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Sample records for included similar percentages

  1. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  2. Infection by rhinovirus: similarity of clinical signs included in the case definition of influenza IAn/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña Navarro, Maria; Melón García, Santiago; Alvarez-Argüelles, Marta; Fernández-Verdugo, Ana; Boga Riveiro, Jose Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Although new influenza virus (IAn/H1N1) infections are mild and indistinguishable from any other seasonal influenza virus infections, there are few data on comparisons of the clinical features of infection with (IAn/H1N1) and with other respiratory viruses. The incidence, clinical aspects and temporal distribution of those respiratory viruses circulating during flu pandemic period were studied. Respiratory samples from patients with acute influenza-like symptoms were collected from May 2009 to December 2009. Respiratory viruses were detected by conventional culture methods and genome amplification techniques. Although IAn/H1N1 was the virus most frequently detected, several other respiratory viruses co-circulated with IAn/H1N1 during the pandemic period, especially rhinovirus. The similarity between clinical signs included in the clinical case definition for influenza and those caused by other respiratory viruses, particularly rhinovirus, suggest that a high percentage of viral infections were clinically diagnosed as case of influenza. Our study offers useful information to face future pandemics caused by influenza virus, indicating that differential diagnoses are required in order to not overestimate the importance of the pandemic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  4. At most hospitals in the state of Iowa, most surgeons' daily lists of elective cases include only 1 or 2 cases: Individual surgeons' percentage operating room utilization is a consistently unreliable metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Jarvie, Craig; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-11-01

    Percentage utilization of operating room (OR) time is not an appropriate endpoint for planning additional OR time for surgeons with high caseloads, and cannot be measured accurately for surgeons with low caseloads. Nonetheless, many OR directors claim that their hospitals make decisions based on individual surgeons' OR utilizations. This incongruity could be explained by the OR managers considering the earlier mathematical studies, performed using data from a few large teaching hospitals, as irrelevant to their hospitals. The important mathematical parameter for the prior observations is the percentage of surgeon lists of elective cases that include 1 or 2 cases; "list" meaning a combination of surgeon, hospital, and date. We measure the incidence among many hospitals. Observational cohort study. 117 hospitals in Iowa from July 2013 through September 2015. Surgeons with same identifier among hospitals. Surgeon lists of cases including at least one outpatient surgical case, so that Relative Value Units (RVU's) could be measured. Averaging among hospitals in Iowa, more than half of the surgeons' lists included 1 or 2 cases (77%; P<0.00001 vs. 50%). Approximately half had 1 case (54%; P=0.0012 vs. 50%). These percentages exceeded 50% even though nearly all the surgeons operated at just 1 hospital on days with at least 1 case (97.74%; P<0.00001 vs. 50%). The cases were not of long durations; among the 82,928 lists with 1 case, the median was 6 intraoperative RVUs (e.g., adult inguinal herniorrhaphy). Accurate confidence intervals for raw or adjusted utilizations are so wide for individual surgeons that decisions based on utilization are equivalent to decisions based on random error. The implication of the current study is generalizability of that finding from the largest teaching hospital in the state to the other hospitals in the state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 29 CFR 778.214 - Benefit plans; including profit-sharing plans or trusts providing similar benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fide plan for providing old age, retirement, life, accident, or health insurance or similar benefits... employee on account of severance of employment (or for any other reason) would not result in any increase... mechanics performing contract work subject to the Davis-Bacon Act and related statutes, the provisions of...

  6. PREDICTED PERCENTAGE DISSATISFIED (PPD) MODEL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    their low power requirements, are relatively cheap and are environment friendly. ... PREDICTED PERCENTAGE DISSATISFIED MODEL EVALUATION OF EVAPORATIVE COOLING ... The performance of direct evaporative coolers is a.

  7. The immunoprofile of odontogenic keratocyst (keratocystic odontogenic tumor) that includes expression of PTCH, SMO, GLI-1 and bcl-2 is similar to ameloblastoma but different from odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, M; Peleg, O; Taicher, S; Buchner, A

    2009-08-01

    The aggressive biological behavior of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), unlike that of other odontogenic cysts, has argued for its recent re-classification as a neoplasm, 'keratocystic odontogenic tumor'. Identification of mutations in the PTCH gene in some of the OKCs that were expected to produce truncated proteins, resulting in loss of control of the cell cycle, provided additional support for OKCs having a neoplastic nature. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway-related proteins, PTCH, smoothened (SMO) and GLI-1, and of the SHH-induced bcl-2 oncoprotein in a series of primary OKC (pOKC), recurrent OKC (rOKC) and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated OKCs (NBCCS-OKCs), and compared them to solid ameloblastomas (SAMs), unicystic ameloblastomas (UAMs), 'orthokeratinized' OKCs (oOKCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs). All studied lesions expressed the SHH pathway-related proteins in a similar pattern. The expression of bcl-2 in OKCs (pOKCs and NBCCS-OKCs) and SAMs was significantly higher than in oOKCs, DCs and RCs (P < 0.001). The present results of the immunoprofile of OKCs (that includes the expression of the SHH-related proteins and the SHH-induced bcl-2 oncoprotein) further support the notion of OKC having a neoplastic nature. As OKCs vary considerably in their biologic behavior, it is suggested that the quality and quantity of interactions between the SHH and other cell cycle regulatory pathways are likely to work synergistically to define the individual phenotype and corresponding biological behavior of this lesion.

  8. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  9. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  10. Percentage compensation arrangements: suspect, but not illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, F P

    2001-01-01

    Percentage compensation arrangements, in which a service is outsourced to a contractor that is paid in accordance with the level of its performance, are widely used in many business sectors. The HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) has shown concern that these arrangements in the healthcare industry may offer incentives for the performance of unnecessary services or cause false claims to be made to Federal healthcare programs in violation of the antikickback statute and the False Claims Act. Percentage compensation arrangements can work and need not run afoul of the law as long as the healthcare organization carefully oversees the arrangement and sets specific safeguards in place. These safeguards include screening contractors, carefully evaluating their compliance programs, and obligating them contractually to perform within the limits of the law.

  11. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  12. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  13. Making Sense of Fractions and Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitin, David J.; Whitin, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Because fractions and percentages can be difficult for children to grasp, connecting them whenever possible is beneficial. Linking them can foster representational fluency as children simultaneously see the part-whole relationship expressed numerically (as a fraction and as a percentage) and visually (as a pie chart). NCTM advocates these…

  14. Percentage of Fast-Track Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset provides the percentage of fast-track receipts by state during the reporting fiscal year. Fast-tracked cases consist of those cases identified as Quick...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Iterative Reconstruction Using a Phantom: Determining the Appropriate Blending Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Young Han; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the optimal blending percentage of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in a reduced radiation dose while preserving a degree of image quality and texture that is similar to that of standard-dose computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The CT performance phantom was scanned with standard and dose reduction protocols including reduced mAs or kVp. Image quality parameters including noise, spatial, and low-contrast resolution, as well as image texture, were quantitatively evaluated after applying various blending percentages of ASIR. The optimal blending percentage of ASIR that preserved image quality and texture compared to standard dose CT was investigated in each radiation dose reduction protocol. Results As the percentage of ASIR increased, noise and spatial-resolution decreased, whereas low-contrast resolution increased. In the texture analysis, an increasing percentage of ASIR resulted in an increase of angular second moment, inverse difference moment, and correlation and in a decrease of contrast and entropy. The 20% and 40% dose reduction protocols with 20% and 40% ASIR blending, respectively, resulted in an optimal quality of images with preservation of the image texture. Conclusion Blending the 40% ASIR to the 40% reduced tube-current product can maximize radiation dose reduction and preserve adequate image quality and texture. PMID:25510772

  16. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  17. Soils, County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu symbol and ID, state symbol, name, category, percolation rate and passing percentage., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils dataset current as of 2008. County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu...

  18. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  19. Predicted percentage dissatisfied with ankle draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Schiavon, S; Kabanshi, A; Nazaroff, W W

    2017-07-01

    Draft is unwanted local convective cooling. The draft risk model of Fanger et al. (Energy and Buildings 12, 21-39, 1988) estimates the percentage of people dissatisfied with air movement due to overcooling at the neck. There is no model for predicting draft at ankles, which is more relevant to stratified air distribution systems such as underfloor air distribution (UFAD) and displacement ventilation (DV). We developed a model for predicted percentage dissatisfied with ankle draft (PPD AD ) based on laboratory experiments with 110 college students. We assessed the effect on ankle draft of various combinations of air speed (nominal range: 0.1-0.6 m/s), temperature (nominal range: 16.5-22.5°C), turbulence intensity (at ankles), sex, and clothing insulation (thermal sensation and air speed at ankles are the dominant parameters affecting draft. The seated subjects accepted a vertical temperature difference of up to 8°C between ankles (0.1 m) and head (1.1 m) at neutral whole-body thermal sensation, 5°C more than the maximum difference recommended in existing standards. The developed ankle draft model can be implemented in thermal comfort and air diffuser testing standards. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  1. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  2. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  3. Automated objective determination of percentage of malignant nuclei for mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viray, Hollis; Coulter, Madeline; Li, Kevin; Lane, Kristin; Madan, Aruna; Mitchell, Kisha; Schalper, Kurt; Hoyt, Clifford; Rimm, David L

    2014-01-01

    Detection of DNA mutations in tumor tissue can be a critical companion diagnostic test before prescription of a targeted therapy. Each method for detection of these mutations is associated with an analytic sensitivity that is a function of the percentage of tumor cells present in the specimen. Currently, tumor cell percentage is visually estimated resulting in an ordinal and highly variant result for a biologically continuous variable. We proposed that this aspect of DNA mutation testing could be standardized by developing a computer algorithm capable of accurately determining the percentage of malignant nuclei in an image of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Using inForm software, we developed an algorithm, to calculate the percentage of malignant cells in histologic specimens of colon adenocarcinoma. A criterion standard was established by manually counting malignant and benign nuclei. Three pathologists also estimated the percentage of malignant nuclei in each image. Algorithm #9 had a median deviation from the criterion standard of 5.4% on the training set and 6.2% on the validation set. Compared with pathologist estimation, Algorithm #9 showed a similar ability to determine percentage of malignant nuclei. This method represents a potential future tool to assist in determining the percent of malignant nuclei present in a tissue section. Further validation of this algorithm or an improved algorithm may have value to more accurately assess percentage of malignant cells for companion diagnostic mutation testing.

  4. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611...

  5. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  6. 78 FR 48789 - Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value AGENCY: Department... mortgage holders in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) loan guaranty program concerning the percentage to be used in calculating the purchase price of a property that secured a terminated loan. The new...

  7. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentages in effect at the end of the previous marketing year shall be applicable. [51 FR 29548, Aug. 19... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and...

  8. determination of perce rmination of percentage of caffeine content

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Two methods were employed for the deter brands of analgesic tablets which are;. Extraction using both water and chlorofor weighing apparatus and the percentage of. The percentage of caffeine using only water. Boska, and Panadol Extra were 7.40%, 5.60 caffeine using both water and chloroform i.

  9. 78 FR 33757 - Rural Determination and Financing Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Agency for determining what percentage of a project is eligible for RUS financing if the Rural Percentage... defined as rural. As the Agency investigates financing options for projects owned by entities other than... inability to fund 100 percent of the financing needs of a given project has undermined the Agency's effort...

  10. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (pappendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  11. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  12. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  13. Dressing percentage and Carcass characteristics of four Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dressing percentage and Carcass characteristics of four Indigenous cattle breeds in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Their feed intake, live and carcasses weights and the weights of their major carcass components and ...

  14. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have high compressive strengths in comparison with con- crete specimens ... presenting suitable model based on artificial neural networks. (ANNs) to ... by experimental ones to evaluate the software power for pre- dicting the ..... Figure 7. Correlation of measured and predicted percentage of water absorption values of.

  15. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of percentage grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... ATA/M-CGT; (B) AFLP results using primer E-AAA/M-CTC; (C) AFLP results using primer E-AAA/M-CTA. 1,. Minghui63; 2, Zhengshan97A; 3, low PGC bulk; 4, high PGC bulk. The arrow show linkage segments of percentage chalky grain in rice. Table 1. Chromosomal location of AFLP segments linked to ...

  16. 7 CFR 987.44 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... applicable grade and size available to supply the trade demand for free dates of any variety is likely to be... effectuate the declared policy of the act, it shall recommend such percentages to the Secretary. If the...

  17. 75 FR 35098 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... normal cost percentages and requests for actuarial assumptions and data to the Board of Actuaries, care of Gregory Kissel, Actuary, Office of Planning and Policy Analysis, Office of Personnel Management... Regulations, regulates how normal costs are determined. Recently, the Board of Actuaries of the Civil Service...

  18. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 6. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water absorption of geopolymers produced by waste ashes. Ali Nazari. Volume 35 Issue 6 November 2012 pp 1019-1029 ...

  19. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  20. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  1. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  2. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  3. Soil Carbon Mapping in Low Relief Areas with Combined Land Use Types and Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wu, Z. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Wang, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate mapping of soil carbon in low relief areas is of great challenge because of the defect of conventional "soil-landscape" model. Efforts have been made to integrate the land use information in the modelling and mapping of soil organic carbon (SOC), in which the spatial context was ignored. With 256 topsoil samples collected from Jianghan Plain, we aim to (i) explore the land-use dependency of SOC via one-way ANOVA; (ii) investigate the "spillover effect" of land use on SOC content; (iii) examine the feasibility of land use types and percentages (obtained with a 200-meter buffer) for soil mapping via regression Kriging (RK) models. Results showed that the SOC of paddy fields was higher than that of woodlands and irrigated lands. The land use type could explain 20.5 % variation of the SOC, and the value increased to 24.7 % when the land use percentages were considered. SOC was positively correlated with the percentage of water area and irrigation canals. Further research indicated that SOC of irrigated lands was significantly correlated with the percentage of water area and irrigation canals, while paddy fields and woodlands did not show similar trends. RK model that combined land use types and percentages outperformed the other models with the lowest values of RMSEC (5.644 g/kg) and RMSEP (6.229 g/kg), and the highest R2C (0.193) and R2P (0.197). In conclusions, land use types and percentages serve as efficient indicators for the SOC mapping in plain areas. Additionally, irrigation facilities contributed to the farmland SOC sequestration especially in irrigated lands.

  4. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  5. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  6. Use of enzymes in diets with different percentages of added fat for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.P. Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.

  7. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  8. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  9. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  10. Population-Attributable Risk Percentages for Racialized Risk Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Haardörfer, Regine; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Research about relationships between place characteristics and racial/ethnic inequities in health has largely ignored conceptual advances about race and place within the discipline of geography. Research has also almost exclusively quantified these relationships using effect estimates (e.g., odds ratios), statistics that fail to adequately capture the full impact of place characteristics on inequities and thus undermine our ability to translate research into action. We draw on geography to further develop the concept of “racialized risk environments,” and we argue for the routine calculation of race/ethnicity-specific population-attributable risk percentages. PMID:27552263

  11. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  12. Validation of Field Methods to Assess Body Fat Percentage in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Di Salvo, Valter; Paredes-Hernandez, Victor; Alcazar, Julian; Ara, Ignacio; Kreider, Richard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    This study determined the most effective field method for quantifying body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players and developed prediction equations based on anthropometric variables. Forty-four male elite-standard youth soccer players aged 16.3-18.0 years underwent body fat percentage assessments, including bioelectrical impedance analysis and the calculation of various skinfold-based prediction equations. Dual X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of body fat percentage. Correlation coefficients, bias, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop soccer-specific prediction equations. The equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967) reached very large correlations and the lowest biases, and they reached neither the practically worthwhile difference nor the substantial difference between methods. The new youth soccer-specific skinfold equation included a combination of triceps and supraspinale skinfolds. None of the practical methods compared in this study are adequate for estimating body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players, except for the equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967). The new youth soccer-specific equation calculated in this investigation is the only field method specifically developed and validated in elite male players, and it shows potentially good predictive power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  14. The percentage of migration as indicator of femoral head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Ringertz, H.; Samuelsson, L.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1988-01-01

    In childhood subluxation of one or both hips may develop rather insidiously. For lack of generally accepted objective methods of assessment, ambiguous interpretations of findings in serial examinations are common. Many subluxations are overlooked during the early stages. In order to overcome such disadvantages, determination of the percentage of migration seems to be a reasonably easy and reliable technique facilitating evaluation of impending dislocation. This investigation was carried out in order to estabilsh norms applicable to patients in the pediatric age interval. The 98th percentile of migration increases with age from 16% in patients < 4 years of age to 24% in patients ≥ 12 years. Higher figures represent subluxation. If the migration exceeds 80% a manifest luxation is present. A difference in migration between the two hips larger than 12% indicates abnormality calling for clinical and radiologic follow-up. (orig.)

  15. Budgetary Approach to Project Management by Percentage of Completion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Borowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective project management process is made possible by the use of methods and techniques of project management. The aim of this paper is to present the problems of project management by using Percentage of Completion method. The research material was gathered based on the experience in implementing this method by the Johnson Controls International Company. The article attempts to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that the POC project management method, allows for effective implementation and monitoring of the project and thus is an effective tool in the managing of companies which exploit the budgetary approach. The study presents planning process of basic parameters affecting the effectiveness of the project (such as costs, revenue, margin and characterized how the primary measurements used to evaluate it. The present theme is illustrating by numerous examples for showing the essence of the raised problems and the results are presenting by using descriptive methods, graphical and tabular.

  16. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  17. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    requirements of the majority of tested cases. Illuminance levels in the examined residential space were satisfactory in 83% of the near zone cases and 53% in the mid-length zone, while the far zone suites 40% of the cases. Screen influence on daylighting was found to be very much dependent on the orientation of the window and time of the day.In stage two, the percentage of annual " Daylight Availability" was very much related to screen perforation percentage. As perforation percentage decreased, the percentage of Daylit and Over lit spaces decreased. At the same time, Partially Daylit areas of the space increased with similar percentages irrespective of the orientation. As a result of the twofold research stages, it is recommended to utilize a minimum of 80% perforation percentages for spaces similar to the tested case in the South orientation.In stage three, an initial investigation suggests that the use of screens can significantly reduce the occurrence of glare phenomena. Also, it is suggested to study the efficiency of designing Solar Screens that have non-uniform perforation ratios. These could prove useful in improving the illuminance levels in the mid-length and far zones of the unsatisfactory cases.In conclusion, minimum perforation percentages for Solar Screens were presented for specific design cases that encompassed different orientations, seasons and time of the day. In addition, a tool that could be used by architects for based on required annual " Daylit" areas for the design of Solar Screens that effectively achieve functional needs was provided. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  19. The Role of Monocyte Percentage in Osteoporosis in Male Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Jih; Chen, Chao Tung; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Hung-Chen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Su, Chih-Min; Hsiao, Sheng-Yuan; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is easily overlooked in male patients, especially in the field of rheumatic diseases mostly prevalent with female patients, and its link to pathogenesis is still lacking. Attenuated monocyte apoptosis from a transcriptome-wide expression study illustrates the role of monocytes in osteoporosis. This study tested the hypothesis that the monocyte percentage among leukocytes could be a biomarker of osteoporosis in rheumatic diseases. Eighty-seven males with rheumatic diseases were evaluated in rheumatology outpatient clinics for bone mineral density (BMD) and surrogate markers, such as routine peripheral blood parameters and autoantibodies. From the total number of 87 patients included in this study, only 15 met the criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis. Both age and monocyte percentage remained independently associated with the presence of osteoporosis. Steroid dose (equivalent prednisolone dose) was negatively associated with BMD of the hip area and platelet counts were negatively associated with BMD and T score of the spine area. Besides age, monocyte percentage meets the major requirements for osteoporosis in male rheumatic diseases. A higher monocyte percentage in male rheumatic disease patients, aged over 50 years in this study, and BMD study should be considered in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures.

  20. Total and Lower Extremity Lean Mass Percentage Positively Correlates With Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mitchell L; Smith, Derek T; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Moynes, Rebecca C; Rockey, Shawn S; Thomas, Joi J; Dai, Boyi

    2015-08-01

    Strength and power have been identified as valuable components in both athletic performance and daily function. A major component of strength and power is the muscle mass, which can be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between total body lean mass percentage (TBLM%) and lower extremity lean mass percentage (LELM%) and lower extremity force/power production during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in a general population. Researchers performed a DXA analysis on 40 younger participants aged 18-35 years, 28 middle-aged participants aged 36-55 years, and 34 older participants aged 56-75 years. Participants performed 3 CMJ on force platforms. Correlations revealed significant and strong relationships between TBLM% and LELM% compared with CMJ normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (p lean mass percentages. The findings have implications in including DXA-assessed lean mass percentage as a component for evaluating lower extremity strength and power. A paired DXA analysis and CMJ jump test may be useful for identifying neuromuscular deficits that limit performance.

  1. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  2. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  3. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  4. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  5. Used percentage veto for LIGO and virgo binary inspiral searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Tomoki

    2010-01-01

    A challenge for ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and Virgo is to understand the origin of non-astrophysical transients that contribute to the background noise, obscuring real astrophysically produced signals. To help this effort, there are a number of environmental and instrumental sensors around the site, recording data in 'channels'. We developed a method called the used percentage veto to eliminate corrupted data based on the statistical correlation between transients in the gravitational wave channel and in the auxiliary channels. The results are used to improve inspiral binary searches on LIGO and Virgo data. We also developed a way to apply this method to help find the physical origin of such transients for detector characterization. After identifying statistically correlated channels, a follow-up code clusters coincident events between the gravitational wave channel and auxiliary channels, and thereby classifies noise by correlated channels. For each selected event, the code also gathers and creates information that is helpful for further investigations. The method is contributing to identifying problems and improving data quality for the LIGO S6 and Virgo VSR2 science runs.

  6. Percentage depth dose evaluation in heterogeneous media using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, L.A.R.; Campos, L.T.; Alves, V.G.L.; Batista, D.V.S.; Facure, A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of lung heterogeneity inside a soft tissue phantom on percentage depth dose (PDD). PDD curves were obtained experimentally using LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD‐100) thermoluminescent detectors and applying Eclipse treatment planning system algorithms Batho, modified Batho (M‐Batho or BMod), equivalent TAR (E‐TAR or EQTAR), and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for a 15 MV photon beam and field sizes of 1×1,2×2,5×5, and 10×10cm2. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the DOSRZnrc user code of EGSnrc. The experimental results agree with Monte Carlo simulations for all irradiation field sizes. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations show that the AAA algorithm provides the best simulations of PDD curves for all field sizes investigated. However, even this algorithm cannot accurately predict PDD values in the lung for field sizes of 1×1 and 2×2cm2. An overdosage in the lung of about 40% and 20% is calculated by the AAA algorithm close to the interface soft tissue/lung for 1×1 and 2×2cm2 field sizes, respectively. It was demonstrated that differences of 100% between Monte Carlo results and the algorithms Batho, modified Batho, and equivalent TAR responses may exist inside the lung region for the 1×1cm2 field. PACS number: 87.55.kd

  7. [Relationship between hypertension and percentage of body fat, in children of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R W; Wan, Y H; Zhang, H; Wang, Y F; Wang, B; Xu, L; Zuo, A Z; Tong, S L; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To study the situation of hypertension among children in Anhui province and to analyze its association with the percentage of body fat. A total of 8 890 aged 7-17 years old children, were tested for blood pressure and thickness of skin fold in Anhui province. Hypertension in children was diagnosed referring to the 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension (revised in 2010). The percentage of body fat was calculated according to the thickness of skin fold and specific formulas. METHODS used for statistics analysis would include t test, χ(2) test while logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between percentage of body fat in children and adolescents. In total, 8 890 subjects aged 7-17 years were recruited, in Anhui province. The prevalence of hypertension in Children aged 7-17 was 13.6%, with the total number of hypertension as 1 210, in Anhui province. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension among urban and rural children. Both prevalence of hypertension among boys and girls in urban area appeared higher than those in the rural area. In the urban areas, the prevalence rates of hypertension in both boys and girls were higher than the ones in rural area (χ(2) values were 36.36, 7.79, 42.10 and 13.77, respectively, and Pfat between boys and girls from the rural or urban areas were both significant.OR values of the boys and girls of group P(40)- and P(60)-were 1.65 and 1.75, respectively. Risks of hypertension in boys and girls showed significantly increase by P(40) and P(60), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in both boys and girls increased along with the increase of the percentage on body fat. Since higher percentage of body fat could increase the risk of hypertension, reduction of body fat content would be beneficial to the success of prevention and control of hypertension in children.

  8. Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomken, Simon; Davies, Beverley; Chong, Leeai; Cole, Michael; Wood, Katrina M; McDermott, Michael; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with ≥ 60% necrosis or ≥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  9. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The application of the percentage change calculation in the context of inflation in Mathematical Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The school subject Mathematical Literacy requires application of mathematics procedures in various contextual settings, but not much is known about the ways in which students engage with contextual settings such as inflation. This qualitative study was conducted with in-service Mathematical Literacy teachers in South Africa with the purpose of exploring the extent to which the teachers recognised the contextual constraints involved in applying the percentage change calculation to the inflation context. The written responses of the 406 Mathematical Literacy teachers were scrutinised to identify their interpretations of the contextual constraints involved in applying the percentage change procedure to the context of inflation. The item required the application of two successive percentage change operations (corresponding to the inflation rates for the 2 years. Of the 406 responses that were analysed, 260 (65% were unable to take account of all the contextual constraints. There were 108 teachers who reduced the procedure to a one-step calculation while 64 teachers interpreted the context as a percentage decrease scenario. A large number of teachers (162 struggled with the interpretation of the role of the year, k, in the relationship between the quantities. The findings indicate that engagement with and understanding of the concept of inflation is dependent on a synthesis of the contextual constraints into the mathematical procedures. This article provides some insights into the struggles with making sense of the contextual nature of inflation which is an area that has received little attention in mathematics education studies. The teachers’ struggles likely mirror learners’ struggles and hence the research applies in a similar way to learners.

  11. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  12. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    . Oestrogen injections twice a week to the castrated rats increased their oleate percentage within the same period to 23.4 ± 0.3%, partly reflecting the increase observed in the female rats. Stearic acid showed similar but less pronounced changes. The ratio oleic acid/stearic acid was constantly higher...

  13. Effect of embryo culture media on percentage of males at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Zhuang, Xinjie; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence the percentage of males at birth? The percentage of males delivered after ICSI cycles using G5™ medium was statistically significantly higher than after cycles where Global, G5™ PLUS, and Quinn's Advantage Media were used. Male and female embryos have different physiologies during preimplantation development. Manipulating the energy substrate and adding growth factors have a differential impact on the development of male and female embryos. This was a retrospective analysis of the percentage of males at birth, and included 4411 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles between January 2011 and August 2013 at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Third Hospital Peking University. Only singleton gestations were included. Participants were excluded if preimplantation genetic diagnosis, donor oocytes and donor sperm were used. The database between January 2011 and August 2013 was searched with unique medical record number, all patients were present in the database with only one cycle. Demographics, cycle characteristics and the percentage of male babies in the four culture media groups were compared with analysis of variance or χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression was done to determine the association between the sex at birth and culture media after adjusting for other confounding factors, including parental age, parental BMI, type of infertility, parity, number of embryos transferred, number of early gestational sacs, cycles with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm extraction (TESE), number of oocytes retrieved, cycles with blastocyst transfers, and gestational age within ICSI group. Within the IVF group, the percentage of males at birth for G5™, Global, Quinn's and G5™ PLUS media were comparable (P > 0.05); however, within the ICSI group, the percentage of male babies in cycles using G5™(56.1%) was statistically significantly higher than

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  15. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  16. Graphing and Percentage Applications Using the Personal Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jay

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes how "IBM Graphing Assistant" and "Apple Softgraph" can foster a multifaceted approach to application of mathematical concepts and how a survey can be undertaken using the computer as word processor, data bank, and source of visual displays. Mathematical skills reinforced include estimating, rounding, graphing, and solving…

  17. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... women aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program at multiple designated community centres. All subjects were able to communicate and residing in an urban area of central Malaysia. Exclusion criteria included those who have mental disorders, concomitant diseases (i.e. dialysis ...

  18. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  19. Effect on physical properties of laterite soil with difference percentage of sodium bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Nur Aisyah; Azmi, Nor Azizah Che; Mukri, Mazidah; Noor, Siti Nur Aishah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This research was carried out in an attempt to know the physical properties of laterite soil with the appearance of difference percentage of sodium bentonite. Lateritic soils usually develop in tropical and other regions with similar hot and humid climate, where heavy rainfall, warm temperature and well drainage lead to the formation of thick horizons of reddish lateritic soil profiles rich in iron and aluminium. When sodium predominates, a large amount of water can be absorbed in the interlayer, resulting in the remarkable swelling properties observed with hydrating sodium bentonite. There are some basic physical properties test conducted in this research which are Specific Gravity Test, pH Test, Sieve Analysis, Hydrometer Test, Shrinkage Limit and Atterberg Limit. The test will be conducted with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sodium bentonite. Each test will be repeated three times for the accuracy of the result. From the physical properties test the soil properties characteristic react with the sodium bentonite can be determine. Therefore the best percentage of sodium bentonite admixture can be determined for laterite soil. The outcomes of this study give positive results due to the potential of sodium bentonite to improve the laterite soil particle.

  20. [Prognosis and percentage of employment after the surgery in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H; Kawahito, K; Yamaguchi, A; Murata, S; Ino, T

    2002-07-01

    The percentage of employment in the Marfan patient after the Bentall procedure was studied. Eighteen of 20 patients (90%) returned to their daily life and are working well after the surgery. Seven patients (35%) needed the second operation due to the enlargement of false lumen during the follow-up period. Fatal cardiovascular accidents occurred in 7 their families (35%) in our series. Careful follow-up, adequate selection of medical and surgical treatment including second operation, medical examination of their families are important to keep the good quality of life in the Marfan patient.

  1. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Is a percentage a percentage? Systematic review of the effectiveness of Scandinavian behavioural modification smoking cessation programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dollerup, Jens; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. A total of 50% of all smokers will die from a smoking-related disease with a major impact upon quality of life and health-care costs. Tobacco-controlling policies, including smoking cessation, have increasingly been implemented...

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of GRC with high percentage of fly ash substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovés, V; Gosálbez, J; Miralles, R; Bonilla, M; Payá, J

    2015-07-01

    New applications of non-destructive techniques (NDT) with ultrasonic tests (attenuation and velocity by means of ultrasonic frequency sweeps) have been developed for the characterization of fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. According to new lines of research on glass-fibre reinforced cement (GRC) matrix modification, two similar GRC composites with high percentages of fly ash and different water/binder ratios will be studied. Conventional techniques have been used to confirm their low Ca(OH)(2) content (thermogravimetry), fibre integrity (Scanning Electron Microscopy), low porosity (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry) and good mechanical properties (compression and four points bending test). Ultrasound frequency sweeps allowed the estimation of the attenuation and pulse velocity as functions of frequency. This ultrasonic characterization was correlated successfully with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is a percentage a percentage? Systematic review of the effectiveness of Scandinavian behavioural modification smoking cessation programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dollerup, Jens; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. A total of 50% of all smokers will die from a smoking-related disease with a major impact upon quality of life and health-care costs. Tobacco-controlling policies, including smoking cessation, have increasingly been implemented...... across European countries. Reported effectiveness data on smoking cessation interventions are important for decision making....

  5. RBANS memory percentage retention: No evidence of incremental validity beyond RBANS scores for diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia and for prediction of daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodouin, Kara A; O'Connell, Megan E; Morgan, Debra G

    2017-01-01

    RBANS percentage retention scores may be useful for diagnosis, but their incremental validity is unclear. Percentage retention versus RBANS immediate and delayed memory subtests and delayed index scores were compared for diagnostic classification and for prediction of function. Data from 173 memory clinic patients with an interdisciplinary diagnosis (no cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]) and complete RBANS data were analyzed. Across diagnostic contrasts, list percentage retention classification accuracy was similar to List Learning delayed recall, but below the Delayed Memory Index (DMI). Similarly, for classifying no cognitive impairment versus aMCI or dementia due to AD, story percentage retention was similar to Story Memory subtests and below the DMI. For classifying aMCI versus AD; however, Story Memory exceeded the DMI, but was similar to Story Memory subtest scores. Similarly, for prediction of function percentage retention measures did not predict variance beyond that predicted by the RBANS subtest or index scores. In sum, there is no evidence that calculation of percentage retention for RBANS adds clinical utility beyond those provided by the standard RBANS scores.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1502-44 - Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage depletion for independent producers...-44 Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners. (a) In general. The sum of the percentage depletion deductions for the taxable year for all oil or gas property owned by all members, plus...

  7. 7 CFR 51.308 - Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Methods of Sampling and Calculation of Percentages § 51.308 Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. (a) When the numerical... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. 51...

  8. The effect of insulin resistance and exercise on the percentage of CD16(+) monocyte subset in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Mariana A; Duarte, Tamiris C; Ottone, Vinícius de O; Sampaio, Pâmela F da M; Costa, Karine B; de Oliveira, Marcos F Andrade; Moseley, Pope L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A; Magalhães, Flávio de C; Amorim, Fabiano T; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammation condition, and macrophages, and possibly monocytes, are involved in the pathological outcomes of obesity. Physical exercise is a low-cost strategy to prevent and treat obesity, probably because of its anti-inflammatory action. We evaluated the percentage of CD16(-) and CD16(+) monocyte subsets in obese insulin-resistant individuals and the effect of an exercise bout on the percentage of these cells. Twenty-seven volunteers were divided into three experimental groups: lean insulin sensitive, obese insulin sensitive and obese insulin resistant. Venous blood samples collected before and 1 h after an aerobic exercise session on a cycle ergometer were used for determination of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry. Insulin-resistant obese individuals have a higher percentage of CD16(+) monocytes (14.8 ± 2.4%) than the lean group (10.0 ± 1.3%). A positive correlation of the percentage of CD16(+) monocytes with body mass index and fasting plasma insulin levels was found. One bout of moderate exercise reduced the percentage of CD16(+) monocytes by 10% in all the groups evaluated. Also, the absolute monocyte count, as well as all other leukocyte populations, in lean and obese individuals, increased after exercise. This fact may partially account for the observed reduction in the percentage of CD16(+) cells in response to exercise. Insulin-resistant, but not insulin-sensitive obese individuals, have an increased percentage of CD16(+) monocytes that can be slightly modulated by a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise. These findings may be clinically relevant to the population studied, considering the involvement of CD16(+) monocytes in the pathophysiology of obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Obesity is now considered to be an inflammatory condition associated with many pathological consequences, including insulin resistance. It is proposed that insulin resistance contributes to the aggravation of the

  9. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received...... initiation. The ABP based on haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and OFF-hr score ([Hb] - 60×√ret%) yielded atypical profiles following both normal-dose and high-dose treatment (0 %, 31 %, 13 % vs. 21 %, 33 %, 20 % at days 4, 11, and 25 after normal and high dose, respectively). Including ret% as a stand...... will present an atypical ABP profile. Including ret% as a stand-alone parameter improves the sensitivity two-fold....

  10. Association Between Hospitals Caring for a Disproportionately High Percentage of Minority Trauma Patients and Increased Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H.; Ong’uti, Sharon; Efron, David T.; Oyetunji, Tolulope A.; Crandall, Marie L.; Scott, Valerie K.; Haut, Elliott R.; Schneider, Eric B.; Powe, Neil R.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Cornwell, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an increased odds of mortality among trauma patients treated at hospitals with higher proportions of minority patients (ie, black and Hispanic patients combined). Design Hospitals were categorized on the basis of the percentage of minority patients admitted with trauma. The adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality were compared between hospitals with less than 25% of patients who were minorities (the reference group) and hospitals with 25% to 50% of patients who were minorities and hospitals with more than 50% of patients who were minorities. Multivariate logistic regression (with generalized linear modeling and a cluster-correlated robust estimate of variance) was used to control for multiple patient and injury severity characteristics. Setting A total of 434 hospitals in the National Trauma Data Bank. Participants Patients aged 18 to 64 years whose medical records were included in the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007 and 2008 with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or greater and who were white, black, or Hispanic. Main Outcome Measures Crude mortality and adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 311 568 patients were examined. Hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% also had younger patients, fewer female patients, more patients with penetrating trauma, and the highest crude mortality. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients treated at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was 25% to 50% and at hospitals in which the percentage of minority patients was more than 50% demonstrated increased odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.34] and adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.61], respectively), compared with the reference group. This disparity increased further on subset analysis of patients with a blunt injury. Uninsured patients had significantly increased odds of mortality within

  11. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  12. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  13. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  14. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  15. Association between frequency of atrial and ventricular ectopic beats and biventricular pacing percentage and outcomes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Mittal, Suneet; Ruwald, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    -defibrillator device with data available on biventricular pacing percentage and pre-implantation 24-h Holter recordings were included. Using logistic regression, we estimated the influence of ectopic beats on the percentage of biventricular pacing. Reverse remodeling was measured as reductions in atrial and left...

  16. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  17. Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn; Arnott, Simone; Bridgman, Kate; de Sonneville, Caroline; Franken, Marie-Christine

    2018-04-17

    This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations. Both SRs and %SS showed large effect sizes from pretreatment to follow-up, although correlations between the 2 measures were moderate at best. Absolute agreement between the 2 measures improved as percentage reduction of stuttering frequency and severity increased, probably due to innate measurement limitations for participants with low baseline severity. Analysis of covariance for the 3 trials showed consistent results. There is no statistical reason to favor %SS over parent-reported stuttering SRs as primary outcomes for clinical trials of early stuttering treatment. However, there are logistical reasons to favor parent-reported stuttering SRs. We conclude that parent-reported rating of the child's typical stuttering severity for the week or month prior to each assessment is a justifiable alternative to %SS as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials of early stuttering treatment.

  18. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  19. Appeals to AC as a Percentage of Appealable Hearing Level Dispositions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Requests for Review (RR) of hearing level decisions or dismissals filed with the Appeals Council (AC)...

  20. Age, gender, and percentage of circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells: The COP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardene, Piumali; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Singh, Lakshman; Bermeo, Sandra; Vogrin, Sara; Phu, Steven; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Pignolo, Robert J; Duque, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells are blood-borne cells which express a variety of osteoblastic markers and are able to form bone nodules in vivo. Whereas a high percentage of COP cells (%COP) is associated with vascular calcification, low %COP has been associated with disability and frailty. However, the reference range of %COP in age- and gender-matching populations, and the age-related changes in %COP remain unknown. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 144 healthy volunteers in Western Sydney (20-90year-old, 10 male and 10 female subjects per decade). %COP was quantified by flow cytometry. A high inter-and intra-rater reliability was found. In average, in this healthy population average of %COP was 0.42. There was no significant difference in %COP among the age groups. Similarly, no significant difference was found in %COP with gender, weight, height or BMI. In addition, we identified a normal reference range of %COP of 0.1-3.8%. In conclusion, in addition to the identification of steady levels of COP cells with age, we also identified a normal reference range of %COP, which could be used in future studies looking at musculoskeletal diseases in older populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  2. Improved cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophic setsfor medical diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Ye

    2014-01-01

    In pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, similarity measure is an important mathematicaltool. To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophicsets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposed improved cosine similarity measures of SNSs based oncosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutro-sophic cosine similarity measures. Then, weighted cosine similarity measures of SNSs were introduced...

  3. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  4. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  5. Effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine the effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk composition of smallholders' dual-purpose cattle on-farm in the Ashanti Region. Fresh milk samples from various breeds of cows were assessed for percentage components of protein, fat, lactose, cholesterol, solidnon- fat and ...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following simple formula: APY=100 (Interest/Principal) Examples (1) If an institution pays $61.68 in... percentage yield is 5.39%, using the simple formula: APY=100(134.75/2,500) APY=5.39% For $15,000, interest is... Yield Calculation The annual percentage yield measures the total amount of interest paid on an account...

  7. 7 CFR 981.47 - Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... effectuate the declared policy of the act, he shall designate such percentages. Except as provided in § 981... percentages, the Secretary shall give consideration to the ratio of estimated trade demand (domestic plus...

  8. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  9. 13 CFR 126.701 - Can these subcontracting percentages requirements change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can these subcontracting percentages requirements change? 126.701 Section 126.701 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Contract Performance Requirements § 126.701 Can these subcontracting percentages...

  10. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  11. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  12. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  13. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  14. Periodontal disease and percentage of calories from fat using national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, T; Kitamura, M; Kawashita, Y; Ando, Y; Saito, T

    2017-02-01

    The association between periodontal disease and nutrient intake was examined using linked data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases from the same year 'using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases, all from 2005'. There has been increasing focus on the importance of nutritional factors in disease in recent years, but very few studies in Japan have looked at the association between periodontal disease and nutrients. Therefore, in the present study we investigated factors associated with periodontal disease, particularly in terms of nutrient intake. Data from 3043 individuals, ≥ 20 years of age (the original study sample comprised 4873 individuals, but those younger than 20 years of age and pregnant women were excluded from the present study) were compiled from linked responses to these three surveys from the same year. Permission to use the data was obtained from the Lifestyle-Related Diseases Control General Affairs Division of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. Information including basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, dental habits, blood data, intake of foods (including the categories of food) and nutrient-related information were obtained from the linked data. The individual maximum Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an index of periodontal disease. Subjects were divided, according to maximum CPI, into groups in which CPI = 0-2 or CPI = 3-4, and associations between CPI and basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, blood data and food intake were analyzed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of calories from fat was a nutrient factor associated with periodontal disease, with the percentage of calories from fat

  15. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  16. Higher percentage of CD133+ cells is associated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with stage IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cell model suggested that tumor progression is driven by the overpopulation of cancer stem cells and eradicating or inhibiting the symmetric division of cancer stem cells would become the most important therapeutic strategy. However, clinical evidence for this hypothesis is still scarce. To evaluate the overpopulation hypothesis of cancer stem cells the association of percentage of CD133+ tumor cells with clinicopathological parameters in colon cancer was investigated since CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell marker shared by multiple solid tumors. Patients and methods Tumor tissues matched with adjacent normal tissues were collected from 104 stage IIIB colon cancer patients who were subject to radical resection between January, 1999 to July, 2003 in this center. The CD133 expression was examined with immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of the percentage of CD133+ cell with clinicopathological parameters and patients' 5-year survival was analyzed. Results The CD133+ cells were infrequent and heterogeneous distribution in the cancer tissue. Staining of CD133 was localized not only on the glandular-luminal surface of cancer cells but also on the invasive budding and the poorly differentiated tumors with ductal structures. Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the invasive depth of tumor were independently prognostic. The patients with a lower percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (less than 5% were strongly associated with a higher 5-year survival rate than those with a higher percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (greater than or equal to 55%. Additionally, no correlation was obtained between the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the other clinicopathological parameters including gender, age, site of primary mass, pathologic types, grades, and invasive depth. Conclusion The fact that a higher percentage CD133+ cells were strongly associated

  17. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  18. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  19. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  20. The percentage of coral reef cover in Saonek Kecil Island, Raja Ampat, West Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, D. A.; Masithah, E. D.; Manan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Raja Ampat archipelago is located in the heart of the world’s coral triangle which is the center of the richest tropical marine biodiversity in the world. The Saonek Kecil Island has a location close to the Waisai Harbour (±2 km of sea routes). The Island that has no inhabitants and has a location close to harbour activities potentially damage coral reefs. This research was conducted by Line Intercept Transect (LIT) method that calculate the length of each colony form of growth (life form) of coral reefs on the line transect which stretched along the 50 metres parallel to the coastline at each station to obtain the percentage cover data, diversity index, uniformity index, and dominance index. The results of research precentage cover of coral reeef in the waters of Small Saonek Island reach 68.80% – 79.30% by category according to the decision of the Minister of State for the Environment number 4 of 2001 about the damage the reefs criteria included in the category of good – very good. As for the value of diversity index (H’) of 0.487 – 0.675 (medium-high), uniformity index (J) 0.437 – 0.606 (medium-high), and dominance index (C) 0.338 – 0.502 (medium-high).

  1. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 707 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and advertisements, while Part II discusses annual... number of days that would occur for any actual sequence of that many calendar months. If credit unions...

  3. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  4. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF MASSETER AND TEMPORAL MUSCLES WITH USE PERCENTAGE WHILE CHEWING ON CANDIDATES FOR GASTROPLASTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréa Cavalcante Dos; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da

    Surface electromyography identifies changes in the electrical potential of the muscles during each contraction. The percentage of use is a way to treat values enabling comparison between groups. To analyze the electrical activity and the percentage of use of masseter and temporal muscles during chewing in candidates for gastric bypass. It was used Surface Electromyography Miotool 200,400 (Miotec (r), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil) integrated with Miograph 2.0 software, involving patients between 20-40 years old. Were included data on electrical activity simultaneously and in pairs of temporal muscle groups and masseter at rest, maximum intercuspation and during the chewing of food previously classified. Were enrolled 39 patients (59 women), mean age 27.1+/-5.7. The percentage of use focused on temporal muscle, in a range of 11-20, female literacy (n=11; 47.82) on the left side and 15 (65.21) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and 12 (75.00) on the right-hand side. In masseter, also in the range of 11 to 20, female literacy (n=10; 43.48) on the left side and 11 (47.83) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and eight (50.00) on the right-hand side. 40-50% of the sample showed electrical activity in muscles (masseter and temporal) with variable values, and after processing into percentage value, facilitating the comparison of load of used electrical activity between the group, as well as usage percentage was obtained of muscle fibers 11-20% values involving, representing a range that is considered as a reference to the group studied. The gender was not a variable. A eletromiografia de superfície identifica variações dos potenciais elétricos dos músculos durante cada contração realizada. O percentual de uso é uma forma de tratar valores possibilitando comparação entre grupos. Analisar a atividade elétrica e o percentual de uso dos músculos masséteres e temporais durante a mastigação em candidatos à gastroplastia

  5. Effect of Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. Design and Methods Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO , age, and their interactions on trunk fat percentage. Dietary information and other environmental factors were not considered. Results Higher levels of physical activity tend to reduce trunk fat percentage in all individuals. Furthermore, in males, rs9939609 and rs1421085 were significant (α = 0.05 in explaining central body fat, but no SNPs were significant in females. For highly active males, trunk fat percentage varied significantly between variants of rs9939609 and rs1421085, but there is no significant effect among individuals with low activity. The other SNPs examined were not significant in explaining trunk fat percentage. Conclusions Homozygous male carriers of non-obesity risk alleles at rs9939609 and rs1421085 will have significant reduction in central body fat from physical activity in contrast to homozygous males of the obesity-risk alleles. The additive effect of these SNPs is found in males with high physical activity only.

  6. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  7. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  8. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  11. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  13. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Karimzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran during 2014–2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2% (P < 0.001. In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases, wrist tendonitis (13 cases, olecranon bursitis (9 cases, golfers elbow (4 cases, tennis elbow (4 cases, trochanteric bursitis (6 cases, anserine bursitis (6 cases, prepatellar bursitis (11 cases, and ankle tendonitis (7 cases. Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography (P < 0.001 and 34% through Doppler sonography (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  14. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Seyedbonakdar, Zahra; Mousavi, Maryam; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014-2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t -tests were used for data analysis. The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2%) ( P tendinitis (10 cases), wrist tendonitis (13 cases), olecranon bursitis (9 cases), golfers elbow (4 cases), tennis elbow (4 cases), trochanteric bursitis (6 cases), anserine bursitis (6 cases), prepatellar bursitis (11 cases), and ankle tendonitis (7 cases). Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography ( P < 0.001) and 34% through Doppler sonography ( P < 0.001). The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  15. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  16. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  17. Evaluation of electron mobility in InSb quantum wells by means of percentage-impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, T. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Santos, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each scattering factor toward the total carrier mobility, we use a new convenient figure-of-merit, named a percentage impact. The mobility limit due to a scattering factor, which is widely used to summarize a scattering analysis, has its own advantage. However, a mobility limit is not quite appropriate for the above purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the difference in contribution among many scattering factors toward the total carrier mobility can be obtained by evaluating percentage impacts of scattering factors, which can be straightforwardly calculated from their mobility limits and the total mobility. Our percentage impact analysis shows that threading dislocation is one of the dominant scattering factors for the electron transport in InSb quantum wells at room temperature

  18. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  19. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  20. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  1. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  2. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  3. ABOUT FEW APPROACHES TO COMMERCIAL BANK PERCENTAGE POLICY CONSTRUCTION IN CREDITING POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kuklin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider some aspects of Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region bank sector development and few principles of credit organization percentage policy construction. We also describe interest rate calculation methods depending on currency toolkit and the received results of using the methods in reference to population crediting development. Besides we give some offers on increasing management efficiency of percentage policy and decreasing delayed credit debts level and some offers on specification of population crediting development forecasts in Sverdlovsk region.

  4. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  5. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  7. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  8. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 51680, Aug...

  9. The dependence of percentage depth dose on the source-to-skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variation of percentage depth dose (PDD) with source-to-skin distance (SSD) for kilovoltage X-rays used in radiotherapy has been investigated. Based on physical parameters of photon fluence, absorption and scatter during interaction of radiation with tissue, a mathematical model was developed to predict the PDDs at ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-5 - Average benefit percentage test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefit percentages may be determined on the basis of any definition of compensation that satisfies § 1... underlying definition of compensation that satisfies section 414(s). Except as otherwise specifically... definitions of section 414(s) compensation in the determination of rates; (B) Use of different definitions of...

  11. 29 CFR 778.503 - Pseudo “percentage bonuses.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such a scheme is artificially low, and the difference between the wages paid at the hourly rate and the... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... part, a true bonus based on a percentage of total wages—both straight time and overtime wages—satisfies...

  12. 7 CFR 929.49 - Marketable quantity, allotment percentage, and annual allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling... history, established pursuant to § 929.48. Such allotment percentage shall be established by the Secretary...

  13. Brief Report: On the Concordance Percentages for Autistic Spectrum Disorder of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Henry V.; Stewart, Melbourne G.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of genetic theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) various characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are often considered. This paper sets forth a possible refinement in the interpretation of the MZ twin concordance percentages for ASD underlying such genetic theories, and, drawing the consequences from…

  14. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  15. Increased percentage of Th17 cells in peritoneal fluid is associated with severity of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Winkler, Izabela; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Th17 cells are a newly discovered T helper lymphocyte subpopulation, producing interleukin IL-17. Th17 cells are present in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) at different stages of endometriosis. We aim to establish their potential importance in the pathogenesis and clinical features of the disease. The percentage of Th17 cells among T helper lymphocytes was determined in the PF and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with endometriosis and in the control group by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD-4-FITC, anti-CD-3-PE/Cy5, and anti-IL-17A-PE. Th17 percentage is increased in PF in comparison with PB in both endometriotic patients and in the control group. In severe endometriosis, the percentage of Th17 cells in PF was higher than with early (I/II stage) endometriosis. A positive correlation between the percentage of Th17 cells in PF and the white blood cell count in PB was found in patients with endometriosis. Targeting the activity of PF Th17 cells may have an influence on the proliferation of ectopic tissue and clinical manifestations of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 32991 - Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 433 [CMS-2327-CN] RIN 0938-AR38 Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS...

  17. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126 participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011.Results: Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices.Conclusion: Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81 for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week] + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]. The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes.Keywords: endurance, exercise, anthropometry

  18. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners. Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126) participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011. Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices. Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81) for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes) = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(-0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week]) + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km) + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]). The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165-266 minutes.

  19. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  20. Method for quantifying percentage wood failure in block-shear specimens by a laser scanning profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. T. Scott; R. Hernandez; C. Frihart; R. Gleisner; T. Tice

    2005-01-01

    A new method for quantifying percentage wood failure of an adhesively bonded block-shear specimen has been developed. This method incorporates a laser displacement gage with an automated two-axis positioning system that functions as a highly sensitive profilometer. The failed specimen is continuously scanned across its width to obtain a surface failure profile. The...

  1. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.33 Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels. (a) A State's... performance levels. 305.33 Section 305.33 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  2. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  3. Percentage and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Jun; Cao, Xue-Liang; Luan, Sha; Cui, Wan-Hui; Qiu, Si-Huang; Wang, Yi-Chao; Zhao, Chang-Jiu; Fu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The current study observed the percentage of peripheral blood (PB) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the influence of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells in patients with hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, preliminary discussions are presented on the action mechanism of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on hyperthyroidism attacks. The present study identified that compared with the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in healthy control subjects, no significant changes were observed in the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in patients with hyperthyroidism (P>0.05). For patients with hyperthyroidism, CD4+CD25+ Tregs exhibited significantly reduced inhibition of the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells and decreased secretion capacity on the cytokines of CD4 T cells, compared with those of healthy control subjects (Phyperthyroidism was significantly improved (Phyperthyroidism before treatment, no significant changes were observed in the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in hyperthyroidism patients following treatment (P>0.05). In the patients with hyperthyroidism, following treatment, CD4+CD25+ Tregs exhibited significantly increased inhibition of the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells and increased secretion capacity of CD4 T cell cytokines, compared with those of the patients with hyperthyroidism prior to treatment (Phyperthyroidism, and its non-proportional decrease may be closely associated with the occurrence and progression of hyperthyroidism. PMID:29207121

  4. PERCENTAGE OF VIABLE SPERMATOZOA COLLECTED FROM THE EPIDIDYMES OF DEATH LOCAL DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sulabda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the effectof post mortem time on percentage of lifeepididymessperm from postmortem dog caudae epididymides. A total of 9 dog were usedand divided into three group. T0 was control group, T1, 3 hours postmortem and T2, 6hours postmortem. This way, samples were obtained at different times postmortem. Spermwere extracted from the caudae epididymes by means of cuts.The result showed that the percentage of life sperm were 67,16 ± 5.67(T0, 46.33 ± 5.60(T1 and 24.00 ± 4.35 respectively. We could appreciate that percentage of life wasaffected by postmortem time. There was significant decrease life sperm recovered fromepididymes postmortem (P<0.01. In conclusion, epididymes sperm from dog undergodecrease of percentage of life, but it could stay acceptable within many hours postmortem.We intepreted these data to indicate that it may still be possible to obtain viablespermatozoa many hours later.

  5. 39 CFR 3010.23 - Calculation of percentage change in rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.23 Calculation of percentage change in rates. (a... Postal Service billing determinants. The Postal Service shall make reasonable adjustments to the billing determinants to account for the effects of classification changes such as the introduction, deletion, or...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital Impairment Percentage. 108.1840 Section 108.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1840 Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment...

  7. 26 CFR 1.42-8 - Election of appropriate percentage month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.42-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-8 Election of appropriate percentage month. (a) Election under section... previously placed in service under section 42(e). (5) Amount allocated. The housing credit dollar amount...

  8. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  9. A low-power CMOS integrated sensor for CO2 detection in the percentage range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humbert, A.; Tuerlings, B.J.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Tan, Z.; Gravesteijn, D.J.; Pertijs, M.A.P.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Soccol, D.

    2013-01-01

    Within the Catrene project PASTEUR, a low-cost, low-power capacitive carbon dioxide sensor has been developed for tracking CO2 concentration in the percentage range. This paper describes this sensor, which operates at room temperature where it exhibits short response times as well as reversible

  10. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  11. The percentage of bacterial genes on leading versus lagging strands is influenced by multiple balancing forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xizeng; Zhang, Han; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genes are located on the leading strand, and the percentage of such genes has a large variation across different bacteria. Although some explanations have been proposed, these are at most partial explanations as they cover only small percentages of the genes and do not even consider the ones biased toward the lagging strand. We have carried out a computational study on 725 bacterial genomes, aiming to elucidate other factors that may have influenced the strand location of genes in a bacterium. Our analyses suggest that (i) genes of some functional categories such as ribosome have higher preferences to be on the leading strands; (ii) genes of some functional categories such as transcription factor have higher preferences on the lagging strands; (iii) there is a balancing force that tends to keep genes from all moving to the leading and more efficient strand and (iv) the percentage of leading-strand genes in an bacterium can be accurately explained based on the numbers of genes in the functional categories outlined in (i) and (ii), genome size and gene density, indicating that these numbers implicitly contain the information about the percentage of genes on the leading versus lagging strand in a genome. PMID:22735706

  12. Correlation of Leukocyte Count and Percentage of Segmented Neutrophils with Pathohistological Findings of Appendix in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Baskovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency operation in children's age. Although none of the laboratory values has not high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of appendicitis, leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils are most commonly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils compared to the pathohistological finding of appendix in children. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the data in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016. The analysis was made on 211 patients. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs was calculated. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils used in the calculation of Alvorado and Pediatric Appendicitis score.ResultsThe results of the research have shown that the correlation between leukocyte count and the pathohistological findings is weak (rs = 0.29, p = 3.61*10-8, while there is no correlation between the percentage of segmented neutrophils and pathohistological findings (rs = 0.18, p = 7.08 *10-5. The sensitivity of leukocyte count is 93% and the specificity is 30%, while the sensitivity to the percentage of segmented neutrophils is 71% and the specificity is 50%. ROC analysis for leukocytes shows area under the curve of 0.648, while for segmented neutrophils of 0.574.ConclusionGiven the correlation results obtained, the clinical experience of physicians will still have one of the leading roles in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children.

  13. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  14. Comparison of percentage excess weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowicz, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Orłowski, Michał; Siczewski, Wiaczesław; Pawlak, Maciej; Świetlik, Dariusz; Witzling, Mieczysław; Michalik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are acceptable options for primary bariatric procedures in patients with body mass index (BMI) 35–55 kg/m2. Aim The aim of this study is to compare the effects of these two bariatric procedures 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Material and methods Two hundred and two patients were included 72 LSG and 130 LAGB patients. The average age was 38.8 ±11.9 and 39.4 ±10.4 years in LSG and LAGB groups, with initial BMI of 44.1 kg/m2 and 45.2 kg/m2, p = NS. Results The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 6 months for LSG vs. LAGB was 36.3% vs. 30.1% (p = 0.01) and at 12 months was 43.8% vs. 34.6% (p = 0.005). The greatest difference in the mean %EWL at 12 months was observed in patients with initial BMI of 40–49.9 kg/m2 in favor of LSG (47.5% vs. 35.6%; p = 0.01). Two years after surgery there was no advantage of LSG and in the subgroup of patients with BMI 50–55 kg/m2 there was a trend in favor of LAGB (57.2% vs. 30%; p = 0.07). The multiple regression model of independent variables (age, gender, initial BMI and the presence of comorbidities) proved insignificant in prediction of the best outcome in means of %EWL for either operative modality. None of these factors in the logistic regression model could determine the type of surgery that should be used in particular patients. Conclusions During the first 2 years after surgery, the best results were obtained in women with lower BMI undergoing LSG surgery. The LSG provides greater %EWL after a shorter period of time though the difference decreases in time. PMID:25337157

  15. Quantitative analysis for the determination of aluminum percentage and detonation performance of aluminized plastic bonded explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, A. H.; Keshavarz, M. H.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Darbani, S. M. R.

    2018-06-01

    The aluminized plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) is a composite material in which solid explosive particles are dispersed in a polymer matrix, which includes three major components, i.e. polymeric binder, metal fuel (aluminum) and nitramine explosive. This work introduces a new method on the basis of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique in air and argon atmospheres to investigate the determination of aluminum content and detonation performance of aluminized PBXs. Plasma emissions of aluminized PBXs are recorded where atomic lines of Al, C and H as well as molecular bands of AlO and CN are identified. The experimental results demonstrate that a good discrimination and separation between the aluminized PBXs is possible using LIBS and principle component analysis, although they have similar atomic composition. Relative intensity of the AlO/Al is used to determine aluminum percentage of the aluminized PBXs. The obtained quantitative calibration curve using the relative intensity of the AlO/Al is better than the resulting calibration curve using only the intensity of Al. By using the LIBS method and the measured intensity ratio of CN/C, an Al content of 15% is found to be the optimum value in terms of velocity of detonation of the RDX/Al/HTPB standard samples.

  16. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  17. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  18. Comparison of the Percentage Stance and Swing Phases and Ground Reaction Force between Young and Older Adults during Walking at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Brooshak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In general, the percentage of stance and swing phases of a gait cycle is similar between young and older adults. Lower VGRFs of weight acceptance and push off phases in the elders reflects the weakness of the knee extensor, hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors. It seems that older adults reduce the rate of force production during fast gait to achieve the necessary capacity for power generation and thereby, overcome the weakness of the lower extremity muscles.

  19. Analysis the percentage frequency to estimate Volleyball´s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Calero-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the percentage frequency as a mathematical model used to estimate the international volleyball performance. Based on the description of its practical objectives, the paper shows some positive and negative characteristics of the equation, characteristics that affect decision making by the coach. Three studies were conducted involving a population of 42 games in volleyball, men's youth category, 10 game of 13 possible belonging to the Final round of 2006 FIVB World League, and a ranked players in the qualifying phase of the 2006 World League with 48 games as population. The investigation determined that the percentage frequency is a simple computer model that defines a value perfectly isolated from reality, but does not model correctly all variables that significantly influence the final performance, creating false interpretations of reality.

  20. Dietary lecithin improves dressing percentage and decreases chewiness in the longissimus muscle in finisher gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akit, H; Collins, C L; Fahri, F T; Hung, A T; D'Souza, D N; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-03-01

    The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (Plecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (Plecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork. © 2013.

  1. 20 CFR 225.42 - Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.42 Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase. The percentage amount of the cost-of-living... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of...

  2. The application of the percentage change calculation in the context of inflation in Mathematical Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Bansilal

    2017-01-01

    The school subject Mathematical Literacy requires application of mathematics procedures in various contextual settings, but not much is known about the ways in which students engage with contextual settings such as inflation. This qualitative study was conducted with in-service Mathematical Literacy teachers in South Africa with the purpose of exploring the extent to which the teachers recognised the contextual constraints involved in applying the percentage change calculation to the inflatio...

  3. Infants with Down syndrome: percentage and age for acquisition of gross motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-03-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS that acquire them in the first year of life. Infants with DS (N=20) and typical infants (N=25), both aged between 3 and 12 months, were evaluated monthly using the AIMS. In the prone position, a difference of up to 3 months was found for the acquisition of the 3rd to 16th skill. There was a difference in the percentage of infants with DS who acquired the 10th to 21st skill (from 71% to 7%). In the supine position, a difference of up to one month was found from the 3rd to 7th skill; however, 100% were able to perform these skills. In the sitting position, a difference of 1-4 months was found from the 1st to 12th skill, ranging from 69% to 29% from the 9th to 12th. In the upright position, the difference was 2-3 months from the 3rd to 8th skill. Only 13% acquired the 8th skill and no other skill was acquired up to the age of 12 months. The more complex the skills the greater the difference in age between typical infants and those with DS and the lower the percentage of DS individuals who performed the skills in the prone, sitting and upright positions. None of the DS infants were able to stand without support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Profile of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Flexibility and Fat Percentage of Junior High School Students in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemuruh Putra Akbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable disease and global mortality in adolescent. Lack of physical activity will lead the condition into poor physical fitness, measured by cardio respiratory fitness (maximum oxygen volume, VO2 max, and other components such as flexibility. The study aimed to describe VO2 max, flexibility and fat percentage among junior high school students in Jatinangor. Methods: The study was a descriptive observational study using descriptive analysis.  VO2 max was assessed using Astrand Ryhming step test, flexibility was measured using flexometer sit and reach test, and fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. The subjects were junior high school students who were study in 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade in Jatinangor Junior High School based on stratification sampling method. It was conducted from September–October 2013. Results: Total subjects were 110 students consisted of male (n=52 and female (n=58.  The VO2 max were in good and above category, 57.69% of male (50.37 ± 9.80 ml/kg/min, and 60.34% of female (37.66±7.03 ml/kg/min. The flexibility for both males and females were within excellent category (67.31%, 26.56 ±7.14 cm and 67.24%, 27.29±6.64 cm respectively. The fat percentage in females were within healthy category (67.24%, 25.28 ± 6.85 %, meanwhile male were within underfat category (48.08%, 11.66 ± 5.83 %. Conclusions: The majority of VO2 max, and flexibility both in male and female were good. The fat percentages were good in female students, while in male students were under normal range. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1085

  5. Effects of Aloe vera on dressing percentage and haemato-biochemidal parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera on dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: A total of 90 chicks were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups.Fresh Aloe vera leaf juice (ALJ was prepared and administered to the test group T3 at the rate of 20 g/Lin drinking water daily.This study was carried out for 42 days. Dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters were recorded at the end ofexperiment.Results: Group that was given Aloe vera (T3 showed numerically higher dressing percentage as compared to control group(T1 and drug control group (T2. It also showed significantly (P0.05 differences were observed in other parameters among all the treatment groups.Conclusion: Aloe vera has potential to be a growth promoter in broiler chicks and its growth promoting effects are comparableto that of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP.

  6. The Effects of Water Parameters on Monthly Seagrass Percentage Cover in Lawas, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Kamil, E. I.; Ramli, R.; Jaaman, S. A.; Bali, J.; Al-Obaidi, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass is a valuable marine ecosystem engineer. However, seagrass population is declining worldwide. The lack of seagrass research in Malaysia raises questions about the status of seagrasses in the country. The seagrasses in Lawas, which is part of the coral-mangrove-seagrass complex, have never been studied in detail. In this study, we examine whether monthly changes of seagrass population in Lawas occurred. Data on estimates of seagrass percentage cover and water physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) were measured at 84 sampling stations established within the study area from June 2009 to May 2010. Meteorological data such as total rainfall, air temperature, and Southern Oscillation Index were also investigated. Our results showed that (i) the monthly changes of seagrass percentage cover are significant, (ii) the changes correlated significantly with turbidity measurements, and (iii) weather changes affected the seagrass populations. Our study indicates seagrass percentage increased during the El-Nino period. These results suggest that natural disturbances such as weather changes affect seagrass populations. Evaluation of land usage and measurements of other water physicochemical parameters (such as heavy metal, pesticides, and nutrients) should be considered to assess the health of seagrass ecosystem at the study area. PMID:24163635

  7. Lack of association of ghrelin precursor gene variants and percentage body fat or serum lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Glynn R; Loredo, J C; Sun, Guang

    2008-04-01

    Ghrelin has been recognized for its involvement in food intake, control of energy homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. However, the roles of genetic variations in the ghrelin precursor gene (GHRL) on body compositions and serum lipids are not clear in humans. Our study investigated five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GHRL to determine their relationship with body fat percentage (BF), trunk fat percentage (TF), lower body (legs) fat percentage (LF), and serum lipids in 1,464 subjects, which were recruited from the genetically homogeneous population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Five SNPs are rs35684 (A/G: a transition substitution in exon 1), rs4684677 (A/T: a missense mutation), rs2075356 (C/T: intron), rs26802 (G/T: intron), and rs26311 (A/G: near the 3' untranslated region) of GHRL were genotyped using TaqMan validated or functionally tested SNP genotyping assays. Our study found no significant evidence of an allele or genotype association between any of the variant sites and body compositions or serum lipids. Furthermore, haplotype frequencies were not found to be significantly different between lean and obese subjects. In summary, the results of our study do not support a significant role for genetic variations in GHRL in the differences of body fat and serum lipid profiles in the NL population.

  8. Effect of percentage of low plastic fines on the unsaturated shear strength of compacted gravel soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low plastic fines in gravel soils affect its unsaturated shear strength due to the contribution of matric suction that arises in micro and macro pores found within and between aggregates. The shear strength of five different types of prepared gravel soils is measured and is compared with a theoretical model (Fredlund et al., 1978 to predict the unsaturated shear strength. The results are consistent to a great extent except the case of dry clayey gravel soil. It is also found that on inundation of gravel soils containing plastic fines greater than 12% a considerable reduction in both the strength and the stiffness modulus is noticed. This 12% percentage is close to the accepted 15% percentage of fines given by ASTM D4318 (American society for testing material. The angle of internal friction that arises due to matric suction decreases with the increase of degree of saturation of soil. The hysteresis of some tested gravel soils is measured and found that it increases by increasing the percentage of fines.

  9. Influence of the recycled material percentage on the rheological behaviour of HDPE for injection moulding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, C; Clavería, I; Ponz, L; Aísa, J; Fernández, A

    2007-01-01

    The amount of polymer material wasted during thermoplastic injection moulding is very high. It comes from both the feed system of the part, and parts necessary to set up the mould, as well as the scrap generated along the process due to quality problems. The residues are managed through polymer recycling that allows reuse of the materials in the manufacturing injection process. Recycling mills convert the parts into small pieces that are used as feed material for injection, by mixing the recycled feedstock in different percentages with raw material. This mixture of both raw and recycled material modifies material properties according to the percentage of recycled material introduced. Some of the properties affected by this modification are those related to rheologic behaviour, which strongly conditions the future injection moulding process. This paper analyzes the rheologic behaviour of material with different percentages of recycled material by means of a capillary rheometer, and evaluates the influence of the corresponding viscosity curves obtained on the injection moulding process, where small variations of parameters related to rheological behaviour, such as pressure or clamping force, can be critical to the viability and cost of the parts manufactured by injection moulding.

  10. Clinical similarity of the biosimilar ABP 501 compared with adalimumab after single transition: long-term results from a randomized controlled, double-blind, 52-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K; Bachelez, H; Costanzo, A; Foley, P; Gooderham, M; Kaur, P; Philipp, S; Spelman, L; Zhang, N; Strober, B

    2017-12-01

    ABP 501, a U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved biosimilar, is highly similar to adalimumab in structure, function and pharmacokinetics. To demonstrate similarity in efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of ABP 501 vs. adalimumab for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (clinical trial: NCT01970488). Patients were randomized (1 : 1) to receive ABP 501 or adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. At week 16, patients with ≥ 50% improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score were eligible to continue to week 52. Patients receiving ABP 501 continued; adalimumab patients were rerandomized (1 : 1) to continue adalimumab or undergo a single transition to ABP 501. Key efficacy assessments included percentage PASI improvement from baseline, PASI responders and mean change in affected body surface area from baseline to weeks 16, 32 and 50. Safety was monitored via adverse events (AEs) and antidrug antibodies (ADAs) were assessed. A total of 308 patients were rerandomized at week 16 (ABP 501/ABP 501, n = 152; adalimumab/adalimumab, n = 79; adalimumab/ABP 501, n = 77). PASI percentage improvements from baseline were similar across groups for weeks 16, 32 and 50 (range: 85·8-88·2%), with no significant differences detected across groups in percentages of PASI 50, 75, 90 and 100 responders. Changes from baseline in percentage body surface area affected were similar across groups and time points. No new safety signals were detected. AEs were balanced between groups. Percentages of patients with binding and neutralizing ADAs were similar across treatments. ABP 501 and adalimumab have similar clinical efficacy, safety and immunogenicity profiles over 52 weeks, including after single transition, in this patient population. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goe Jar Cop Fer Goe Jar Cop Fer M\\E End-member spectrum included in E 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.78 0.03 0.05 0.14 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.94 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.89 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.92 0....04 End-member spectrum excluded from E 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 — 0.25 0.00 0.64 0.11 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 — 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.01 0.68 — 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.71 0.00 0.00 — 0.29 Mixtures 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.48 0...

  12. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  13. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  14. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  15. Detecting Distortion: Bridging Visual and Quantitative Reasoning on Similarity Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on identifying and describing the reasoning patterns of middle grade students when examining potentially similar figures. Described here is a framework that includes 11 strategies that students used during clinical interview to differentiate similar and non-similar figures. Two factors were found to influence the strategies…

  16. Measurement of infarct size and percentage myocardium infarcted in a dog preparation with single photon-emission computed tomography, thallium-201, and indium 111-monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.; Lerrick, K.S.; Coromilas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon-emission tomography (SPECT) and indium 111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab fragments were used to measure myocardial infarct size in 12 dogs, six subjected to balloon catheter-induced coronary artery occlusion for 6 hr (late reperfusion) and six subjected to occlusion with reperfusion at 2 hr (early reperfusion). Tomographic imaging was performed 24 hr after the intravenous injection of labeled Fab fragments with the use of a dual-head SPECT camera with medium-energy collimators. Immediately after the first tomographic scan, thallium-201 was injected into nine of 12 dogs and imaging was repeated. Estimated infarct size in grams was calculated from transaxially reconstructed, normalized, and background-corrected indium SPECT images with the use of a threshold technique for edge detection. Estimated noninfarcted myocardium in grams was calculated from obliquely reconstructed thallium SPECT images by a similar method. The animals were killed and infarct size in grams and true infarct size as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardial volume were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Estimated infarct size from indium SPECT images showed an excellent correlation with true infarct size (r = .95, SEE = 4.1 g). Estimated percentage myocardium infarcted was calculated by dividing estimated infarct size from indium images by the sum of estimated infarct size plus estimated noninfarcted myocardium obtained from thallium images. Correlation between the estimated percentage of myocardium infarcted and true percentage of myocardium infarcted was excellent

  17. Sensitivity of the downward to sweeping velocity ratio to the bypass flow percentage along a guide wall for downstream fish passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin; Towler, Brett; Haro, Alexander J.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Partial-depth impermeable guidance structures (or guide walls) are used as a method to assist in the downstream passage of fish at a hydroelectric facility. However, guide walls can result in a strong downward velocity causing the approaching fish to pass below the wall and into the direction of the turbine intakes. The objective of this study was to describe how the ratio of the vertical velocity to the sweeping velocity magnitude changes along the full length and depth of a guide wall under a wide range of bypass flow percentages within a power canal. This paper focused on two guide wall configurations, each set at an angle of 45 ° to the approaching flow field and at a depth of 10 and 20 ft (3.05 and 6.10 m). The hydraulic conditions upstream of each guide wall configuration were shown to be impacted by a change in the bypass flow percentage, not only near the bypass but also at upstream sections of the guide wall. Furthermore, the effect of changing the bypass flow percentage was similar for both guide wall depths. In both cases, the effect of increasing the bypass flow percentage was magnified closer to the bypass and deeper in the water column along the guide wall.

  18. Similarities and life cycle distributions of floras of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two midwestern U.S. national parks were studied to examine the similarities of their floras and analyses of the floras in each national park were used to construct groupings of these smaller sample areas at various similarity levels in order to classify larger floristic areas. The parks were not on average very similar based on Jaccard's similarity index. The maximum average park similarity was 21% (St. Croix National Scenic Riverway), and the maximum park pair similarity was just over 55% for Isle Royale National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. The average similarity of parks increased with park area and numbers of native species, and weakly decreased with the percentage of non-native species. Weak trends were observed with latitude and negative trends with longitude. Four park groups were partitioned by cluster analysis of species relative abundance data: 7 prairie parks, 6 northern parks, 4 intermediate parks and 5 southern parks. The average percentage of non-native species was ~33% in the prairie and southern park clusters, while percentage of evergreen perennials was 2 to 4 times greater in the northern parks (8%) compared with other clusters. Deciduous perennials approached 80% in the northern and intermediate park clusters, compared with about 70% for the prairie and southern clusters. Percentage of annuals was almost double in the prairie and southern clusters (average 24%) compared with the northern and intermediate clusters (average 13%).

  19. Estimated percentage of typhoid fever in adult pakistani population (TAP) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Arshad, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmed, S.; Rehma, S.

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious infection with high morbidity and mortality in untreated cases. It is one of the very common infections in developing countries due to various factors involving hygiene and sanitation. Objective: To determine the estimated percentage of typhoid fever in Pakistani population and to find the commonly prescribed antibiotics for the disease. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 1036 patients, selected from forty five general practitioner clinics, between June to October 2010. Patients of > 18 years of age with > 3 days history of fever (> 100 degree F) and high index of suspicion for typhoid fever were tested for typhoid fever using Typhidot kits and positive cases were recruited for monitoring response to treatment. The febrile patients with clear cut history of urinary or respiratory infect-ion, hypovolemic shock or hepatobiliary disease were excluded and not tested by typhidot kit. The antibiotics prescribed to study population by various general practitioners were noted. Data was analysed on SPSS. Results were expressed in percentages and proportions. Results: Total 1036 patients were recruited. Typhoidot test was negative in 63.9% and positive in 36.1% patients with highest percentages of positive cases in Karachi, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad. The maximum number of cases were reported in summer season especially from June to August. Most of the patients were between ages of 19 - 39 years. The commonest anti-biotics prescribed were Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin. Conclusion: Typhoid fever is very common infection in Pakistan caused by Salmonella typhi which is transmitted among humans through faecooral route. Disease can be controlled not only by antibiotics like fluoroquinolones but by patient education, improvement in hygiene and sanitation, safe supply of clean drinking water and prophylactic vaccination as well. However, timely diagnosis and appropriate management with proper antibiotics is the key

  20. Estimated percentage of typhoid fever in adult pakistani population (TAP) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, F.; Arshad, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmed, S.; Rehma, S. [Mayo Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Medicine

    2013-01-15

    Typhoid fever is a serious infection with high morbidity and mortality in untreated cases. It is one of the very common infections in developing countries due to various factors involving hygiene and sanitation. Objective: To determine the estimated percentage of typhoid fever in Pakistani population and to find the commonly prescribed antibiotics for the disease. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 1036 patients, selected from forty five general practitioner clinics, between June to October 2010. Patients of > 18 years of age with > 3 days history of fever (> 100 degree F) and high index of suspicion for typhoid fever were tested for typhoid fever using Typhidot kits and positive cases were recruited for monitoring response to treatment. The febrile patients with clear cut history of urinary or respiratory infect-ion, hypovolemic shock or hepatobiliary disease were excluded and not tested by typhidot kit. The antibiotics prescribed to study population by various general practitioners were noted. Data was analysed on SPSS. Results were expressed in percentages and proportions. Results: Total 1036 patients were recruited. Typhoidot test was negative in 63.9% and positive in 36.1% patients with highest percentages of positive cases in Karachi, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad. The maximum number of cases were reported in summer season especially from June to August. Most of the patients were between ages of 19 - 39 years. The commonest anti-biotics prescribed were Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin. Conclusion: Typhoid fever is very common infection in Pakistan caused by Salmonella typhi which is transmitted among humans through faecooral route. Disease can be controlled not only by antibiotics like fluoroquinolones but by patient education, improvement in hygiene and sanitation, safe supply of clean drinking water and prophylactic vaccination as well. However, timely diagnosis and appropriate management with proper antibiotics is the key

  1. Investigating the influence of infill percentage on the mechanical properties of fused deposition modelled ABS parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Álvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a manufacturing process that is usually used for modeling and prototyping. One of the most popular printing techniques is fused deposition modeling (FDM, which is based on adding melted material layer by layer. Although FDM has several advantages with respect to other manufacturing materials, there are several problems that have to be faced. When setting the printing options, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as temperature, speed, infill percentage, etc. Selecting these parameters is often a great challenge for the user, and is generally solved by experience without considering the influence of variations in the parameters on the mechanical properties of the printed parts.This article analyzes the influence of the infill percentage on the mechanical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene printed parts. In order to characterize this influence, test specimens for tensile strength and Charpy tests were printed with a Makerbot Replicator 2X printer, in which the infill percentage was varied but the rest of the printing parameters were kept constant. Three different results were analyzed for these tests: tensile strength, impact resistance, and effective printing time. Results showed that the maximum tensile force (1438N and tensile stress (34,57MPa were obtained by using 100% infill. The maximum impact resistance, 1,55J, was also obtained with 100% infill. In terms of effective printing time, results showed that printing with an infill range between 50% and 98% is not recommended, since the effective printing time is higher than with a 100% infill and the tensile strength and impact resistance are smaller. In addition, in comparing the results of our analysis with results from other authors, it can be concluded that the printer type and plastic roll significantly influence the mechanical properties of ABS parts.

  2. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R.; Byrnes, Ryan K.; Cooke, Daniel M.; Haischer, Michael H.; Carzoli, Joseph P.; Johnson, Trevor K.; Cross, Matthew R.; Cronin, John B.; Storey, Adam G.; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM) load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years) performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment. Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11); load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10); participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT), and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50) and 70% (VLMT70) femur-length. Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg), squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg) and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg) increased (p 0.05). Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES) advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL) = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups. Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals. PMID:29628895

  3. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  4. Optimal Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Percentage in Dual-energy Monochromatic CT Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Yang, Zhenghan; Wang, Keyang; He, Wen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the influence of different adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentages on the image quality of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) portal venography in portal hypertension patients. DECT scans of 40 patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 56 years) at the portal venous phase were retrospectively analyzed. Monochromatic images at 60 and 70 keV were reconstructed with four ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. Computed tomography (CT) numbers of the portal veins (PVs), liver parenchyma, and subcutaneous fat tissue in the abdomen were measured. The standard deviation from the region of interest of the liver parenchyma was interpreted as the objective image noise (IN). The contrast-noise ratio (CNR) between PV and liver parenchyma was calculated. The diagnostic acceptability (DA) and sharpness of PV margins were obtained using a 5-point score. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV were compared among the eight groups with different keV + ASIR level combinations. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV of different keV + ASIR groups were all statistically different (P ASIR and 70 keV + 0% ASIR (filtered back-projection [FBP]) combination, respectively, whereas the largest and smallest objective IN were obtained in the 60 keV + 0% ASIR (FBP) and 70 keV + 70% combination. The highest DA and sharpness values of PV were obtained at 50% ASIR for 60 keV. An optimal ASIR percentage (50%) combined with an appropriate monochromatic energy level (60 keV) provides the highest DA in portal venography imaging, whereas for the higher monochromatic energy (70 keV) images, 30% ASIR provides the highest image quality, with less IN than 60 keV with 50% ASIR. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of protease and duration of fattening period on dressing percentage of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković Snežana; Perić Lidija; Lukić Miloš; Škrbić Zdenka; Rakonjac Simeon; Petričević Veselin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different crude protein levels in broiler diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.3% protease enzyme (Ronozyme Pro Act) on dressed carcass weight and dressing percentage during two fattening periods (49 and 63 days). The fast-growing strain Cobb 500 was used. At the end of the fattening trial i.e. at 49 and 63 days, 10 male and 10 female birds were randomly sacrificed from each experimental group to determine body weights and c...

  6. Effect of dietary protease supplementation and sex on dressing percentage and body conformation in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković Snežana; Lukić Miloš; Škrbić Zdenka; Rakonjac Simeon; Petričević Veselin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents research results on the effect of protease on the dressing percentage of conventionally dressed carcass and body conformation in broiler chickens. Broiler diet was supplemented with 0.2% protease (group E-I) and 0.3% protease (group E-II), and protein content in the feed was reduced by 4% (E-I) and 6% (E-II) through a decrease in soybean meal content. Fast-growing Cobb 500 broilers were used for a 63-day fattening trial. Body conformatio...

  7. Optimizing multiple sequence alignments using a genetic algorithm based on three objectives: structural information, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Francisco M; Valenzuela, Olga; Rojas, Fernando; Pomares, Hector; Florido, Javier P; Urquiza, Jose M; Rojas, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are widely used approaches in bioinformatics to carry out other tasks such as structure predictions, biological function analyses or phylogenetic modeling. However, current tools usually provide partially optimal alignments, as each one is focused on specific biological features. Thus, the same set of sequences can produce different alignments, above all when sequences are less similar. Consequently, researchers and biologists do not agree about which is the most suitable way to evaluate MSAs. Recent evaluations tend to use more complex scores including further biological features. Among them, 3D structures are increasingly being used to evaluate alignments. Because structures are more conserved in proteins than sequences, scores with structural information are better suited to evaluate more distant relationships between sequences. The proposed multiobjective algorithm, based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, aims to jointly optimize three objectives: STRIKE score, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns. It was significantly assessed on the BAliBASE benchmark according to the Kruskal-Wallis test (P algorithm also outperforms other aligners, such as ClustalW, Multiple Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (MSA-GA), PRRP, DIALIGN, Hidden Markov Model Training (HMMT), Pattern-Induced Multi-sequence Alignment (PIMA), MULTIALIGN, Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (SAGA), PILEUP, Rubber Band Technique Genetic Algorithm (RBT-GA) and Vertical Decomposition Genetic Algorithm (VDGA), according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P 0.05) with the advantage of being able to use less structures. Structural information is included within the objective function to evaluate more accurately the obtained alignments. The source code is available at http://www.ugr.es/~fortuno/MOSAStrE/MO-SAStrE.zip.

  8. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  9. Change in donor profile influenced the percentage of organs transplanted from multiple organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, C; Van Raemdonck, D; Van Gelder, F; Van Hees, D; Desschans, B; De Roey, J; Vanhaecke, J; Pirenne, J

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesized that the change in donor profile over the years influenced the percentage of transplantations. We reviewed medical records for all multiple-organ donors (MODs) within our network. The percentage of transplanted organs was compared between 1991-1992 (A) and 2006-2007 (B). In period A, 156 potential MODs were identified compared with 278 in period B. Fifteen potential donors (10%) in period A and 114 (41%) in period B were rejected because they were medically not suitable (40% vs 75%) or there was no family consent (60% vs 25%). Of the remaining effective MODs (141 in period A and 164 in period B), mean (standard deviation = SD) age was 34 (5) years vs 49 (17) years (P organs transplanted in periods A vs B was kidneys, 97% vs 79%; livers, 64% vs 85%; hearts, 60% vs 26%; lungs, 7% vs 35%; and pancreas, 6% vs 13% (P organs (17%), mainly because of medical contraindications. The MOD profile changed to older age, fewer traumatic brain deaths, and longer ventilation time. We transplanted more livers, lungs, and pancreases but fewer kidneys and hearts.

  10. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  11. Lower percentage of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingji; Xu, Yaqin; An, Lin; Jiang, Jinlan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Rihua

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the peripheral immunity and immunity response of patients with sporotrichosis, in this study we determined the lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of Chinese patients with sporotrichosis. In this retrospective study, peripheral blood was collected from 69 sporotrichosis patients (37, fixed cutaneous form; 32 lymphocutaneous) and 66 healthy controls. Lymphocyte subsets were analyzed using flow cytometry. Compared to controls, the percentage of CD8+ T cells was lower in sporotrichosis patients. The percentage of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood tended to become lower with disease duration and disease severity, although the difference was not statistically significant for either acute, subacute and chronic patients or fixed cutaneous and lymphocutaneous patients. Our data indicate that the decrease of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with sporotrichosis is associated with disease severity, although the difference was not statistically significant for either duration or clinical forms of the disease. Combining antifungal agents and immunomodulators in patients with long disease duration and lymphocutaneous may be more beneficial than antifungal monotherapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Comparison of methodologies in determining bone marrow fat percentage under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, David; Hunnam, Jaimie; De Groef, Bert; Rawlin, Grant; McCowan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The use of bone marrow fat percentage has been recommended in assessing body condition at the time of death in wild and domestic ruminants, but few studies have looked at the effects of time and exposure on animal bone marrow. We investigated the utility of bone marrow fat extraction as a tool for establishing antemortem body condition in postmortem specimens from sheep and cattle, particularly after exposure to high heat, and compared different techniques of fat extraction for this purpose. Femora were collected from healthy and "skinny" sheep and cattle. The bones were either frozen or subjected to 40°C heat; heated bones were either wrapped in plastic to minimize desiccation or were left unwrapped. Marrow fat percentage was determined at different time intervals by oven-drying, or by solvent extraction using hexane in manual equipment or a Soxhlet apparatus. Extraction was performed, where possible, on both wet and dried tissue. Multiple samples were tested from each bone. Bone marrow fat analysis using a manual, hexane-based extraction technique was found to be a moderately sensitive method of assessing antemortem body condition of cattle up to 6 d after death. Multiple replicates should be analyzed where possible. Samples from "skinny" sheep showed a different response to heat from those of "healthy" sheep; "skinny" samples were so reduced in quantity by day 6 (the first sampling day) that no individual testing could be performed. Further work is required to understand the response of sheep marrow.

  13. Ombuds’ corner: Is the number of cases involving women related to their percentage in an organization?

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Ombuds has seen double the number of cases involving women staff members compared to those involving men, relative to their populations. Two questions can thus be asked: is that a general phenomenon also seen in other organizations? Or is it related to the under-representation of women, namely is this a common situation in organizations with fewer women than men? If so, the Ombuds should notice different statistics in organizations where the number of women and men is comparable.   To answer these questions, several annual reports from international organizations have been analysed. The names of these organizations are kept confidential, as the reports are not public. Relation between the percentage of cases involving women and their percentage in an Organization. The circled data point is CERN’s. The results can be seen in this graph (right), limited solely by the number of Organizations for which such data is available. Note that if the ...

  14. Influence of serum percentage on the behavior of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmouch, C; El-Omar, R; Labrude, P; Decot, V; Menu, P; Kerdjoudj, H

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into several lineages with valuable applications in regenerative medicine. MSCs differentiation is highly dependent on physicochemical properties of the culture substrate, cell density and on culture medium composition. In this study, we assessed the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) level on Wharton's jelly (WJ)-MSCs behavior seeded on polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEMF) made of four bilayers of poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) as polycation and poly-styrene sulfonate (PSS) as polyanion. MSCs isolated from WJ by explants method were amplified until the third passage. Their phenotypic characterization was performed by flow cytometry analyses. MSCs were seeded on PEMF, in Endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2) supplemented by either 5% or 2% FBS. Cell's behavior was monitored for 20 days by optical microscopy and immunofluorescence. Until 2 weeks on glass slides, no difference was observed whatever the FBS percentage. Then with 5% FBS, MSCs formed three-dimensional spheroids on PSS/PAH after 20 days of culture with a nuclear aggregate. Whereas, with 2% FBS, these spheroids did not appear and cells grown in 2D conserved the fibroblast-like morphology. The decrease of FBS percentage from 5% to 2% avoids 3D cell spheroids formation on PAH/PSS. Such results could guide bioengineering towards building 2D structures like cell layers or 3D structures by increasing the osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation potential of MSCs.

  15. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  16. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  17. Comparison of Peak-area Ratios and Percentage Peak Area Derived from HPLC-evaporative Light Scattering and Refractive Index Detectors for Palm Oil and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Aziz, Haliza Abdul; Idris, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods via evaporative light scattering (ELS) and refractive index (RI) detectors are used by the local palm oil industry to monitor the TAG profiles of palm oil and its fractions. The quantitation method used is based on area normalization of the TAG components and expressed as percentage area. Although not frequently used, peak-area ratios based on TAG profiles are a possible qualitative method for characterizing the TAG of palm oil and its fractions. This paper aims to compare these two detectors in terms of peak-area ratio, percentage peak area composition, and TAG elution profiles. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition for palm oil and its fractions were analysed under similar HPLC conditions i.e. mobile phase and column. However, different sample concentrations were used for the detectors while remaining within the linearity limits of the detectors. These concentrations also gave a good baseline resolved separation for all the TAGs components. The results of the ELSD method's percentage area composition for the TAGs of palm oil and its fractions differed from those of RID. This indicates an unequal response of TAGs for palm oil and its fractions using the ELSD, also affecting the peak area ratios. They were found not to be equivalent to those obtained using the HPLC-RID. The ELSD method showed a better baseline separation for the TAGs components, with a more stable baseline as compared with the corresponding HPLC-RID. In conclusion, the percentage area compositions and peak-area ratios for palm oil and its fractions as derived from HPLC-ELSD and RID were not equivalent due to different responses of TAG components to the ELSD detector. The HPLC-RID has a better accuracy for percentage area composition and peak-area ratio because the TAG components response equally to the detector.

  18. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  19. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Helms

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment.Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11; load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10; participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT, and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50 and 70% (VLMT70 femur-length.Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg, squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg increased (p < 0.05 in both groups as did PMT (1RMG + 1.59 ± 1.33; RPEG +1.90 ± 1.91 mm, VLMT50 (1RMG +2.13 ± 1.95; RPEG + 1.85 ± 1.97 mm and VLMT70 (1RMG + 2.40 ± 2.22; RPEG + 2.31 ± 2.27 mm. Between-group differences were non-significant (p > 0.05. Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups.Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals.

  20. Percentage-based Author Contribution Index: a universal measure of author contribution to scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Schmidt, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the amount of work provided by different co-authors of a scientific paper has been a recurrent problem in science. Despite the myriad of metrics available, the scientific community still largely relies on the position in the list of authors to evaluate contributions, a metric that attributes subjective and unfounded credit to co-authors. We propose an easy to apply, universally comparable and fair metric to measure and report co-authors contribution in the scientific literature. The proposed Author Contribution Index (ACI) is based on contribution percentages provided by the authors, preferably at the time of submission. Researchers can use ACI to compare the contributions of different authors, describe the contribution profile of a particular researcher or analyse how contribution changes through time. We provide such an analysis based on contribution percentages provided by 97 scientists from the field of ecology who voluntarily responded to an online anonymous survey. ACI is simple to understand and to implement because it is based solely on percentage contributions and the number of co-authors. It provides a continuous score that reflects the contribution of one author as compared to the average contribution of all other authors. For example, ACI(i) = 3, means that author i contributed three times more than what the other authors contributed on average. Our analysis comprised 836 papers published in 2014-2016 and revealed patterns of ACI values that relate to career advancement. There are many examples of author contribution indices that have been proposed but none has really been adopted by scientific journals. Many of the proposed solutions are either too complicated, not accurate enough or not comparable across articles, authors and disciplines. The author contribution index presented here addresses these three major issues and has the potential to contribute to more transparency in the science literature. If adopted by scientific journals, it

  1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  2. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  3. Compressive characteristics of closed-cell aluminum foams with different percentages of Er element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-min Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, closed-cell aluminum foams with different percentages of erbium (Er element were successfully prepared. The distribution and existence form of erbium (Er element and its effect on the compressive properties of the foams were investigated. Results show that Er uniformly distributes in the cell walls in the forms of Al3Er intermetallic compound and Al-Er solid solutions. Compared with commercially pure aluminum foam, Er-containing foams possess higher micro-hardness, compressive strength and energy absorption capacity due to solid solution strengthening and second phase strengthening effects. Additionally, the amount of Er element should be controlled in the range of 0.10wt.%-0.50wt.% in order to obtain a good combination of compressive strength and energy absorption properties.

  4. Relationship between percentage of body fat and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grossl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat (% BF and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym. Four hundred and thirty eight individuals, 195 men and 243 women, from 18 to 50 years of age took part in this study. The % BF was estimated by the skinfold method. The following anthropometric indicators were assessed: waist circumference, abdomen circumference (AC, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI and waist-height ratio. Linear Pearson correlation and simple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between variables. For women, BMI strongly correlated with % BF (r = .73, whereas for males, AC showed high correlation with % BF (r = .73. With varying degrees of magnitude, there were significant correlations between all of the anthropometric indicators analyzed and % BF.

  5. Percentage of vestibular dysfunction in 361 elderly citizens responding to a newspaper advertisement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Michael Smærup; Grönvall, Erik; Mørch, Marianne Metz

    Percentage of Vestibular Dysfunction in 361 Elderly Citizens Responding to a Newspaper Advertisement. Brandt M, Grönvall E, Henriksen JJ, Larsen SB, Læssøe U, Mørch MM, Damsgaard EM Introduction Elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction have an eight-fold increased risk of falling compared...... advertisement. Method To recruit elderly citizens with dizziness we advertised in a local newspaper. A telephone interview with the respondents was done by a physiotherapist (PT). If the PT concluded that the reason for the dizziness could be vestibular dysfunction the citizen was invited to further...... Department, Aarhus University Hospital. Results 361 elderly citizens responded to the advertisement. 8 patients had alcohol problems, 14 had significantly impaired vision, 42 had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, 49 didn’t want to participate, 50 had evidence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV...

  6. Verification of performance of the power percentage channel for the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    It was found that the response that gives the power percent channel is correct, given the positive results of the independent tests that were carried out to the gamma ionization chamber and the electronics associated to this channel. Regarding the gamma chamber, it was verified that the appropriate operation voltage is 800 V, and that for operations in stationary state to 1 MW during 2 h, presented maximum variations of 3%. Also it was determined that the degradation percentage in the sensitivity to the gamma radiation is 10.24%, because this chamber has not been changed since the reactor enters in operation at November 8, 1968 by what will be considered to short term the substitution of the same one due to the burnt that it presents. In connection with the electronics of the channel, it was simulated the response of the chamber for intervals of 6 h and in the 4 analyzed cases the response of the channel was lineal. (Author)

  7. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  8. Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    -gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, and type 2 (Th2 and Tc2) cells, which produce IL-4. The question addressed in the present study was whether exercise affected the relative balance between the circulating levels of these cytokine-producing T cells. Nine male runners performed treadmill running for 2.5 h at 75% of maximal...... oxygen consumption. The intracellular expression of cytokines was detected following stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in blood obtained before, during, and after exercise. The percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation was suppressed at the end of exercise and 2 h after......Prolonged strenuous exercise is followed by a temporary functional immune impairment. Low numbers of CD4+ T helper (Th) and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells are found in the circulation. These cells can be divided according to their cytokine profile into type 1 (Th1 and Tc1), which produce interferon...

  9. Determination of electron clinical spectra from percentage depth dose (PDD) curves by classical simulated annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visbal, Jorge H. Wilches; Costa, Alessandro M.

    2016-01-01

    Percentage depth dose of electron beams represents an important item of data in radiation therapy treatment since it describes the dosimetric properties of these. Using an accurate transport theory, or the Monte Carlo method, has been shown obvious differences between the dose distribution of electron beams of a clinical accelerator in a water simulator object and the dose distribution of monoenergetic electrons of nominal energy of the clinical accelerator in water. In radiotherapy, the electron spectra should be considered to improve the accuracy of dose calculation since the shape of PDP curve depends of way how radiation particles deposit their energy in patient/phantom, that is, the spectrum. Exist three principal approaches to obtain electron energy spectra from central PDP: Monte Carlo Method, Direct Measurement and Inverse Reconstruction. In this work it will be presented the Simulated Annealing method as a practical, reliable and simple approach of inverse reconstruction as being an optimal alternative to other options. (author)

  10. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  11. Changes in Wine Aroma Composition According to Botrytized Berry Percentage: A Preliminary Study on Amarone Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fedrizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Botrytis cinerea, a noble rot, on the aroma components of Amarone, a dry red wine produced from withered grapes. A comparative analysis of wines obtained from manually selected healthy and botrytized grapes was done. Aroma analysis revealed that most compounds varied significantly according to the percentage of botrytized berries utilized. Botrytized wines contained less fatty acids and more fruity acetates than healthy wines. A positive correlation between the content of N-(3-methylbutylacetamide, sherry lactone and an unidentified compound and the level of fungal infection was also observed. The results indicate that noble rot can significantly modify important aroma components of Amarone wine.

  12. A novel body circumferences-based estimation of percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yair; Epstein, Yoram; Kedem, Ron; Schermann, Haggai

    2018-03-01

    Anthropometric measures of body composition are often used for rapid and cost-effective estimation of percentage body fat (%BF) in field research, serial measurements and screening. Our aim was to develop a validated estimate of %BF for the general population, based on simple body circumferences measures. The study cohort consisted of two consecutive samples of health club members, designated as 'development' (n 476, 61 % men, 39 % women) and 'validation' (n 224, 50 % men, 50 % women) groups. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements as part of their registration to a health club. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was used as the 'gold standard' estimate of %BF. Linear regressions where used to construct the predictive equation (%BFcal). Bland-Altman statistics, Lin concordance coefficients and percentage of subjects falling within 5 % of %BF estimate by DEXA were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of the equation. The variance inflation factor was used to check multicollinearity. Two distinct equations were developed for men and women: %BFcal (men)=10·1-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N; %BFcal (women)=19·2-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N (H, height; A, abdomen; N, neck, all in cm). Bland-Altman differences were randomly distributed and showed no fixed bias. Lin concordance coefficients of %BFcal were 0·89 in men and 0·86 in women. About 79·5 % of %BF predictions in both sexes were within ±5 % of the DEXA value. The Durnin-Womersley skinfolds equation was less accurate in our study group for prediction of %BF than %BFcal. We conclude that %BFcal offers the advantage of obtaining a reliable estimate of %BF from simple measurements that require no sophisticated tools and only a minimal prior training and experience.

  13. Effect of Natural Sand Percentages on Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Yassub Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a flexible pavement requires the knowledge of the material properties which are characterized by stiffness and fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance relates the number of load cycles to failure with the strain level applied to the asphalt mixture. The main objective of this research is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures by using two types of fine aggregate having different percentages. In this study, two types of fine aggregate were used natural sand (desert sand and crushed sand. The crushed sand was replaced by natural sand (desert sand with different percentages (0%, 25%, 75% and 100% by the weight of the sand (passing sieve No.8 and retained on sieve No.200 and one type of binder (40/50 penetration from Al-Daurah refinery. The samples of beams were tested by four point bending beam fatigue test at the control strain mode (250, 500 and 750 microstrain while the loading frequency (5Hz and testing temperature (20oC according to (AASHTO T321. The experimental work showed that fatigue life (Nf and initial flexural stiffness increased when control strain decreased for asphalt mixtures. Acceptable fatigue life at 750 microstrain was obtained with asphalt concrete mixtures containing 100% crushed sand as well as asphalt concrete contained 25% natural sand. The asphalt concrete contained 100% and 75% of natural sand exhibited high fatigue life at low level of microstrain (250. The main conclusion of this study found that best proportion of natural sand to be added to an asphaltic concrete mixture is falling within the range (0% and 25% by weight of fraction (passing No.8 and retained on No.200 sieve .

  14. [Percentage of uric acid calculus and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hong-Heng; An, Geng

    2009-02-15

    To study the percentage of uric acid calculus in uroliths and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley. To analyze the chemical composition of 290 urinary stones by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and study the ratio changes of uric acid calculus. Uric acid calculus patients and healthy people were studied. Personal characteristics, dietary habits were collected. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis and studied the dietary risk factors of uric acid calculus. Patients with uric acid calculus, calcium oxalate and those without urinary calculus were undergone metabolic evaluation analysis. The results of uric acid calculus patients compared to another two groups to analysis the relations between the formation of uric acid calculus and metabolism factors. Uric acid calculi were found in 53 cases (18.3%). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that low daily water intake, eating more salted and animal food, less vegetable were very closely associated with uric acid calculus. Comparing to calcium oxalate patients, the urine volume, the value of pH, urine calcium, urine oxalic acid were lower, but uric acid was higher than it. The value of pH, urine oxalic acid and citric acid were lower than them, but uric acid and urine calcium were higher than none urinary calculus peoples. Blood potassium and magnesium were lower than them. The percentage of uric acid stones had obvious advanced. Less daily water intake, eating salted food, eating more animal food, less vegetables and daily orange juice intake, eating sea food are the mainly dietary risk factors to the formation of uric acid calculus. Urine volume, the value of pH, citric acid, urine calcium, urine uric acid and the blood natrium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, uric acid have significant influence to the information of uric acid stones.

  15. Using saturation water percentage data to predict mechanical composition of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Okafor, D.O.

    1995-04-01

    One hundred and sixty-six soil samples representing eleven textural classes and having wide variations in organic matter (OM) contents and other physico-chemical properties were collected from different locations in southeastern Nigeria to study the relationship between mechanical composition and saturation water percentage (SP). The objective was to develop a prediction model for silt + clay (SC) and clay (C) contents of these soils using the SP values. The magnitude of the correlation coefficients (r) between SC or C and SP was dependent on the amount of organic matter (OM) present in the soils. For soils with ≤ 1.00% OM, the correlation (r) between SC and SP was 0.9659 (p ≤ 0.001) and that between C and SP was 0.9539 (p ≤ 0.001). For soils with ≥ 2.00% OM, the 'r' values were generally low, varying between 0.5320 and 0.2665 for SC and 0.6008 and 0.3000 for C. The best-fit regression models for predicting SC and C were developed with soils having ≤ 1.00% OM. An independent data set from 25 soil samples collected from other parts of the study area was used to test the predictive ability of the best-fit models. These models predicted SC and C accurately in soils having between 0.28 and 1.10% OM, but poorly in soils having between 1.31 and 3.91% OM. These results show that the use of saturation water percentage to predict the mechanical composition of soils is most reliable for soils with low (≤ 1.00%) OM contents. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Emergent self-similarity of cluster coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, Dmtiri O.

    A wide variety of nonequilibrium processes, such as coagulation of colloidal particles, aggregation of bacteria into colonies, coalescence of rain drops, bond formation between polymerization sites, and formation of planetesimals, fall under the rubric of cluster coagulation. We predict emergence of self-similar behavior in such systems when they are 'forced' by an external source of the smallest particles. The corresponding self-similar coagulation spectra prove to be power laws. Starting from the classical Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we identify the conditions required for emergence of self-similarity and show that the power-law exponent value for a particular coagulation mechanism depends on the homogeneity index of the corresponding coagulation kernel only. Next, we consider the current wave of mergers of large American banks as an 'unorthodox' application of coagulation theory. We predict that the bank size distribution has propensity to become a power law, and verify our prediction in a statistical study of the available economical data. We conclude this chapter by discussing economically significant phenomenon of capital condensation and predicting emergence of power-law distributions in other economical and social data. Finally, we turn to apparent semblance between cluster coagulation and turbulence and conclude that it is not accidental: both of these processes are instances of nonlinear cascades. This class of processes also includes river network formation models, certain force-chain models in granular mechanics, fragmentation due to collisional cascades, percolation, and growing random networks. We characterize a particular cascade by three indicies and show that the resulting power-law spectrum exponent depends on the indicies values only. The ensuing algebraic formula is remarkable for its simplicity.

  17. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2012-09-27

    The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  18. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MIS ITEM 011589A AND 3013 CONTAINERS HAVING SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G

    2006-08-23

    Recent testing has identified the presence of hydrogen and oxygen in MIS Item 011589A. This isolated observation has effectuated concern regarding the potential for flammable gas mixtures in containers in the storage inventory. This study examines the known physicochemical characteristics of MIS Item 011589A and queries the ISP Database for items that are most similar or potentially similar. Items identified as most similar are believed to have the highest probability of being chemically and structurally identical to MIS Item 011589A. Items identified as potentially like MIS Item 011589A have some attributes in common, have the potential to generate gases, but have a lower probability of having similar gas generating characteristics. MIS Item 011589A is an oxide that was generated prior to 1990 at Rocky Flats in Building 707. It was associated with foundry processing and had an actinide assay of approximately 77%. Prompt gamma analysis of MIS Item 011589A indicated the presence of chloride, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, and aluminum. Queries based on MIS representation classification and process of origin were applied to the ISP Database. Evaluation criteria included binning classification (i.e., innocuous, pressure, or pressure and corrosion), availability of prompt gamma analyses, presence of chlorine and magnesium, percentage of chlorine by weight, peak ratios (i.e., Na:Cl and Mg:Na), moisture, and percent assay. These queries identified 15 items that were most similar and 106 items that were potentially like MIS Item 011589A. Although these queries identified containers that could potentially generate flammable gases, verification and confirmation can only be accomplished by destructive evaluation and testing of containers from the storage inventory.

  20. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  1. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  2. 26 CFR 1.613-7 - Application of percentage depletion rates provided in section 613(b) to certain taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of percentage depletion rates... TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-7 Application of percentage depletion rates provided in... depletion rate specified in section 613 in respect of any mineral property (within the meaning of the 1939...

  3. 20 CFR Appendix Vi to Subpart C of... - Percentage of Automatic Increases in Primary Insurance Amounts Since 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage of Automatic Increases in Primary... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Pt. 404, Subpt. C, App. VI Appendix VI to Subpart C of Part 404—Percentage of Automatic Increases in...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.238 - What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for administrative and planning expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for administrative and planning expenses? 1000.238 Section 1000.238 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.238 What percentage of the IHBG funds can be used for...

  5. A regulatory adjustment process for the determination of the optimal percentage requirement in an electricity market with Tradable Green Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    A system of Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) is a market-based subsidy scheme designed to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power. Under a TGC system, the principal policy instrument is the “percentage requirement,” which stipulates the percentage of total electricity production (“green” plus “black”) that must be obtained from renewable sources. In this paper, we propose a regulatory adjustment process that a regulator can employ to determine the socially optimal percentage requirement, explicitly accounting for environmental damages resulting from black electricity generation. - Highlights: • A Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system promotes energy production from renewable sources. • We consider an electricity oligopoly operated under a TGC system. • Welfare analysis must account for damages from “black” electricity production. • We characterize the welfare maximizing (optimal) “percentage requirement.” • We present a regulatory adjustment process that computes the optimal percentage requirement iteratively

  6. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer

  7. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji; Genton, Marc G.; Jun, Mikyoung

    2016-01-01

    extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi

  8. Quantifying the percentage of methane formation via acetoclastic and syntrophic acetate oxidation pathways in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Banks, Charles; Zhang, Yue; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia concentration is one of the key factors influencing the methanogenic community composition and dominant methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters. This study adopted a radiolabelling technique using [2- 14 C] acetate to investigate the relationship between total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and the methanogenic pathway. The radiolabelling experiments determined the ratio of 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 in the biogas which was used to quantitatively determine the percentage of CH 4 derived from acetoclastic and syntrophic acetate oxidation routes, respectively. This technique was performed on a selection of mesophilic digesters representing samples of low to high TAN concentrations (0.2-11.1gkg -1 wet weight). In high TAN digesters, the ratio between 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 was in the range 2.1-3.0; indicating 68-75% of methane was produced via the hydrogenotrophic route; whereas in low ammonia samples the ratio was 0.1-0.3, indicating 9-23% of methane was produced by the hydrogenotrophic route. These findings have been confirmed further by phylogenetic studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analysis of the percentage voids of test and field specimens using computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Motta, L.M.G. da

    1999-01-01

    Computerized tomography has been an excellent tool of analysis of asphaltics mixtures, because it allows comparison of the quality and integrity of test and field specimens. It was required to detect and follow the evolution of cracks, when these mixtures were submitted to fatigue tests, and also helping to interpret the distribution of tensions and deformations which occur in the several types of solicitations imposed to the mixtures. Comparing the medium values of percentage voids obtained from tomographic images with the project's values, it can be observed that the values of test and field specimens for the wearing course are closer to the ones of the project than the ones of the binder. It can be verified that the wearing course specimens always present a distribution of the aggregate, and voids quite homogeneously in the whole profile of the sample, while the binder specimens show an accentuated differentiation of the same factors in the several heights of the sample. Therefore, when choosing a slice for tomography, these considerations should be taken into account

  10. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  11. What kind of Relationship is Between Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Sukić, Enes; Rankov, Olivera; Katić, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (B F %) are well known as indicators of nutritional status, there are insuficient data whether the relationship between them is linear or not. There are appropriate linear and quadratic formulas that are available to predict B F % from age, gender and BMI. On the other hand, our previous research has shown that artificial neural network (ANN) is a more accurate method for that. The aim of this study is to analyze relationship between BMI and B F % by using ANN and big dataset (3058 persons). Our results show that this relationship is rather quadratic than linear for both gender and all age groups. Comparing genders, quadratic relathionship is more pronounced in women, while linear relationship is more pronounced in men. Additionaly, our results show that quadratic relationship is more pronounced in old than in young and middle-age men and it is slightly more pronounced in young and middle-age than in old women.

  12. Reference values for serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation in Korean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hea Lin; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2018-03-01

    Ferritin reference values vary by age, gender, and ethnicity. We aimed to determine reference values of serum ferritin (SF) and the percentage of transferrin saturation (TSAT) for Korean children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 2,487 participants (1,311 males and 1,176 females) aged 10-20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). We calculated age- and gender-stratified means and percentile values for SF and TSAT. We first plotted mean SF and TSAT by gender and according to age. In males, mean SF tended to be relatively constant among participants aged 10 to 14 years, with an upward trend thereafter. Mean SF trended downward among female participants until the age of 15 years and remained constant thereafter. Thus, significant gender differences in ferritin exist from the age of 14 years. High levels of SF were associated with obesity, and lower SF levels were associated with anemia and menarche status. We established reference values of SF and TSAT according to age and gender. The reference values for SF calculated in this study can be used to test the association between SF values and other defined diseases in Korean children and adolescents.

  13. Novel equations to predict body fat percentage of Brazilian professional soccer players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Novack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.

  14. [EVALUATION OF THE BODY ADIPOSITY INDEX IN PREDICTING PERCENTAGE BODY FAT AMONG COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-07-01

    the body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. Up to now, few studies have evaluated the performance of BAI in determining excess fat in Colombians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAI as a predictor of body fat in among Colombian adults. cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 204 male belonging to the education sector from Bogotá, Colombia. BAI was calculated based on the equation reported in the Bergman et al. %BF determined by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. in general pupulation, the BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 12.5 % [95%CI = -4.04 % to -21.02 %]), mainly at lower levels of adiposity (mean difference: 10.2 ± 3.3). Significant correlations were found between BAI and all measurements, being the strongest-moderate correlation with %BF (r = 0.777, p Colombian adults and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Colombian adults, although it has some limitations. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural network and wavelet average framing percentage energy for atrial fibrillation classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqrouq, K; Alkhateeb, A; Ajour, M N; Morfeq, A

    2014-03-01

    ECG signals are an important source of information in the diagnosis of atrial conduction pathology. Nevertheless, diagnosis by visual inspection is a difficult task. This work introduces a novel wavelet feature extraction method for atrial fibrillation derived from the average framing percentage energy (AFE) of terminal wavelet packet transform (WPT) sub signals. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) is used for classification. The presented method is shown to be a potentially effective discriminator in an automated diagnostic process. The ECG signals taken from the MIT-BIH database are used to classify different arrhythmias together with normal ECG. Several published methods were investigated for comparison. The best recognition rate selection was obtained for AFE. The classification performance achieved accuracy 97.92%. It was also suggested to analyze the presented system in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment; 55.14% for 0dB and 92.53% for 5dB. It was concluded that the proposed approach of automating classification is worth pursuing with larger samples to validate and extend the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of diethyl maleate in irradiated mice survival and related to percentages of serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiomodifying drugs that alter the radiation effect, protecting or sensitizing cells and organisms, presents great interest in tumor radiotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) can be described as the major endogenous radioprotector. The diethyl maleate (DEM) is a drug able to block intracellular GSH. This work aims at the establishment of the radiomodifying competence of DEM administered in two different vehicles, peanut oil and aqueous ethanolic solution by the analysis of mouse survival curves as well as the relative percentages of serum proteins. Groups of animals were previously injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 ml of 418 e 150 μM DEM respectively in each one of the vehicles one hour before irradiated with an 60 Co acute dose of 9 Gy. The survival of mice was followed during 30 days and electrophoretic profiles of serum proteins 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. The results showed that the action of DEM om mouse radiosensitivity depends on the vehicles used, considering that both media showed a radio modifier action. (author)

  17. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  18. An estimation of the percentage of dose in intraoral radiology exams using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzoumet, S.P.J.; Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Padilha, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used the EGS4 code in a simulated study of dose percentage in intraoral examination to 10 energy range to 140 keV. The simulation was carried out on a model consisting of different geometry (cheek, tooth and mouth cavity) under normal incidence X-ray beam over the surface of the various simulated materials. It was observed that for energy smaller than 30 keV most of the energy is deposited on the cheek. In 30 keV there is a point of maximum radiation absorption in the tooth (approximately 60% of the energy of the incident radiation is deposited on the tooth) in relation to other simulated materials. It means that in this energy there is a better contrast in the radiographic image of the tooth and a smaller dose on the cheek. In 40 keV the deposited energy in the tooth is roughly equal to the energy that is transmitted (to the radiographic film or buccal cavity) causing a degradation in the radiographic image and/or a higher dose in the oral cavity. For energies above 40 keV, the amount of energy transmitted (to the oral cavity and/or radiographic film) is higher than the energy deposited in other materials, i.e, it only contributes to increasing of dose in the regions close to the oral cavity and the radiographic image degradation. These results can provide important information for radiological procedures applied in dentistry where the image quality is a relevant factor to a dental evaluation needs as well as reducing dose in the oral cavity.

  19. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  20. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  1. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance.

  2. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  3. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  4. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity is presently increasing worldwide and has created enormous concern for researchers working in the field of obesity related diseases with special interest in child health and development. Selected anthropometric measurements including stature, body mass, and skinfolds are globally accepted sensitive indicators of growth patterns and health status of a child. The present study was therefore aimed not only at evaluating the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, body fat percentage (%fat) in obese school going boys of West Bengal, India, but also aimed to compare these data with their non-obese counterparts. Ten to sixteen year old obese boys (N = 158) were separated from their non-obese counterparts using the age-wise international cut-off points of BMI. Skinfolds were measured using skinfold calipers, BMI and %fat were calculated from standard equations. Body mass, BMI, skinfolds and %fat were significantly (Pimportance in order to identify or categorize obese boys, and to take preventative steps to minimise serious health problems that appear during the later part of life.

  5. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Methods Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA, and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Results Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l compared to non-obese (body fat  Conclusions Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival.

  6. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  7. Geographically Weighted Regression Model with Kernel Bisquare and Tricube Weighted Function on Poverty Percentage Data in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Slamet, I.

    2018-05-01

    Poverty is a socio-economic condition of a person or group of people who can not fulfil their basic need to maintain and develop a dignified life. This problem still cannot be solved completely in Central Java Province. Currently, the percentage of poverty in Central Java is 13.32% which is higher than the national poverty rate which is 11.13%. In this research, data of percentage of poor people in Central Java Province has been analyzed through geographically weighted regression (GWR). The aim of this research is therefore to model poverty percentage data in Central Java Province using GWR with weighted function of kernel bisquare, and tricube. As the results, we obtained GWR model with bisquare and tricube kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. From the GWR model, there are three categories of region which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  8. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  9. Effect of dietary protein level and length of fattening period on dressing percentage and carcass conformation in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković, Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković, Snežana; Škrbić, Zdenka; Đoković, Radojica; Rakonjac, Simeon; Petričević, Veselin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of different protein levels in broiler feeds (supplemented with protease) and different lengths of fattening period on some parameters related to dressed carcass quality. Medium-growing Master Gris broiler chickens were used in a fattening trial lasting 63 days. At slaughter, dressing percentages and abdominal fat percentages were determined based on traditionally dressed carcass weights and abdominal fat weights of broilers at 49 and 63 days, and conformation i...

  10. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  11. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  13. Preliminary Research Concerning Optimal Percentage of Hemp Hurds for Lining Panels and Filler Materials in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Adriana GHERGHISAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials for liningst and wall fillermade of hemp hurds and mineral binders represent again in recovery of mineral binders and use ofrepresent lignocellulosic fiber resulted afterprocessing.This paper aims to establish the optimumpercentual range of hemp hurds that can beembedded in ceramic mass, which is able to supportin various stages, the physical and dimensionalintegrity, manipulation, transport and during sandingresistance, the remaining viable recipes being theones that successfully pass this preliminary test. It isexpected for these samples to have comparablethermal and acoustic properties with similar industrialproducts, currently manufactured, which givesthepractical applicability of these composites.

  14. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Rana Gopal; Alok, Kumar; Singh, Shivendra

    2014-07-01

    Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL) and at 12 months (TM) for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutritional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record) and clinical characteristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC) and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  15. On self-similar Tolman models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The self-similar spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equation for the case of dust are identified. These form a subclass of the Tolman models. These self-similar models contain the solution recently presented by Chi [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1539 (1987)], thereby refuting the claim of having found a new solution to the Einstein field equations

  16. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  17. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  18. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  19. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...

  20. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  1. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  2. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  3. Information filtering based on transferring similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose an index of user similarity, namely, the transferring similarity, which involves all high-order similarities between users. Accordingly, we design a modified collaborative filtering algorithm, which provides remarkably higher accurate predictions than the standard collaborative filtering. More interestingly, we find that the algorithmic performance will approach its optimal value when the parameter, contained in the definition of transferring similarity, gets close to its critical value, before which the series expansion of transferring similarity is convergent and after which it is divergent. Our study is complementary to the one reported in [E. A. Leicht, P. Holme, and M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026120 (2006)], and is relevant to the missing link prediction problem.

  4. Self-similar continued root approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  5. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  6. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  7. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  8. Similarity in Bilateral Isolated Internal Orbital Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Cox, Jacob T; Sanyal, Abanti; Mahoney, Nicholas R

    2018-04-13

    In evaluating patients sustaining bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures, the authors have observed both similar fracture locations and also similar expansion of orbital volumes. In this study, we aim to investigate if there is a propensity for the 2 orbits to fracture in symmetrically similar patterns when sustaining similar trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed studying all cases at our institution of bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures involving the medial wall and/or the floor at the time of presentation. The similarity of the bilateral fracture locations was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test. The bilateral expanded orbital volumes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess for orbital volume similarity. Twenty-four patients with bilateral internal orbital fractures were analyzed for fracture location similarity. Seventeen patients (70.8%) had 100% concordance in the orbital subregion fractured, and the association between the right and the left orbital fracture subregion locations was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Fifteen patients were analyzed for orbital volume similarity. The average orbital cavity volume was 31.2 ± 3.8 cm on the right and 32.0 ± 3.7 cm on the left. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left orbital cavity volumes (P = 0.0026). The data from this study suggest that an individual who suffers isolated bilateral internal orbital fractures has a statistically significant similarity in the location of their orbital fractures. However, there does not appear to be statistically significant similarity in the expansion of the orbital volumes in these patients.

  9. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  10. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  11. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  12. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  13. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, C.

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M 1/4 . These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  14. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knuepfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  15. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  16. 38 CFR 21.4201 - Restrictions on enrollment; percentage of students receiving financial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Military personnel and their dependents, or (B) Military personnel, their dependents and civilian employees... (Bachelor of Science) in electrical engineering, MA (Master of Arts) in English, etc. (ii) NCD (noncollege... compliance history of the school, including such factors as false or deceptive advertising complaints...

  17. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  18. Low fetal hemoglobin percentage is associated with silent brain lesions in adults with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, David; Tuilier, Titien; Mélé, Nicolas; Turc, Guillaume; Habibi, Anoosha; Abdallah, Nassim Ait; Majhadi, Loubna; Hemery, François; Edjlali, Myriam; Galacteros, Frédéric; Bartolucci, Pablo

    2017-12-12

    Silent white matter changes (WMCs) on brain imaging are common in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and are associated with cognitive deficits in children. We investigated the factors predictive of WMCs in adults with homozygous SCD and no history of neurological conditions. Patients were recruited from a cohort of adults with homozygous SCD followed up at an adult sickle cell referral center for which steady-state measurements of biological parameters and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were available. WMCs were rated by consensus, on a validated age-related WMC scale. The prevalence of WMCs was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39%-60%) in the 83 patients without vasculopathy included. In univariable analysis, the patients who had WMCs were more likely to be older ( P = .003) and to have hypertension ( P = .02), a lower mean corpuscular volume ( P = .005), a lower corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ( P = .008), and a lower fetal hemoglobin percentage (%HbF) ( P = .003). In multivariable analysis, only a lower %HbF remained associated with the presence of WMCs (odds ratio [OR] per 1% increase in %HbF, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97; P = .021). %HbF was also associated with WMC burden ( P for trend = .007). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed an inverse relationship between WMC burden (age-related WMC score divided into 4 strata) and HbF level (OR for 1% increase in %HbF, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99; P = .039). Our study suggests that HbF may protect against silent WMCs, decreasing the likelihood of WMCs being present and their severity. It may therefore be beneficial to increase HbF levels in patients with WMCs.

  19. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  20. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  1. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  2. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  3. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  4. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...

  5. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  6. Lagrangian-similarity diffusion-deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A Lagrangian-similarity diffusion model has been incorporated into the surface-depletion deposition model. This model predicts vertical concentration profiles far downwind of the source that agree with those of a one-dimensional gradient-transfer model

  7. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  8. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  9. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  10. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  11. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A COMPARATIVE LOOK INTO HOW TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES: THROUGH USING PERCENTAGES OR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı ERTEN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the appropriateness of two statistical procedures for measuring the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies: percentages and correlation coefficients. To do this a group of 20 learners of English were asked to study 12 words in a written list, with their pronunciations, dictionary definitions, and example sentences. Data was collected through introspection where students were asked to verbalize their mental processes as they studied the target words. A pre-test and post-test were given to measure the task achievement. The qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and content-analysed for tokens of strategy use as well as by noting whether each use of strategies led to successful recall of the words on which they were used. To calculate the strategy effectiveness, both simple percentage calculation and correlation coefficients were employed for comparison. The findings indicated that percentage calculation can give a more realistic picture of strategy effectiveness than correlation coefficients.

  13. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  14. Prioritization of candidate disease genes by combining topological similarity and semantic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Jin, Min; Zeng, Pan

    2015-10-01

    The identification of gene-phenotype relationships is very important for the treatment of human diseases. Studies have shown that genes causing the same or similar phenotypes tend to interact with each other in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Thus, many identification methods based on the PPI network model have achieved good results. However, in the PPI network, some interactions between the proteins encoded by candidate gene and the proteins encoded by known disease genes are very weak. Therefore, some studies have combined the PPI network with other genomic information and reported good predictive performances. However, we believe that the results could be further improved. In this paper, we propose a new method that uses the semantic similarity between the candidate gene and known disease genes to set the initial probability vector of a random walk with a restart algorithm in a human PPI network. The effectiveness of our method was demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation, and the experimental results indicated that our method outperformed other methods. Additionally, our method can predict new causative genes of multifactor diseases, including Parkinson's disease, breast cancer and obesity. The top predictions were good and consistent with the findings in the literature, which further illustrates the effectiveness of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The percentage of iNKT cells among other immune cells at various clinical stages of laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Klatka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells constitute a small population of immune cells that share functional and phenotypic characteristics of T lymphocytes and NK cells. Due to their involvement in specific and non-specific immune responses, iNKT cells may represent an important component of antitumor and anti-infectious immunity. Material and methods: Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the percentages of iNKT cells as well as T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of 50 laryngeal cancer patients at various clinical stages in comparison to healthy controls (n=15. Moreover, we determined the expression of CD25, CD69 and CD95 antigens on T lymphocytes.Results: The percentage of CD4+/CD3+ T lymphocytes in the controls was higher than in laryngeal cancer patients, both with early and late stages of the disease. The percentage of CD8+/CD3+ T lymphocytes in healthy controls was lower than in patients with early and late clinical stages of laryngeal cancer. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer showed a lower percentage of iNKT cells and higher frequencies of T regulatory cells (Tregs than the controls. Advanced clinical stages of laryngeal cancer are associated with impaired activation of lymphocytes.Conclusions: Our study confirmed that laryngeal cancer cells exert a strong suppressor effect on the immune system of the host. This is reflected by a decrease in the percentage of iNKT cells that are capable of cancer cell elimination, and a concomitant increase in the percentage of Tregs. However, further studies are needed in order to explain the underlying mechanisms of immunosuppression and understand interactions between immune and cancer cells.

  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Funding for HIV Testing Associated With Higher State Percentage of Persons Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Samah; Dietz, Patricia M; Van Handel, Michelle; Zhang, Jun; Shrestha, Ram K; Huang, Ya-Lin A; Wan, Choi; Mermin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between state per capita allocations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for HIV testing and the percentage of persons tested for HIV. We examined data from 2 sources: 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2010-2011 State HIV Budget Allocations Reports. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were used to estimate the percentage of persons aged 18 to 64 years who had reported testing for HIV in the last 2 years in the United States by state. State HIV Budget Allocations Reports were used to calculate the state mean annual per capita allocations for CDC-funded HIV testing reported by state and local health departments in the United States. The association between the state fixed-effect per capita allocations for CDC-funded HIV testing and self-reported HIV testing in the last 2 years among persons aged 18 to 64 years was assessed with a hierarchical logistic regression model adjusting for individual-level characteristics. The percentage of persons tested for HIV in the last 2 years. In 2011, 18.7% (95% confidence interval = 18.4-19.0) of persons reported being tested for HIV in last 2 years (state range, 9.7%-28.2%). During 2010-2011, the state mean annual per capita allocation for CDC-funded HIV testing was $0.34 (state range, $0.04-$1.04). A $0.30 increase in per capita allocation for CDC-funded HIV testing was associated with an increase of 2.4 percentage points (14.0% vs 16.4%) in the percentage of persons tested for HIV per state. Providing HIV testing resources to health departments was associated with an increased percentage of state residents tested for HIV.

  17. A Simple Method to Measure the Thermal contraction Percentage of a Solid Between Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2000-01-01

    We described how to build a simple device for measuring, with a reasonable good accuracy, the thermal contraction of a flat sample between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The contraction percentage of the sample is determined by the dimensional comparison of two images taken through the bottom of a transparent quartz tray. Instead of a photo or video camera, a high-resolution flatbed scanner is utilized to avoid the correction of perspectives. The so-called Grueneisen approximation are applied to evaluate the contraction percentages for intermediate temperatures. (Author) 28 refs

  18. The percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd-Zinman, Orith; Ben-Ziony, Shiri; Solter, Ester; Chodick, Gabriel; Ashkenazi, Shai; Livni, Gilat

    2011-03-01

    Because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for RVGE that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. In a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial RVGE declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (P = .001). Concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (P = .012), with a significant (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  2. Hitting the Optimal Vaccination Percentage and the Risks of Error: Why to Miss Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael J; Prosser, Lisa A; Messonnier, Mark L; Hutton, David W

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal level of vaccination coverage defined as the level that minimizes total costs and explore how economic results change with marginal changes to this level of coverage. A susceptible-infected-recovered-vaccinated model designed to represent theoretical infectious diseases was created to simulate disease spread. Parameter inputs were defined to include ranges that could represent a variety of possible vaccine-preventable conditions. Costs included vaccine costs and disease costs. Health benefits were quantified as monetized quality adjusted life years lost from disease. Primary outcomes were the number of infected people and the total costs of vaccination. Optimization methods were used to determine population vaccination coverage that achieved a minimum cost given disease and vaccine characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored the effects of changes in reproductive rates, costs and vaccine efficacies on primary outcomes. Further analysis examined the additional cost incurred if the optimal coverage levels were not achieved. Results indicate that the relationship between vaccine and disease cost is the main driver of the optimal vaccination level. Under a wide range of assumptions, vaccination beyond the optimal level is less expensive compared to vaccination below the optimal level. This observation did not hold when the cost of the vaccine cost becomes approximately equal to the cost of disease. These results suggest that vaccination below the optimal level of coverage is more costly than vaccinating beyond the optimal level. This work helps provide information for assessing the impact of changes in vaccination coverage at a societal level.

  3. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL and at 12 months (TM for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutri-tional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record and clinical charac-teristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05 and e-GFR (P <0.01 while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05. The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001. There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005. During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  4. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  5. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  6. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d-dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common--yet arbitrary--motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters--emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles' displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles' underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  7. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d -dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common—yet arbitrary—motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters—emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles’ displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles’ underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  8. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  9. Phonological similarity in working memory span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2016-08-01

    In a series of four experiments, we explored what conditions are sufficient to produce a phonological similarity facilitation effect in working memory span tasks. By using the same set of memoranda, but differing the secondary-task requirements across experiments, we showed that a phonological similarity facilitation effect is dependent upon the semantic relationship between the memoranda and the secondary-task stimuli, and is robust to changes in the representation, ordering, and pool size of the secondary-task stimuli. These findings are consistent with interference accounts of memory (Brown, Neath, & Chater, Psychological Review, 114, 539-576, 2007; Oberauer, Lewandowsky, Farrell, Jarrold, & Greaves, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 779-819, 2012), whereby rhyming stimuli provide a form of categorical similarity that allows distractors to be excluded from retrieval at recall.

  10. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious. In this p......Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...... observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified...

  11. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    . Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying......This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  13. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  14. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  15. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  16. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  17. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  18. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 226 - Annual Percentage Rate Computations for Closed-End Credit Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-End Credit Transactions J Appendix J to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. J Appendix J to Part 226—Annual Percentage Rate Computations for Closed-End Credit Transactions (a...

  20. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications.

  1. The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage in the Friesian cattle in the province of Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shimy, S.A.F.

    1956-01-01

    The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different

  2. 75 FR 62395 - Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... IV-E plan development grants intended to assist Indian Tribes to develop their programs and prepare... the Social Security Act.) B. Calculation of FMAP for Indian Tribes The formula for calculating FMAP... Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the Title IV-E Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Kinship...

  3. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... percentage if the total industry sales history increases due to established growers receiving additional sales history on acreage with four years sales or less. [65 FR 42615, July 11, 2000] ...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit B-2 to Subpart I of... - Breakdown of Construction Development for Determining Percentage Construction Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction of basement or porch floors and steps whether wood or concrete. 17. Heating—finished 3 3 3 Subject... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Breakdown of Construction Development for Determining Percentage Construction Completed B Exhibit B-2 to Subpart I of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  5. Correlation between live attenuated measles viral load and growth inhibition percentage in non-small cell lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Fadhel Obaid

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion Live attenuated measles virus strain induced cytotoxic effect against human lung cancer cell line (A549 by induction of apoptosis as an important mechanism of anti-tumor activity, in addition, it indicates a correlation between the quantity of MV genomesand percentage of growth inhibition. This relation  has proved that measles virus had anticancer effect.

  6. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  7. A case of Z/E-isomers elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, Oleg I; Ustinovich, Konstantin B; Usovich, Oleg I; Parenago, Olga O; Lunin, Valeriy V; Ovchinnikov, Denis V; Kosyakov, Dmitry S

    2017-01-06

    A case of elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography was observed and investigated in some detail. Z- and E-isomers of phenylisobutylketone oxime experience an elution order reversal on most columns if the mobile phase consists of CO 2 and alcohol. At lower percentages of alcohol Z-oxime is retained less, somewhere at 2-5% coelution occurs and at larger cosolvent volume elution order reverses - Z-oxime is eluted later than E-oxime. We suppose inversion with CO 2 -ROH phases happens due to a shift in balance between two main interactions governing retention. At low ROH percentages stationary phase surface is only slightly covered by ROH molecules so oximes primarily interact with adsorption sites via hydrogen bond formation. Due to intramolecular sterical hindrance Z-oxime is less able to form hydrogen bonds and consequently is eluted first. At higher percentages alcohols occupy most of strong hydrogen bonding sites on silica surface thus leaving non-specific electrostatic interactions predominantly responsible for Z/E selectivity. Z-oxime has a much larger dipole moment than E-oxime and at these conditions it is eluted later. Additional experimental data with CO 2 -CH 3 CN, hexane-iPrOH and CHF 3 -ROH mobile phases supporting this explanation are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) This section applies to any food that...

  9. SU-F-P-51: Similarity Analysis of the Linear Accelerator Machines Based On Clinical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical rationale for Truebeam and Trilogy Linac machines from Varian Medical System as exchangeable treatment modalities in the same radiation oncology department. Methods: Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for different diseases were selected for this study. These disease sites included brain, head and neck, breast, lung, and prostate. The parameters selected for this study were the energy amount, Monitor Unit (MU); dose coverage of target reflected by prescription isodose volume(PIV); dose spillage described by the volume of 50% isodoseline of the prescription; and dose homogeneities represented by the maximum dose (MaxD) and the minimum dose (MinD) of target volume (TV) and critical structure (CS). Each percentage difference between the values of these parameters formed an element of a matrix, which was called Similarity Comparison Matrix(SCM). The elements of the SCM were then simplified by dimensional conversion algorithm, which was used to determine clinical similarity between two machines through a single value. Results: For the selected clinical cases in this study, the average percentage differences between Trilogy and Truebeam in MU was 0.28% with standard deviation(SD) 0.66%, PIV was 0.23% with SD 0.20%, Volume at 50% prescription dose was 0.31% with SD at 0.78%, MaxD at TV is 0.26% with SD 0.35%, MinD at TV is −0.04% with SD 0.51%, MaxD in CS is −0.53% with SD 0.92%, and MinD in CS 3.31%, with SD at 2.89%. The sum, product, geometric and harmonic mean for the matrix elements were 19.0%, 0.00%, 0.19%, and 0.00%. Conclusion: A method to compare two machines in clinical level was developed and some reference values were calculated for decision-making in clinical practice, and this strategy could be expanded to different clinical applications.

  10. SU-F-P-51: Similarity Analysis of the Linear Accelerator Machines Based On Clinical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K [Associates In Medical Physics, Lanham, MD (United States); John R Marsh Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical rationale for Truebeam and Trilogy Linac machines from Varian Medical System as exchangeable treatment modalities in the same radiation oncology department. Methods: Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for different diseases were selected for this study. These disease sites included brain, head and neck, breast, lung, and prostate. The parameters selected for this study were the energy amount, Monitor Unit (MU); dose coverage of target reflected by prescription isodose volume(PIV); dose spillage described by the volume of 50% isodoseline of the prescription; and dose homogeneities represented by the maximum dose (MaxD) and the minimum dose (MinD) of target volume (TV) and critical structure (CS). Each percentage difference between the values of these parameters formed an element of a matrix, which was called Similarity Comparison Matrix(SCM). The elements of the SCM were then simplified by dimensional conversion algorithm, which was used to determine clinical similarity between two machines through a single value. Results: For the selected clinical cases in this study, the average percentage differences between Trilogy and Truebeam in MU was 0.28% with standard deviation(SD) 0.66%, PIV was 0.23% with SD 0.20%, Volume at 50% prescription dose was 0.31% with SD at 0.78%, MaxD at TV is 0.26% with SD 0.35%, MinD at TV is −0.04% with SD 0.51%, MaxD in CS is −0.53% with SD 0.92%, and MinD in CS 3.31%, with SD at 2.89%. The sum, product, geometric and harmonic mean for the matrix elements were 19.0%, 0.00%, 0.19%, and 0.00%. Conclusion: A method to compare two machines in clinical level was developed and some reference values were calculated for decision-making in clinical practice, and this strategy could be expanded to different clinical applications.

  11. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  12. Effects of Intercropping on Biological Yield, Percentage of Nitrogen and Morphological Characteristics of Coriander and Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bigonah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping arrangements of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: mono-crop of fenugreek (A, %25 of optimum density of coriander + %175 of optimum density of fenugreek (B, %50 of optimum density of coriander + %150 of optimum density of fenugreek (C, %75 of optimum density of coriander + %125 of optimum density of fenugreek (D, %100 of optimum density of coriander + %100 of optimum density of fenugreek (E, mono-crop of coriander (F, %125 of optimum density of coriander + %75 of optimum density of fenugreek (G, %150 of optimum density of coriander + %50 of optimum density of fenugreek (H, %175 of optimum density of coriander + %25 of optimum density of fenugreek (I. Biological yield harvested in coriander at %5 flowering stage and in fenugreek at %20 flowering stage. The result showed that B treatment had highest plant height and biological yield of fenugreek, highest total land equivalent ratio and also B treatment had lowest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and biological yield of coriander. I treatment had lowest biological yield of fenugreek and it had highest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and plant height in coriander. Also A and E treatments had highest percent of nitrogen of biomass in fenugreek and coriander, respectively.

  13. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A Antunes; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-11-15

    Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12M in the composition of Na2SiO3 in 1:2vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  15. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  16. Clustering biomolecular complexes by residue contacts similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João; Trellet, Mikaël; Schmitz, Christophe; Kastritis, Panagiotis; Karaca, Ezgi; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João

    Inaccuracies in computational molecular modeling methods are often counterweighed by brute-force generation of a plethora of putative solutions. These are then typically sieved via structural clustering based on similarity measures such as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions.

  17. Similarity principles for equipment qualification by experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    A methodology is developed for seismic qualification of nuclear plant equipment by applying similarity principles to existing experience data. Experience data are available from previous qualifications by analysis or testing, or from actual earthquake events. Similarity principles are defined in terms of excitation, equipment physical characteristics, and equipment response. Physical similarity is further defined in terms of a critical transfer function for response at a location on a primary structure, whose response can be assumed directly related to ultimate fragility of the item under elevated levels of excitation. Procedures are developed for combining experience data into composite specifications for qualification of equipment that can be shown to be physically similar to the reference equipment. Other procedures are developed for extending qualifications beyond the original specifications under certain conditions. Some examples for application of the procedures and verification of them are given for certain cases that can be approximated by a two degree of freedom simple primary/secondary system. Other examples are based on use of actual test data available from previous qualifications. Relationships of the developments with other previously-published methods are discussed. The developments are intended to elaborate on the rather broad revised guidelines developed by the IEEE 344 Standards Committee for equipment qualification in new nuclear plants. However, the results also contribute to filling a gap that exists between the IEEE 344 methodology and that previously developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group. The relationship of the results to safety margin methodology is also discussed. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar type. 51.1997 Section 51.1997 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  19. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  20. Similarity search of business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, M.; García-Bañuelos, L.; Dijkman, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Similarity search is a general class of problems in which a given object, called a query object, is compared against a collection of objects in order to retrieve those that most closely resemble the query object. This paper reviews recent work on an instance of this class of problems, where the

  1. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  3. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phonological Similarity in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ursula; Corina, David

    2002-01-01

    Investigates deaf and hearing subjects' ratings of American Sign Language (ASL) signs to assess whether linguistic experience shapes judgments of sign similarity. Findings are consistent with linguistic theories that posit movement and location as core structural elements of syllable structure in ASL. (Author/VWL)

  5. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  6. Music Retrieval based on Melodic Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Typke, R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method for measuring melodic similarity for notated music such as MIDI files. This music search algorithm views music as sets of notes that are represented as weighted points in the two-dimensional space of time and pitch. Two point sets can be compared by calculating how

  7. Measurement of Similarity in Academic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose some reflections, comments and suggestions about the measurement of similar and matched content in scientific papers and documents, and the need to develop appropriate tools and standards for an ethically fair and equitable treatment of authors.

  8. Appropriate Similarity Measures for Author Cocitation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a number of new insights into the methodological discussion about author cocitation analysis. We first argue that the use of the Pearson correlation for measuring the similarity between authors’ cocitation profiles is not very satisfactory. We then discuss what kind of

  9. Similarity of Experience and Empathy in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A.

    The present study examined the role of similarity of experience in young children's affective reactions to others. Some preschoolers played one of two games (Puzzle Board or Buckets) and were informed that they had either failed or succeeded; others merely observed the games being played and were given no evaluative feedback. Subsequently, each…

  10. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  11. Learning by similarity in coordination problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    -, č. 324 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : similarity * learning * case-based reasoning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp324.pdf

  12. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian Sø ndergaard; Kalnis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise

  13. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Burke, John; McNeill, Graeme; Snow, Aisling; Torreggiani, William C

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications. The five highest impacting general radiology journals (according to the ISI Web of Knowledge database) were selected over a 6-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. Publications were totaled according to the country of the corresponding author. Publications (total and corrected for population size) were assessed according to the GDP of a given country and the percentage of GDP spent on research in that country. Correlation was determined using Spearman's rank. In total, 10,925 papers were identified. The top 10 nations produced 83.9% of the total number of papers. The United States was the most prolific country, with 41.7% of the total. The second-ranked and third-ranked countries were Germany (11.6%) and Japan (6.7%). Corrected for GDP, smaller European countries outperformed larger nations. Switzerland (0.925 publications per billion of GDP), Austria (0.694 publications per billion of GDP), and Belgium (0.648 publications per billion of GDP) produced the most papers per billion of GDP. When corrected for percentage of GDP spent on research, European countries again ranked highest, with Greece, Turkey, and Belgium having the best ratios. The percentage of GDP spent on research was positively correlated with the number of publications in high-ranking radiology journals (r = 0.603, P GDP and the percentage of GDP spent on research may give more meaningful results. When GDP is taken into consideration, smaller European countries are more productive. The importance of investment in radiologic research is emphasized by the association between increased funding of research and the number of publications in high-impacting radiology journals. Copyright (c) 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  15. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A. Antunes, E-mail: roosebs@gmail.com; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M). • Solidification/immobilization (S/I) waste of heavy metals. • Activators: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}). - Abstract: Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1 wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30 ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12 M in the composition of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} in 1:2 vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%.

  16. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A. Antunes; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M). • Solidification/immobilization (S/I) waste of heavy metals. • Activators: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate (Na 2 SiO 3 ). - Abstract: Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1 wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30 ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12 M in the composition of Na 2 SiO 3 in 1:2 vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%.

  17. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  18. Investigating Correlation between Protein Sequence Similarity and Semantic Similarity Using Gene Ontology Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Najmul; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Afzal, Muhammad Tanvir

    2018-01-01

    Sequence similarity is a commonly used measure to compare proteins. With the increasing use of ontologies, semantic (function) similarity is getting importance. The correlation between these measures has been applied in the evaluation of new semantic similarity methods, and in protein function prediction. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the two similarity methods. The results suggest absence of a strong correlation between sequence and semantic similarities. There is a large number of proteins with low sequence similarity and high semantic similarity. We observe that Pearson's correlation coefficient is not sufficient to explain the nature of this relationship. Interestingly, the term semantic similarity values above 0 and below 1 do not seem to play a role in improving the correlation. That is, the correlation coefficient depends only on the number of common GO terms in proteins under comparison, and the semantic similarity measurement method does not influence it. Semantic similarity and sequence similarity have a distinct behavior. These findings are of significant effect for future works on protein comparison, and will help understand the semantic similarity between proteins in a better way.

  19. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  20. Metabolic and molecular relative percentage coreduction in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Alvarez, Emilio; Carreras, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumour progression and are important targets for cancer therapeutics. 18 F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET/CT is a marker of tumour metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure percentage reductions in SUVmax (∇SUVmax%), VEGFR-2 (∇VEGFR-2%), EGFR (∇EGFR%) and COX-2 (∇COX-2%) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after preoperative treatment, and to correlate the changes in these markers of response with pathological response in terms of tumour regression grade (TRG) using Roedel's scale and long-term clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using a quantitative and qualitative compound immunohistochemistry analysis (immunoreactive score) of the pretreatment endoscopic biopsy and definitive surgical specimens. Composite indexes using ∇SUVmax% and the three molecules were developed to differentiate patients with metabolic and molecular responses from nonresponders. Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between the tumour markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The analysis included 38 patients with a median follow-up of 86 months (range 5 - 113 months). The ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% index correctly identified 13 of 19 pathological responders (TRG 3 and 4) and 17 of 19 nonresponders (TRG 0 - 2) (sensitivity 68 %, specificity 89 %, accuracy 79 %, positive predictive value 87 %, negative predictive value 74 %). In multivariate analysis, only the ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% index was associated with DFS (HR 0.11, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 0.15, p = 0.02). In patients with LARC the ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% response index is associated with outcome. Determination of the optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be explored. Evaluation in a clinical trial is

  1. The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield and Oil Rate and Protein Percentage of Four Varieties Castor in Climatic Conditions of Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Laei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study theeffect ofdrought stress was investigated on grain yield and oil rate and protein percentage of four varieties of castor in the climatic conditions of Damghan. The experiment was done in the research farm of Damghan Islamic Azad University(Iranin 2011 assplit plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots of drought stress were 5, 10 and15 days and another factor included four varities of castor ( one-flower, two- flower, local and red-flower which were performed in stable density of fivebushes per cultured square meter. Therefore, after gremination, the amount of irrigation water was recorded using volumetric meters. The traits evaluated included oil rate,seed protein percentage, andgrainyield. The results show that two-flower variety with 1241 kg per hectare on 5-day drought stress has the most grain yield. Most oil rate was observed in two-flower variety on 5 day drought stress with 496.4 kg/ha.

  2. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

    2012-02-01

    Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  3. Similarity, trust in institutions, affect, and populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Finucane, Melissa L.

    -based evaluations are fundamental to human information processing, they can contribute significantly to other judgments (such as the risk, cost-effectiveness, trustworthiness) of the same stimulus object. Although deliberation and analysis are certainly important in some decision-making circumstances, reliance...... on affect is a quicker, easier, and a more efficient way of navigating in a complex and uncertain world. Hence, many theorists give affect a direct and primary role in motivating behavior. Taken together, the results provide uncannily strong support for the value-similarity hypothesis, strengthening...... types of information about gene technology. The materials were attributed to different institutions. The results indicated that participants' trust in an institution was a function of the similarity between the position advocated in the materials and participants' own attitudes towards gene technology...

  4. Contingency and similarity in response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2018-05-09

    This paper explores issues of task representation in choice reaction time tasks. How is it possible, and what does it take, to represent such a task in a way that enables a performer to do the task in line with the prescriptions entailed in the instructions? First, a framework for task representation is outlined which combines the implementation of task sets and their use for performance with different kinds of representational operations (pertaining to feature compounds for event codes and code assemblies for task sets, respectively). Then, in a second step, the framework is itself embedded in the bigger picture of the classical debate on the roles of contingency and similarity for the formation of associations. The final conclusion is that both principles are needed and that the operation of similarity at the level of task sets requires and presupposes the operation of contingency at the level of event codes. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances... appliances including invalid lifts and therapeutic and rehabilitative devices, and special clothing made...

  6. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  7. Stochastic self-similar and fractal universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Laserra, E.; Tortoriello, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The structures formation of the Universe appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. An agreement is demonstrated for the present hypotheses of segregation with a size of astrophysical structures by using a comparison between quantum quantities and astrophysical ones. We present the observed segregated Universe as the result of a fundamental self-similar law, which generalizes the Compton wavelength relation. It appears that the Universe has a memory of its quantum origin as suggested by R. Penrose with respect to quasi-crystal. A more accurate analysis shows that the present theory can be extended from the astrophysical to the nuclear scale by using generalized (stochastically) self-similar random process. This transition is connected to the relevant presence of the electromagnetic and nuclear interactions inside the matter. In this sense, the presented rule is correct from a subatomic scale to an astrophysical one. We discuss the near full agreement at organic cell scale and human scale too. Consequently the Universe, with its structures at all scales (atomic nucleus, organic cell, human, planet, solar system, galaxy, clusters of galaxy, super clusters of galaxy), could have a fundamental quantum reason. In conclusion, we analyze the spatial dimensions of the objects in the Universe as well as space-time dimensions. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's E-infinity Cantorian space-time; so we must seriously start considering fractal geometry as the geometry of nature, a type of arena where the laws of physics appear at each scale in a self-similar way as advocated long ago by the Swedish school of astrophysics

  8. Similarity-based Polymorphic Shellcode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Yurievich Gamayunov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the work the method for polymorphic shellcode dedection based on the set of known shellcodes is proposed. The method’s main idea is in sequential applying of deobfuscating transformations to a data analyzed and then recognizing similarity with malware samples. The method has been tested on the sets of shellcodes generated using Metasploit Framework v.4.1.0 and PELock Obfuscator and shows 87 % precision with zero false positives rate.

  9. Quasi-Similarity Model of Synthetic Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2009), s. 255-265 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jets * synthetic jets * similarity solution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  10. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Lopes, António M.; Galhano, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  11. The fluid similarity of the boiling crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaounis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the measurements related to the boiling crisis have, until now, been undertaken for a wide parameter variation in the water, and were mainly related to the water-cooled reactor. This article investigates, whether or how the measuring results can be transferred to other fluids. Derived dimensionless similarity figures and those taken from literature are verified by measurements from complex geometries in water and freon 12. (orig.) [de

  12. The fluid similarity of the boiling crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaounis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the measurements related to the boiling crisis have, until now, been undertaken for a wide parameter variation in the water, and were mainly related to the water-cooled reactor. This article investigates, whether or how the measuring results can be transferred to other fluids. Derived dimensionless similarity figures and those taken from literature are verified by measurements from complex geometries in water and freon 12. (orig./GL) [de

  13. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-06-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  14. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  15. Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153Sm(113,117Snm) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Guanquan; He Jiaheng; Bing Wenzeng; Pu Manfei; Wei Hongyuan; Wang Wenjin

    2004-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153 Sm-NTMP, 153 Sm-HEDTMP, 153 Sm-DCTMP, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-DTPMP, 113,117 Sn m -EDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -HEDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -DTPMP are measured. The results show that there is a linear relationship between the relative magnitude of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and the relative magnitude of the binding percentage to BSA of these 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes. This linear relationship provides a new method for determination of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes of this kind. This linear relationship also implicates that hydrophobic force plays an important role in the binding of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes to BSA

  16. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  17. Optimization of barrel temperature and kidney bean flour percentage based on various physical properties of extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathian, G; Semwal, A D; Sharma, G K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to optimize barrel temperature (122 to 178 ± 0.5 °C) and red kidney bean flour percentage (KBF) (12 to 68 ± 0.5 %) based on physical properties of extrudates like flash off percentage, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), bulk density (BD), radial expansion ratio (RER) and overall acceptability (OAA) using single screw extruder. The study was carried out by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) using Response surface methodology (RSM) and moisture content of feed was kept as constant 16.0 ± 0.5 % throughout experiments. Mathematical models for various responses were found to fit significantly (P Extruded snack prepared with rice flour (80 %) and kidney bean flour (20 %) at optimized conditions was accepted by the taste panellists and above 20 % KB incorporation was found to decrease overall acceptability score.

  18. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  19. Investigation of percentage depth dose and dose rate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter for photon beams using MRI technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadbakht, B.; Hadad, K.; Zahmatkesh, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the investigation of the normoxic Pagan polymer-gel dosimeter percentage depth dose and it's dose rate dependence has been made. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 4.5% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide(bis), 4.5% acrylamide, 5% gelatine, 5 m M tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, 0.01 m M hydroquinone and 86% HPLC(Water). Irradiation of vials was performed using photon beams of Co-60 therapy unit and an Elec ta linear accelerator. Gel dosimeters were imaged in a Siemens Symphony 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner using a head coil. Post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both selected to be 1 day. For determining the percentage depth dose of the Pagan gel it was found that at the depth of 21 cm, the percentage depth dose for 1.25 MeV γ-ray photons of 60 Co and for 4,6 and 18 MV x-ray photons of Elec ta linear accelerator, are 48%, 52%, 57.3% and 59.73%, respectively. Thus, in the case of the higher energy photon beams, a higher dose can he delivered. to deep-seated tumors. The dose rate dependence of percentage depth dose was studied for 6 MV x-ray photons with the use of dose rates of 80, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 c Gy/min. No trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T 2 dependence was found on the mean dose rate and energy for the photon beams.

  20. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Karimzadeh; Zahra Seyedbonakdar; Maryam Mousavi; Mehdi Karami

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014?2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, ...

  1. Investigation of bioactivity, biocompatibility and thermal behavior of sol–gel silica glass containing a high PEG percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Renella, R.A.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Vecchio Ciprioti, S. [Department of Basic and Applied Science for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, Building RM017, I-00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which contain 60 or 70 weight percentage of PEG, were synthesized by the sol–gel technique. The materials were characterized and subjected to various tests to assess their application in the biomedical field. The evaluation of their morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the homogeneity of the samples on the nanometer scale. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds. This feature makes them class I hybrids. Simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) was used to investigate their thermal behavior and to establish the best temperatures for their pre-treatment. The fundamental properties that a material must have to be used in the biomedical field are biocompatibility and bioactivity. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid. This indicates that the materials are able to bond to bone tissue. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity tests highlight that the cell viability is affected by the polymer percentage. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. Therefore, the results obtained are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at high PEG percentage • Chemical, thermal and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Biological characterizations with WST-8 cytotoxicity tests • Bioactivity characterizations of hybrid materials with high PEG percentage.

  2. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Jiao; Qiushi Wang; Jianxin Nie; Xueyong Guo; Wei Zhang; Wenqi Fan

    2018-01-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-...

  3. Distribution and covering percentage of sponge (Porifera in different coral reef condition and depth in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARYANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, four specieses of sponge namely Auletta sp., Callyspongia pseudoreticulata, Callyspongia sp., and Halichondria sp. have been potentially identified as bacteriside for fishery commodities. Nevertheless, information on sponge distribution, its covering percentage, and its habitate are still very little. Observation on distribution and abundance of sponge was conducted in the Southeastern and the Northwestern part of Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi, using scuba diving set and under water writting tools. At first, coral reef condition in 3 and 10 m depths up to 100 m length of shore line were observed in both stations, using “lifeform method”. Then distribution and covering percentage of sponge, biotic and abiotic factor in 3, 6, 9, and 12 m depths in both stations were examined using “square transect method”. The result showed that different coral reef condition qualitatively causes different of sponge species distribution, but quantitatively not significantly different (P>0,05 on its covering percentage. It was also found that generally sponge grows better at the dead coral where no other biotic organism around.

  4. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  5. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  6. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  7. I/O-Efficient Similarity Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang; Silvestri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    LSH-based algorithms on external memory, our approach is able to take significant advantage of the available internal memory: Whereas the time complexity of classical algorithms includes a factor of N ρ, where ρ is a parameter of the LSH used, the I/O complexity of our algorithm merely includes...

  8. Spherically symmetric self-similar universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1979-10-01

    A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.

  9. Image magnification based on similarity analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuoping; Ye Zhenglin; Wang Shuxun; Peng Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the high time complexity of the decoding phase in the traditional image enlargement methods based on fractal coding, a novel image magnification algorithm is proposed in this paper, which has the advantage of iteration-free decoding, by using the similarity analogy between an image and its zoom-out and zoom-in. A new pixel selection technique is also presented to further improve the performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, by combining some existing fractal zooming techniques, an efficient image magnification algorithm is obtained, which can provides the image quality as good as the state of the art while greatly decrease the time complexity of the decoding phase.

  10. Similar on the Inside (pre-grinding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity show the rock called 'Pilbara' located in the small crater dubbed 'Fram.' The rock appears to be dotted with the same 'blueberries,' or spherules, found at 'Eagle Crater.' Spirit drilled into this rock with its rock abrasion tool. After analyzing the hole with the rover's scientific instruments, scientists concluded that Pilbara has a similar chemical make-up, and thus watery past, to rocks studied at Eagle Crater. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 600-nanometer filters.

  11. Similar on the Inside (post-grinding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity show the hole drilled into the rock called 'Pilbara,' which is located in the small crater dubbed 'Fram.' Spirit drilled into this rock with its rock abrasion tool. The rock appears to be dotted with the same 'blueberries,' or spherules, found at 'Eagle Crater.' After analyzing the hole with the rover's scientific instruments, scientists concluded that Pilbara has a similar chemical make-up, and thus watery past, to rocks studied at Eagle Crater. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 600-nanometer filters.

  12. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  13. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  14. [Similarity system theory to evaluate similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsuo; Meng, Qinghua; Jiang, Shumin; Hu, Yuzhu

    2005-03-01

    The similarity evaluation of the fingerprints is one of the most important problems in the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Similarity measures used to evaluate the similarity of the common peaks in the chromatogram of TCM have been discussed. Comparative studies were carried out among correlation coefficient, cosine of the angle and an improved extent similarity method using simulated data and experimental data. Correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle are not sensitive to the differences of the data set. They are still not sensitive to the differences of the data even after normalization. According to the similarity system theory, an improved extent similarity method was proposed. The improved extent similarity is more sensitive to the differences of the data sets than correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle. And the character of the data sets needs not to be changed compared with log-transformation. The improved extent similarity can be used to evaluate the similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints of TCM.

  15. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  16. Effects of Artemisin and Moringa oleifera Extract Combination on CD4+ and CD8+ Percentage of Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Fio Flora BR. Sijabat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of Artemisin and Moringa oleifera leaf extract combination on the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell of mice infected with P.berghei. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have important role in eliminating Plasmodium intracellular parasite that causes malaria infection. Artemisin is a potent antimalarial that kills the parasite through free radicals production. Excessive free radicals damage the immune cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Flavonoid (quercetin and kaempferol bioactive on Moringa leaves is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and is expected to prevent and decrease the adverse effects of Artemisin. This experimental post-test group research was conducted on six groups, i.e. normal mice (negative control, P.berghei infected mice without treatment (positive control, and four other groups, i.e. P.berghei infected mice and treated with Artemisin 0.004mg/gBW (A, and combinations of Artemisin 0.004mg/gBW and Moringa leaf extract 0.125mg/gBW (DK1, 0.250mg/gBW (DK2, and 0.500mg/gBW (DK3. On day 3 and 7, blood samples from each group were drawn randomly, parasitemia degree was calculated microscopically (magnification 1000 times, the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was determined using flowcytometry. The results of this study indicated that the administration of Artemisin and Moringa leaf extract combination for 7 days significant increased the percentage of CD4 + T cells in DK2 (p=0.001 and DK3 (p=0.000, and decreased the degree of parasitemia in DK1 (p=0.000, DK2 (p=0.000, and DK3 (p=0.000, however CD8 + T cells show no difference. There was a relationship between Artemisin and Moringa leaf extract combination with the degree of parasitemia (p=0.000 and the percentage of CD4+ T cells (p = 0.000, but not on CD8+ T cells.   Keywords: parasitemia, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Moringa oleifera

  17. The Effect of Freezing Stress on Percentage of Electrolytes Leakage and Survival of Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi-Darbandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. is a medicinal plant from Brassicaceae family which also known as a weed for winter cereals and oil seed rape. Low temperatures are one of the most important abiotic stresses that threat Flixweed growth and productivity. Therefore it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of Flixweed for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran’s north. east. Among many laboratory methods which have been developed to estimate and to evaluate plants response or their tolerance to freez ing temperatures, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence recording the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Indeed continuing integration of plasma membrane is one important factor for survival of plants under freezing stress and any disturbance in membrane structure can lead to damage and death. So determination of LT50 point or critical temperature for electrolytes leakage and survival of plant is the most reliable, quantitative and simple methods for evaluating the cold tolerance of plants. The aim of this trial was to determine the LT50 according to the EL and SU% for Flixweed ecotypes. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance in Flixweed, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Experimental factors included five ecotypes of Flixweed (Eghlid, Sabzewar, Hamedan, Torbat-e-Jam and Neyshabour and 10 freezing temperature levels (0, -2,-4, -6, -8,-10,-12,-14,-16 and -18°C. Flixweed seeds were cultivated in pots in autumn of 2008 and were grown until 5-7 leaf stage under natural weather conditions for acclimation. Then to apply freezing

  18. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz BenAbdelkader

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  19. Self-similarity in applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Lawrence

    1981-09-01

    Self-similarity is a descriptive term applying to a family of curves. It means that the family is invariant to a one-parameter group of affine (stretching) transformations. The property of self-similarity has been exploited in a wide variety of problems in applied superconductivity, namely, (i) transient distribution of the current among the filaments of a superconductor during charge-up, (ii) steady distribution of current among the filaments of a superconductor near the current leads, (iii) transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, (iv) transient diffusion in cylindrical geometry (important in studying the growth rate of the reacted layer in A15 materials), (v) thermal expulsion of helium from quenching cable-in-conduit conductors, (vi) eddy current heating of irregular plates by slow, ramped fields, and (vii) the specific heat of type-II superconductors. Most, but not all, of the applications involve differential equations, both ordinary and partial. The novel methods explained in this report should prove of great value in other fields, just as they already have done in applied superconductivity. (author)

  20. Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory.

  1. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  2. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN. The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation.

  3. Similar or different?: the importance of similarities and differences for support between siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, M.; van der Lippe, T.; Dykstra, P.A.; Flap, H.

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  4. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  5. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  6. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  7. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  8. Correct Bayesian and frequentist intervals are similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that Bayesians and frequentists will normally reach numerically similar conclusions, when dealing with vague data or sparse data. It is shown that both statistical methodologies can deal reasonably with vague data. With sparse data, in many important practical cases Bayesian interval estimates and frequentist confidence intervals are approximately equal, although with discrete data the frequentist intervals are somewhat longer. This is not to say that the two methodologies are equally easy to use: The construction of a frequentist confidence interval may require new theoretical development. Bayesians methods typically require numerical integration, perhaps over many variables. Also, Bayesian can easily fall into the trap of over-optimism about their amount of prior knowledge. But in cases where both intervals are found correctly, the two intervals are usually not very different. (orig.)

  9. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  10. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  11. Formulation of similarity porous media systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.M.; Ford, W.T.; Ruttan, A.; Strauss, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of the Porous Media System (PMS) describing two-phase, immiscible, compressible fluid flow in linear, homogeneous porous media is reviewed and expanded. It is shown that families of common vertex, coaxial parabolas and families of parallel lines are the only families of curves on which solutions of the PMS may be constant. A coordinate transformation is used to change the partial differential equations of the PMS to a system of ordinary differential equations, referred to as a similarity Porous Media System (SPMS), in which the independent variable denotes movement from curve to curve in a selected family of curves. Properties of solutions of the first boundary value problem are developed for the SPMS

  12. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  13. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Pierre; Noé, Laurent; Lavenier, Dominique; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Kucherov, Gregory; Giraud, Mathieu

    2008-12-16

    Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  14. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. Results The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. Conclusion We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  15. A similarity measure method combining location feature for mammogram retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiong; Xin, Junchang; Huang, Yukun; Li, Chen; Xu, Ling; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Huizi; Qian, Wei

    2018-05-28

    Breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women, has a high mortality rate in clinical practice. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment can reduce the mortalities of breast cancer greatly. The method of mammogram retrieval can help doctors to find the early breast lesions effectively and determine a reasonable feature set for image similarity measure. This will improve the accuracy effectively for mammogram retrieval. This paper proposes a similarity measure method combining location feature for mammogram retrieval. Firstly, the images are pre-processed, the regions of interest are detected and the lesions are segmented in order to get the center point and radius of the lesions. Then, the method, namely Coherent Point Drift, is used for image registration with the pre-defined standard image. The center point and radius of the lesions after registration are obtained and the standard location feature of the image is constructed. This standard location feature can help figure out the location similarity between the image pair from the query image to each dataset image in the database. Next, the content feature of the image is extracted, including the Histogram of Oriented Gradients, the Edge Direction Histogram, the Local Binary Pattern and the Gray Level Histogram, and the image pair content similarity can be calculated using the Earth Mover's Distance. Finally, the location similarity and content similarity are fused to form the image fusion similarity, and the specified number of the most similar images can be returned according to it. In the experiment, 440 mammograms, which are from Chinese women in Northeast China, are used as the database. When fusing 40% lesion location feature similarity and 60% content feature similarity, the results have obvious advantages. At this time, precision is 0.83, recall is 0.76, comprehensive indicator is 0.79, satisfaction is 96.0%, mean is 4.2 and variance is 17.7. The results show that the precision and recall of this

  16. Percentages of NKT cells in the tissues of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszniak, Maria; Rybojad, Paweł; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Jabłonka, Andrzej; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are involved in the antitumor response by direct cytotoxicity and indirectly through activation of effector cells. Recent studies have shown a relationship between the number and function of NKT cells and clinical outcomes. NKT cells seem to represent a promising tool for immunotherapy of cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of NKT cells in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as development of the most efficient set of cytokines stimulating differentiation of NKT cells. We evaluated the percentage of iNKT+CD3+ cells in the tissues collected from patients with NSCLC. For the generation of NKT cells, we cultured cells isolated from the blood of 20 healthy donors and from the tissues of 4 NSCLC patients. Cells were stimulated with α-GalCer in combinations with cytokines. We noted significant differences in the percentages of NKT cells in the patients' tissues. The highest percentage of these cells was observed in the tumor tissue and the lowest in the lymph nodes. In vitro, in healthy donors all α-GalCer-cytokine combinations were effective in stimulation of NKT cells' proliferation. NKT cells' proliferation was the most efficiently stimulated by α-GalCer+IL-2+IL-7 and α-GalCer+IL-2+IFN-γ. Our results suggest that in the course of NSCLC, NKT cells migrate to the primary tumor and accumulate therein. All tested combinations of α-GalCer and cytokines were capable of generation of NKT cells in vitro.

  17. Effect of Intermittent Drying Conditions on Fissuring Percentage and Process Duration of Long and Medium Rough Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors which affect the quality of rice during milling is internal fissures created during and after drying operation. In many industrial countries intermittent drying method is hired to reduce the moisture content of rough rice in order to reduce the drying time and maintain the quality of the final product. A high percentage of rice breakage during milling process, at least in Iran, necessitates performing the intermittent drying process and optimize it for Iranian varieties. In this study, the effect of this method (drying-tempering and continuous drying method (no tempering on fissuring percentage of Hashemi (long grain and Koohsar (medium grain varieties was investigated. The experiments were carried out at constant drying and tempering temperature of 60 °C, drying durations of 20, 40 and 60 min, and tempering durations of 0 (continuous drying, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 min. The results revealed that the tempering process significantly reduced the drying time and fissured kernels percentage. Moreover, for both varieties it was observed that the rice fissuring decreased significantly by continuing the tempering process until certain durations. Overall, for optimization of intermittent drying process in terms of the considered qualitative parameters, i.e. reducing energy consumption and losses, conducting 160 and 200 min tempering process after 40 min drying was found appropriate for Hashemi and Koohsar varieties, respectively. In addition, according to the higher fissuring for Koohsar (medium grain compared to Hashemi (long grain, it can be concluded that physical properties such as kernel slenderness ratio is effective on its fissuring.

  18. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  19. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  20. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  1. Liquid-assisted grinding and ion pairing regulates percentage conversion and diastereoselectivity of the Wittig reaction under mechanochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Kendra Leahy; Ortiz-Trankina, Lianna; Carr, Preston; Benson, Kingsley; Waddell, Daniel C; Mack, James

    2018-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is maturing as a discipline and continuing to grow, so it is important to continue understanding the rules governing the system. In a mechanochemical reaction, the reactants are added into a vessel along with one or more grinding balls and the vessel is shaken at high speeds to facilitate a chemical reaction. The dielectric constant of the solvent used in liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) and properly chosen counter-ion pairing increases the percentage conversion of stilbenes in a mechanochemical Wittig reaction. Utilizing stepwise addition/evaporation of ethanol in liquid-assisted grinding also allows for the tuning of the diastereoselectivity in the Wittig reaction.

  2. maritime terrorism and piracy: similarities and differences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stoop

    2002-11-05

    Nov 5, 2002 ... financial or material gain in the case of piracy, and political gain in the case of .... Against coastal facilities or settlements, including tourist resorts.8 .... Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, with the Rio de Janeiro and Santos ports ...

  3. Class Origin and Sibling Similarities in Long-run Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm

    2016-01-01

    Sibling correlations have gained increasing prominence in inequality studies as a Measurement of the total impact of family background on individual outcomes. Whilst previous studies have tended to use traditional socio-economic measures such as parent’s income or education, this paper introduces......’ education and income – include modifications of the Erikson–Goldthorpe–Portocarero schemes ranging from 3 to 15 classes and Grusky’s microclass scheme of 72 classes. The results show that although class adds to explanations of the family influence on children’s income, most of the sibling similarities...... are not explained by parental education, income or class. Depending on gender, the class schemes explain between 8 and 13 per cent of the sibling similarities and 15 to 20 per cent when parents’ income and educations are also included. Models with different class schemes demonstrate that elaborated versions...

  4. Differing Air Traffic Controller Responses to Similar Trajectory Prediction Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Hunt-Espinosa, Sarah; Bienert, Nancy; Laraway, Sean

    2016-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop simulation was conducted in January of 2013 in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA's Ames Research Center. The simulation airspace included two en route sectors feeding the northwest corner of Atlanta's Terminal Radar Approach Control. The focus of this paper is on how uncertainties in the study's trajectory predictions impacted the controllers ability to perform their duties. Of particular interest is how the controllers interacted with the delay information displayed in the meter list and data block while managing the arrival flows. Due to wind forecasts with 30-knot over-predictions and 30-knot under-predictions, delay value computations included errors of similar magnitude, albeit in opposite directions. However, when performing their duties in the presence of these errors, did the controllers issue clearances of similar magnitude, albeit in opposite directions?

  5. Similarity queries for temporal toxicogenomic expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Smith

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for answering similarity queries about gene expression time series that is motivated by the task of characterizing the potential toxicity of various chemicals. Our approach involves two key aspects. First, our method employs a novel alignment algorithm based on time warping. Our time warping algorithm has several advantages over previous approaches. It allows the user to impose fairly strong biases on the form that the alignments can take, and it permits a type of local alignment in which the entirety of only one series has to be aligned. Second, our method employs a relaxed spline interpolation to predict expression responses for unmeasured time points, such that the spline does not necessarily exactly fit every observed point. We evaluate our approach using expression time series from the Edge toxicology database. Our experiments show the value of using spline representations for sparse time series. More significantly, they show that our time warping method provides more accurate alignments and classifications than previous standard alignment methods for time series.

  6. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  7. Different-but-Similar Judgments by Bumblebees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines picture perception in an invertebrate. Two questions regarding possible picture-object correspondence are addressed for bumblebees (Bombus impatiens: (1 Do bees perceive the difference between an object and its corresponding picture even when they have not been trained to do so? (2 Do they also perceive the similarity? Twenty bees from each of four colonies underwent discrimination training of stimuli placed in a radial maze. Bees were trained to discriminate between two objects (artificial flowers in one group and between photos of those objects in another. Subsequent testing on unrewarding stimuli revealed, for both groups, a significant discrimination between the object and its photo: discrimination training was not necessary for bees to detect a difference between corresponding objects and pictures. We obtained not only object-to-picture transfer, as in previous research, but also the reverse: picture-to-object transfer. In the absence of the rewarding object, its photo, though never seen before by the bees, was accepted as a substitute. The reverse was also true. Bumblebees treated pictures as “different-but-similar” without having been trained to do so, which is in turn useful in floral categorization.

  8. Block generators for the similarity renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huether, Thomas; Roth, Robert [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) is a powerful tool to improve convergence behavior of many-body calculations using NN and 3N interactions from chiral effective field theory. The SRG method decouples high and low-energy physics, through a continuous unitary transformation implemented via a flow equation approach. The flow is determined by a generator of choice. This generator governs the decoupling pattern and, thus, the improvement of convergence, but it also induces many-body interactions. Through the design of the generator we can optimize the balance between convergence and induced forces. We explore a new class of block generators that restrict the decoupling to the high-energy sector and leave the diagonalization in the low-energy sector to the many-body method. In this way one expects a suppression of induced forces. We analyze the induced many-body forces and the convergence behavior in light and medium-mass nuclei in No-Core Shell Model and In-Medium SRG calculations.

  9. State and Mafia, Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano Vincenzo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate about the differences and, if any, the similarities among the modern State and the mafia criminal organizations. In particular, starting from their definitions, I will try to find the differences between State and mafia, to then focus on the operational aspects of the functioning of these two organizations, with specific reference to the effect/impact that both these human constructs have on citizens’ existences, and especially on citizen’s economic lives. All this in order to understand whether it is possible to identify an objective difference – beside morals – between taxation by the modern State and extortion by criminal organizations. With this of course I do not want to argue that the mafia is in any way justifiable or absolvable, nor that it is better than the State. However, I want to investigate whether there is a real, logical reason why the State should be considered by the citizens more desirable than the criminal organizations oppressing Southern Italy, from a strictly logical point of view and not from the point of view of ethics and morality.

  10. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  11. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  12. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.

  13. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  14. Physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat in 0.5 million adults: the China Kadoorie Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; Bennett, Derrick; Li, Liming; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Bian, Zheng; Hong, Lai-San; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Zhou, Renxian; Mao, Enke; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-03-01

    Few large studies in China have investigated total physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity. We investigated determinants of physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity in China. A total of 466,605 generally healthy participants (age: 30-79 y, 60% female) in the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported information on a range of activities was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET-h/d) spent on work, transportation, housework, and nonsedentary recreation. Sedentary leisure time was quantified as hours per day. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat (by bioimpedance analysis). Associations were estimated by linear and logistic regression. The mean physical activity was 22 MET-h/d, and the mean sedentary leisure time was 3.0 h/d. For each sex, physical activity was about one-third lower among professionals/administrators than among factory workers, with intermediate levels for other occupational categories. A 1-SD (14 MET-h/d) greater physical activity was associated with a 0.15-unit (95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) lower BMI (in kg/m(2)), a 0.58-cm (95% CI: 0.55, 0.61) smaller waist circumference, and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.50) percentage points less body fat. In contrast, a 1-SD (1.5 h/d) greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a 0.19-unit higher BMI (95% CI: 0.18, 0.20), a 0.57-cm larger waist circumference (95% CI: 0.54, 0.59), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.46) percentage points more body fat. For any given physical activity level, greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a greater prevalence of increased BMI, as was lower physical activity for any given sedentary leisure time. In adult Chinese, physical activity varies substantially by occupation, and lack of physical activity and excess sedentary

  15. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  17. Hierarchical structure of the European countries based on debts as a percentage of GDP during the 2000-2011 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    We investigate hierarchical structures of the European countries by using debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries as they change over a certain period of time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on debt as a percentage of GDP of European countries over the period 2000-2011 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). This period is also divided into two sub-periods related to 2004 enlargement of the European Union, namely 2000-2004 and 2005-2011, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. The bootstrap techniques is applied to see a value of statistical reliability of the links of the MSTs and HTs. The clustering linkage procedure is also used to observe the cluster structure more clearly. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their level of debts. Our results show that by the debt crisis, the less and most affected Eurozone’s economies are formed as a cluster with each other in the MSTs and hierarchical trees.

  18. Effect of PANI rate percentage on morphology, structure and charge transport mechanism in PANI–PVDF composites above percolation threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saïdi, Sami; Bouzitoun, Mouna; Mannaî, Aymen; Gmati, Fethi; Derouiche, Hassen; Mohamed, Abdellatif Belhadj

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline–Poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PANI–PVDF) composites were prepared by adding PANI to the PVDF by different weight percentages p % (p = 0, 5, 10, 20, … until 100%). The dc and ac electrical conductivity were studied as a function of PANI percentage in the temperature range 303–453 K. The percolation threshold was found to be equal to 2.95%. When the amount of PANI varies from 5 to 30%, the charge transport mechanism was found to be governed by Mott's three-dimensional variable range hopping model and the dc conductivity decreases within this range. For p > 30%, the conductivity increases and the charge transport mechanism are better fitted by a fluctuation induced tunnelling model (FIT). By calculating the distance ‘s’ between two successive clusters (the distance between two active imines centres (=N + H–) of PANI) from the FIT model, we deduce that electron charge transfer is done by inter-chain hopping for the range [p = 40 to 60%] and by intra-chain hopping for p = 70 to 90%. Some insights about the contribution of the ionic charge transport for PANI concentrations in the interval 5% < p < 30% were obtained using impedance measurements at different frequencies. X-ray diffraction measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the effect of PANI on the structure and morphology of composites. (paper)

  19. The effect of reinforcement percentages on properties of copper matrix composites reinforced with TiC particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, GH.A., E-mail: Gh.a.bagheri65@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    In this research, copper matrix composites reinforced with different amounts of titanium carbide particles were produced by mechanical milling and in-situ formation of reinforcements. Morphology and size of milled powders were inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) several times during milling process. Changes in lattice parameter, crystallite size, lattice strain, dislocation density and Gibbs free energy changes (due to increasing in dislocation densities and grain boundaries) in different samples (with different TiC particles contents) were studied by X-Ray Diffraction technique with Cu-kα radiation and using Nelson–Riley method and Williamson–Hall equation. Microstructure of samples after sintering was investigated by FESEM. Finally, densitometry, hardness, determination of electrical resistance and pin on disk wear test were performed and effect of reinforcement percentages on the physical and mechanical properties of composites was studied. Results show incredible improvement in mechanical properties with increasing in TiC value, even though, electrical conductivity dropped off considerably. - Highlights: • Microstructures, mechanical and physical properties of composites have been studied. • Stored Gibbs free energy of dislocations and grain boundaries has been calculated. • Gibbs free energy increased with increasing in titanium percent. • Higher TiC percentage led to better mechanical and unfavorable physical properties.

  20. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  1. Whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis of allostery: A large percentage of a protein can contribute to mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingling; Fenton, Aron W

    2017-09-01

    Many studies of allosteric mechanisms use limited numbers of mutations to test whether residues play "key" roles. However, if a large percentage of the protein contributes to allosteric function, mutating any residue would have a high probability of modifying allostery. Thus, a predicted mechanism that is dependent on only a few residues could erroneously appear to be supported. We used whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis to determine which amino acid sidechains of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK; approved symbol PKLR) contribute to regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP; activator) and alanine (inhibitor). Each nonalanine/nonglycine residue of hL-PYK was mutated to alanine to generate 431 mutant proteins. Allosteric functions in active proteins were quantified by following substrate affinity over a concentration range of effectors. Results show that different residues contribute to the two allosteric functions. Only a small fraction of mutated residues perturbed inhibition by alanine. In contrast, a large percentage of mutated residues influenced activation by Fru-1,6-BP; inhibition by alanine is not simply the reverse of activation by Fru-1,6-BP. Moreover, the results show that Fru-1,6-BP activation would be extremely difficult to elucidate using a limited number of mutations. Additionally, this large mutational data set will be useful to train and test computational algorithms aiming to predict allosteric mechanisms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations and liver fat percentage in lactating dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelbektes, H; Sen, I; Ok, M; Constable, P D; Boydak, M; Coskun, A

    2010-01-01

    There has been increased interest in measuring the serum concentration of acute phase reactants such as serum amyloid A [SAA] and haptoglobin [haptoglobin] in periparturient cattle in order to provide a method for detecting the presence of inflammation or bacterial infection. To determine whether [SAA] and [haptoglobin] are increased in cows with displaced abomasum as compared with healthy dairy cows. Fifty-four adult dairy cows in early lactation that had left displaced abomasum (LDA, n = 34), right displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus (RDA/AV, n = 11), or were healthy on physical examination (control, n = 9). Inflammatory diseases or bacterial infections such as mastitis, metritis, or pneumonia were not clinically apparent in any animal. Jugular venous blood was obtained from all cows and analyzed. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy in cattle with abomasal displacement. [SAA] and [haptoglobin] concentrations were increased in cows with LDA or RDA/AV as compared with healthy controls. Cows with displaced abomasum had mild to moderate hepatic lipidosis, based on liver fat percentages of 9.3 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SD, LDA) and 10.8 +/- 7.7% (RDA/AV). [SAA] and [haptoglobin] were most strongly associated with liver fat percentage, r(s) = +0.55 (P hepatic lipidosis in cattle with abomasal displacement.

  3. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, P.; Fatka, P.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Vraštil, J.; Pray, D. P.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Inasaridze, R. Ya.; Ayvazian, V. R.; Kvaratskhelia, O. I.; Zhuzhunadze, V. T.; Husárik, M.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Világi, J.; Kornoš, L.; Gajdoš, Š.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Donchev, Z.; Borisov, G.; Bonev, T.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Molotov, I. E.

    2018-04-01

    We studied the membership, size ratio and rotational properties of 13 asteroid clusters consisting of between 3 and 19 known members that are on similar heliocentric orbits. By backward integrations of their orbits, we confirmed their cluster membership and estimated times elapsed since separation of the secondaries (the smaller cluster members) from the primary (i.e., cluster age) that are between 105 and a few 106 years. We ran photometric observations for all the cluster primaries and a sample of secondaries and we derived their accurate absolute magnitudes and rotation periods. We found that 11 of the 13 clusters follow the same trend of primary rotation period vs mass ratio as asteroid pairs that was revealed by Pravec et al. (2010). We generalized the model of the post-fission system for asteroid pairs by Pravec et al. (2010) to a system of N components formed by rotational fission and we found excellent agreement between the data for the 11 asteroid clusters and the prediction from the theory of their formation by rotational fission. The two exceptions are the high-mass ratio (q > 0.7) clusters of (18777) Hobson and (22280) Mandragora for which a different formation mechanism is needed. Two candidate mechanisms for formation of more than one secondary by rotational fission were published: the secondary fission process proposed by Jacobson and Scheeres (2011) and a cratering collision event onto a nearly critically rotating primary proposed by Vokrouhlický et al. (2017). It will have to be revealed from future studies which of the clusters were formed by one or the other process. To that point, we found certain further interesting properties and features of the asteroid clusters that place constraints on the theories of their formation, among them the most intriguing being the possibility of a cascade disruption for some of the clusters.

  4. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  5. Self-similar pattern formation and continuous mechanics of self-similar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dyskin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the critical state of systems that reached the threshold is characterised by self-similar pattern formation. We produce an example of pattern formation of this kind – formation of self-similar distribution of interacting fractures. Their formation starts with the crack growth due to the action of stress fluctuations. It is shown that even when the fluctuations have zero average the cracks generated by them could grow far beyond the scale of stress fluctuations. Further development of the fracture system is controlled by crack interaction leading to the emergence of self-similar crack distributions. As a result, the medium with fractures becomes discontinuous at any scale. We develop a continuum fractal mechanics to model its physical behaviour. We introduce a continuous sequence of continua of increasing scales covering this range of scales. The continuum of each scale is specified by the representative averaging volume elements of the corresponding size. These elements determine the resolution of the continuum. Each continuum hides the cracks of scales smaller than the volume element size while larger fractures are modelled explicitly. Using the developed formalism we investigate the stability of self-similar crack distributions with respect to crack growth and show that while the self-similar distribution of isotropically oriented cracks is stable, the distribution of parallel cracks is not. For the isotropically oriented cracks scaling of permeability is determined. For permeable materials (rocks with self-similar crack distributions permeability scales as cube of crack radius. This property could be used for detecting this specific mechanism of formation of self-similar crack distributions.

  6. SIMILARITIES OF ELDERLY AND THERAPY-RELATED AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Alò

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a clonal disorder of the hematopoietic stem cell, typical of the elderly, with a median age of over 60 years at diagnosis. In AML, older age is one of the strongest independent adverse prognostic factor, associated with decreased complete response rate, worse disease-free and overall survival, with highest rates of treatment related mortality, resistant disease and relapse, compared to younger patients. While clinical risk factors do not significantly differ between older and younger patients, outcomes are compromised in elderly patients not only by increased comorbidities and susceptibility to toxicity from therapy, but it is now recognized that elderly AML represents a biologically distinct disease, that is itself more aggressive and less responsive to therapy. In elderly individuals prolonged exposure to environmental carcinogens may be the basis for the aggressive biology of the disease. This may also be the basis for similarities between elderly AML and therapy-related myeloid malignancies, mimicking toxic effects of previous cytotoxic treatments on hematopoietic stem cells. Age is itself a risk factor for t-MN, which are more frequent in elderly patients, where also a shorter latency between treatment of primary tumor and t-MN has been reported. Similarities between therapy-related malignancies and elderly AML include morphological aspects, as the presence of multilineage dysplasia preceding and/or concomitant to the development of leukemia, and adverse cytogenetics, including poor karyotype and chromosome 5 and/or 7 abnormalities. Looking at molecular prognosticators in elderly AML, similar to t-MN,  reduced frequency of favorable factors, as reduced number of NPM1 and CEBPA mutated cases has been observed, together with increased incidence of negative factors, as increased MDR1 expression, accelerated telomere shortening  and frequency of methylation changes. Given the unfavorable prognosis of elderly and

  7. Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

  8. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...... to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating...... mass. Leptin may also have an effect on bone growth. This may explain why wasted children with low fat stores have reduced linear growth when their weight-for-height remains low. It may also explain the frequent association of stunting with previous episodes of wasting. Stunting, however, can occur...

  9. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  10. A Study of the Influence of Percentage of Copper on the Structural and Optical Properties of Au-Cu Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Mashayekhi Shams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present our experimental results in synthesizing Au-Cu nano-particles with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance frequency through wet-chemical at temperature room. The reaction is performed in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as capping agent via four different procedures: (1 mixture of 90% HAuCl4 and 10% CuSO4.5H2O precursors, (2 mixture of 75% HAuCl4 and 25% CuSO4.5H2O precursors, (3 mixture of 50% HAuCl4 and 50% CuSO4.5H2O precursors (4 mixture of 25% HAuCl4 and 75% CuSO4.5H2O precursors. Effect of different percentages of Cu on Au nanoparticles has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDAX analysis, DRS UV-Vis, and Fourier transform IR spectra (FTIR analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are of cubic structure without an impure phase. The successful doping of the Cu into the Au host was evident by XRD line shiftings. The increasing percentage of copper leads to the decreasing grain size. With the increase of Cu2+ to Au3+ ratio in the Cu2+/Au3+ mixed solution (> 50% Cu, XRD lines show no shifting. The average crystal sizes of the particles at room temperature were less than 9.9 nm. The surface plasmon resonance peak shifts from 380 to 340 nm, party due to the change in particle size. SEM images show a spherical shape and the size of nanoparticles becomes smaller with increasing the percentage of copper. Moreover, in the molar ratio of Cu2+/Au3+ = 75/25 (>50% Cu, mixture of spherical and trigonal nanoparticles were prepared. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR showed the coordination and conjugation nanoparticles with N and O atoms of C-N and C=O bonds.

  11. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  12. Trends in energy intake in U.S. between 1977 and 1996: similar shifts seen across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Popkin, Barry M

    2002-05-01

    To determine the trends in locations and food sources of Americans stratified by age group for both total energy and the meal and snack subcomponents. Nationally representative data was taken from the 1977 to 1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey and the 1989 to 1991 and 1994 to 1996 (and 1998 for children age 2 through 9) Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals. The sample consisted of 63,380 individuals, age 2 and up. For each survey year, the percentage of total energy intake from meals and snacks was calculated separately for 2- to 18-year-olds, 19- to 39-year-olds, 40- to 59-year-olds, and those 60 years and older. The percentage of energy intake by location (at-home consumption or preparation, vending, store eaten out, restaurant/fast-food, and school) and by specific food group was computed for all age groups separately. The trends in location and food sources were almost identical for all age groups. Key dietary behavior shifts included greater away-from-home consumption; large increases in total energy from salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza; and large decreases in energy from low- and medium-fat milk and medium- and high-fat beef and pork. Total energy intake has increased over the past 20 years, with shifts away from meals to snacks and from at-home to away-from-home consumption. The similarity of changes across all age groups furthers the assertion that broad-based environmental changes are needed to improve the diets of Americans.

  13. High Aneuploidy Rates Observed in Embryos Derived from Donated Oocytes are Related to Male Aging and High Percentages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Ferreyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsule Male aging effects on aneuploidy rates in embryos. Objective Paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality; however, it is unknown if it influences chromosomal abnormalities in embryos. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the aneuploidy rates in embryos are affected by advanced paternal age. Methods A total of 286 embryos, obtained from 32 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with donated oocytes in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis, were allocated according to paternal age in three groups: Group A: ≤39 years (n = 44 embryos; Group B: 40-49 years (n = 154 embryos; and Group C: ≥50 years (n = 88 embryos. Fertilization rates, embryo quality at day 3, blastocyst development, and aneuploidy embryo rates were then compared. Results There was no difference in the seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility in the studied groups. Fertilization rate, percentages of zygotes underwent cleavage, and good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between the three evaluated groups. The group of men ≥50 years had significantly more sperm with damaged DNA, low blastocyst development rate, and higher aneuploidy rates in embryos compared to the other two evaluated groups ( P 50 years old.

  14. Economic base determination and influence of several variables against contributions percentage of the GDRP in Aceh Besar district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayani, Keumala; Miftahuddin

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) in Aceh Besar district is influenced by several leading sectors, such as agriculture, building sector, trade, hotel and restaurant sector, transport and communications, financial sector, leasing and business services, and services sector. Based on the use of Location Quotient (LQ) method and multiple regression model, the effect of labor variables and population to Gross Regional Domestic Product by 2000 constant prices for agriculture and trade. For each addition of one workforce in the trading sector, the trade sector contribution will increase by 0.000014157%. Thus, the trade sector contribution will increase by 0.0000013786% in every addition of one soul of the population. Whereas, for every addition of one human resource in the agricultural sector will be reduced by 0.0002%. In other words, for each addition of one soul of the population will reduce the contribution of the agricultural sector by 0.00008611%.

  15. Dose evaluation in function of the thyroid captivation percentage and mass in patients under radiotherapy for toxic goiter treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Aline Nunes; Antonio Filho, Joao

    2009-01-01

    Rarely the patient's metabolism is pondered when the quantity of radioactive material administrated to the patient is calculated. Nowadays, realizing till 150 mCi/g activities treatments are not indicated to toxic goiter radiotherapy. This paper objectives to establish a group of 13I -treatment options optimization for owner toxic goiter patients to maximize benefits and minimize radiological detriments. Methodology consisted of effective and absorbed whole-body and the other organs doses evaluations. And to observe the relation between these values and the thyroid mass and captivation percentage. The results, in spite of characteristic variations of each patient, showed such a homogeneity. This phenomenon happens because of explicit dependency on the real activity administrated to the patient. Used protocols for the toxic goiter treatment optimization avoiding waste of radioisotopes. (author)

  16. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  17. Evaluation of intracellular anion superoxide level, heat shock protein A2 and protamine positive spermatozoa percentages in teratoasthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teratoasthenozoospermia (TA is a severe form of male infertility with no clear etiology. Objective: To compare the level of intracellular anion superoxide (O2–, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 and protamine deficiencies in ejaculated spermatozoa between teratoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men. Materials and Methods: In this case- control study, semen samples of 20 infertile men, with TA (with normal morphology lower than 4%_ and total motility lower than 40% as the case group and 20 normozoospermic fertile men as the control group were evaluated for intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 by flow cytometry and protamine deficiency by Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 test. Results: The rate of CMA3+ spermatozoa in the case group was higher than controls (p=0.001. The percentages of HSPA2+ spermatozoa in the cases were significantly lower than controls (p=0.001. Also, intracellular O2 – levels in the case group were significantly higher than controls (p=0.001 and had positive correlations with sperm apoptosis (r=0.79, p=0.01 and CMA3 positive sperm (r=0.76, p=0.01, but negative correlations with normal morphology (r=-0.81, p=0.01 and motility (r=-0.81, p=0.01. There was no significant correlation between intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 in the case group (r=0.041, p=0.79. Conclusion: We suggest that the increase in intracellular O2 –, decrease in spermatozoa HSPA2+, and high percentages of spermatozoa with immature chromatin might be considered as etiologies of infertility in TA patients

  18. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Nation-Wide Study on the Percentage of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Patients Who Earn Minimum Wage or Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990-2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, A S; Tagliafico, G; Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-11-01

    To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity(©), developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (pBI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, pBI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories.

  1. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is pathologically similar to pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: suggestions of similar background and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori

    2014-07-01

    Routine experiences suggest that cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) show different clinicopathological behaviors along the biliary tree, and hilar CCA apparently resembles pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Herein, the backgrounds for these similarities were reviewed. While all cases of PDAC, hilar CCA, intrahepatic CCA (ICCA) and CCA components of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHC-CCA) were adenocarcinomas, micropapillary patterns and columnar carcinoma cells were common in PDAC and hilar CCA, and trabecular components and cuboidal carcinoma cells were common in ICCA and CCA components of cHC-CCA. Anterior gradient protein-2 and S100P were frequently expressed in perihilar CCA and PDAC, while neural cell adhesion molecule and luminal epithelial membrane antigen were common in CCA components of c-HC-CCA. Pdx1 and Hes1 were frequently and markedly expressed aberrantly in PDAC and perihilar CCA, although their expression was rare and mild in CCA components in cHC-CCA and ICCA. Hilar CCA showed a similar postoperative prognosis to PDAC but differed from ICCA and cHC-CCA. Taken together, hilar CCA may differ from ICCA and CCA components of cHC-CCA but have a similar development to PDAC. These similarities may be explained by the unique anatomical, embryological and reactive nature of the pancreatobiliary tract. Further studies of these intractable malignancies are warranted. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  2. When high similarity copycats lose and moderate similarity copycats gain: The impact of comparative evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Copycats imitate features of leading brands to free ride on their equity. The prevailing belief is that the more similar copycats are to the leader brand, the more positive their evaluation is, and thus the more they free ride. Three studies demonstrate when the reverse holds true:

  3. When high similarity copycats lose and moderate similarity copycats gain : The impact of comparative evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Copycats imitate features of leading brands to free ride on their equity. The prevailing belief is that the more similar copycats are to the leader brand, the more positive their evaluation is, and thus the more they free ride. Three studies demonstrate when the reverse holds true:

  4. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  5. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  6. A vertex similarity index for better personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Jiao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Jin-Hu; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Recommender systems benefit us in tackling the problem of information overload by predicting our potential choices among diverse niche objects. So far, a variety of personalized recommendation algorithms have been proposed and most of them are based on similarities, such as collaborative filtering and mass diffusion. Here, we propose a novel vertex similarity index named CosRA, which combines advantages of both the cosine index and the resource-allocation (RA) index. By applying the CosRA index to real recommender systems including MovieLens, Netflix and RYM, we show that the CosRA-based method has better performance in accuracy, diversity and novelty than some benchmark methods. Moreover, the CosRA index is free of parameters, which is a significant advantage in real applications. Further experiments show that the introduction of two turnable parameters cannot remarkably improve the overall performance of the CosRA index.

  7. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuPing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional online shopping platform (OSP, which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers’ experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  8. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  9. Molecular diversity of Clostridium botulinum and phenotypically similar strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, T; Kukier, E; Sieradzki, Z; Goldsztejn, M; Kwiatek, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine phenotypic and genetic features of strains preliminary classified as Clostridium botulinum species. The phenotypic characteristics were assessed with different culture media and biochemical tests. The genetic characterization included detection of botulinum toxin genes by PCR and macrorestriction analysis with SmaI, XhoI and SacII by PFGE (Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis). Despite similar biochemical properties of all analysed strains, only 47% of them contained genes determining toxicity specific to C. botulinum species. The most valuable differentiation of C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like strains was obtained after SmaI digestion. The highest affinity was observed among C. botulinum type B profiles which was even up to 100%. It was found 100% of affinity between C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like strains, however, the similarity among C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like was generally lower than 80%.

  10. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  11. Similarities and distinctions of CIR and Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yuri; Lodkina, Irina; Nikolaeva, Nadezhda; Yermolaev, Michael

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of OMNI data and our catalog of large scale solar wind (SW) streams during 1976-2000 [Yermolaev et al., 2009] we study the average temporal profiles for two types of compressed regions: CIR (corotating interaction region - compressed region before High Speed Stream (HSS)) and Sheath (compressed region before fast Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), including Magnetic Cloud (MC) and Ejecta). As have been shown by Nikolaeva et al, [2015], the efficiency of magnetic storm generation is ~50% higher for Sheath and CIR than for ICME (MC and Ejecta), i.e. reaction magnetosphere depends on type of driver. To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: rescaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide [Yermolaev et al., 2010; 2015]. Obtained data allows us to suggest that the formation of all types of compression regions has the same physical mechanism irrespective of piston (HSS or ICME) type and differences are connected with geometry and full jumps of speed in edges of compression regions. If making the natural assumption that the gradient of speed is directed approximately on normal to the piston, CIR has the largest angle between the gradient of speed and the direction of average SW speed, and ICME - the smallest angle. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects 13-02-00158, 16-02-00125 and by Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. References: Nikolaeva, N. S. , Yu. I. Yermolaev, and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the Corrected Dst* Index Temporal Profile on the Main Phase of the Magnetic Storms Generated by Different Types of Solar Wind, Cosmic Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 119-127. Yermolaev, Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Research

  12. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J.; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  13. Exploring the relationship between sequence similarity and accurate phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, Brandi L; Morrison, Hilary G; Pearson, William

    2006-11-01

    We have characterized the relationship between accurate phylogenetic reconstruction and sequence similarity, testing whether high levels of sequence similarity can consistently produce accurate evolutionary trees. We generated protein families with known phylogenies using a modified version of the PAML/EVOLVER program that produces insertions and deletions as well as substitutions. Protein families were evolved over a range of 100-400 point accepted mutations; at these distances 63% of the families shared significant sequence similarity. Protein families were evolved using balanced and unbalanced trees, with ancient or recent radiations. In families sharing statistically significant similarity, about 60% of multiple sequence alignments were 95% identical to true alignments. To compare recovered topologies with true topologies, we used a score that reflects the fraction of clades that were correctly clustered. As expected, the accuracy of the phylogenies was greatest in the least divergent families. About 88% of phylogenies clustered over 80% of clades in families that shared significant sequence similarity, using Bayesian, parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood methods. However, for protein families with short ancient branches (ancient radiation), only 30% of the most divergent (but statistically significant) families produced accurate phylogenies, and only about 70% of the second most highly conserved families, with median expectation values better than 10(-60), produced accurate trees. These values represent upper bounds on expected tree accuracy for sequences with a simple divergence history; proteins from 700 Giardia families, with a similar range of sequence similarities but considerably more gaps, produced much less accurate trees. For our simulated insertions and deletions, correct multiple sequence alignments did not perform much better than those produced by T-COFFEE, and including sequences with expressed sequence tag-like sequencing errors did not

  14. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Russell, Paul J. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Vander Heyden, Yvan, E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  15. Mathematical approach for the assessment of similarity factor using a new scheme for calculating weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Sarvaiya, K G; Shah, A R; Brahmbhatt, B K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to propose a method for calculating weight in the Moore and Flanner Equation. The percentage coefficient of variation in reference and test formulations at each time point was considered for calculating weight. The literature reported data are used to demonstrate applicability of the method. The advantages and applications of new approach are narrated. The results show a drop in the value of similarity factor as compared to the approach proposed in earlier work. The scientists who need high accuracy in calculation may use this approach.

  16. 26 CFR 1.280F-3T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit when the business use percentage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit when the business use percentage of listed property is not greater than 50 percent... recovery deductions and the investment tax credit when the business use percentage of listed property is... limitations with respect to the amount allowable as an investment tax credit under section 46(a) and the...

  17. Validation of calculated tissue maximum ratio obtained from measured percentage depth dose (PPD) data for high energy photon beam ( 6 MV and 15 MV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, J.E.

    2014-07-01

    dose (dmax) were 1.5 cm for both PDD and TMR at 6 MV and 2.5 cm and 2.6 cm for PDD and TMR at 15 MV respectively. The minimum relative percentage differences recorded were 1.6 % for 40x40 cm field size and 1.2 % for 5x5 cm field size at 6 MV and 15 MV respectively, while the maximum relative percentage differences recorded were 2.0 % for 10x10 cm field size and 1.4 % for 40x40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV x-ray beam respectively. The relative differences between the calculated and the measured TMRs increases with depth at all field sizes. It can be concluded that, although based on the results the general agreement between the calculated and measured TMRs is good but for clinically high energy photon beam, it is required that TMR should be measured directly especially when treating deep internal tumor. However it is recommended that comparison of the measured TMR and PDD with that obtained during commission, should be included in the annual quality assurance (QAs) of the machine at SGMC. (au)

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield, Harvest Index and Extract Percentage of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemp is a dioecious and annual plant. The most important use to this plant is in the food, drug, and natural fibers. Proper fertilizer management for a medicinal plant species is important for increasing its yield and maintaining the quality of active principles. Sustainable farming is on the basis of natural fertilizer application with the aim of decreasing chemical fertilizers. Various studies show that application of animal manure with chemical fertilizers (as N, P and … have positive effects on soil structure, microbial population, soil fertility, growth and yield of plant with the aim of protecting the environment. Therefore, the present study was under taken to evaluate the effect of organic amendments enriched with chemical fertilizers of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and extract of hemp. Materials and Methods To study the effect of different levels of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, a split factorial experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at the research Farm of Faculty of agriculture, University of Birjand, during the growing season 2014-2015. Experimental factors were animal manure (0, 10, 20 and 30 t. ha-1well rotted farmyard manure as the main plot, and factorial application of three levels of N (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 as Urea with two levels of P (0 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple and P was superphosphate as sub-plot. Animal manure, P and half of the N fertilizer were applied before planting and the other half of N were applied by top dressing. Hemp were planted 5 may on rows 60 cm apart, with 30 cm distance between each hemp on row, at the depth of 3-4 cm. Measured traits included leaf, stem and seed weights, stem height and diameter, 1000 seed weight, and leaves extract percentage per square meter in sub-plot for female plants of hemp. Also percentage of female plants calculated per sub-plot. Finally, all variables were analyzed by SAS software (V. 9

  19. Engaging narratives evoke similar neural activity and lead to similar time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samantha S; Henin, Simon; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-07-04

    It is said that we lose track of time - that "time flies" - when we are engrossed in a story. How does engagement with the story cause this distorted perception of time, and what are its neural correlates? People commit both time and attentional resources to an engaging stimulus. For narrative videos, attentional engagement can be represented as the level of similarity between the electroencephalographic responses of different viewers. Here we show that this measure of neural engagement predicted the duration of time that viewers were willing to commit to narrative videos. Contrary to popular wisdom, engagement did not distort the average perception of time duration. Rather, more similar brain responses resulted in a more uniform perception of time across viewers. These findings suggest that by capturing the attention of an audience, narrative videos bring both neural processing and the subjective perception of time into synchrony.

  20. A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Activity Recognition (HAR is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.