thoracotomy in 1 of 5 patients. In patients with suspected or proven non-small cell lung cancer considered resectable by standard staging procedures, positron emission tomography can prevent nontherapeutic thoracotomy in a significant number of cases. Use of positron emission tomography for mediastinal staging should not be relied on as a sole staging modality, and positive findings should be confirmed by mediastinoscopy. Metastatic disease, especially a single site, identified by positron emission tomography requires further confirmatory evaluation.

  1. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  2. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Woei-Yau; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2015-11-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata , a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and safety/tolerability and preliminary efficacy profiles of antroquinonol. The patients received escalating doses of once-daily antroquinonol in 4-week cycles (up to 3 cycles). The escalated doses were 50-600 mg. PKs were evaluated on day 1 and 28 of cycle 1. Between January, 2011 and October, 2012, 13 patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled. No DLTs occurred in any patient at any dose level. T max was observed between 1.00 and 3.70 h under single-dose conditions, and at 1.92-4.05 h under multiple-dose conditions. The mean elimination half-life ranged between 1.30 and 4.33 h, independent of the treatment dose. Antroquinonol at all dose levels had a mild toxicity profile, with no reported treatment-related mortality. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. The best tumor response was stable disease in 3 patients. In conclusion, antroquinonol at all dose levels, administered daily for 4 weeks, was generally safe and well tolerated, without DLTs. The recommended dose level for a phase II study is ≥600 mg daily.

  3. [Acquisition of skills in medical ethics in learning-teaching small groups. Comparing problem-based learning with the traditional model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Eliandro José Gutierres; Cazzo, Everton; Tuma, Paula; Silva Filho, Carlos Rodrigues da; Conterno, Lucieni de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate the acquisition of skills on Medical Ethics among medical students from Marilia Medical School, some of them from the small group learning-teaching method, others from traditional teaching method. A prospective analytical study was done based on the application of questionnaires about general themes on Ethics, at two different times. There weren't significant differences on the skills' acquisition between the two methods. Students from late graduation years showed a significantly better performance than those from early years. The themes that presented worse results were medical secret, legal responsible consent, patient autonomy, medical prescription, medical handbook and corporative feeling in the presence of medical mistake. The most important difference between the groups was not the pedagogical pattern but the exposition time to the theme. PBL gives the chance to distribute the theme in different situations accelerating the acquisition of knowledge in Medical Ethics. It was realized that a revitalization on Medical Ethics teaching is necessary at our institution, aiming a better integration with the socio-economical situation in our country.

  4. Tidal Effects on Groundwater in a Very Small Tropical Island: A Study on the Groundwater Resources of Pag-asa Island, Kalayaan Island Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pag-asa Island, with its very small land area and low relief, has a very limited fresh water supply occurring as a thin freshwater lens. Climate, topography, vegetation, lithology, human abstractions, and tides affect the volume of the freshwater lens. Topographic and hydrogeologic surveys, coupled with a 72-hour groundwater-monitoring program were done to assess the effects of tides on the freshwater lens.Groundwater parameters measured in wells during the monitoring program include variations in water table depths, specific electrical conductivity (SEC, and temperature. Changes in these parameters were then correlated with the observed variations of the tides.The groundwater levels oscillate with the tides at varying amplitudes. The hydraulic properties of the lithologies making up the island's aquifer influence the amplitude of the oscillations. Groundwater level oscillations are least in the reef materials and greatest in the sandy materials where it is nearly simultaneous with the tidal variations. High electrical conductivity values are marked in wells built near the coasts and in sandy materials.The average annual precipitation is approximately 2,020 mm. Based on empirical studies, the estimated sustainable yield for small tropical islands is 6% of the lowest annual rainfall or about 20,300 m3/yr for Pag-asa Island.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxov...

  6. A positionism epitomology applied to small group decision-making in radioactive waste management. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombaerts, G.

    2005-01-01

    The article refers to an abstract of a doctoral thesis. Assuring the safety of technological developments is becoming one of the most important tasks in society. For nuclear waste repositories, it is important to know what will remain valuable of current performance and safety assessments within a few hundred years. The core of the PhD concerns the meaning that can be attributed to safety assessments. This study develops a new philosophical theory to explain how small group decision-making on technoscientific problems takes place. It is applied to the specific problem of decision-making on radioactive waste disposal and its related risk assessment. The new philosophical theory is based on Latour's interactionism theory, which in its essence states that facts are only facts if they are accepted by the network. The theory adds that fact-building or decision-making happens in a certain context by interaction of different context elements. The word context has a very specific meaning. It refers to a problem solving situations in which individuals work out a problem framing and use attitudes, personalities, group cultures, and objects. Decisions or fact-building within the group will happen by interaction between these context elements that will get different hierarchical positions and lead to contextual dissonance reduction. This is called positionism. An international questionnaire has been carried out asking for estimations by technologists and scientists of the risks and uncertainties of a high level waste repository on the one hand and their personality, group culture and background characteristics on the other hand. Two important indicators occur. High neuroticism -a personality measure indicating the general tendency to experience affects such as fear, sadness, or distrust- correlates with high assessments of the waste repository risks. Scientists with high confidence in science give significant lower estimations of the repository risks. These results illustrate

  7. Board Effectiveness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Söderqvist, Anette; Wägar, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates boards of directors in small firms and explores the link between board effectiveness and the composition, roles and working styles of the boards. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyses data from a telephone survey of boards in 45 small firms. The survey included both the CEO and the chairperson of the board. Findings: The study identifies three groups of small firms: ‘paperboards’, ‘professional boards’, and ‘management lead’ boards. Results show that...

  8. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  9. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  10. Small-Group Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Condom Use and HIV Testing Among Hispanic/Latino Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung Y; Tanner, Amanda E; Arellano, Jorge Elias; Rodriguez-Celedon, Rodrigo; Garcia, Manuel; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Painter, Thomas M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the HOLA en Grupos intervention, a Spanish-language small-group behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. In 2012 to 2015, we recruited and randomized 304 Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men, aged 18 to 55 years in North Carolina, to the 4-session HOLA en Grupos intervention or an attention-equivalent general health education comparison intervention. Participants completed structured assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 100%. At follow-up, relative to comparison participants, HOLA en Grupos participants reported increased consistent condom use during the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 7.9; P HOLA en Grupos participants also reported increased knowledge of HIV (P HOLA en Grupos intervention is efficacious for reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men.

  11. The efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system on development of bovine embryos in a small group and the effect of number of adjacent embryos on their development.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Sik; Ofuji, Sosuke; Imai, Kei; Huang, Weiping; Koyama, Keisuke; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system for a small number of embryos and the effect of number of adjacent embryos in a WOW dish on blastocyst development. In conventional droplet culture, embryos in the small-number group (5-6 embryos/droplet) showed low blastocyst development compared with a control group (25-26 embryos/droplet). However, small and large numbers of embryos (5-6 and 25 embryos, respectively) in a WOW dish showed n...

  12. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  13. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k} Division-Sign (1 + e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k}), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  14. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the local group - l.  The small magnetic cloud and the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laverny...[], P.; Abia, C.; Dominguez, I

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb.......Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  15. Byers Auto Group: A Case Study Into The Economics, Zoning, and Overall Process of Installing Small Wind Turbines at Two Automotive Dealerships in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.; Sinclair, K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper provides the talking points about a case study on the installation of a $600,000 small wind project, the installation process, estimated annual energy production and percentage of energy needs met by the turbines.

  16. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Small-Magnitude Effect Sizes in Epigenetic End Points are Important in Children's Environmental Health Studies: The Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center's Epigenetics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Carrie V; Marsit, Carmen J; Faustman, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C; Herbstman, Julie; Holland, Nina; LaSalle, Janine M; Schmidt, Rebecca; Yousefi, Paul; Perera, Frederica; Joubert, Bonnie R; Wiemels, Joseph; Taylor, Michele; Yang, Ivana V; Chen, Rui; Hew, Kinjal M; Freeland, Deborah M Hussey; Miller, Rachel; Murphy, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of the epigenome is a primary interest for children's environmental health researchers studying the environmental influences on human populations, particularly those studying the role of pregnancy and early-life exposures on later-in-life health outcomes. Our objective was to consider the state of the science in environmental epigenetics research and to focus on DNA methylation and the collective observations of many studies being conducted within the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers, as they relate to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. We address the current laboratory and statistical tools available for epigenetic analyses, discuss methods for validation and interpretation of findings, particularly when magnitudes of effect are small, question the functional relevance of findings, and discuss the future for environmental epigenetics research. A common finding in environmental epigenetic studies is the small-magnitude epigenetic effect sizes that result from such exposures. Although it is reasonable and necessary that we question the relevance of such small effects, we present examples in which small effects persist and have been replicated across populations and across time. We encourage a critical discourse on the interpretation of such small changes and further research on their functional relevance for children's health. The dynamic nature of the epigenome will require an emphasis on future longitudinal studies in which the epigenome is profiled over time, over changing environmental exposures, and over generations to better understand the multiple ways in which the epigenome may respond to environmental stimuli.

  18. North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0543 (Alliance): A phase 2 trial of pharmacogenetic-based dosing of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Foster, Nathan R; Mahoney, Michelle R; Smyrk, Thomas C; Murray, Joseph A; Ames, Matthew M; Horvath, L Elise; Schneider, Daniel J; Hobday, Timothy J; Jatoi, Aminah; Meyers, Jeffrey P; Goetz, Matthew P

    2017-09-15

    Oxaliplatin in combination with either 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine is commonly used as first-line therapy for patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. The addition of irinotecan improves survival in other gastrointestinal tumors but at the cost of hematologic toxicity. The authors performed a phase 2 cooperative group study (North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0543, Alliance) using genotype-dosed capecitabine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (gCAPIRINOX), with dosing assigned based on UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 (UGT1A1) genotype to test: 1) whether the addition of irinotecan would improve outcomes; and 2) whether UGT1A1 genotype-based dosing could optimize tolerability. Previously untreated patients with advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma received irinotecan (day 1), oxaliplatin (day 1), and capecitabine (days 2-15) in a 21-day cycle and were dosed with gCAPIRINOX according to UGT1A1*28 genotypes (6/6, 6/7, and 7/7). A total of 33 patients (17 with the 6/6 genotype, 10 with the 6/7 genotype, and 6 with the 7/7 genotype) were enrolled from October 2007 to November 2013; 73% were male, with a mean age of 64 years (range, 41-77 years). Location of the primary tumor included the duodenum (58%), jejunum (30%), and ileum (9%). The regimen yielded a confirmed response rate of 37.5% (95% confidence interval, 21%-56%), with a median progression-free survival of 8.9 months and a median overall survival of 13.4 months. Neither hematologic toxicity (grade ≥3 in 52.9%, 30.0%, and 33.3%, respectively, of the 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotype groups) nor tumor response rate (41.2%, 33%, and 33%, respectively) were found to differ significantly by UGT1A1 genotype. UGT1A1 genotype-directed dosing (gCAPIRINOX) appears to be feasible with favorable rates of hematologic toxicity compared with prior 3-drug studies in unselected patients. Larger studies would be needed to determine the regimen's comparability to oxaliplatin and capecitabine (CapeOx) alone or if

  19. A New Species of Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) from Brazil, Including Keys to Known Species of the Subgenus from the Neotropical Region and to the agressor-Group (Acari: Oribatida: Carabodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, S G; Tolstikov, A V

    2015-06-01

    A new species of oribatid mites, Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) brasiliensis Ermilov & Tolstikov n. sp., is described from soil litter of the Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is most similar morphologically to Austrocarabodes (A.) armatus Mahunka. However, the new species differs from the latter by the morphology of bothridial and adanal setae. Identification keys to known species of Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) from the Neotropical region and the agressor-group are provided.

  20. The efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system on development of bovine embryos in a small group and the effect of number of adjacent embryos on their development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Sik; Ofuji, Sosuke; Imai, Kei; Huang, Weiping; Koyama, Keisuke; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system for a small number of embryos and the effect of number of adjacent embryos in a WOW dish on blastocyst development. In conventional droplet culture, embryos in the small-number group (5-6 embryos/droplet) showed low blastocyst development compared with a control group (25-26 embryos/droplet). However, small and large numbers of embryos (5-6 and 25 embryos, respectively) in a WOW dish showed no significant differences in cleavage, blastocyst rates, and mean cell number in blastocysts compared with the control group (25-30 embryos/droplet). In addition, the number of adjacent embryos in a WOW dish did not affect the development to blastocysts and cell number in blastocysts. In conclusion, a WOW dish can provide high and stable blastocyst development in small group culture wherever embryos are placed in microwells of the WOW dish.

  1. IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON OPERATING COST FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM - SIZED BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AFFILIATED TO A PURCHASING GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Zimon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to ask one question. How the implementation of the requirements of ISO 9001 system affects the costs of running the business? Design/methodology/approach - The research covered time from 2006 to 2011 and was an attempt to assess the impact of the maintenance of the ISO 9001 Quality Management System on the costs of small and medium sized business organizations. The main objective was the selection of right research subjects that would allow the formulation of the most reliable and statistically valid conclusions. For this purpose we obtained permissions to conduct research in organizations characterized by comparable futures such as size, industry, type of business and strategy. Findings - The study shows that the costs associated with the implementation and maintenance of the Quality Management System standard is still too high, and effectively discourages representatives of small and medium-sized commercial organizations from implementing ISO 9001 system.

  2. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  3. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific O pinion Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4 (FGE.23Rev4): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... is made due to the inclusion of one additional flavouring substance, 2S-cis-tetrahydro-4-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-2H-pyran [FL-no: 13.170]. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates...... also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 21 candidate substances. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  5. Group-specific amplification of HLA-DQA1 revealed a number of genomic full-length sequences including the novel HLA alleles DQA1*01:10 and DQA1*01:11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, K; Halliwell, J A; Mautner, J; Jolesch, A; von Welser, G; Rampp, I; Spannagl, M; Kauke, T; Dick, A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a subgroup-specific amplification assay for HLA-DQA1 that encompasses the whole coding region and allows us to sequence full-length HLA-DQA1 genes. We introduce the novel alleles HLA-DQA1*01:10 and HLA-DQA1*01:11. Moreover, we were able to confirm the full-length genomic sequence data of the alleles HLA-DQA1*01:07, HLA-DQA1*03:01:01, HLA-DQA1*03:02, HLA-DQA1*04:01:02, HLA-DQA1*04:02, HLA-DQA1*05:03, HLA-DQA1*05:05:01:02 and HLA-DQA1*06:01:01. A complete genomic overview of all six HLA-DQA1 allele groups is now available from the submission of our data to the IMGT/HLA database. Because our approach facilitates the analysis of all HLA-DQA1 allele sequences, HLA-DQA1 may become the first HLA locus from which all subgroup members will be known in detail in the near future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of electron-withdrawing group and electron-donating core combinations on physical properties and photovoltaic performance in D-pi-A star-shaped small molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Min, Jie; Solodukhin, Alexander N.; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Obrezkova, Marina A.; Peregudova, Svetlana M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Chvalun, Sergei N.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.

    The first representatives of star-shaped molecules having 3-alkylrhodanine (alkyl-Rh) electron-withdrawing groups, linked through bithiophene pi-spacer with electron-donating either triphenylamine (TPA) or tris(2-methoxyphenyl)amine (m-TPA) core were synthesized. The physical properties and

  7. Designing Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom: Integrating the Peer Tutoring Small Investigation Group (PTSIG) within the Model of the Six Mirrors of the Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit

    2013-01-01

    The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…

  8. Solvent-resistant small molecule solar cells by roll-to-roll fabrication via introduction of azide cross-linkable group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Mei-Rong; Fan, Cong-Cheng; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2014-01-01

    A novel cross-linkable azide-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole based compound DPP(BT-N-3)(2) was designed and synthesized via Stille coupling. Cross-linking of such molecule could help us fabricate insoluble film which could be used to fabricate heterostructures through solution processing......, without dissolving the pre-patterned layers. In order to investigate the photovoltaic performances of the newly synthesized compound, large area solar cells were produced by roll coating technique. Two set of devices were fabricated by employing DPP(BT-N-3)(2) as either an electron donor or acceptor....... A best power conversion efficiency of 0.067%, combined with an open circuit voltage of 0.53 V, and a fill factor of 37.6% were obtained for the device with DPP(BT-N-3)(2) as an electron acceptor. In addition, we could prove that the large area small molecule based organic solar cells could be fabricated...

  9. Examining social competence, self-perception, quality of life, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescent females with and without autism spectrum disorder: a quantitative design including between-groups and correlational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, T Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent females with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied population, yet are also quite vulnerable, due to the increased complexities of social interaction and increased risk for internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Most research literature currently focuses on males with ASD, limiting our understanding of social experiences for females with ASD, and thus the potential to better inform supports and intervention to promote social-emotional functioning. This study examined similarities and differences in selected indicators of social-emotional health (social competence, self-perception, quality of life) and problematic behaviors such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms for adolescent females with and without ASD. This study employed a quantitative design utilizing correlational analysis as well as t test comparisons to examine selected indicators of social-emotional health and problematic symptoms using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), Youth Quality of Life Instrument (YQOL), and the Self-Perceptions Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) for adolescent females with ASD in relation to their typically developing peers. Significant differences were found between females with and without ASD in terms of their self-ratings of social-emotional health and problematic behaviors. The no-ASD group rated themselves higher across all areas of social-emotional health. Findings also suggest strong relationships between these constructs, especially for females without ASD. Parent reports of autism symptoms and social-emotional health indicated that as symptoms of autism are more severe, so too was the impact on individuals' social competence. Adolescent females with ASD perceive themselves as having lower social competence, self-worth, and quality of life and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as compared to their typically developing peers. Parent ratings indicate that higher levels of autism symptoms relate to lower

  10. Include Your Patrons in Web Design. Computers in Small Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Successful Web publishing requires not only technical skills but also a refined sense of taste, a good understanding of design, and strong writing abilities. When designing a library Web page, a person must possess all of these talents and be able to market to a broad spectrum of patrons. As a result, library sites vary widely in their style and…

  11. Feasibility study of docetaxel plus bevacizumab as first line therapy for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Thoracic Oncology Research Group (TORG) 1014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Yusuke; Hosomi, Yukio; Oshita, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Minato, Koichi; Aono, Hiromi; Yamada, Kouzo; Okuma, Yusuke; Hida, Naoya; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Miura, Yosuke; Yomota, Makiko; Satoh, Akira; Kunitoh, Hideo; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Shibuya, Masahiko; Watanabe, Koshiro

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel monotherapy is one of the standard treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients. The addition of bevacizumab to docetaxel seems promising; however, the feasibility of this combination has not been investigated in such patients. Patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer aged 70 years or older who had not previously received cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients in the Level 0 cohort received docetaxel 60 mg/m 2 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, whereas those in the Level-1 cohort received docetaxel 50 mg/m 2 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg. Chemotherapy was repeated 3 weekly for six cycles. The primary endpoint was toxicity and the secondary endpoints were response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and proportion of patients who underwent three or more cycles of chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients were enrolled from December 2010 to September 2012 at six institutes. Of the nine patients enrolled in Level 0, two experienced dose-limiting toxicity (febrile neutropenia and prolonged Grade 4 neutropenia in one patient, and Grade 3 infection in another patient) during the first cycle. Enrollment to the Level 0 cohort was terminated because two patients developed Grade 4 sepsis during later cycles. The remaining 12 patients were enrolled in the Level-1 cohort, in which two dose-limiting toxicities (prolonged Grade 4 neutropenia and Grade 3 increased aminotransferase level) were observed. No patient in the Level-1 cohort experienced Grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity. Grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 89 % of Level 0 patients and 50 % of Level-1 patients. The proportion of patients who experienced Grade 3/4 infection, febrile neutropenia or sepsis was 44 % in the Level 0 cohort, and 8 % in the Level-1 cohort. The overall response rate to chemotherapy and progression-free survival were 29 % (95 % CI, 11–52 %) and 5.9 months (95 % CI, 3.6–9.1 months), respectively. Efficacy outcomes did not differ significantly between

  12. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  13. Total half-body systemic irradiation for occult metastases in non-small cell lung cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology group pilot report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, O.M.; Scarantino, C.W.; Rubin, P.; Feldstein, M.L.; Keller, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    There is a high probability for patients with locally advanced, unresectable, nonmetastatic, nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma (NSCBC) to harbor subclinical distant metastases at diagnosis. Approximately 30% will disseminate in the first three months and an additional 50% will disseminate before a year has elapsed. Twenty advanced nonmetastatic patients wtith NSCBC were treated with localized split-course chest irradiation (LCI) plus total body (upper and lower half-body) irradiation for occult metastases. Thirty equally advanced, nonmetastatic patients, who were treated with only localized split-course chest irradiation, were matched and served as a retrospective control group. Apparently, the median recurrence free survival, metastatic free interval, and median survival were significantly prolonged, and there was a decrease in the incidence of liver metastases in patients receiving HBI for occult metastases over the patients of the control group. Although elective HBI seems to delay the appearance of distant metastases, it did not prevent their occurrence, alter patterns of first relapse, or significantly improve the overall survival. Nevertheless, a therapeutic gain may have been achieved and is discussed. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis with 800 rad of UHBI corrected for lung transmission was 9%. A hypothesis and a rationale for a more effective combined modality therapy in these patients is given

  14. Failure patterns by prognostic group as determined by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of 1547 on four radiation therapy oncology group studies in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Scott, Charles B.; Byhardt, Roger W.; Emami, Bahman; Asbell, Sucha O.; Russell, Anthony H.; Roach, Mack; Urtasun, Raul C.; Gaspar, Laurie E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To identify groups of patients who might benefit from more aggressive systemic or local treatment based on failure patterns when unresectable NSCLC was treated by radiation therapy alone. Methods: 1547 patients from 4 RTOG trials treated by RT alone were analyzed for the patterns of first failure by PRA class which was defined by prognostic factors, e.g., stage, KPS, weight loss, pleural effusion, age. All patients were AJCC stage II, IIIA or IIIB with KPS of at least 50 and n previous radiotherapy or chemotherapy for their NSCLC. Progressions in the primary (within irradiated fields), thorax (outside irradiated area), brain and distant metastasis other than brain were compared (two-sided) for each failure category by RPA. Results: The RPA classes are four distinct subgroups that had significantly different median survivals of 12.6, 8.3, 6.2 and 3.3 months for classes I, II, III and IV respectively (all groups p=0.0002). Pair comparison showed that RPA I vs IV p<0.0001, I vs III p=0.006, II vs IV p<0.0001, and III vs IV p=0.06. Conclusions: These results suggest the burden of disease and physiologic compromise in class IV patients are sufficient to cause death before specific sites of failure can be discerned. Site specific treatment strategies (intensive local therapy, combination chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation) may lead to improved outcome in class I and II, but are unlikely to alter outcome in class III and IV

  15. Atum: Scalable Group Communication Using Volatile Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Pavlovic, Matej; Seredinschi, Dragos-Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Atum, a group communication middleware for a large, dynamic, and hostile environment. At the heart of Atum lies the novel concept of volatile groups: small, dynamic groups of nodes, each executing a state machine replication protocol, organized in a flexible overlay. Using volatile groups, Atum scatters faulty nodes evenly among groups, and then masks each individual fault inside its group. To broadcast messages among volatile groups, Atum runs a gossip protocol across the...

  16. Mean xenograft survival of 14.6 days in a small group of hDAF-transgenic pig hearts transplanted orthotopically into baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, P; Schmoeckel, M; Wimmer, C; Eder, V; Rucker, A; Felbinger, T; Uchita, S; Hinz, M; Brandl, U; Meiser, B; Reichenspurner, H; Hammer, C; Reichart, B

    2005-01-01

    In a discordant orthotopic xenotransplantation model (pig-to-baboon) donor pigs expressing human decay accelerating factor (hDAF) as a regulator of complement activity were used to prevent hyperacute xenograft rejection (HXR). We investigated a modified immunosuppressive therapy consisting of ERL080 (Novartis Pharma AG, Base, Switzerland), cyclosporin A (Neoral), steroids, and a cyclophosphamide (CyP) induction protocol with several reduced doses to prevent acute vascular rejection (AVR). Donor hearts were harvested from hDAF-transgenic pigs (18.8 +/- 2.6 kg, Imutran Ltd., a Novartis Pharma AG Company). Four adult baboons (25.6 +/- 2.7 kg) with high titers of xenoreactive antibodies (XAb) served as recipients. Serological and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Finally, myocardial tissue was sampled for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. In the first baboon, an acute graft failure occurred after 1 hour due to preservation injury. The second succumbed after 11.1 day due to an acute renal failure. The third died after 13.1 days of an ileus. The fourth baboon had continuously excellent cardiac function (mean echocardiographic ejection fraction, 69.2%), but succumbed on day 20 due to anemia. Corrected mean xenograft survival (excluding the first baboon because of a technical failure) was 14.6 +/- 2.6 days. XAb decreased after day 3 to constantly low levels (transgen blocks HXR in this life-supporting model. AVR was prevented by using a modified quadruple immunosuppressive drug combination (Neoral, ERL080, steroids, and several small single doses of CyP). An optimum "fine-tuning" of immunosuppression is required to achieve the best risk-benefit ratio.

  17. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a lung cancer Galician group phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Joaquín; Amenedo, Margarita; Mel, José Ramón; Antón, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-López, Rubén; López-López, Rafael; González-Ageitos, Ana; Castellanos, Javier; Constenla, Manuel; Tisaire, José L

    2007-10-01

    Numerous phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated a higher activity of combined gemcitabine plus docetaxel schedules against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than that of both agents in monotherapy. This phase II study evaluated a 3-week based schedule of docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) (1-h i.v. infusion, d8) combined with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) (30-min i.v. infusion; d1,8) as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC. Forty-one patients with non-resectable, stage IIIB/IV, and bidimensionally measurable disease were enrolled. A total of 182 chemotherapy cycles (median 6, range 1-6) was administered to 40 patients during the study; one patient did not receive chemotherapy due to a protocol deviation. Two patients were not evaluable for treatment efficacy. The overall response rate found was 44% (95% CI, 29-59%): three patients (7%) had a complete response and 15 patients (37%) had a partial response (median duration of response = 4.0 months). With a median follow-up of 8.7 months, the median time to disease progression was 4.4 months and the median overall survival was 7.3 months. The combined gemcitabine plus docetaxel chemotherapy was well tolerated except for pulmonary toxicity. The main grade 3-4 hematological toxicity was neutropenia (28% of patients, 9% of cycles). Two cases of febrile neutropenia were reported. The main grade 3-4 non-hematological toxicity was pulmonary toxicity (23% of patients, 6% of cycles). Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 in combination with docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) on day 8 given in 3-week cycles is an active and well-tolerated first-line chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced NSCLC.

  18. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  19. Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Both Operable and Inoperable T1N0M0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Yasushi, E-mail: nagat@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibata, Taro [Japan Clinical Oncology Group Data Center, Center for Research Administration and Support, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Department of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onimaru, Rikiya [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kozuka, Takuyo [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Tsutomu [Department of Radiology, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Takai, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishikura, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Koshigaya Municipal Hospital, Koshigaya (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, in Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0403, the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eligibility criteria included histologically or cytologically proven NSCLC, clinical T1N0M0. Prescribed dose was 48 Gy at the isocenter in 4 fractions. The primary endpoint was the percent (%) 3-year overall survival. The threshold % 3-year survival to be rejected was set at 35% for inoperable patients, whereas the expected % 3-year survival was 80% for operable patients. Results: Between July 2004 and November 2008, 169 patients from 15 institutions were registered. One hundred inoperable and 64 operable patients (total 164) were eligible. Patients' characteristics were 122 male, 47 female; median age 78 years (range, 50-91 years); adenocarcinomas, 90; squamous cell carcinomas, 61; others, 18. Of the 100 inoperable patients, the % 3-year OS was 59.9% (95% confidence interval 49.6%-68.8%). Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 10 and 2 patients, respectively. No grade 5 toxicity was observed. Of the 64 operable patients, the % 3-year OS was 76.5% (95% confidence interval 64.0%-85.1%). Grade 3 toxicities were observed in 5 patients. No grade 4 and 5 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I NSCLC is effective, with low incidences of severe toxicity. This treatment can be considered a standard treatment for inoperable stage I NSCLC. This treatment is promising as an alternative to surgery for operable stage I NSCLC.

  20. Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Both Operable and Inoperable T1N0M0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Shibata, Taro; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kokubo, Masaki; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Onimaru, Rikiya; Kozuka, Takuyo; Kunieda, Etsuo; Saito, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Hareyama, Masato; Takai, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Ishikura, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate, in Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0403, the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligibility criteria included histologically or cytologically proven NSCLC, clinical T1N0M0. Prescribed dose was 48 Gy at the isocenter in 4 fractions. The primary endpoint was the percent (%) 3-year overall survival. The threshold % 3-year survival to be rejected was set at 35% for inoperable patients, whereas the expected % 3-year survival was 80% for operable patients. Between July 2004 and November 2008, 169 patients from 15 institutions were registered. One hundred inoperable and 64 operable patients (total 164) were eligible. Patients' characteristics were 122 male, 47 female; median age 78 years (range, 50-91 years); adenocarcinomas, 90; squamous cell carcinomas, 61; others, 18. Of the 100 inoperable patients, the % 3-year OS was 59.9% (95% confidence interval 49.6%-68.8%). Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 10 and 2 patients, respectively. No grade 5 toxicity was observed. Of the 64 operable patients, the % 3-year OS was 76.5% (95% confidence interval 64.0%-85.1%). Grade 3 toxicities were observed in 5 patients. No grade 4 and 5 toxicities were observed. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I NSCLC is effective, with low incidences of severe toxicity. This treatment can be considered a standard treatment for inoperable stage I NSCLC. This treatment is promising as an alternative to surgery for operable stage I NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Within-Case and Cross-Case Analyses of Questions Posed by Fifth-Grade Students Working in Small Groups to Investigate Pendulum Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisel, James Michael

    The focus of this basic qualitative research is student questions in an unstructured inquiry setting. Case and cross-case analyses were conducted (Miles and Huberman, 1984) of the questions posed by fifth grade students working in laboratory groups of size three to five students as they investigated pendulum motion. To establish the conceptual framework for the study, literature was reviewed in the areas of cognitive theory (constructivism, conceptual change, and other theories), approaches to science, and the importance of student questions in the learning process. A review of group work, related studies of student questions and activities and relevant methods of qualitative research was also undertaken. The current study occupies the relatively unique position of being about the questions students posed to each other (not the teacher) at the outset of and throughout an unstructured inquiry activity with a minimum of teacher initiation or intervention. The focus is on finding out what questions students ask, when they ask them, what categories the questions fall into in relation to possible models of the scientific method, student motivation, and what role the questions play as the students take part in an inquiry activity. Students were video and/or audio-recorded as they did the investigation. They wrote down their questions during one-minute pauses that occurred at roughly eight-minute intervals. The groups were interviewed the next day about their experience. The recordings, question sheets, and interview accounts and recordings were analyzed by the researcher. Accounts of the experience of each group were prepared, and reiterated attempts were made to classify the questions as the main themes and categories emerged. It was found that students posed their key research question (most typically related to pendulum damping effects) midway through the first half of their activity, after having first met some competence and other needs in relation to measurement

  3. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  4. Gemcitabine plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer--a randomized trial with quality of life as the primary outcome. UK NSCLC Gemcitabine Group. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H; Hopwood, P; Stephens, R J; Thatcher, N; Cottier, B; Nicholson, M; Milroy, R; Maughan, T S; Falk, S J; Bond, M G; Burt, P A; Connolly, C K; McIllmurray, M B; Carmichael, J

    2000-08-01

    Three hundred patients with symptomatic, locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC not requiring immediate radiotherapy were enrolled into this randomized multicentre trial comparing gemcitabine + BSC vs BSC alone. Patients allocated gemcitabine received 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle, for a maximum of six cycles. The main aim of this trial was to compare patient assessment of a predefined subset of commonly reported symptoms (SS14) from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 scales. The primary end-points were defined as (1) the percentage change in mean SS14 score between baseline and 2 months and (2) the proportion of patients with a marked (> or = 25%) improvement in SS14 score between baseline and 2 months sustained for > or =4 weeks. The secondary objectives were to compare treatments with respect to overall survival, and multidimensional QL parameters. The treatment groups were balanced with regard to age, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and disease stage (40% had metastatic disease). The percentage change in mean SS14 score from baseline to 2 months was a 10% decrease (i.e. improvement) for gemcitabine plus BSC and a 1% increase (i.e. deterioration) for BSC alone (P = 0.113, two-sample t-test). A sustained (> or = 4 weeks) improvement (> or =25%) on SS14 was recorded in a significantly higher proportion of gemcitabine + BSC patients (22%) than in BSC alone patients (9%) (P = 0.0014, Pearson's chi-squared test). The QLQ-C30 and L13 subscales showed greater improvement in the gemcitabine plus BSC arm (in 11 domains) than in the BSC arm (one symptom item). There was greater deterioration in the BSC alone arm (six domains/items) than in the gemcitabine + BSC arm (three QL domains). Tumour response occurred in 19% (95% CI 13-27) of gemcitabine patients. There was no difference in overall survival: median 5.7 months (95% CI 4.6-7.6) for gemcitabine + BSC patients and 5.9 months (95% CI 5.0-7.9) (log-rank, P = 0.84) for BSC patients, and 1 -year

  5. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  6. Small plasma physics experiments 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 9 review papers and 13 contributed papers presented at the second symposium on Small Scale Laboratory Plasma Physics Experiments, held May 15 - June 9, 1989, at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The main objective of the symposium was the gathering of researchers of small experimental laboratory plasma physics groups to give lectures and present papers. The meeting also included workshops as a forum for exchange of experiences, partial research results and interesting solutions found for experimental problems. The Symposium serves as a counterpart of the rest of the Spring College activities, in which many of the presentations come from the large laboratories with budgets hundreds of times larger than those for small scale laboratory plasma experimentation reported on here. In the 3-day Symposium, 9 lectures and 28 contributed papers including poster papers were given and 10 workshops were conducted on themes of small scale laboratory experiments. Twenty-five research groups from 20 countries participated. The review lectures are divided into devices: Rotamak, Tokamak, compact tori, and plasma focus; and into techniques: pulse technology, optical and electric diagnostics. The contributed papers range from pinch and focus devices and experiments to vacuum spark, a multi-magnetic dipole device and a small FRC experiment, and includes techniques such as surface preparation, electrostatic lens and multiframe holographic interferometry. There is also a section on theoretical work including dimensionality of fluctuations, heat transport and classical resistive decay. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Isoindigo-based small molecules for high-performance solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices: the electron donating effect of the donor group on photo-physical properties and device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Walaa; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Cho, Shinuk; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Elbarbary, Ahmed; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2013-09-28

    Five solution processable isoindigo-based donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) small molecules with different electron donating strengths have been designed and synthesized. The variation in the electron donating strength of the donor group strongly affected the optical, thermal, electrochemical and photovoltaic device performances of the isoindigo organic materials. The highest power conversion efficiency of ~3.2% was achieved in the bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device consisting of ID3T as the donor and PC70BM as the acceptor. This work demonstrates the potential of isoindigo moieties as electron-deficient units and presents guidelines for the synthesis of D-A-D small molecules for producing highly efficient, solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices.

  8. Factors which influence quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A radiation therapy oncology group study (RTOG 89-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.B.; Sause, W.T.; Johnson, D.; Dar, A.R.; Wasserman, T.H.; Rubin, P.; Khandekar, J.; Byhardt, R.B.; Taylor, S.; McDonald, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Prospectively evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with NSCLC participating in a randomized phase III study conducted by the RTOG and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Determine the factors which influence QOL during and post therapy. Materials and Methods: From (4(90)) to (4(94)) to 75 patients (pts) were randomized on RTOG 89-01 between a regimen containing radiation therapy (RT) versus a regimen containing surgery (S). All pts received induction vinblastine and cisplatin, followed by either S or RT and consolidation chemotherapy (CT). Pts were given the self-assessment QOL forms prior to the start of therapy, post induction CT, post RT or S, and periodically during follow-up. Two questionnaires were used: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for lung cancer patients (FACT-L) and Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC). The FACT-L consists of 44 questions covering 6 domains (physical, social, and emotional well-being, relationship with physician, fulfilment, and lung cancer specific concerns), FLIC contains 22 questions summing to one total score. Results: 51 pts participated in the QOL endpoint, 24 were excluded: 3 pts refused, institution did not administer QOL questionnaires in 9 pts, 3 completed QOL after start of therapy, 1 institution refused to participate, 5 questionnaires were incomplete/unusable, 1 pt could not read English, and 2 were ineligible for treatment. Participation in QOL was not predicted by any pretreatment characteristic. Women had worse pretreatment QOL (p<0.005, by FLIC) and more problems with disease-related symptoms (p<0.005, by FACT) than men. Pts with KPS 90-100 had better pretreatment QOL than pts with KPS 60-80 (p<0.025, FLIC). Neither race, marital status, education level, age, prior weight loss, nor disease symptoms statistically significantly influenced pretreatment QOL. Initial QOL did not predict overall survival. FACT-L was reported on 25 pts post induction CT. Follow-up FACT-L was available on 12 pts

  9. Concurrent cisplatin, prolonged oral etoposide, and vincristine plus chest and brain irradiation for limited small cell lung cancer: A phase II study of the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG-9229)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Charles R.; Giroux, Dori J.; Stelzer, Keith J.; Craig, Johnny B.; Laufman, Leslie R.; Taylor, Sarah A.; Goodwin, John W.; Crowley, John J.; Livingston, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prolonged oral (PO) etoposide as part of cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus concurrent chest/brain irradiation induction, followed by CAV consolidation, in the treatment of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC-LD) within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Fifty-six eligible patients with SCLC-LD received three 28-day cycles of cisplatin 50 mg/m 2 i.v. (days 1, 8; 29, 36; and 57, 64), PO etoposide 50 mg/m 2 (days 1-14, 29-42, and 57-70), and vincristine 2 mg i.v. (days 1, 29, and 57). Thoracic irradiation (TRT) was administered at 1.8 Gy in 25 daily fractions to a total dose of 45 Gy via an AP:PA arrangement, to begin concomitantly with induction chemotherapy. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was started on day 15 of induction therapy. Fifteen daily fractions of 2.0 Gy were administered to the entire brain to a total dose of 30 Gy to finish at approximately the same time as TRT. Two 21-day cycles of consolidation cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m 2 i.v., doxorubicin 50 mg/m 2 i.v., and vincristine 2 mg i.v. (all on days 1 and 22), were given beginning on day 106 or week 16, from the start of induction therapy. Results: Among 56 eligible patients, 93% had SWOG performance status 0-1. All had adequate organ function and had not received prior therapy. The overall confirmed response rate was 46%, including 16% complete responders and 30% partial responders. After a minimum follow-up duration of 17 months, the Kaplan-Meier median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Two-year survival is 28%. Only 28 of 56 patients (50%) completed chemotherapy per protocol, while 52 of 56 patients (93%) completed radiation per protocol. Eleven patients (20%) discontinued secondary to toxicity and two patients died from treatment. The major toxicity was hematologic. The two deaths were secondary to infection. Of the

  10. Model of trust in work groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorenkov, Andrey; Sidorenkova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model of trust in a small group has been developed and approved. This model includes two dimensions: trust levels (interpersonal trust, micro-group trust, group trust, trust between subgroups, trust between subgroups and group) and types of trust (activity-coping, information-influential and confidentially-protective trust). Each level of trust is manifested in three types, so there are fifteen varieties of trust. Two corresponding questionnaires were developed for the stu...

  11. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  12. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  13. EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 2 (FGE.23Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... ether, three are alicyclic hydrocarbons with an ether side chain, two are ethers containing a benzene moiety, eight are phenol ethers and one is a naphthol ether. Five of the 19 candidate substances possess one or more chiral centres and three can exist as geometrical isomers. For one substance [FL...... by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise information that would enable...

  14. Children's Reactions to Small Group Psychological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.; Pepperman, Carl W.

    1976-01-01

    This article shows a positive reaction among students toward the Human Development Program. The study, however, raises a number of significant questions about specific aspects of the Magic Circle technique, particularly in regard to the listening that occurs in circle session. (Author)

  15. Shot Group Statistics for Small Arms Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    statistical inference on the unknown, population standard deviations of the x and y impact-point positions. The dispersion measures treated in this report...known with sufficient accuracy, then it can be used to make a sound statistical inference on the unknown, population standard deviations of the x and y...are the univariate measures: range, mean deviation , and standard deviation ; and the bivariate measures: extreme spread, mean radius, and radial

  16. Report of study group 3.2 ''small scale LNG projects and modular systems''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.2 ''projets de GNL a petite echelle et systemes modulaires''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, B.

    2000-07-01

    This report details the work undertaken by Study Group 3.2 during the triennium 1997-2000. The Study Group has held three meetings in Stavanger (Norway) in Dubai (UAE) and in London (UK) between March 1998 and October 1999. The study group membership is listed in appendix 1. The subject treated by the Study Group is 'Small Scale LNG Projects and Modular Systems' The study report undertakes a general survey of: 1) the state of the art of the technology; 2) the potential market applications; 3) prospects for gas development and marginal fields. The study addresses three main items: a) Adapting regulation to compact LNG production systems (e.g. distances between equipment in fixed installations); b) LNG production in a marine environment; c) The need for substantial cost reductions. The questions that are addressed in this study report are: Will small scale LNG projects be economically viable? When an onshore industry moves offshore - which standards are to be applied? (author)

  17. Sequencing small RNA: introduction and data analysis fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs are important transcriptional regulators within cells. With the advent of powerful Next Generation Sequencing platforms, sequencing small RNAs seems to be an obvious choice to understand their expression and its downstream effect. Additionally, sequencing provides an opportunity to identify novel and polymorphic miRNA. However, the biggest challenge is the appropriate data analysis pipeline, which is still in phase of active development by various academic groups. This chapter describes basic and advanced steps for small RNA sequencing analysis including quality control, small RNA alignment and quantification, differential expression analysis, novel small RNA identification, target prediction, and downstream analysis. We also provide a list of various resources for small RNA analysis.

  18. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  19. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  20. Public Participation Guide: Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focus group is a small group discussion with professional leadership. Focus groups are used to find out what issues are of most concern for a community or group when little or no information is available.

  1. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  2. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross-complementat......BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... articles and 1 clinical abstract were identified. Laboratory methods were mainly RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of ERCC1. Preclinical studies pointed towards similar mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance among platinum compounds...

  3. Integrated Financial Reporting for a Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    AD-A241 759 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California D TIC THESIS INTEGRATED FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR A SMALL BUSINESS by Bradford Laurence...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Class(wcatwon) Integrated Financial Reporting for a Small Business (UNCLAS) 12. PERSONAL...GROUP SUB(OUP Financial reporting , Decision support systems, Spreadsheets 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse 4f necessary and identif by block number

  4. Small Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or

  5. Biweekly administration of docetaxel and vinorelbine as second-line chemotherapy for patients with stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study of the Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP 013-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Sergio; Huidobro, Gerardo; Amenedo, Margarita; Fírvida, José Luis; León, Luis; Lázaro, Martín; Grande, Carlos; Mel, José Ramón; Ramos, Manuel; Salgado, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquín

    2007-11-01

    The current report aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a biweekly administration of docetaxel and vinorelbine to patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, who had previously been treated for this disease. In a prospective, multicenter, open-label, phase II trial, patients received 40 mg/m of docetaxel and 20 mg/m of vinorelbine on days 1 and 15, every 28 days. Treatment continued for up to a maximum of six cycles, unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred, or consent was withdrawn. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study and they received 174 cycles of chemotherapy, with a median of three cycles per patient. All patients were evaluated for efficacy and toxicity in an intention-to-treat analysis. The overall response rate was 10% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1-19], including one complete response (2%) and four partial responses (8%). Previous chemotherapy of 80% of the responders included paclitaxel. Median time to disease progression was 2.7 months (95% CI: 2.2-4.3) and median overall survival was 6.5 months (95% CI: 2.5-9.2). The survival rates at 1 and 2 years were 18% (95% CI: 7-29) and 4% (95% CI: 0-10), respectively. The most frequent severe toxicities were neutropenia (20% of patients) and leukopenia (8% of patients). Other toxicities appeared in 4% or fewer of the patients. Biweekly administration of docetaxel and vinorelbine is feasible as a second-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer patients, but its level of activity and toxicity does not suggest any advantage compared with the results obtained with single-agent docetaxel in the same setting.

  6. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sabry A.; Fouad, Ahmed M.

    2017-12-01

    Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009) depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004). It is based on a modified version of Hickson's criteria (Hickson, 1982). The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group.

  7. Model of trust in work groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov, Andrey V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-dimensional model of trust in a small group has been developed and approved. This model includes two dimensions: trust levels (interpersonal trust, micro-group trust, group trust, trust between subgroups, trust between subgroups and group and types of trust (activity-coping, information-influential and confidentially-protective trust. Each level of trust is manifested in three types, so there are fifteen varieties of trust. Two corresponding questionnaires were developed for the study. 347 persons from 32 work groups participated in the research. It was determined that in a small group there is an asymmetry of trust levels within the group. In particular, micro-group trust is demonstrated the most in comparison with other trust levels. There is also an asymmetry in the manifestation of interpersonal trust in a group structure. This is demonstrated by the fact that in informal subgroups, in comparison with a group as a whole, interpersonal confidential and performance trust is the most manifested. In a small group and in informal subgroups there are relationships between trust levels which have certain regularities.

  8. Small Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Steven

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe term “Open Data” often goes hand in hand with the term “Big Data”, where large data sets get released allowing for analysis, but the Cinderella of the Open Data ball is Small Data, small amounts of data, nonetheless possibly essential, that are too small to be put in some database or online dataset to be put to use. RDFa is a technology that allows Cinderella to go to the ball.

  9. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  10. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  11. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  12. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  13. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  14. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  15. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  16. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  17. Small hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Tung, T.

    1995-01-01

    A small hydro plant in Canada is defined as any project between 1 MW and 15 MW but the international standard is 10 MW. The global market for small hydro development was considered good. There are some 1000 to 2000 MW of generating capacity being added each year. In Canada, growth potential is considered small, primarily in remote areas, but significant growth is anticipated in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. Canada with its expertise in engineering, manufacturing and development is considered to have a good chance to take advantage of these growing markets

  18. Gemcitabine, cisplatin and vinorelbine as induction chemotherapy followed by radical therapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre study of galician-lung-cancer-group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Luis; Cueva-Banuelos, Juan F; Huidobro, G; Fírvida, J L; Amenedo, M; Lázaro, M; Romero, C; Estévez, S V; Barón, F J; Grande, C; García Mata, J; González, A; Castellanos, J; Gómez, A; Caeiro, M; Rodríguez, M R; Casal, J

    2003-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a gemcitabine-cisplatin-vinorelbine combination in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients (n=46) with stage III NSCLC and naive of therapy were recruited into the trial to receive gemcitabine (G, 1000 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8, cisplatin (C, 100 mg/m(2)) on day 1 and vinorelbine (V, 25 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days for three cycles. Two patients achieved complete response (CR) and 23 partial response (PR), overall response 52%. Subsequent radical surgery included nine patients of whom four were non-resectable and five were resected and with 1 CR. Radiotherapy was administered to 31 patients, and two achieved CR. The median time to progression and overall survival were 37 and 50 weeks, respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 35% of cycles, with two toxic deaths. Severe non-haematological toxicity was uncommon. This GCV combination is effective in patients with stage III NSCLC, and with an acceptable toxicity.

  19. A phase II trial of erlotinib as maintenance treatment after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Rubio, J; Fírvida-Pérez, J L; Lázaro-Quintela, M; Barón-Duarte, F J; Alonso-Jáudenes, G; Santomé, L; Afonso-Afonso, F J; Amenedo, M; Huidobro, G; Campos-Balea, B; López-Vázquez, M D; Vázquez, S

    2014-03-01

    This single arm, phase II study aims to evaluate the role of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib as maintenance therapy following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) in unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with unresectable stage IIIA o dry IIIB NSCLC with no evidence of tumor progression after receiving a standard cCRT regimen with curative intent were included. Oral erlotinib 150 mg/day was administered within 4-6 weeks after the end of the cCRT for a maximum of 6 months if no disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. Primary end point was the progression-free rate (PFR) at 6 months. Secondary end points included time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Sixty-six patients were enrolled and received maintenance treatment with erlotinib [average: 4.5 months (95 % CI 4.0-5.0)]. PFR at 6 months was 63.5 % (41/66). With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95 % CI 13.5-37.1), the median TTP was 9.9 months (95 % CI 6.2-12.1), and the median OS was 24.0 months (95 % CI 17.3-48.6). Most common adverse events (AEs) related to erlotinib were rash (78.8 %; 16.7 % grade 3), diarrhea (28.8 %; 1.5 % grade 3), fatigue (15.2 %; 1.5 % grade 3), anorexia (7.6 %; 1.5 % grade 3) and vomiting (4.6 %; none grade 3). Five patients (7.6 %) were withdrawn due to AEs. Erlotinib as maintenance therapy is an active treatment after cCRT in unselected patients with stage III NSCLC, reaching a 6-month PFR of 63.5 % and a median OS of 24 months. The safety profile of maintenance erlotinib was as expected and manageable.

  20. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m 2 /day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m 2 /day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms

  1. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperduto, Paul W., E-mail: psperduto@mropa.com [Metro MN CCOP, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wang, Meihua [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Medical School Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Schell, Michael C. [Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Khuntia, Deepak [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Demas, William [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Sunjay A. [Christiana Care Health Services, Inc, CCOP, Newark, Delaware (United States); Nedzi, Lucien A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Perry, Gad [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Suh, John H. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  2. Small Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attention and educational advantages, which generally raise her self-esteem. Children in small families, especially first and only ... be for you both to accept the increasing definition of personality that needs to occur as she ...

  3. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    with future explicitly present in the formalism and influencing in principle the past is not excluded phenomenologically, because the effects are argued to be very small in the present era. Furthermore, we explicitly derive the Hamiltonian for the future state via a path integral, and confirm that it is given...

  4. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  5. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  6. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Bae, Kyounghwa; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray’s proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control

  7. Structural features and electronic properties of group-III-, group-IV-, and group-V-doped Si nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L E; Degoli, Elena; Cantele, G; Ossicini, Stefano; Ninno, D; Furthmueller, J; Bechstedt, F

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the incorporation of group-III (B and Al), group-IV (C and Ge), and group-V (N and P) impurities in Si nanocrystallites. The structural features and electronic properties of doped Si nanocrystallites, which are faceted or spherical-like, are studied by means of an ab initio pseudopotential method including spin polarization. Jahn-Teller distortions occur in the neighborhood of the impurity sites and the bond lengths show a dependence on size and shape of the nanocrystallites. We find that the acceptor (group-III) and donor (group-V) levels become deep as the nanocrystallites become small. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down levels of group-III and group-V impurities decreases as the size of the Si nanocrystallite increases and tends to the value calculated for Si bulk. Doping with carbon introduces an impurity-related level in the energy gap of the Si nanocrystallites

  8. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  9. Adam Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    oudste dogter (MOOC 29304). Jan Small (vroeër: Jan Dampies) het ek as Oupa Jan geken en Fatimah was vir my Ouma Tiema. Uncle erken ruiterlik sy ma se sterk invloed op sy verbeelding en lewensbenadering, soos hy dit ietwat enigmaties gestel het: 'My skryfwerk lê iewers.' In sy huldeblyk,. “Onaf gedig”, wat hy tydens ...

  10. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  12. Treatment of poor-prognosis extensive disease small-cell lung cancer with an all-oral regimen of etoposide and cyclophosphamide - a Southwest Oncology Group clinical and pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, S M; Crowley, J; Hande, K R; Giroux, D; Munshi, N; Lau, D H; Schroder, L E; Zangmeister, M H; Balcerzak, S P; Hynes, H E; Gandara, D R

    1999-01-01

    An all-oral regimen of etoposide and cyclophosphamide was developed for use in poor-prognosis extensive disease small-cell lung cancer. Limited pharmacokinetic sampling was used to derive a pharmacodynamic model predictive of myelosuppression early in the course of therapy. Eligible patients were chemotherapy-naive and had extensive disease small-cell lung cancer with either SWOG performance status 2 or serum albumin /=1.49 microg/ml. Oral etoposide and oral cyclophosphamide given days 1-14 every 28 days is well tolerated and results in an acceptable response rate and median survival in poor-prognosis (poor performance status or low serum albumin) extensive disease small-cell lung cancer. A trough etoposide level obtained within 24 h of starting therapy can predict severe granulocytopenia.

  13. Business working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The third group was on Business. The discussion concerned the following points: There are concerns about retaining experienced/trained personnel, and maintaining a good working relationship among them, as well as about the closure of research facilities, the reduction in staff numbers under increasing economic pressure and the lack of new nuclear power plant constructions. The marginal cost of producing electricity is lower for most existing nuclear power plants than for almost all other energy sources. Refurbishment costs are usually relatively small compared with new investments. The ongoing regulatory reform of the electricity market will bring increasing competition. Although PLIM has been carried out in many countries with favourable results, there are still uncertainties which affect business decisions regarding financial and market risks in PLIM activities. Recommendations were made. (author)

  14. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  15. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 13: Sites with small plutonium holdings site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Appendix contains the initial responses to the Question Set received from each of the sites with small plutonium holdings. The WGAT report for sites with small plutonium holdings was then prepared, based on these initial site responses plus supplemental information obtained via telephone request with the site contractor and/or DOE Field Office personnel. These supplements serve to clarify information in the initial question set responses and/or obtain additional information. This WGAT report is published as Volume II, Part 13

  16. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross-complementat......BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross...

  17. Evaluation of and quality assurance in HER2 analysis in breast carcinomas from patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) in the period of 2002-2006. A nationwide study including correlation between HER-2 status and other prognostic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun; Andersson, Michael; Christensen, Ib J; Møller, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, analysis for HER2 is situated in the pathology laboratories dealing with breast pathology. The analysis was introduced during the late 1990's, and was gradually intensified in the following years up to now. The present study deals with the experience with the analysis during the last 5 years, from 2002 - 2006. All patients, registered in DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Group) and with a HER2-test were included. The analysis followed international recommendations, with an initial immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis with a semiquantitative grading of the reaction in four grades, 0 and 1+, defined as HER2-negative, 2+, equivocal and 3+, HER2-positive. In the 2+ group, a FISH-test was applied to identify the presence of gene amplification, defined as a ratio >/=2. We investigated the number of analyses performed, the number of positive cases and the relation between the result of IHC and the result of FISH. Furthermore we looked at the relation to other prognostic factors. The number of analyses gradually increased during the years of investigation, from 30% of patients in 2002 to 71% in 2006. The increase was seen in all laboratories resulting in all laboratories but one having a substantial number of analyses. Sixty-two percent of all cases were HER2-negative, 18% were equivocal and 21% positive in the IHC-analysis. Of the 2+, equivocal cases, 23% had gene-amplification. Thus, 23% of patients were defined as HER2-positive and eligible for treatment with trastuzumab. There was a significant correlation to other prognostic factors. The results are in accordance with what is found elsewhere. The quality of the test is further assured by all laboratories participating in external quality assurance schemes.

  18. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  19. Isopermutation group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muktibodh, A. S. [Department of Mathematics, Mohota College of Science, NAGPUR-440009 India E-mail: amukti2000@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  20. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  1. Independent student study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.

  2. The structure of small mammal communities in some alpine habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Locatelli

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the composition of several small mammal communities living in different mountain and forest habitats of the central eastern Italian Alps. The small mammals were then grouped together, by cluster analysis, according to similarities in species and density. From the 22 stations investigated, five groups emerged, each one having also distinct environmental characteristics. We observed that spruce forest communities are grouped separately from those of mixed forests (larch and Swiss stone pine. We must stress the considerable difference existing between the small mammal communities living in different kinds of coniferous forests. The larch and Swiss stone pine forest seem to be able to support a greater density of small mammals, which includes in particular the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus.

  3. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Peggy A

    2009-01-01

    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively.

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  6. Small talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Przybylski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The poem Small talk conjures up a communicative situation in which the main character, a newcomer from Poland, answers conventional questions related to their country. Bearing in mind the fact that this poem is set during a military dictatorship, superficial interest in his homeland may trigger a feeling of impatience. This is at least the impression formed if we adopt the perspective defined within the romantic tradition, and when taking into account the conventional poetry of martial law in Poland. Nevertheless, Barańczak retains an ironic distance towards such communicative situations and, as a consequence, does not create poetry that meets most readersʼ expectations. His poetic imperative for verbal art to be the expression of mistrust remains valid.

  7. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guid...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...... the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles...

  8. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009 depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004. It is based on a modified version of Hickson’s criteria (Hickson, 1982. The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included.Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group. Keywords: Galaxies, Cluster analysis, Galaxy groups, Lee galaxy groups

  9. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  10. Group Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  11. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  12. Role of Small RNAs in Trypanosomatid Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares-Lacerda, Leandra; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites survive and replicate in the host by using mechanisms that aim to establish a successful infection and ensure parasite survival. Evidence points to microRNAs as new players in the host-parasite interplay. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that control proteins levels via post-transcriptional gene down-regulation, either within the cells where they were produced or in other cells via intercellular transfer. These microRNAs can be modulated in host cells during infection and are among the growing group of small regulatory RNAs, for which many classes have been described, including the transfer RNA-derived small RNAs. Parasites can either manipulate microRNAs to evade host-driven damage and/or transfer small RNAs to host cells. In this mini-review, we present evidence for the involvement of small RNAs, such as microRNAs, in trypanosomatid infections which lack RNA interference. We highlight both microRNA profile alterations in host cells during those infections and the horizontal transfer of small RNAs and proteins from parasites to the host by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles in a cell communication mechanism. PMID:27065454

  13. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  14. Research using small tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of a collection of papers presented at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Research Using Small Tokamaks. It contains 22 papers on a wide variety of research aspects, including diagnostics, design, transport, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Some of these papers are devoted to other concepts (stellarators, compact tori). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  16. Atividades de investigação escolar: análise psicanalítica do engajamento em pequenos grupos Educational investigation activities: a psychoanalytical analysis of engagement in small groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimeire M Júlio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Observamos grupos de alunos de ensino médio que foram desafiados a realizar uma atividade de pesquisa em Física. O objetivo era distinguir o engajamento colaborativo de outras formas de participação em grupo. Apresentamos um estudo pormenorizado de aulas que ocorreram no início do ano letivo em turmas do primeiro ano. Recorremos a gravações em áudio e vídeo para categorizar a participação dos alunos durante a atividade. As categorias são inspiradas no referencial psicanalítico de Grupos de Trabalho e Suposições Básicas. Com a ajuda desses conceitos foi possível caracterizar a participação individual no grupo, atentando para os impulsos emocionais que desviaram os indivíduos da tarefa. Baseados nos dados obtidos e em outros trabalhos nos quais analisamos esses grupos isoladamente, concluímos que a participação dos alunos depende de aspectos intrínsecos da dinâmica dos grupos de aprendizagem. A colaboração e objetividade, necessárias para que o grupo funcione bem, dependem de uma interferência externa ao grupo.We observed groups of secondary school students who were challenged to conduct a research activity in physics. The objective was to distinguish collaborative engagement from other forms of group participation. We present a detailed study of lessons that occurred at the beginning of the school year in first year student classes. We used audio and video recordings to categorize the students' participation during the activity. The categories draw their inspiration from the psychoanalytical approach of Working Groups and Basic Assumptions. With the help of these concepts, it was possible to characterize individual participation in the group, paying attention to the emotional impulses that diverted individuals from the task in hand. Based on the data obtained and on other works in which we analyzed these groups in isolation, we conclude that student participation depends on intrinsic aspects of the dynamics of the

  17. Dynamical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldus, Josef

    The well known symmetry (invariance, degeneracy) dynamical groups or algebras of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians provide quantum numbers (conservation laws, integrals of motion) for state labeling and the associated selection rules. In addition, it is often advantageous to employ much larger groups, referred to as the dynamical groups (noninvariance groups, dynamical algebras, spectrum generating algebras), which may or may not be the invariance groups of the studied system [4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In all known cases, they are Lie groups (LGs), or rather corresponding Lie algebras (LAs), and one usually requires that all states of interest of a system be contained in a single irreducible representation (irrep). Likewise, one may require that the Hamiltonian be expressible in terms of the Casimir operators of the corresponding universal enveloping algebra [4.8,9]. In a weaker sense, one regards any group (or corresponding algebra) as a dynamical group if the Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of its generators [4.10,11,12]. In nuclear physics, one sometimes distinguishes exact (baryon number preserving), almost exact (e.g., total isospin), approximate (e.g., SU(3) of the "eightfold way") and model (e.g., nuclear shell model) dynamical symmetries [4.13]. The dynamical groups of interest in atomic and molecular physics can be conveniently classified by their topological characteristic of compactness. Noncompact LGs (LAs) generally arise in simple problems involving an infinite number of bound states, while those involving a finite number of bound states (e.g., molecular vibrations or ab initio models of electronic structure) exploit compact LG's.

  18. Catheter Ablation of Tachyarrhythmias in Small Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Blaufox

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 80,000-100,000 radiofrequency ablation (RFA procedures are performed in the United States each year.1 Approximately 1% of these are performed on pediatric patients at centers that contribute data to the Pediatric Radiofrequency Registry.2 Previous reports from this registry have demonstrated that RFA can safely and effectively be performed in pediatric patients.3,4 However, patients weighing less than 15 kg have been identified as being at greater risk for complications.3,4 Consequently, there has been great reluctance to perform RFA in small children such that children weighing less than 15 kg only represent approximately 6% of the pediatric RFA experience2 despite the fact that this age group carries the highest incidence of tachycardia, particularly supraventricular tachycardia (SVT.5 Factors other than the risk of complications contribute to the lower incidence of RFA in this group, including the natural history of the most common tachycardias (SVT, technical issues with RFA in small hearts, and the potential unknown long-term effects of RF applications in the maturing myocardium. Conversely, there are several reasons why ablation may be desirable in small children, including greater difficulties with medical management,6,7,8 the higher risk for hemodynamic compromise during tachycardia in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD, and the inability of these small children to effectively communicate their symptoms thereby making it more likely that their symptoms may go unnoticed until the children become more seriously ill. Before ultimately deciding that catheter ablation is indicated in small children, one must consider which tachycardias are likely to be ablated, the clinical presentation of these tachycardias, alternatives to ablation, the relative potential for success or complications, and modifications of the procedure that might reduce the risk of ablation in this group.

  19. [Changes in small airway function in rhinitis without asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Qiuping; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhiyi; Shi, Xu; Guan, Weijie; Wu, Kunmin; Xu, Li; Chen, Wei; Xue, Fei; Jiang, Manjie; Cheng, You; Wang, Tianyou; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-11-01

    Observe the changes of small airway function in patients with rhinitis but without asthma and/or lower airway symptoms. Between June 2008 and December 2012, we recruited 903 subjects, including 377 with allergic rhinitis (AR), 262 with non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) and 264 healthy subjects. All subjects underwent meticulous history taking, nasal examination, allergen skin prick test, blood routine test, serum total immunoglobin E assay, pulmonary ventilation function test and bronchial challenge test. The indices of FEV1/FVC%, MEF25pred% and MMEFpred% were lower in AR group than in the control group (P rhinitis group and the control group (P > 0.05). The positive rate of airway hyperresponsiveness(AHR) in AR group and in NAR group was 12.2%, 6.1% respectively. Indices of small airway function were all lower in the AHR group than NAHR group in rhinitis. Compared with healthy controls, small airway function in patients with rhinitis has apparent changes, part of rhinitis patients has AHR, and is associated with small airway function changes.

  20. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.