WorldWideScience

Sample records for included shift-long average

  1. Extended averaging phase-shift schemes for Fizeau interferometry on high-numerical-aperture spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Phase-shifting Fizeau interferometry on spherical surfaces is impaired by phase-shift errors increasing with the numerical aperture, unless a custom optical set-up or wavelength shifting is used. This poses a problem especially for larger numerical apertures, and requires good error tolerance of the phase-shift method used; but it also constitutes a useful testing facility for phase-shift formulae, because a vast range of phase-shift intervals can be tested in a single measurement. In this paper I show how the "characteristic polynomials" method can be used to generate a phase-shifting method for the actual numerical aperture, and analyse residual cyclical phase errors by comparing a phase map from an interferogram with a few fringes to a phase mpa from a nulled fringe. Unrelated to the phase-shift miscalibration, thirdharmonic error fringes are found. These can be dealt with by changing the nominal phase shift from 90°/step to 60°/step and re-tailoring the evaluation formula for third-harmonic rejection. The residual error has the same frequency as the phase-shift signal itself, and can be removed by averaging measurements. Some interesting features of the characteristic polynomials for the averaged formulae emerge, which also shed some light on the mechanism that generates cyclical phase errors.

  2. Shift work and cognition in the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Grodstein, Francine; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2013-10-15

    Rotating night-shift work, which can disrupt circadian rhythm, may adversely affect long-term health. Experimental studies indicate that circadian rhythm disruption might specifically accelerate brain aging; thus, we prospectively examined shift-work history at midlife as associated with cognitive function among older women in the Nurses' Health Study. Women reported their history of rotating night-shift work in 1988 and participated in telephone-based cognitive interviews between 1995 and 2001; interviews included 6 cognitive tests that were subsequently repeated 3 times, at 2-year intervals. We focused on shift work through midlife (here, ages 58-68 years) because cognitive decline is thought to begin during this period. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we evaluated mean differences in both "average cognitive status" at older age (averaging cognitive scores from all 4 interviews) and rates of cognitive decline over time across categories of shift-work duration at midlife (none, 1-9, 10-19, or ≥20 years). There was little association between shift work and average cognition in later life or between shift work and cognitive decline. Overall, this study does not clearly support the hypothesis that shift-work history in midlife has long-term effects on cognition in older adults.

  3. Research of isolated resonances using the average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Grymalo, A.K.; Kolotyi, V.V.; Mityushkin, O.O.; Venediktov, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work is devoted to detailed description of one of the research directions in the Neutron Physics Department (NPD), namely, to research of resonance parameters of isolated nuclear level at the filtered neutron beam on the horizontal experimental channel HEC-8 of the WWR-M reactor. Research of resonance parameters is an actual problem nowadays. This is because there are the essential differences between the resonance parameter values in the different evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) for many nuclei. Research of resonance parameter is possible due to the set of the neutron cross sections received at the same filter, but with the slightly shifted filter average energy. The shift of the filter average energy is possible by several processes. In this work this shift is realized by neutron energy dependence on scattering angle. This method is provided by equipment.

  4. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period.

  5. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  6. Potential breeding distributions of U.S. birds predicted with both short-term variability and long-term average climate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; Flather, Curtis H; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Akçakaya, H Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Albright, Thomas P; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Climate conditions, such as temperature or precipitation, averaged over several decades strongly affect species distributions, as evidenced by experimental results and a plethora of models demonstrating statistical relations between species occurrences and long-term climate averages. However, long-term averages can conceal climate changes that have occurred in recent decades and may not capture actual species occurrence well because the distributions of species, especially at the edges of their range, are typically dynamic and may respond strongly to short-term climate variability. Our goal here was to test whether bird occurrence models can be predicted by either covariates based on short-term climate variability or on long-term climate averages. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) based on either short-term variability or long-term average climate covariates for 320 bird species in the conterminous USA and tested whether any life-history trait-based guilds were particularly sensitive to short-term conditions. Models including short-term climate variability performed well based on their cross-validated area-under-the-curve AUC score (0.85), as did models based on long-term climate averages (0.84). Similarly, both models performed well compared to independent presence/absence data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (independent AUC of 0.89 and 0.90, respectively). However, models based on short-term variability covariates more accurately classified true absences for most species (73% of true absences classified within the lowest quarter of environmental suitability vs. 68%). In addition, they have the advantage that they can reveal the dynamic relationship between species and their environment because they capture the spatial fluctuations of species potential breeding distributions. With this information, we can identify which species and guilds are sensitive to climate variability, identify sites of high conservation value where climate

  7. Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Melick, M J G J; van Beukering, M D M; Mol, B W; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Hulshof, C T J

    2014-11-01

    Specific physical activities or working conditions are suspected for increasing the risk of preterm birth (PTB). The aim of this meta-analysis is to review and summarize the pre-existing evidence on the effect of shift work or long working hours on the risk of PTB. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE (1990-2013) for observational and intervention studies with original data. We only included articles that met our specific criteria for language, exposure, outcome, data collection and original data that were of at least of moderate quality. The data of the included studies were pooled. Eight high-quality studies and eight moderate-quality studies were included in the meta-analysis. In these studies, no clear or statistically significant relationship between shift work and PTB was found. The summary estimate OR for performing shift work during pregnancy and the risk of PTB were 1.04 (95% CI 0.90-1.20). For long working hours during pregnancy, the summary estimate OR was 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.54), indicating a marginally statistically significant relationship but an only slightly elevated risk. Although in many of the included studies a positive association between long working hours and PTB was seen this did reach only marginal statistical significance. In the studies included in this review, working in shifts or in night shifts during pregnancy was not significantly associated with an increased risk for PTB. For both risk factors, due to the lack of high-quality studies focusing on the risks per trimester, in particular the third trimester, a firm conclusion about an association cannot be stated.

  8. Tax shifting in long-term gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Osmundsen, Petter; Tveteraas, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    Producers or consumers faced with an increase in taxes are usually able to shift parts of it to other levels in the value chain. We examine who are actually bearing the burden of increased taxes on natural gas in the EU-area - consumers or exporters. Strategic trade policy and cross-border consumer tax shifting are of particular interest, as the EU-area increasingly is a net importer of gas. Traditional tax incidence theory presumes spot markets. Natural gas in the EU-area, however, is to a large extent regulated by incomplete long-term contracts. Still, spot market forces could be indicative for tax shifting, by determining the ex post bargaining power in contract renegotiations. By examining tax shifting in gas sales data we test whether this is the case. To investigate tax incidence, we estimate natural gas demand elasticities for the household sector in EU countries as well as a reduced form import equation. We test whether gas import prices, which are predominantly determined by long-term contracts, have been influenced by end-user tax shifts. (author)

  9. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ahmed, Kazi Ishtiak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods: The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970......–1971 and 1985–1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970–1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years......). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0...

  10. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia: A long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Gyntelberg, Finn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Waldemar, Gunhild; Westendorp, Rudi Gj; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970-1971 and 1985-1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970-1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.19) and dementia. Adjustment for potential confounders and mediators did not change the estimates. Working shifts at both time points of exposure assessment was not associated with a higher incidence of dementia compared with non-shift workers at both time points (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.42). The lowest incidence of dementia was observed among participants who reported shift work at one time point (only in 1985-1986: IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16-1.23 and only in 1970-1971: IRR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.11). Conclusion We did not find positive evidence of an association between shift work or long working hours and the incidence of dementia, but the negative findings may reflect the crude assessment of shift work and long working hours, which is a major limitation of the present study.

  11. Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Kim, Hyoungryoul; Zaldivar, Frank; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

    2014-03-06

    Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call "cardiovascular strain". The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters.

  12. The long-run forecasting of energy prices using the model of shifting trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Developing models for accurate long-term energy price forecasting is an important problem because these forecasts should be useful in determining both supply and demand of energy. On the supply side, long-term forecasts determine investment decisions of energy-related companies. On the demand side, investments in physical capital and durable goods depend on price forecasts of a particular energy type. Forecasting long-run rend movements in energy prices is very important on the macroeconomic level for several developing countries because energy prices have large impacts on their real output, the balance of payments, fiscal policy, etc. Pindyck (1999) argues that the dynamics of real energy prices is mean-reverting to trend lines with slopes and levels that are shifting unpredictably over time. The hypothesis of shifting long-term trend lines was statistically tested by Benard et al. (2004). The authors find statistically significant instabilities for coal and natural gas prices. I continue the research of energy prices in the framework of continuously shifting levels and slopes of trend lines started by Pindyck (1999). The examined model offers both parsimonious approach and perspective on the developments in energy markets. Using the model of depletable resource production, Pindyck (1999) argued that the forecast of energy prices in the model is based on the long-run total marginal cost. Because the model of a shifting trend is based on the competitive behavior, one may examine deviations of oil producers from the competitive behavior by studying the difference between actual prices and long-term forecasts. To construct the long-run forecasts (10-year-ahead and 15-year-ahead) of energy prices, I modify the univariate shifting trends model of Pindyck (1999). I relax some assumptions on model parameters, the assumption of white noise error term, and propose a new Bayesian approach utilizing a Gibbs sampling algorithm to estimate the model with autocorrelation. To

  13. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-09-05

    The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 non-shift workers and 824 shift workers). Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35-44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or self-reported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among non-shift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57-1.24); however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21-5.10) compared with those working 35-44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  14. Just a minute meditation: Rapid voluntary conscious state shifts in long term meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay Kumar; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-08-01

    Meditation induces a modified state of consciousness that remains under voluntary control. Can meditators rapidly and reversibly bring about mental state changes on demand? To check, we carried out 128 channel EEG recordings on Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga meditators (36 long term: median 14240h meditation; 25 short term: 1095h) and controls (25) while they tried to switch every minute between rest and meditation states in different conditions (eyes open and closed; before and after an engaging task). Long term meditators robustly shifted states with enhanced theta power (4-8Hz) during meditation. Short term meditators had limited ability to shift between states and showed increased lower alpha power (8-10Hz) during eyes closed meditation only when pre and post task data were combined. Controls could not shift states. Thus trained beginners can reliably meditate but it takes long term practice to exercise more refined control over meditative states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J

  16. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2014-05-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  17. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2014-05-15

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  18. Administrative circulars No. 22A (rev. 1) – Award of additional periods of membership in the Pensions Fund for long-term shift work and No. 22B (rev. 1) – Compensation for long-term shift work hours

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Administrative Circulars No. 22A (Rev. 1) entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund for long-term shift work" and No. 22B (Rev.1) entitled “Compensation for long-term shift work hours”, adopted following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 September 2010 and entering into force on 1 March 2011, are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp They cancel and replace Administrative Circulars No. 22A and 22B entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund to shift workers (Early Departure)” and “Duration and special compensation for shift work” of January 2000. This new version clarifies, in particular, the compensation of effective long-term shift work hours. Department Head Office  

  19. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Bannai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 nonshift workers and 824 shift workers. Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35–44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or selfreported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. Results: The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among nonshift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57–1.24; however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21–5.10 compared with those working 35–44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. Conclusions: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  20. A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The mainly used islanding detection techniques may be classified as active and passive techniques. Passive techniques don't perturb the system but they have larger nondetection znes, whereas active techniques have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid...... technique is proposed to solve this problem. An average rate of voltage change (passive technique) has been used to initiate a real power shift (active technique), which changes the eal power of distributed generation (DG), when the passive technique cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding...

  1. Performance and sleepiness in nurses working 12-h day shifts or night shifts in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marian; Permito, Regan; English, Ashley; Albritton, Sandra; Coogle, Carlana; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-10-05

    Hospitals are around-the-clock operations and nurses are required to care for patients night and day. The nursing shortage and desire for a more balanced work-to-home life has popularized 12-h shifts for nurses. The present study investigated sleep/wake cycles and fatigue levels in 22 nurses working 12-h shifts, comparing day versus night shifts. Nurses (11day shift and 11 night shift) were recruited from a suburban acute-care medical center. Participants wore a wrist activity monitor and kept a diary to track their sleep/wake cycles for 2 weeks. They also completed a fatigue test battery, which included the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), at the beginning, middle and end of 4 duty shifts. Daily sleep duration was 7.1h on average. No overall difference in mean daily sleep duration was found between nurses working day shifts versus night shifts. Objective performance on the PVT remained relatively good and stable at the start, middle, and end of duty shifts in day shift workers, but gradually degraded across duty time in night shift workers. Compared to day shift workers, night shift workers also exhibited more performance variability among measurement days and between participants at each testing time point. The same pattern was observed for subjective sleepiness on the KSS. However, congruence between objective and subjective measures of fatigue was poor. Our findings suggest a need for organizations to evaluate practices and policies to mitigate the inevitable fatigue that occurs during long night shifts, in order to improve patient and healthcare worker safety. Examination of alternative shift lengths or sanctioned workplace napping may be strategies to consider. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  3. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged >= 35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedule...

  4. First-order symmetrizable hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations including lapse and shift as dynamical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Kashif

    2002-01-01

    First-order hyperbolic systems are promising as a basis for numerical integration of Einstein's equations. In previous work, the lapse and shift have typically not been considered part of the hyperbolic system and have been prescribed independently. This can be expensive computationally, especially if the prescription involves solving elliptic equations. Therefore, including the lapse and shift in the hyperbolic system could be advantageous for numerical work. In this paper, two first-order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems are presented that include the lapse and shift as dynamical fields and have only physical characteristic speeds

  5. Criteria to average out the chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR when irradiated with BABA I, BABA II, and C7 radiofrequency pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane Mananga, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Floquet-Magnus expansion is used to study the effect of chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR of rotating solids. The chemical shift interaction is irradiated with two types of radiofrequency pulse sequences: BABA and C7. The criteria for the chemical shift anisotropy to be averaged out in each rotor period are obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of resident physician stress, burnout, and empathy on patient-centered communication during the long-call shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Stacey A; Segrin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    During the long-call shift medical residents experience a number of stressors that could compromise the quality of care they provide to their patients. The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived stress and burnout affect changes in empathy over the long-call shift and how those changes in empathy are associated with patient-centered communication practices. Residents (n=93) completed self-report measures of stress, burnout, and empathy at the start of their long-call shift and then completed measures of empathy and patient-centered communication at the end of the same shift. There was a significant decline in physician empathy from the beginning to the end of the long-call shift. Perceived stress was significantly associated with higher burnout, which was, in turn, significantly associated with declines in empathy from pre- to posttest. Declines in empathy predicted lower self-reported patient-centered communication during the latter half of the shift. This study suggests that residents who perceive high levels of stress are at risk for burnout and deterioration in empathy toward their patients, both of which may compromise the quality of their interactions with patients.

  7. Long-range beam-beam interactions in the Tevatron: Comparing simulation to tune shift data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritepe, S.; Michelotti, L.; Peggs, S.

    1990-07-01

    Fermilab upgrade plans for the collider operation include a separation scheme in the Tevatron, in which protons and antiprotons are placed on separate helical orbits. The average separation distance between the closed orbits will be 5σ (σ of the proton bunch) except at the interaction regions, B0 and D0, where they collide head-on. The maximum beam-beam total tune shift in the Tevatron is approximately 0.024 (the workable tune space between 5th and 7th order resonances), which was reached in the 1988--1989 collider tun. Helical separation scheme allows us to increase the luminosity by reducing the total beam-beam tune shift. The number of bunches per beam will be 6 in the 1991 collider tun, to be increased to 36 in the following collider runs. To test the viability of this scenario, helical orbit studies are being conducted. The most recent studies concentrated on the injection of 36 proton bunches, procedures related to opening and closing of the helix, the feed-down circuits and the beam-beam interaction. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-beam interaction studies only. Our emphasis is on the tune shift measurements and the comparison to simulation. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P cortisol levels were present only in younger shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  9. Inflammatory Long Pentraxin 3 is Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Night-Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Stendardo, Mariarita; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Bonci, Melissa; Bottazzi, Barbara; Campisi, Manuela; Nardini, Marco; Leone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto; Boschetto, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an emerging worldwide threat to public health, even in the workplace, as it links with risk of illness and death. Bewildered inflammatory responses and stressful conditions associate with age-related disorders. Additionally, circadian rhythm disruption, a critical health issue in night-shift workers, correlates with premature aging. We investigated the hypothesis of a link between altered inflammatory response, detected by plasmatic long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and biological aging, measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL), attrition, and possibly induced by night-shift work. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study, such possible relationships were appraised by simultaneous equation model (SEM) technique among day and night-shift hospital workers. PTX3 levels, modulated by several aging conditions [i.e., body mass index (BMI) (beta = -0.22; p  = 0.022), C-reactive protein (CRP) (beta = -0.07; p  = 0.000), and cardiovascular diseases with hypertension included (CVD) (beta = -0.12; p  = 0.000)], positively associate with LTL (coefficient = 0.15; p  = 0.033). LTL, in turn is reduced by CVD (beta = -0.15; p  = 0.000), binge drinking (beta = -0.10; p  = 0.004), and CRP (beta = -0.05; p  = 0.026). On the other hand, night-shift work, found to be remarkably free from aging risk factors [i.e., age (beta = -0.13; p  = 0.017), BMI (beta = -0.17; p  = 0.030), CVD (beta = -0.14; p  = 0.000), and binge drinking (beta = -0.13; p  = 0.000)], does associate almost significantly with reversed PTX3 (coefficient = -0.09; p  = 0.089) and even with CRP (beta = 0.17; p  = 0.000). In conclusion, the SEM analysis indicates that PTX3 is positively linked to LTL. The finding suggests a possible new role of this long pentraxin that, by orchestrating an efficient governance of inflammatory processes, may protect telomere from attrition, ensuring therefore the genetic

  10. Shift and night work and long working hours--a systematic review of safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony Sverre; Sigstad Lie, Jenny-Anne

    2011-05-01

    In order to devise effective preventive strategies, it is important to study workplace stressors that might increase the risk of workplace accidents - both affecting workers themselves as well as causing harm to third-parties. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic, updated overview and scientific review of empirical research regarding accidents in relation to long work hours and shift work, primarily based on epidemiological studies. The search for articles was part of a large review study on the effects of work hours on various health outcomes, safety, and performance. The search strategy included 5 international scientific databases, and nearly 7000 articles were initially identified using our search string. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 443 publications were found and evaluated using a pre-defined scoring system. Of these, 43 concerned safety and accidents but only 14 were considered to be of high quality (total score 2 or 3 on a scale from 0-3) and therefore used for this study. Both shift work and long working hours present a substantial and well-documented detrimental effect on safety - all the studies that are included in this review have one or more significant findings in this respect. The trends are quite coherent although the increases in accident rates are mostly from 50% to 100%. In epidemiological terms, this may be seen as rather small differences. The use of such data is therefore only of importance if the accident incidence is high or if accidents may have large effects. The findings are most relevant to safety-critical activities such as the transport and health sectors. Work periods >8 hours carry an increased risk of accidents that cumulates, so that the increased risk of accidents at around 12 hours is twice the risk at 8 hours. Shift work including nights carries a substantial increased risk of accidents, whereas "pure" night work may bring some protection against this effect due to

  11. Average-energy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.

  12. Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) - Compensation for hours of long-term shift work

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work",  approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208538.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 1) also entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work" of March 2011. This document contains minor changes to reflect the new career structure. This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  13. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  14. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  15. Long-term outcomes of anterior spinal fusion for treating thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves: average 15-year follow-up analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Hideki; Ito, Manabu; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Shono, Yasuhiro; Takahata, Masahiko; Abumi, Kuniyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Retrospective review. To assess the long-term outcomes of anterior spinal fusion (ASF) for treating thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Although ASF is reported to provide good coronal and sagittal correction of the main thoracic (MT) AIS curves, the long-term outcomes of ASF is unknown. A consecutive series of 25 patients with Lenke 1 MT AIS were included. Outcome measures comprised radiographical measurements, pulmonary function, and Scoliosis Research Society outcome instrument (SRS-30) scores (preoperative SRS-30 scores were not documented). Postoperative surgical revisions and complications were recorded. Twenty-five patients were followed-up for 12 to 18 years (average, 15.2 yr). The average MT Cobb angle correction rate and the correction loss at the final follow-up were 56.7% and 9.2°, respectively. The average preoperative instrumented level of kyphosis was 8.3°, which significantly improved to 18.6° (P = 0.0003) at the final follow-up. The average percent-predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly decreased during long-term follow-up measurements (73% and 69%; P = 0.0004 and 0.0016, respectively). However, no patient had complaints related to pulmonary function. The average total SRS-30 score was 4.0. Implant breakage was not observed. All patients, except 1 who required revision surgery, demonstrated solid fusion. Late instrumentation-related bronchial problems were observed in 1 patient who required implant removal and bronchial tube repair, 13 years after the initial surgery. Overall radiographical findings and patient outcome measures of ASF for Lenke 1 MT AIS were satisfactory at an average follow-up of 15 years. ASF provides significant sagittal correction of the main thoracic curve with long-term maintenance of sagittal profiles. Percent-predicted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were decreased in this cohort; however, no patient had complaints

  16. ATLAS distributed computing operation shift teams experience during the discovery year and beginning of the long shutdown 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedov, Alexey; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Negri, Guidone; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Smirnov, Iouri; Vartapetian, Armen; Yu, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing Operation Shifts evolve to meet new requirements. New monitoring tools as well as operational changes lead to modifications in organization of shifts. In this paper we describe the structure of shifts, the roles of different shifts in ATLAS computing grid operation, the influence of a Higgs-like particle discovery on shift operation, the achievements in monitoring and automation that allowed extra focus on the experiment priority tasks, and the influence of the Long Shutdown 1 and operational changes related to the no beam period.

  17. The impact of long work hours and shift work on cognitive errors in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhéaume, Ann; Mullen, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Pilot study to examine the impact of long work hours and shift work on cognitive errors in nurses. Twelve-hour shifts are more commonly used in hospital settings and there is growing concern over the impact that extended and irregular work hours have on nurses' well-being and performance. Twenty-eight nurses working different shifts (8-hr days and 12-hr rotation) participated in this study. Nurses were assessed at the beginning of four consecutive shifts using actigraphy, a sleep diary and an after work questionnaire. Nurses working 12-hr rotations had less total sleep time and less sleep efficiency than 8-hr day nurses. Twelve-hour rotation nurses also napped more than their counterparts. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to cognitive errors. Twelve-hour rotations have a negative effect on nurses' sleep patterns. There is no evidence indicating 12-hr rotations increased errors. Nurse managers can implement specific strategies, such as greater shift work flexibility and designated quiet time, to reduce the effects of disturbed sleep patterns in nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity on simulated tree species distribution shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Thompson, Frank R; Spetich, Martin A; Fraser, Jacob S

    2018-09-01

    Demographic processes (fecundity, dispersal, colonization, growth, and mortality) and their interactions with environmental changes are not well represented in current climate-distribution models (e.g., niche and biophysical process models) and constitute a large uncertainty in projections of future tree species distribution shifts. We investigate how species biological traits and environmental heterogeneity affect species distribution shifts. We used a species-specific, spatially explicit forest dynamic model LANDIS PRO, which incorporates site-scale tree species demography and competition, landscape-scale dispersal and disturbances, and regional-scale abiotic controls, to simulate the distribution shifts of four representative tree species with distinct biological traits in the central hardwood forest region of United States. Our results suggested that biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age) were important for determining tree species distribution shifts. Environmental heterogeneity, on average, reduced shift rates by 8% compared to perfect environmental conditions. The average distribution shift rates ranged from 24 to 200myear -1 under climate change scenarios, implying that many tree species may not able to keep up with climate change because of limited dispersal capacity, long generation time, and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that climate-distribution models should include species demographic processes (e.g., fecundity, dispersal, colonization), biological traits (e.g., dispersal capacity, maturation age), and environmental heterogeneity (e.g., habitat fragmentation) to improve future predictions of species distribution shifts in response to changing climates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonradioactive RNA mobility shift with chemiluminescent detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hesham

    RNA mobility shift is one among many procedures used to study RNA-protein interaction. Yet, there are some limitations for the radioactive RNA mobility shift including; 1) the risk of using radiolabeled nucleotides, 2) the long time to get the results; this could range from days to weeks, and 3) its high cost as compared to ...

  1. A unique, fast-forwards rotating schedule with 12-h long shifts prevents chronic sleep debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dorothee; Vetter, Céline; Oberlinner, Christoph; Wegener, Sven; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-01-01

    Sleep debt--together with circadian misalignment--is considered a central factor for adverse health outcomes associated with shift work. Here, we describe in detail sleep-wake behavior in a fast-forward rotating 12-h shift schedule, which involves at least 24 hours off after each shift and thus allows examining the role of immediate recovery after shift-specific sleep debt. Thirty-five participants at two chemical plants in Germany were chronotyped using the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for Shift-Workers (MCTQ(Shift)) and wore actimeters throughout the two-week study period. From these actimetry recordings, we computed sleep and nap duration, social jetlag (a measure of circadian misalignment), and the daily timing of activity and sleep (center of gravity and mid-sleep, respectively). We observed that the long off-work periods between each shift create a fast alternation between shortened (mean ± standard deviation, 5h 17min ± 56min) and extended (8h 25min ± 72min) sleep episodes resulting in immanent reductions of sleep debt. Additionally, extensive napping of early chronotypes (up to 3 hours before the night shift) statistically compensated short sleep durations after the night shift. Partial rank correlations showed chronotype-dependent patterns of sleep and activity that were similar to those previously described in 8-h schedules; however, sleep before the day shift did not differ between chronotypes. Our findings indicate that schedules preventing a build-up of chronic sleep debt may reduce detrimental effects of shift work irrespective of shift duration. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between sleep, the circadian system, and health and safety hazards.

  2. Optical π phase shift created with a single-photon pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarks, Daniel; Schmidt, Steffen; Rempe, Gerhard; Dürr, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A deterministic photon-photon quantum logic gate is a long-standing goal. Building such a gate becomes possible if a light pulse containing only one photon imprints a phase shift of π onto another light field. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a π phase shift with a single-photon pulse. A first light pulse containing less than one photon on average is stored in an atomic gas. Rydberg blockade combined with electromagnetically induced transparency creates a phase shift for a second light pulse, which propagates through the medium. We measure the π phase shift of the second pulse when we postselect the data upon the detection of a retrieved photon from the first pulse. This demonstrates a crucial step toward a photon-photon gate and offers a variety of applications in the field of quantum information processing.

  3. Shift work, long working hours and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, M. J. G. J.; Van Beukering, M. D. M.; Mol, B. W.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Specific physical activities or working conditions are suspected for increasing the risk of preterm birth (PTB). The aim of this meta-analysis is to review and summarize the pre-existing evidence on the effect of shift work or long working hours on the risk of PTB. We conducted a systematic search

  4. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  5. [Relationship between fatigue recovery after late-night shifts and stress relief awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Takehito; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    To examine the factors related to fatigue accumulation by irregular shift workers after the late-night shift. We studied employees of a company in the transportation industry in Fukushima prefecture. The company transports passengers, and many employees, including the crew, engage in irregular shift work. We performed the investigation by using a self-administered questionnaire which was sent to 89 employees in October, 2011. Of the 89 who were given the survey, 84 replied, and 52 of those employees had worked the late-night shift (straddling midnight) at least once during September. In answer to the question "How long does it take you to recover after working the late-night-shift?" choices were "I don't feel tired ", "I recover the next day", "I recover in two or three days", and "It takes more than three days". We classified the choices into two groups of: 1) "I don't feel tired" and "I recover the next day", and 2) "I recover in two or three days" and "It takes more than three days". Other questions were asked about age, BMI, weekday average duration of sleep, whether or not a nap was taken before the late-night shift, risk of lifestyle-related diseases (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), awareness of life stress accumulation, and exercise habits. Thirty-two employees answered that they recovered from the late-night shift by the next day, whereas 20 employees answered that it took more than 2 days to recover after the late-night-shift. The group who answered that recovery time after the late-night shift took more than 2 days significantly (p=0.035) felt that their stress management was insufficient. Age, BMI, weekday average duration of sleep, whether or not a nap was taken before the late-night shifts, risk of lifestyle-related diseases, and exercise habits showed no significant association with fatigue accumulation. The group who answered that their stress management was insufficient significantly chose liquor (p=0.045) and cigarettes (p=0.030) for

  6. Static and dynamic micro deformable mirror characterization by phase-shifting and time-averaged interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), based on mature technologies of micro-electronics, are essential in the design of future astronomical instruments. One of these key-components is the microdeformable mirror for wave-front correction. Very challenging topics like search of exo-planets could greatly benefit from this technology. Design, realization and characterization of micro-Deformable Mirrors are under way at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) in collaboration with Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS). In order to measure the surface shape and the deformation parameters during operation of these devices, a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer has been developed. Measurements have been done on a tiltable micro-mirror (170*100μm2) designed by LAM-LAAS and realized by an American foundry, and also on an OKO deformable mirror (15mm diameter). Static characterization is made by phase shifting interferometry and dynamic measurements have been made by quantitative time-averaged interferometry. The OKO mirror has an actuator stroke of 370+/-10nm for 150V applied and its resonant frequency is 1170+/-50 Hz, and the tiltable mirror has a rotation cut-off frequency of 31+/-3 kHz.

  7. Computation of the bounce-average code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, T.A.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rensink, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The bounce-average computer code simulates the two-dimensional velocity transport of ions in a mirror machine. The code evaluates and bounce-averages the collision operator and sources along the field line. A self-consistent equilibrium magnetic field is also computed using the long-thin approximation. Optionally included are terms that maintain μ, J invariance as the magnetic field changes in time. The assumptions and analysis that form the foundation of the bounce-average code are described. When references can be cited, the required results are merely stated and explained briefly. A listing of the code is appended

  8. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  9. Long-Term Phenological Shifts in Raptor Migration and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffré, Mikaël; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Éric; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellén, Nils; Troost, Gerard; Dubois, Philippe J.; Leprêtre, Alain; Luczak, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency. PMID:24223888

  10. Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Jaffré

    Full Text Available Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010 of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

  11. Long-lived hot-carrier light emission and large blue shift in formamidinium tin triiodide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; Shao, Shuyan; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    A long-lived hot carrier population is critical in order to develop working hot carrier photovoltaic devices with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we report photoluminescence from hot-carriers with unexpectedly long lifetime (a few ns) in formamidinium tin triiodide. An unusual large blue shift of the time-integrated photoluminescence with increasing excitation power (150 meV at 24 K and 75 meV at 293 K) is displayed. On the basis of the analysis of energy-resolved an...

  12. Shift Work, Chronotype, and Melatonin Patterns among Female Hospital Employees on Day and Night Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Tranmer, Joan; Hung, Eleanor; Korsiak, Jill; Day, Andrew G; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    Shift work-related carcinogenesis is hypothesized to be mediated by melatonin; however, few studies have considered the potential effect modification of this underlying pathway by chronotype or specific aspects of shift work such as the number of consecutive nights in a rotation. In this study, we examined melatonin patterns in relation to shift status, stratified by chronotype and number of consecutive night shifts, and cumulative lifetime exposure to shift work. Melatonin patterns of 261 female personnel (147 fixed-day and 114 on rotations, including nights) at Kingston General Hospital were analyzed using cosinor analysis. Urine samples were collected from all voids over a 48-hour specimen collection period for measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations using the Buhlmann ELISA Kit. Chronotypes were assessed using mid-sleep time (MSF) derived from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Sociodemographic, health, and occupational information were collected by questionnaire. Rotational shift nurses working nights had a lower mesor and an earlier time of peak melatonin production compared to day-only workers. More pronounced differences in mesor and acrophase were seen among later chronotypes, and shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights. Among nurses, cumulative shift work was associated with a reduction in mesor. These results suggest that evening-types and/or shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights are more susceptible to adverse light-at-night effects, whereas long-term shift work may also chronically reduce melatonin levels. Cumulative and current exposure to shift work, including nights, affects level and timing of melatonin production, which may be related to carcinogenesis and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 830-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Analysis of high-frequency energy in long-term average spectra of singing, speech, and voiceless fricatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2012-09-01

    The human singing and speech spectrum includes energy above 5 kHz. To begin an in-depth exploration of this high-frequency energy (HFE), a database of anechoic high-fidelity recordings of singers and talkers was created and analyzed. Third-octave band analysis from the long-term average spectra showed that production level (soft vs normal vs loud), production mode (singing vs speech), and phoneme (for voiceless fricatives) all significantly affected HFE characteristics. Specifically, increased production level caused an increase in absolute HFE level, but a decrease in relative HFE level. Singing exhibited higher levels of HFE than speech in the soft and normal conditions, but not in the loud condition. Third-octave band levels distinguished phoneme class of voiceless fricatives. Female HFE levels were significantly greater than male levels only above 11 kHz. This information is pertinent to various areas of acoustics, including vocal tract modeling, voice synthesis, augmentative hearing technology (hearing aids and cochlear implants), and training/therapy for singing and speech.

  14. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  15. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  16. Determination of the Orientation and Dynamics of Ergosterol in Model Membranes Using Uniform 13C Labeling and Dynamically Averaged 13C Chemical Shift Anisotropies as Experimental Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubias, O.; Jolibois, F.; Massou, S.; Milon, A.; Réat, V.

    2005-01-01

    A new strategy was established to determine the average orientation and dynamics of ergosterol in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine model membranes. It is based on the analysis of chemical shift anisotropies (CSAs) averaged by the molecular dynamics. Static 13C CSA tensors were computed by quantum chemistry, using the gauge-including atomic-orbital approach within Hartree-Fock theory. Uniformly 13C-labeled ergosterol was purified from Pichia pastoris cells grown on labeled methanol. After reconstitution into dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipids, the complete 1H and 13C assignment of ergosterol's resonances was performed using a combination of magic-angle spinning two-dimensional experiments. Dynamically averaged CSAs were determined by standard side-band intensity analysis for isolated 13C resonances (C3 and ethylenic carbons) and by off-magic-angle spinning experiments for other carbons. A set of 18 constraints was thus obtained, from which the sterol's molecular order parameter and average orientation could be precisely defined. The validity of using computed CSAs in this strategy was verified on cholesterol model systems. This new method allowed us to quantify ergosterol's dynamics at three molar ratios: 16 mol % (Ld phase), 30 mol % (Lo phase), and 23 mol % (mixed phases). Contrary to cholesterol, ergosterol's molecular diffusion axis makes an important angle (14°) with the inertial axis of the rigid four-ring system. PMID:15923221

  17. Conformational analysis of the chemical shifts for molecules containing diastereotopic methylene protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Quantum chemistry SCF/GIAO calculations were carried out on a set of compounds containing diastereotopic protons. Five molecules, including recently synthesized 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene, containing the chiral or pro-chiral center and the neighboring methylene group, were chosen. The rotational averages (i.e. normalized averages with respect to the rotation about the torsional angle τ with the exponential energy weight at temperature T) calculated individually for each of the methylene protons in 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene differ by ca. 0.6 ppm, which is significantly less than the value calculated for the lowest energy conformer. This value turned out to be low enough to guarantee the proper ordering of theoretical chemical shifts, supporting the interpretation of the 1H NMR spectrum of this important compound. The rotational averages of chemical shifts for methylene protons for a given type of conformer are shown to be essentially equal to the Boltzmann averages (here, the population-weighted averages for the individual conformers representing minima on the E( τ) cross-section). The calculated Boltzmann averages in the representative conformational space may exhibit completely different ordering as compared to the chemical shifts calculated for the lowest-energy conformer. This is especially true in the case of molecules, for which no significant steric effects are present. In this case, only Boltzmann averages account for the experimental pattern of proton signals. In addition, better overall agreement with experiment (lower value of the root-mean-square deviation between calculated and measured chemical shifts) is typically obtained when Boltzmann averages are used.

  18. Effects of Accumulating Work Shifts on Performance-Based Fatigue Using Multiple Strength Measurements in Day and Night Shift Nurses and Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K

    2017-05-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the effects of accumulating nursing work on maximal and rapid strength characteristics in female nurses and compare these effects in day versus night shift workers. Background Nurses exhibit among the highest nonfatal injury rates of all occupations, which may be a consequence of long, cumulative work shift schedules. Fatigue may accumulate across multiple shifts and lead to performance impairments, which in turn may be linked to injury risks. Method Thirty-seven nurses and aides performed isometric strength-based performance testing of three muscle groups, including the knee extensors, knee flexors, and wrist flexors (hand grip), as well as countermovement jumps, at baseline and following exposure to three 12-hour work shifts in a four-day period. Variables included peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) from isometric strength testing and jump height and power output. Results The rigorous work period resulted in significant decreases (-7.2% to -19.2%) in a large majority (8/9) of the isometric strength-based measurements. No differences were noted for the day versus night shift workers except for the RTD at 200 millisecond variable, for which the night shift had greater work-induced decreases than the day shift workers. No changes were observed for jump height or power output. Conclusions A compressed nursing work schedule resulted in decreases in strength-based performance abilities, being indicative of performance fatigue. Application Compressed work schedules involving long shifts lead to functional declines in nurse performance capacities that may pose risks for both the nurse and patient quality of care. Fatigue management plans are needed to monitor and regulate increased levels of fatigue.

  19. The development of shifting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiteng; Chen Yonghong; Yin Fujun; Che Mingsheng; Hu Xiaodan; Yao Shouzhong

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear field, When the nuclear material shifting from the glove-box,use the technology of plastic welding package in accordance with tradition. There are some defects in this technology because of the plastic character, such as package pierced easily, wrapper not fitted storage for long term, etc. Because of this limit. Plastic shifting technology is only fit for shifting radwaste and nuclear material not need storage from radioactive close area to non-radioactive open area for long term.As the nuclear material exiting leak when shifting in plastic package,and the plastic material don't meet the need of storaging safely for long term.We research into a new technology of nuclear material shifting. When nuclear material is carried out from the glove box. It should be sealed by welding case, then it can be storaged safely for long term. At the same time, nuclear material wouldn't pollute the glove box outside.The study achieved well effect in apply. (authors)

  20. A differential detection scheme of spectral shifts in long-period fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, Katerina; Eftimov, Tinko; Smietana, Mateusz; Bock, Wojtek

    2010-10-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the response of a compact, simple and inexpensive optoelectronic sensor system intended to detect spectral shifts of a long-period fiber grating (LPG). The system makes use of a diffraction grating and a couple of receiving optical fibers that pick up signals at two different wavelengths. This differential detection system provides the same useful information from an LPG-based sensor as with a conventional laboratory system using optical spectrum analyzers for monitoring the minimum offset of LPG. The design of the fiber detection pair as a function of the parameters of the dispersion grating, the pick-up fiber and the LPG parameters, is presented in detail. Simulation of the detection system responses is presented using real from spectral shifts in nano-coated LPGs caused by the evaporation of various liquids such as water, ethanol and acetone, which are examples of corrosive, flammable and hazardous substances. Fiber optic sensors with similar detection can find applications in structural health monitoring for moisture detection, monitoring the spillage of toxic and flammable substances in industry etc.

  1. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Howard, Mark E; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S; O'Brien, Conor S; Czeisler, Charles A

    2016-01-05

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety.

  2. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  3. White matter tracts associated with set-shifting in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michele E; McDonald, Carrie R; Hagler, Donald J; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Kuperman, Joshua M; Koyama, Alain K; Dale, Anders M; McEvoy, Linda K

    2009-11-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability, commonly assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT), decreases with increasing age in adults. Since set-shifting performance relies on activity in widespread brain regions, deterioration of the white matter tracts that connect these regions may underlie the age-related decrease in performance. We used an automated fiber tracking method to investigate the relationship between white matter integrity in several cortical association tracts and TMT performance in a sample of 24 healthy adults, 21-80 years. Diffusion tensor images were used to compute average fractional anisotropy (FA) for five cortical association tracts, the corpus callosum (CC), and the corticospinal tract (CST), which served as a control. Results showed that advancing age was associated with declines in set-shifting performance and with decreased FA in the CC and in association tracts that connect frontal cortex to more posterior brain regions, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Declines in average FA in these tracts, and in average FA of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), were associated with increased time to completion on the set-shifting subtask of the TMT but not with the simple sequencing subtask. FA values in these tracts were strong mediators of the effect of age on set-shifting performance. Automated tractography methods can enhance our understanding of the fiber systems involved in performance of specific cognitive tasks and of the functional consequences of age-related changes in those systems.

  4. Analysis of high-frequency energy in long-term average spectra of singing, speech, and voiceless fricatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2012-01-01

    The human singing and speech spectrum includes energy above 5 kHz. To begin an in-depth exploration of this high-frequency energy (HFE), a database of anechoic high-fidelity recordings of singers and talkers was created and analyzed. Third-octave band analysis from the long-term average spectra showed that production level (soft vs normal vs loud), production mode (singing vs speech), and phoneme (for voiceless fricatives) all significantly affected HFE characteristics. Specifically, increased production level caused an increase in absolute HFE level, but a decrease in relative HFE level. Singing exhibited higher levels of HFE than speech in the soft and normal conditions, but not in the loud condition. Third-octave band levels distinguished phoneme class of voiceless fricatives. Female HFE levels were significantly greater than male levels only above 11 kHz. This information is pertinent to various areas of acoustics, including vocal tract modeling, voice synthesis, augmentative hearing technology (hearing aids and cochlear implants), and training/therapy for singing and speech. PMID:22978902

  5. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  6. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  7. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  8. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  9. Shift Work and the Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Aged Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Rong, Yi; Huang, Xiji; Lai, Hanpeng; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Yuewei; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Shift work is indicated to be associated with adverse metabolic disorders. However, potential effects of shift work on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components have not been well established. Methods In total, 26,382 workers from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort were included in this study. Information on shift work history was gathered through questionnaires and metabolic traits were measured. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for long-term shift work related with MetS and each component, respectively. Further stratification analysis was performed to detect the differences on MetS between female and male shift workers. Results Long-term shift work was associated with MetS without adjusting for any confounders. Compared with the group of non-shift work, the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95%CI) of MetS associated with 1–10, 11−20, and ≥20y of shift work were 1.05 (0.95−1.16), 1.14 (1.03−1.26), 1.16 (1.01−1.31), respectively. In female workers, we found a dose-response relationship that every 10 years increase in shift work was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%−20%) elevated OR of MetS, while no significant dose-response trend was found among male workers. Furthermore, shift work duration was significantly associated with ORs of high blood pressure (1.07, 1.01−1.13), long waist circumference (1.10, 1.01−1.20) and high glucose levels (1.09, 1.04−1.15). No significant association was observed between shift work and low HDL cholesterol) and raised triglyceride levels. Conclusions Long-term shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome and the association might differ by gender in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of metabolic disorders for shift workers. PMID:25761114

  10. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Epanchin, Peter N; Beissinger, Steven R; Tingley, Morgan W

    2017-12-05

    Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked. Using a canonical dataset of Californian bird surveys and a detectability-based approach for quantifying phenological signal, we show that Californian bird communities advanced their breeding phenology by 5-12 d over the last century. This phenological shift might track shifting resource peaks, but it also reduces average temperatures during nesting by over 1 °C, approximately the same magnitude that average temperatures have warmed over the same period. We further show that early-summer temperature anomalies are correlated with nest success in a continental-scale database of bird nests, suggesting avian thermal niches might be broadly limited by temperatures during nesting. These findings outline an adaptation surface where geographic range and breeding phenology respond jointly to constraints imposed by temperature and resource phenology. By stabilizing temperatures during nesting, phenological shifts might mitigate the need for range shifts. Global change ecology will benefit from further exploring phenological adjustment as a potential mechanism for thermal niche tracking and vice versa.

  11. Long-term use of cover crops and no-till shift soil microbial community life strategies in agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey; Scow, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Reducing tillage and growing cover crops, widely recommended practices for boosting soil health, have major impacts on soil communities. Surprisingly little is known about their impacts on soil microbial functional diversity, and especially so in irrigated Mediterranean ecosystems. In long-term experimental plots at the West Side Research and Extension Center in California’s Central Valley, we characterized soil microbial communities in the presence or absence of physical disturbance due to tillage, in the presence or absence of cover crops, and at three depths: 0–5, 5–15 and 15–30 cm. This characterization included qPCR for bacterial and archaeal abundances, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and phylogenetic estimation of two ecologically important microbial traits (rRNA gene copy number and genome size). Total (bacterial + archaeal) diversity was higher in no-till than standard till; diversity increased with depth in no-till but decreased with depth in standard till. Total bacterial numbers were higher in cover cropped plots at all depths, while no-till treatments showed higher numbers in 0–5 cm but lower numbers at lower depths compared to standard tillage. Trait estimates suggested that different farming practices and depths favored distinctly different microbial life strategies. Tillage in the absence of cover crops shifted microbial communities towards fast growing competitors, while no-till shifted them toward slow growing stress tolerators. Across all treatment combinations, increasing depth resulted in a shift towards stress tolerators. Cover crops shifted the communities towards ruderals–organisms with wider metabolic capacities and moderate rates of growth. Overall, our results are consistent with decreasing nutrient availability with soil depth and under no-till treatments, bursts of nutrient availability and niche homogenization under standard tillage, and increases in C supply and variety provided by cover crops. Understanding how

  12. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Balkwill, Angela; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Reeves, Gillian K; Wang, Xiao-Si; Roddam, Andrew W; Gathani, Toral; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Key, Timothy J; Beral, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs. In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years. The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long-term shift work, has little or no effect on

  13. Short-term Memory as a Processing Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Smith, Marion Quinn

    1975-01-01

    The series of experiments described here examined the predictions for free recall from sequential models and the shift formulation, focusing on the roles of short- and long-term memory in the primacy/recency shift and on the effects of expectancies on short- and long-term memory. (Author/RK)

  14. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  15. Long-lived hot-carrier light emission and large blue shift in formamidinium tin triiodide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; Shao, Shuyan; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-16

    A long-lived hot carrier population is critical in order to develop working hot carrier photovoltaic devices with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we report photoluminescence from hot-carriers with unexpectedly long lifetime (a few ns) in formamidinium tin triiodide. An unusual large blue shift of the time-integrated photoluminescence with increasing excitation power (150 meV at 24 K and 75 meV at 293 K) is displayed. On the basis of the analysis of energy-resolved and time-resolved photoluminescence, we posit that these phenomena are associated with slow hot carrier relaxation and state-filling of band edge states. These observations are both important for our understanding of lead-free hybrid perovskites and for an eventual future development of efficient lead-free perovskite photovoltaics.

  16. Solutions of the Dirac Equation with the Shifted DENG-FAN Potential Including Yukawa-Like Tensor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, W. A.; Falaye, B. J.; Oluwadare, O. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.

    2013-08-01

    By using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, we give the approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the shifted Deng-Fan potential including the Yukawa-like tensor interaction under the spin and pseudospin symmetry conditions. After using an improved approximation scheme, we solved the resulting schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation analytically. Numerical results of the energy eigenvalues are also obtained, as expected, the tensor interaction removes degeneracies between spin and pseudospin doublets.

  17. Study: Long nursing shifts linked to burnout, job dissatisfaction, negative patient assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    While nurses often choose to work 12-hour shifts, there is new evidence that too many of these longer shifts can lead to burnout and job dissatisfaction. Further, a new study suggests that patients are less satisfied with their care when nurses are working longer shifts, and patient outcomes may suffer as well. Experts recommend education around this issue for both staff nurses and nurse managers, and they urge administrators to devise sensible scheduling solutions. A three-year study, involving 23,000 registered nurses from four states, showed that nurses working shifts of 10 hours or longer were up to two and a half times more likely to experience burnout and dissatisfaction with their jobs than nurses working shorter shifts. Also, the study showed that seven out of 10 patient outcomes were adversely impacted by the longest nursing shifts. The Cleveland Clinic's 'parent shift' gives nurses the option of working shifts of six hours or less in exchange for less pay and no benefits. Administrators use these nurses to help their units manage busy hours or patient surges.

  18. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  19. Corresponding long-term shifts in stream temperature and invasive fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Pangle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    By investigating historic trapping records of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) throughout tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes, we found that upstream spawning migration timing was highly correlated with stream temperatures over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, several streams in our study exceeded a critical spring thermal threshold (i.e., 15°C) and experienced peak spawning migration up to 30 days earlier since the 1980s, whereas others were relatively unchanged. Streams exhibiting warming trends and earlier migration were spatially clustered and generally found on the leeward side of the Great Lakes where the lakes most affect local climate. These findings highlight that all streams are not equally impacted by climate change and represent, to our knowledge, the first observation linking long-term changes in stream temperatures to shifts in migration timing of an invasive fish. Earlier sea lamprey migration in Great Lakes tributaries may improve young of the year growth and survival, but not limit their spatial distribution, making sea lamprey control more challenging.

  20. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  1. Physics-preserving averaging scheme based on Grunwald-Letnikov formula for gas flow in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2018-01-02

    The heterogeneous natures of rock fabrics, due to the existence of multi-scale fractures and geological formations, led to the deviations from unity in the flux-equations fractional-exponent magnitudes. In this paper, the resulting non-Newtonian non-Darcy fractional-derivatives flux equations are solved using physics-preserving averaging schemes that incorporates both, original and shifted, Grunwald-Letnikov (GL) approximation formulas preserving the physics, by reducing the shifting effects, while maintaining the stability of the system, by keeping one shifted expansion. The proposed way of using the GL expansions also generate symmetrical coefficient matrices that significantly reduces the discretization complexities appearing with all shifted cases from literature, and help considerably in 2D and 3D systems. Systems equations derivations and discretization details are discussed. Then, the physics-preserving averaging scheme is explained and illustrated. Finally, results are presented and reviewed. Edge-based original GL expansions are unstable as also illustrated in literatures. Shifted GL expansions are stable but add a lot of additional weights to both discretization sides affecting the physical accuracy. In comparison, the physics-preserving averaging scheme balances the physical accuracy and stability requirements leading to a more physically conservative scheme that is more stable than the original GL approximation but might be slightly less stable than the shifted GL approximations. It is a locally conservative Single-Continuum averaging scheme that applies a finite-volume viewpoint.

  2. Physics-preserving averaging scheme based on Grunwald-Letnikov formula for gas flow in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.; Sun, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    The heterogeneous natures of rock fabrics, due to the existence of multi-scale fractures and geological formations, led to the deviations from unity in the flux-equations fractional-exponent magnitudes. In this paper, the resulting non-Newtonian non-Darcy fractional-derivatives flux equations are solved using physics-preserving averaging schemes that incorporates both, original and shifted, Grunwald-Letnikov (GL) approximation formulas preserving the physics, by reducing the shifting effects, while maintaining the stability of the system, by keeping one shifted expansion. The proposed way of using the GL expansions also generate symmetrical coefficient matrices that significantly reduces the discretization complexities appearing with all shifted cases from literature, and help considerably in 2D and 3D systems. Systems equations derivations and discretization details are discussed. Then, the physics-preserving averaging scheme is explained and illustrated. Finally, results are presented and reviewed. Edge-based original GL expansions are unstable as also illustrated in literatures. Shifted GL expansions are stable but add a lot of additional weights to both discretization sides affecting the physical accuracy. In comparison, the physics-preserving averaging scheme balances the physical accuracy and stability requirements leading to a more physically conservative scheme that is more stable than the original GL approximation but might be slightly less stable than the shifted GL approximations. It is a locally conservative Single-Continuum averaging scheme that applies a finite-volume viewpoint.

  3. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  4. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  5. Shift Work Disorder and Mental and Physical Effects of Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing prevalence of shift work all over the the world, the relationship between the daily lives of irregular lifestyles and rhythms is being investigated for those working as shift workers and their families. The effect of shift work on physical and mental health is a very important field of research in recent years. The onset and persistence of medical complications in shift workers includes impaired synchronization between work schedule rhythms and circadian clock. In this context, studies have been carried out showing the increased risk of sleep-wake disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little information about the actual frequency, effect on health and treatment of shift work disorder, known as circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Shift work disorder includes insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness related with the work schedule. The aim of this rewiev, mentioning about the physical and mental effects of shift work, and to provide information about the diagnosis, clinic and treatment methods of shift-work disorder.

  6. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  7. Metabolic shifts in the myocardium in the long-term effect of atmospheric pollution on the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapok, P I; Turdakin, P G; Barkov, L V; Ovcharuk, I N; Protod' iakonova, T N

    1981-04-01

    Metabolic shifts in the myocardium under conditions of long-term exposure of the body to air pollution were studied in experiments on albino rats. Study of the content of protein, RNA, DNA, glycogen, ATP, lactic and pyruvic acids and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the heart muscle allowed the conclusion that the glycolytic processes are intensified, the bioenergic processes are inhibited and the synthesis of protein and RNA are increased in the myocardium of the experimental animals.

  8. Spectroscopic measurement of 204Pb isotope shift and 205Pb nuclear spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope shift of 204 Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 X 10 7 -y 205 Pb was determined from a high-resolution optical measurement of the 6p 23 P 0 -6p7s 3 P 1 0 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to 208 Pb is -140.2(8) x 10 -3 cm -1 , the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of 205 Pb I = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or long-lived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4 cm diffraction grating in a 9.1 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of 204 Pb and 207 Pb

  9. Shift work, emotional labour and psychological well-being of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Vermaak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of emotional labour and the psychological experience of shift work on the psychological well-being at work (PWBW of long term care nursing staff (n = 206. The ‘psychological experience of shift work’ construct defines the perception of the negative effect that working shifts has on the employees’ daily life. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Support was found for the negative relationships between the psychological experience of shift work and PWBW, as well as the emotional labour dimension of surface acting and PWBW. A hierarchical regression analysis suggested that, when controlling for the effect of emotional labour and certain demographic variables (including number of dependents, tenure and actual shift worked, a significant amount of unique variance in PWBW, could be accounted for by the psychological experience of shift work. These results indicate that the PWBW of nursing staff is not only influenced by which shift the individual is on (i.e. day or night shift, but more so by the individuals’ psychological experience of shift work.

  10. Average Albedos of Close-in Super-Earths and Super-Neptunes from Statistical Analysis of Long-cadence Kepler Secondary Eclipse Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Holly A.; Deming, Drake

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of our work to determine the average albedo for small, close-in planets in the Kepler candidate catalog. We have adapted our method of averaging short-cadence light curves of multiple Kepler planet candidates to long-cadence data, in order to detect an average albedo for the group of candidates. Long-cadence data exist for many more candidates than the short-cadence data, and so we separate the candidates into smaller radius bins than in our previous work: 1-2 {R}\\oplus , 2-4 {R}\\oplus , and 4-6 {R}\\oplus . We find that, on average, all three groups appear darker than suggested by the short-cadence results, but not as dark as many hot Jupiters. The average geometric albedos for the three groups are 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.05 ± 0.04, and 0.23 ± 0.11, respectively, for the case where heat is uniformly distributed about the planet. If heat redistribution is inefficient, the albedos are even lower, since there will be a greater thermal contribution to the total light from the planet. We confirm that newly identified false-positive Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) 1662.01 is indeed an eclipsing binary at twice the period listed in the planet candidate catalog. We also newly identify planet candidate KOI 4351.01 as an eclipsing binary, and we report a secondary eclipse measurement for Kepler-4b (KOI 7.01) of ˜7.50 ppm at a phase of ˜0.7, indicating that the planet is on an eccentric orbit.

  11. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  12. Average spectral efficiency analysis of FSO links over turbulence channel with adaptive transmissions and aperture averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, G.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In our paper, the impact of adaptive transmission schemes: (i) optimal rate adaptation (ORA) and (ii) channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) on the average spectral efficiency (ASE) are explored for free-space optical (FSO) communications with On-Off Keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems under different turbulence regimes. Further to enhance the ASE we have incorporated aperture averaging effects along with the above adaptive schemes. The results indicate that ORA adaptation scheme has the advantage of improving the ASE performance compared with CIFR under moderate and strong turbulence regime. The coherent OWC system with ORA excels the other modulation schemes and could achieve ASE performance of 49.8 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 6 dBm under strong turbulence. By adding aperture averaging effect we could achieve an ASE of 50.5 bits/s/Hz under the same conditions. This makes ORA with Coherent OWC modulation as a favorable candidate for improving the ASE of the FSO communication system.

  13. Theoretical Study of the NMR Chemical Shift of Xe in Supercritical Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacerda Junior, Evanildo Gomes; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate the level of theory necessary for reproducing the non-linear variation of the 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift with the density of Xe in supercritical conditions. In detail we study how the 129Xe chemical shift depends under these conditions...... on electron correlation, relativistic and many-body effects. The latter are included using a sequential-QM/MM methodology, in which a classical MD simulation is performed first and the chemical shift is then obtained as an average of quantum calculations of 250 MD snapshots conformations carried out for Xen...... this approach we obtain very good agreement with the experimental data, showing that the chemical shift of 129Xe in supercritical conditions is very well described by cluster calculations at the HF level, with small contributions from relativistic and electron correlation effects....

  14. Job strain and vagal recovery during sleep in shift working health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Henelius, Andreas; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2014-12-01

    Within sample female nurses/nurse assistants in three shift work, we explored the association of job strain with heart rate variability before and during sleep. The participants (n = 95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged either to the top (high job strain [HJS], n = 42) or bottom quartiles on job strain (low job strain [LJS], n = 53) as rated by Job Content Questionnaire responses. A further inclusion criterion was that participants' own job strain was at least as high (HJS group) or low (LJS group) as their ward's average estimation. Three-week field measurements included sleep diary and actigraphy to study the participants' sleep patterns and sleep-wake rhythm. A subset of three pre-selected, circadian rhythm and recovery controlled measurement days, one morning shift, one night shift and a day off, included 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) measurements. The bootstrapped HRV parameters (HR, HF, LF, LF-to-HF-ratio and RMSSD) 30 min before and during 30 min of sleep with lowest average heart rate showed no statistically significant job strain group differences. No association of exposure to stressful work environment and HRV before and during sleep was found.

  15. Constraining new physics models with isotope shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugiuele, Claudia; Fuchs, Elina; Perez, Gilad; Schlaffer, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Isotope shifts of transition frequencies in atoms constrain generic long- and intermediate-range interactions. We focus on new physics scenarios that can be most strongly constrained by King linearity violation such as models with B -L vector bosons, the Higgs portal, and chameleon models. With the anticipated precision, King linearity violation has the potential to set the strongest laboratory bounds on these models in some regions of parameter space. Furthermore, we show that this method can probe the couplings relevant for the protophobic interpretation of the recently reported Be anomaly. We extend the formalism to include an arbitrary number of transitions and isotope pairs and fit the new physics coupling to the currently available isotope shift measurements.

  16. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  17. Academic involvement in shift technical advisor training for the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.N.; Sain, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    One of the clearest conclusions reached of nearly every commission and panel formed in response to the Three Mile Island accident was the desirability of upgrading the educational background of those persons with direct operational responsibility in a nuclear power plant. The long term objective is for all shift supervisors to have engineering degrees as well as NRC senior operating licenses. In the interim, the utilities are required to provide in-depth engineering expertise on every shift in the person of a Shift Technical Advisor (STA). The training of STA's is complicated by the requirement to have college level instruction in plant specific topics which are not typically included in the curricula of degree-granting instructions. One possible response to this challenge is presented

  18. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  19. System for evaluation of the true average input-pulse rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.; Garrett, P.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a digital radiation monitoring system making use of current digital circuit and microprocessor for rapidly processing the pulse data coming from remote radiation controllers. This system analyses the pulse rates in order to determine if a new datum is statistically the same as that previously received. Hence it determines the best possible average time for itself. So long as the true average pulse rate stays constant, the time required to establish an average can increase until the statistical error is under the desired level, i.e. 1%. When the digital processing of the pulse data indicates a change in the true average pulse rate, the time required to establish an average can be reduced so as to improve the response time of the system at the statistical error. This concept includes a fixed compromise between the statistical error and the response time [fr

  20. Average is Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

  1. Long adaptation reveals mostly attractive shifts of orientation tuning in cat primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisovan, N; Nemri, A; Shumikhina, S; Molotchnikoff, S

    2009-12-15

    In the adult brain, sensory cortical neurons undergo transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation). In cat V1, orientation-selective cells shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. There are conflicting reports as to the direction of those shifts, towards (attractive) or away (repulsive) from the adapter. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying attractive shifts remain unexplained. In the present investigation we show that attractive shifts are the most frequent outcome of a 12 min adaptation. Overall, cells displaying selectivity for oblique orientations exhibit significantly larger shifts than cells tuned to cardinal orientations. In addition, cells selective to cardinal orientations had larger shift amplitudes when the absolute difference between the original preferred orientation and the adapting orientation increased. Conversely, cells tuned to oblique orientations exhibited larger shift amplitudes when this absolute orientation difference was narrower. Hence, neurons tuned to oblique contours appear to show more plasticity in response to small perturbations. Two different mechanisms appear to produce attractive and repulsive orientation shifts. Attractive shifts result from concurrent response depression on the non-adapted flank and selective response facilitation on the adapted flank of the orientation tuning curve. In contrast, repulsive shifts are caused solely by response depression on the adapted flank. We suggest that an early mechanism leads to repulsive shifts while attractive shifts engage a subsequent late facilitation. A potential role for attractive shifts may be improved stimulus discrimination around the adapting orientation.

  2. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  3. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans.

  4. Recovery of rescuers from a 24-h shift and its association with aerobic fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Lyytikäinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rescuers work in 24-h shifts and the demanding nature of the occupation requires adequate recovery between work shifts. The purpose of this study has been to find out what kind of changes in autonomic control may be seen during work shift and its recovery period in the case of rescuers. An additional interest has been to see if aerobic fitness is associated with recovery from work shifts. Material and Methods: Fourteen male rescuers (aged 34±9 years old volunteered to participate in the study. Heart rate variability (HRV was recorded for 96 h to study stress and recovery, from the beginning of a 24-h work shift to the beginning of the next shift. Aerobic fitness assessment included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max estimation with a submaximal bicycle ergometer test. Salivary cortisol samples were collected 0 min, 15 min, and 30 min after awakening on the 3 resting days. Results: Some HRV parameters showed enhanced autonomic control after the work shift. Stress percentage decreased from the working day to the 2nd rest day (p 0.05. Cortisol awakening response was attenuated right after the work shift. Conclusions: The HRV findings show that recovery after a long work shift takes several days. Thus, rescuers should pay attention to sufficient recovery before the next work shift, and an integrated model of perceived and physiological measurements could be beneficial to assess cardiovascular strain among rescuers with long work shifts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:433–444

  5. 77 FR 33490 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,525] Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Were Reported Through Kone, Inc... former workers of Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance...

  6. Prolonged Instability Prior to a Regime Shift | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regime shifts are generally defined as the point of ‘abrupt’ change in the state of a system. However, a seemingly abrupt transition can be the product of a system reorganization that has been ongoing much longer than is evident in statistical analysis of a single component of the system. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we tested a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset with a known change in species assemblage for a regime shift. Analysis of this dataset with Fisher Information and multivariate time series modeling showed that there was a∼2000 year period of instability prior to the regime shift. This period of instability and the subsequent regime shift coincide with regional climate change, indicating that the system is undergoing extrinsic forcing. Paleoecological records offer a unique opportunity to test tools for the detection of thresholds and stable-states, and thus to examine the long-term stability of ecosystems over periods of multiple millennia. This manuscript explores various methods of assessing the transition between alternative states in an ecological system described by a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset.

  7. How long the singular value decomposed entropy predicts the stock market? - Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rongbao; Shao, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new concept of multi-scales singular value decomposition entropy based on DCCA cross correlation analysis is proposed and its predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index is studied. Using Granger causality analysis with different time scales, it is found that, the singular value decomposition entropy has predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index for period less than one month, but not for more than one month. This shows how long the singular value decomposition entropy predicts the stock market that extends Caraiani's result obtained in Caraiani (2014). On the other hand, the result also shows an essential characteristic of stock market as a chaotic dynamic system.

  8. Large deviations of a long-time average in the Ehrenfest urn model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, Baruch; Zilber, Pini

    2018-05-01

    Since its inception in 1907, the Ehrenfest urn model (EUM) has served as a test bed of key concepts of statistical mechanics. Here we employ this model to study large deviations of a time-additive quantity. We consider two continuous-time versions of the EUM with K urns and N balls: with and without interactions between the balls in the same urn. We evaluate the probability distribution that the average number of balls in one urn over time T, , takes any specified value aN, where . For long observation time, , a Donsker–Varadhan large deviation principle holds: , where … denote additional parameters of the model. We calculate the rate function exactly by two different methods due to Donsker and Varadhan and compare the exact results with those obtained with a variant of WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin). In the absence of interactions the WKB prediction for is exact for any N. In the presence of interactions the WKB method gives asymptotically exact results for . The WKB method also uncovers the (very simple) time history of the system which dominates the contribution of different time histories to .

  9. Evidence on Features of a DSGE Business Cycle Model from Bayesian Model Averaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical support for features of a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model with two technology shocks is valuated using Bayesian model averaging over vector autoregressions. The model features include equilibria, restrictions on long-run responses, a structural break of unknown

  10. Evaluation of soft x-ray average recombination coefficient and average charge for metallic impurities in beam-heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hiroe, S.; Hulse, R.; Shimada, M.; Stratton, B.; von Goeler, S.

    1986-05-01

    The soft x-ray continuum radiation in TFTR low density neutral beam discharges can be much lower than its theoretical value obtained by assuming a corona equilibrium. This reduced continuum radiation is caused by an ionization equilibrium shift toward lower states, which strongly changes the value of the average recombination coefficient of metallic impurities anti γ, even for only slight changes in the average charge, anti Z. The primary agent for this shift is the charge exchange between the highly ionized impurity ions and the neutral hydrogen, rather than impurity transport, because the central density of the neutral hydrogen is strongly enhanced at lower plasma densities with intense beam injection. In the extreme case of low density, high neutral beam power TFTR operation (energetic ion mode) the reduction in anti γ can be as much as one-half to two-thirds. We calculate the parametric dependence of anti γ and anti Z for Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni impurities on neutral density (equivalent to beam power), electron temperature, and electron density. These values are obtained by using either a one-dimensional impurity transport code (MIST) or a zero-dimensional code with a finite particle confinement time. As an example, we show the variation of anti γ and anti Z in different TFTR discharges

  11. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B

    1999-01-01

    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M(sup 2)= 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M(sup 2) value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M(sup 2) and lt; 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods

  12. Analytical solutions for quantum walks on 1D chain with different shift operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrete-time quantum walks on 1D Chain with the moving and swapping shift operators. We derive analytical solutions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the evolution operator U -hat using the Chebyshev polynomial technique, and calculate the long-time averaged probabilities for the two different shift operators respectively. It is found that the probability distributions for the moving and swapping shift operators display completely different characteristics. For the moving shift operator, the probability distribution exhibits high symmetry where the probabilities at mirror positions are equal. The probabilities are inversely proportional to the system size N and approach to zero as N→∞. On the contrary, for the swapping shift operator, the probability distribution is not symmetric, the probability distribution approaches to a power-law stationary distribution as N→∞ under certain coin parameter condition. We show that such power-law stationary distribution is determined by the eigenstates of the eigenvalues ±1 and calculate the intrinsic probability for different starting positions. Our findings suggest that the eigenstates corresponding to eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the swapping shift operator. - Highlights: • QWs on 1D chain with the moving and swapping operators are studied for the first time. • We derive analytical results for the probability distribution for the two operators. •We compare the dynamics of QWs with two different shift operators. • We find the particular eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the dynamics. • We use the Chebyshev technique to treat the problem

  13. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  14. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-11-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry.

  15. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  16. The evolution of Cayaponia (Cucurbitaceae): Repeated shifts from bat to bee pollination and long-distance dispersal to Africa 2-5 million years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchen, Pablo; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-07-01

    The Cucurbitaceae genus Cayaponia comprises ∼60 species that occur from Uruguay to the southern United States and the Caribbean; C. africana occurs in West Africa and on Madagascar. Pollination is by bees or bats, raising the question of the evolutionary direction and frequency of pollinator shifts. Studies that investigated such shifts in other clades have suggested that bat pollination might be an evolutionary end point. • Plastid and nuclear DNA sequences were obtained for 50 accessions representing 30 species of Cayaponia and close relatives, and analyses were carried out to test monophyly, infer divergence times, and reconstruct ancestral states for habitat preferences and pollination modes. • The phylogeny shows that Cayaponia is monophyletic as long as Selysia (a genus with four species from Central and South America) is included. The required nomenclatural transfers are made in this paper. African and Madagascan accessions of C. africana form a clade that is part of a polytomy with Caribbean and South American species, and the inferred divergence time of 2-5 Ma implies a transoceanic dispersal event from the New World to Africa. The ancestral state reconstructions suggest that Cayaponia originated in tropical forests from where open savannas were reached several times and that bee pollination arose from bat pollination, roughly concomitant with the shifts from forests to savanna habitats. • Cayaponia provides the first example of evolutionary transitions from bat to bee pollination as well as another instance of transoceanic dispersal from the New World to Africa.

  17. Human-Induced Long-Term Shifts in Gull Diet from Marine to Terrestrial Sources in North America's Coastal Pacific: More Evidence from More Isotopes (δ2H, δ34S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A; Blight, Louise K; Arcese, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Measurements of naturally occurring stable isotopes in tissues of seabirds and their prey are a powerful tool for investigating long-term changes in marine foodwebs. Recent isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) evidence from feathers of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) has shown that over the last 150 years, this species shifted from a midtrophic marine diet to one including lower trophic marine prey and/or more terrestrial or freshwater foods. However, long-term isotopic patterns of δ(15)N and δ(13)C cannot distinguish between the relative importance of lower trophic-level marine foods and terrestrial sources. We examined 48 feather stable-hydrogen (δ(2)H) and -sulfur (δ(34)S) isotope values from this same 150-year feather set and found additional isotopic evidence supporting the hypothesis that gulls shifted to terrestrial and/or freshwater prey. Mean feather δ(2)H and δ(34)S values (± SD) declined from the earliest period (1860-1915; n = 12) from -2.5 ± 21.4 ‰ and 18.9 ± 2.7 ‰, respectively, to -35.5 ± 15.5 ‰ and 14.8 ± 2.4 ‰, respectively, for the period 1980-2009 (n = 12). We estimated a shift of ∼ 30% increase in dependence on terrestrial/freshwater sources. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that gulls increased terrestrial food inputs in response to declining forage fish availability.

  18. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves substantia......We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves...

  19. Commonwealth Edison's approach to enhanced on-shift technical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscas, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A long-term plan was formulated that called for the integration of accident assessment and operational supervisory functions into a new operating position called the Station Control Room Engineer (SCRE). Pending implementation of the long-term plan, an alternative to the Shift Technical Advisor concept was selected as an interim plan. This alternative, called the SRO Augmentation program, involved giving five modules of specialized training to shift Senior Operators

  20. The application of spatial shifting for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in MIMO OFDM systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, T.C.W.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Fledderus, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of spatial shifting (SS) of partial transmit sequences (PTSs) in multiple-input multiple-output OFDM. The technique rearranges the transmit (TX) vector in such a way that subparts are transmitted on those TX branches that result in the lowest overall

  1. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  2. Interaction potential of the H-He system and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He buffer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.T.; Yang, X.D.

    1990-01-01

    The van der Waals potential of the H-He interaction and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He are predicted using the Tang-Toennies model. This model damps the long-range ab initio dispersion terms individually using a universal damping function and adds to this a simple Born-Mayer repulsive term. The Born-Mayer parameters are derived from self-consistent-field calculations. The resulting potential is found to be in good agreement with two molecular-beam experiments and its well parameters, in excellent agreement with the complete configuration-interaction calculation. In order to compare with experiment, the hyperfine frequency shift is thermally averaged over the potential both quantum mechanically and classically. The thermally averaged results are in excellent agreement with experiment in the high-temperature range but there are some discrepancies with the measurements at 0.5 and at 1.15 K. These discrepancies may be due to the fact that the long-range coefficient K 10 used is too small. The quantum and classical results are practically identical for temperature above 40 K. The classical statistics fails completely only for temperature below 5 K. Also in the quantum calculation, the isotope effect between 3 He and 4 He is found to show up only for temperature below 10 K. The theoretical isotope effect is in qualitative agreement with experiment

  3. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Long range surface plasmon resonance enhanced electro-optically tunable Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift in ZnSe prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nabamita; Kar, Aparupa; Saha, Ardhendu

    2014-11-01

    A new theoretical approach towards the tuning of Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift for the reflected light beam is observed, designed and simulated in this paper through electro-optically tunable liquid crystal at an incident wavelength of 1550 nm within the communication window. Here the considered Kretschmann-Raether geometry comprises a ZnSe prism and a liquid crystal layer of E44 between two metal layers of silver, where with the application of electric field from (0-10) V electro-optically tuning of the Goos-Hänchen shift from 64.09 μm to -53.408 μm and the Imbert-Fedorov shift from 122.8 μm to -32.5 μm for a change in refractive index of the liquid crystal layer from 1.52-1.79 are envisaged. This idea expedites the scope of fine tuning in optical switching within the μm ranges.

  5. Measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, T.; Gorjanacz, Z.; Nemeth, Cs.; Szabo, T.; Varhegyi, A.; Hakl, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of measurement of average radon gas concentration at workplaces (the schools and kindergartens and the ventilated workplaces) are presented. t can be stated that the one month long measurements means very high variation (as it is obvious in the cases of the hospital cave and the uranium tailing pond). Consequently, in workplaces where the expectable changes of radon concentration considerable with the seasons should be measure for 12 months long. If it is not possible, the chosen six months period should contain summer and winter months as well. The average radon concentration during working hours can be differ considerable from the average of the whole time in the cases of frequent opening the doors and windows or using artificial ventilation. (authors)

  6. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Invasive Electromagnetic Skin Patch Sensor to Measure Intracranial Fluid–Volume Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Griffith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intracranial fluid volume can drive intracranial pressure increases, which can potentially result in numerous neurological complications or death. This study’s focus was to develop a passive skin patch sensor for the head that would non-invasively measure cranial fluid volume shifts. The sensor consists of a single baseline component configured into a rectangular planar spiral with a self-resonant frequency response when impinged upon by external radio frequency sweeps. Fluid volume changes (10 mL increments were detected through cranial bone using the sensor on a dry human skull model. Preliminary human tests utilized two sensors to determine feasibility of detecting fluid volume shifts in the complex environment of the human body. The correlation between fluid volume changes and shifts in the first resonance frequency using the dry human skull was classified as a second order polynomial with R2 = 0.97. During preliminary and secondary human tests, a ≈24 MHz and an average of ≈45.07 MHz shifts in the principal resonant frequency were measured respectively, corresponding to the induced cephalad bio-fluid shifts. This electromagnetic resonant sensor may provide a non-invasive method to monitor shifts in fluid volume and assist with medical scenarios including stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, concussion, or monitoring intracranial pressure.

  8. Effect of Phase Shift in Dual-Rail Perfect State Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao-Ming; Zhang Zhong-Jun; Gu Yong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of phase shift on the perfect state transfer through two parallel one-dimensional ring-shaped spin chains. We find that the total success probability can be significantly enhanced by phase shift control when the communication channel consists of two odd chains. The average time to gain unit success probability is discussed, showing that a proper phase shift can be used to enhance the efficiency of state transmission. (general)

  9. Nutrition and health in hotel staff on different shift patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, R; Süße, T; Spitzer, S; Hunger, B; Rudolf, M

    2015-08-01

    Limited research is available that examines the nutritional behaviour and health of hotel staff working alternating and regular shifts. To analyse the nutritional behaviour and health of employees working in alternating and regular shifts. The study used an ex post facto cross-sectional analysis to compare the nutritional behaviour and health parameters of workers with alternating shifts and regular shift workers. Nutritional behaviour was assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Body dimensions (body mass index, waist hip ratio, fat mass and active cell mass), metabolic values (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoprotein), diseases and health complaints were included as health parameters. Participants worked in alternating (n = 53) and regular shifts (n = 97). The average age of subjects was 35 ± 10 years. There was no significant difference in nutritional behaviour, most surveyed body dimensions or metabolic values between the two groups. However, alternating shift workers had significantly lower fat mass and higher active cell mass but nevertheless reported more pronounced health complaints. Sex and age were also confirmed as influencing the surveyed parameters. Shift-dependent nutritional problems were not conspicuously apparent in this sample of hotel industry workers. Health parameters did not show significantly negative attributes for alternating shift workers. Conceivably, both groups could have the same level of knowledge on the health effects of nutrition and comparable opportunities to apply this. Further studies on nutritional and health behaviour in the hotel industry are necessary in order to create validated screening programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Temperature shift effect on the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Xu, Ying; Muhlmann, Guillermo M; Zare, Farrokh; Khin, Yadana; Tam, Sun W

    2013-05-01

    Chlorobaculum [Cba.] tepidum is known to grow optimally at 48-52 °C and can also be cultured at ambient temperatures. In this paper, we prepared constant temperature, temperature shift, and temperature shift followed by backshift cultures and investigated the intrinsic properties and spectral features of chlorosomes from those cultures using various approaches, including temperature-dependent measurements on circular dichroism (CD), UV-visible, and dynamic light scattering. Our studies indicate that (1) chlorosomes from constant temperature cultures at 50 and 30 °C exhibited more resistance to heat relative to temperature shift cultures; (2) as temperature increases bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in chlorosomes is prone to demetalation, which forms bacteriopheophytin c, and degradation under aerobic conditions. Some BChl c aggregates inside reduced chlorosomes prepared in low-oxygen environments can reform after heat treatments; (3) temperature shift cultures synthesize and incorporate more BChl c homologs with a smaller substituent at C-8 on the chlorin ring and less BChl c homologs with a larger long-chain alcohol at C-17(3) versus constant-temperature cultures. We hypothesize that the long-chain alcohol at C-17(3) (and perhaps together with the substituent at C-8) may account for thermal stability of chlorosomes and the substituent at C-8 may assist self-assembling BChls; and (4) while almost identical absorption spectra are detected, chlorosomes from different growth conditions exhibited differences in the rotational length of the CD signal, and aerobic and reduced chlorosomes also display different Qy CD intensities. Further, chlorosomes exhibited changes of CD features in response to temperature increases. Additionally, we compare temperature-dependent studies for the Cba. tepidum chlorosomes and previous studies for the Chloroflexus aurantiacus chlorosomes. Together, our work provides useful and novel insights on the properties and organization of

  11. High Average Power UV Free Electron Laser Experiments At JLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, David; Benson, Stephen; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle; Tennant, Christopher; Williams, Gwyn

    2012-01-01

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at ∼2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  12. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  13. Do phase-shift analyses and nucleon-nucleon potential models yield the wrong 3Pj phase shifts at low energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.; Kievsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The 4 P J waves in nucleon-deuteron scattering were analyzed using proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron data at E N =3 MeV. New sets of nucleon-nucleon 3 P j phase shifts were obtained that may lead to a better understanding of the long-standing A y (θ) puzzle in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering. However, these sets of 3 P j phase shifts are quite different from the ones determined from both global phase-shift analyses of nucleon-nucleon data and nucleon-nucleon potential models. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Organisational characteristics associated with shift work practices and potential opportunities for intervention: findings from a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Smit, Andrea N; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Landry, Glenn J; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is a common working arrangement with wide-ranging implications for worker health. Organisational determinants of shift work practices are not well characterised; such information could be used to guide evidence-based research and best practices to mitigate shift work's negative effects. This exploratory study aimed to describe and assess organisational-level determinants of shift work practices thought to affect health, across a range of industry sectors. Data on organisational characteristics, shift work scheduling, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies in the workplace were collected during phone interviews with organisations across the Canadian province of British Columbia. Relationships between organisational characteristics and shift work practices were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. The study sample included 88 participating organisations, representing 30 700 shift workers. Long-duration shifts, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies were reported by approximately one-third of participating organisations. Odds of long-duration shifts increased in larger workplaces and by industry. Odds of providing shift work education materials/training increased in larger workplaces, in organisations reporting concern for shift worker health and in organisations without seasonal changes in shift work. Odds of night-time lighting policies in the workplace increased in organisations reporting previous workplace accidents or incidents that occurred during non-daytime hours, site maintenance needs and client service or care needs. This study points to organisational determinants of shift work practices that could be useful for targeting research and workplace interventions. Results should be interpreted as preliminary in an emerging body of literature on shift work and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  15. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Social and economic development planning to identify transportation improvements or needs to accommodate... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN...

  16. Sleep loss and circadian disruption in shift work: health burden and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Howard, Mark E; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2013-10-21

    About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches.

  17. Physical workload, trapezius muscle activity, and neck pain in nurses' night and day shifts: a physiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Corinne; Spengler, Christina M; Läubli, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical workload, electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscle, neck pain and mental well-being at work between night and day shifts in twenty Swiss nurses. Work pulse (average increase of heart rate over resting heart rate) was lower during night (27 bpm) compared to day shifts (34 bpm; p night (82% of average) compared to day shifts (110%; p night shifts. Trapezius muscle rest time was longer during night (13% of shift duration) than day shifts (7%; p night shifts. Neck pain and mental well-being at work were similar between shifts. Subjective perception of burden was similar between shifts despite less physical burden at night, suggesting there are other contributing factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A Navajo Paradigm for Long Life Happiness--and for Reversing Navajo Language Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Navajo model by which individuals may assume responsibility for reversing Navajo language shift. Argues that reversing Navajo language shift requires that Navajos acknowledge the problem, that Navajo principles of balance and the natural order be applied to the problem, and that Navajo individuals and families make a commitment to…

  19. Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; psleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (psleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain.

  20. Long-term evaluation of immediately loaded implants in the edentulous mandible using fixed bridges and platform shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E; Gaertner, Kathrin; Nentwig, Georg H

    2014-08-01

    The immediate loading concept has been extensively documented in the anterior part of the mandible when six primary stable implants are placed, splinted with a fixed prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term success of immediately occlusal loaded implants with a progressive thread design and platform shifting in the edentulous mandible. Seventy-eight implants placed in 13 patients and were connected with their abutments immediately after surgery. The implants were splinted using a fixed temporary restoration having occlusal contacts in the centric and group function in the lateral movements of the mandible (immediate occlusal loading). The patients were advised to use soft/liquid diet for the first 6 to 8 weeks of healing in order to reduce excessive loading in the bone-to-implant interface. Abutment level impressions were taken without removing the abutments in order to fabricate the final prostheses. The final restorations were delivered 4 to 8 weeks after surgery and cemented temporarily in order to evaluate the peri-implant soft tissue condition at the different time intervals after removal of the restoration. Clinical stability and radiological indices were evaluated at the start of loading, at 3-month interval after loading, and then annually. After a mean loading period of 75.29 (± 38.18) months, no implant was lost (100% success rate). All clinical indices had values in normal levels. The Periotest values demonstrated a continuous reduction, representing high stability. The crestal bone level was relatively stable and only minimal crestal bone loss was observed in some implants. Long-term success and stability of the peri-implant tissues around immediately loaded mandibular implants are expected when implants with platform shifting are restored with bridges without abutment removal. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Stewart, Charles; Bhambhani, Vijeta

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear. To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012. Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA) using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression. General community. All counties in the United States. Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese. The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift"). Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%). Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8%) had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump) and 368 counties (12.2%) had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump). The first principal component ("unhealthy score") accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16). Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012 and measures of poor public health. Although these results do not demonstrate causality, these results suggest a possible role for health status in political choices.

  2. Characteristics of phase-averaged equations for modulated wave groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopman, G.; Petit, H.A.H.; Battjes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The project concerns the influence of long waves on coastal morphology. The modelling of the combined motion of the long waves and short waves in the horizontal plane is done by phase-averaging over the short wave motion and using intra-wave modelling for the long waves, see e.g. Roelvink (1993).

  3. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  4. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  5. Long-term Shifting Patterns in Quality of Life After Distal Subtotal Gastrectomy: Preoperative- and Healthy-based Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Soo; Chung, Ho Young; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Yu, Wansik

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed long-term shifting patterns in quality of life (QoL) after distal subtotal gastrectomy relative to an estimated healthy population QoL (HPQoL), and compared them to shifting patterns interpreted in terms of a preoperative QoL baseline. QoL data from 127 gastric cancer patients who underwent open distal subtotal gastrectomy were obtained at the preoperative period and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after surgery. QoL data obtained from 127 age- and sex-adjusted healthy individuals were used to estimate HPQoL. The study used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and a gastric cancer module (QLQ-STO22) to assess QoL. Comparisons were made between preoperative-based and healthy-based interpretations of longitudinal QoL shifting patterns. Among the persistently deteriorated QoL variables indicated by the preoperative-based interpretation (physical functioning, role functioning, cognitive functioning, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, diarrhea, dysphagia, eating restrictions, dry mouth, and body image), eating restrictions and body image concerns were the only factors indicated by a healthy-based interpretation. In this interpretation, financial difficulties were evident at the preoperative period and persisted for at least 36 months. When preoperative QoL was used as a baseline, decreased QoL due to financial difficulties was not revealed. Persistent QoL deterioration after distal subtotal gastrectomy is primarily due to financial difficulties, eating restrictions, and body image concerns. Preoperative-based interpretation of postoperative QoL may exaggerate the persistency of reduced QoL and conceal on-going QoL deterioration after surgery.

  6. A SESAM passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity including a band pass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Rui; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity length over 700 m is demonstrated. A band pass filter is inserted into the laser cavity to stabilize the lasing wavelength. Some interesting phenomena are observed and discussed. The central wavelength, repetition rate, average power and single pulse energy of the laser are 1064 nm, 281.5 kHz, 11 mW and 39 nJ, respectively. The laser operates stably without Q-switching instabilities, which greatly reduces the damage opportunities of the SESAM

  7. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an E×B nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  8. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  9. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  10. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cance...

  11. Information content of long-range NMR data for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrałojć, Witold [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Berlin, Konstantin; Fushman, David, E-mail: fushman@umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Biomolecular Structure and Organization (United States); Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Sgheri, Luca [CNR, Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, Sezione di Firenze (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Long-range NMR data, namely residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from external alignment and paramagnetic data, are becoming increasingly popular for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity of multidomain biomacromolecules and protein complexes. The question addressed here is how much information is contained in these averaged data. We have analyzed and compared the information content of conformationally averaged RDCs caused by steric alignment and of both RDCs and pseudocontact shifts caused by paramagnetic alignment, and found that, despite the substantial differences, they contain a similar amount of information. Furthermore, using several synthetic tests we find that both sets of data are equally good towards recovering the major state(s) in conformational distributions.

  12. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  13. Circadian adaptation to night-shift work by judicious light and darkness exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Diane B; James, Francine O

    2002-12-01

    In this combined field and laboratory investigation, the authors tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote circadian adaptation to night-shift work. Fifteen nurses working permanent night schedules (> or = 8 shifts/ 15 days) were recruited from area hospitals. Following avacation period of > or = 10 days on a regular daytime schedule, workers were admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase via a 36-h constant routine. They returned to work approximately 12 night shifts on their regular schedules under one of two conditions. Treatment group workers (n = 10, mean age +/- SD = 41.7 +/- 8.8 years) received an intervention including 6 h of intermittent bright-light exposure in the workplace (approximately 3,243 lux) and shielding from bright morning outdoor light with tinted goggles (15% visual light transmission). Control group workers (n = 9, mean age +/- SD = 42.0 +/- 7.2 years) were observed in their habitual work environments. On work days, participants maintained regular sleep/wake schedules including a single 8-h sleep/darkness episode beginning 2 h after the end of the night shift. A second 36-h constant routine was performed following the series of night shifts. In the presence of the intervention, circadian rhythms of core body temperature and salivary melatonin cycles were delayed by an average (+/- SEM) of -9.32 +/- 1.06 h and -11.31 +/- 1.13 h, respectively. These were significantly greater than the phase delays of -4.09 +/- 1.94 h and -5.08 +/- 2.32 h displayed by the control group (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). The phase angle between circadian markers and the shifted schedule was reestablished to its baseline position only in the treatment group of workers. These results support the efficacy of a practical intervention for promoting circadian adaptation to night-shift work under field conditions. They also underline the importance of controlling the overall pattern of exposure to light and darkness in

  14. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  15. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  16. Health effects of the shift work system

    OpenAIRE

    Yüzügüllü, Didem Ata; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances and the changes to methods ofproduction in many industrialized countries led to the introduction of shiftwork systems to ensure the continuity in operation of industries. Shift workhas long been known to disrupt circadian rhythm,sleep, and work-life balance.Alfredsson et al. carried out a study of 334 cases with myocardial infarctionand 882 controls, who were selected randomly from the general population in thesame region. The shift-work exposure was assessed from the o...

  17. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  18. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  19. A systematic review of the sleep, sleepiness, and performance implications of limited wake shift work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Agostini, Alexandra; Lushington, Kurt; Dorrian, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to identify which limited wake shift work schedules (LWSW) best promote sleep, alertness, and performance. LWSW are fixed work/rest cycles where the time-at-work does is ≤8 hours and there is >1 rest period per day, on average, for ≥2 consecutive days. These schedules are commonly used in safety-critical industries such as transport and maritime industries. Literature was sourced using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. We identified 20 independent studies (plus a further 2 overlapping studies), including 5 laboratory and 17 field-based studies focused on maritime watch keepers, ship bridge officers, and long-haul train drivers. The measurement of outcome measures was varied, incorporating subjective and objective measures of sleep: sleep diaries (N=5), actigraphy (N=4), and polysomnography, (N=3); sleepiness: Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (N=5), visual analog scale (VAS) alertness (N=2) and author-derived measures (N=2); and performance: Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) (N=5), Reaction Time or Vigilance tasks (N=4), Vector and Letter Cancellation Test (N=1), and subjective performance (N=2). Of the three primary rosters examined (6 hours-on/6 hours-off, 8 hours-on/8 hours-off and 4 hours-on/8 hours-off), the 4 hours-on/8 hours-off roster was associated with better sleep and lower levels of sleepiness. Individuals working 4 hours-on/8 hours-off rosters averaged 1 hour more sleep per night than those working 6 hours-on/6 hours-off and 1.3 hours more sleep than those working 8 hours-on/8 hours-off (Pwork, (ii) more frequent rest breaks, (iii) shifts that start and end at the same clock time every 24 hours, and (iv) work shifts commencing in the daytime (as opposed to night). The findings for performance remain incomplete due to the small number of studies containing a performance measure and the heterogeneity of performance measures within those that did. The literature supports the utility of LWSW in

  20. Measurement uncertainties of long-term 222Rn averages at environmental levels using alpha track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 250 replicate measurements of outdoor Rn concentration integrated over quarterly periods were made to estimate the random component of the measurement uncertainty of Track Etch detectors (type F) under outdoor conditions. The measurements were performed around three U mill tailings piles to provide a range of environmental concentrations. The measurement uncertainty was typically greater than could be accounted for by Poisson counting statistics. Average coefficients of variation of the order of 20% for all measured concentrations were found. It is concluded that alpha track detectors can be successfully used to determine annual average outdoor Rn concentrations through the use of careful quality control procedures. These include rapid deployment and collection of detectors to minimize unintended Rn exposure, careful packaging and shipping to and from the manufacturer, use of direct sunlight shields for all detectors and careful and secure mounting of all detectors in as similar a manner as possible. The use of multiple (at least duplicate) detectors at each monitoring location and an exposure period of no less than one quarter are suggested

  1. A proposal for transmission pricing methodology in Thailand based on electricity tracing and long-run average incremental cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpasuwan, T.; Bialek, J.W.; Ongsakul, W.; Limmeechokchai, B.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is no universally accepted methodology for restructuring of electricity supply industry, the transformations often involve separation of generation and transmission. Such separation results in a need for a transmission service charge to be levied on the system users. The National Energy Policy Office (NEPO) of Thailand has commissioned PricewaterhouseCooper (PwC) to propose a transmission service charge that is to be used during the market reform for the transmission business unit of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). Although the PwCs transmission use of system charge (TUOS) based on the long-run average incremental cost (LRAIC) and average transmission loss can satisfy the financial requirements, the charge allocations are not economically efficient since they do not provide any locational signal which could reflect costs imposed on the system by locating a system user in a particular geographical location. This paper describes the TUOS methodology suggested by PwC and makes a comparison with a transmission pricing method based on combination of the electricity tracing and LRAIC. The results indicate that, with electricity tracing, the charge allocations are improved in terms of fairness, as the charge reflects the geographical location and system conditions

  2. Individual vulnerability to insomnia, excessive sleepiness and shift work disorder amongst healthcare shift workers. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Lauren A; Magee, Michelle; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark E

    2018-03-27

    Shift workers often experience reduced sleep quality, duration and/or excessive sleepiness due to the imposed conflict between work and their circadian system. About 20-30% of shift workers experience prominent insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness consistent with the circadian rhythm sleep disorder known as shift work disorder. Individual factors may influence this vulnerability to shift work disorder or sleep-related impairment associated with shift work. This paper was registered with Prospero and was conducted using recommended standards for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Published literature that measured sleep-related impairment associated with shift work including reduced sleep quality and duration and increased daytime sleepiness amongst healthcare shift workers and explored characteristics associated with individual variability were reviewed. Fifty-eight studies were included. Older age, morning-type, circadian flexibility, being married or having children, increased caffeine intake, higher scores on neuroticism and lower on hardiness were related to a higher risk of sleep-related impairment in response to shift work, whereas physical activity was a protective factor. The review highlights the diverse range of measurement tools used to evaluate the impact of shift work on sleep. Use of standardised and validated tools would enable cross-study comparisons. Longitudinal studies are required to establish causal relationships between individual factors and the development of shift work disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Influence of the shift work on circadian-rhythms compare survey on health service employees and policemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Kordiak, Jacek; Brocki, Marian

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimating that about 20% working persons works in the shift system. It concerns health service employees and policemen among others. The shift work causes permanent conflict "of biological clock" with required working hours. The work in the night hours is less effective, it is held with greater expensive and triggering the increased tiredness.The aim of overtaken by the authors questionnaire survey amongst the population working in shifts, was to determining the influence of the shift work on the length and the quality of the dream and the tiredness and the sleepiness during day in comparison to group working only on the day shift. The survey was conducted in the group of employees of the Health Service (30 persons) and policemen (20 persons) working in shifts. Healthy volunteers working in the system of the daily work constituted the control group (30 persons). The examination consisted of questionnaire forms which were filled in anonymously, the duration of examining one person lasted 4 weeks. Age and sex of the examined and control group were similar. In the examined period of time the number of night shift was averaged 6. During holidays 47 persons had night changes. Average time of dream was approximately 7 hours, for those who was working only at daily shift. On the following day after the night shift examined slept additionally average about 3 hours. Those who didn't work in shifts slept average 7.5 hour/24. Clinically significant sleeplessness was developed: examined group--18 persons, control group--3 persons. Amongst respondents we measured level of sleepiness during night shift using carolain scale of the sleepiness. Increase of sleepiness and decrease of activity appeared between 2:00 and 6:00 a.m. In the process of the examination a measurement of appearing the indications of exaggerated sleepiness and tiredness was also conducted using the ATS scale. The frequency of appearing was two or even three times bigger in the examined group. In

  4. Is there a shift to 'active nanostructures'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Shapira, Philip

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure 'changes or evolves its state during its operation,' according to the National Science Foundation's (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Active nanostructure examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This article considers two questions: (a) Is there a 'shift' to active nanostructures? (b) How can we characterize the prototypical areas into which active nanostructures may emerge? We build upon the NSF definition of active nanostructures to develop a research publication search strategy, with a particular intent to distinguish between passive and active nanotechnologies. We perform bibliometric analyses and describe the main publication trends from 1995 to 2008. We then describe the prototypes of research that emerge based on reading the abstracts and review papers encountered in our search. Preliminary results suggest that there is a sharp rise in active nanostructures publications in 2006, and this rise is maintained in 2007 and through to early 2008. We present a typology that can be used to describe the kind of active nanostructures that may be commercialized and regulated in the future.

  5. Is there a shift to "active nanostructures"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Shapira, Philip

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure "changes or evolves its state during its operation," according to the National Science Foundation's (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Active nanostructure examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This article considers two questions: (a) Is there a "shift" to active nanostructures? (b) How can we characterize the prototypical areas into which active nanostructures may emerge? We build upon the NSF definition of active nanostructures to develop a research publication search strategy, with a particular intent to distinguish between passive and active nanotechnologies. We perform bibliometric analyses and describe the main publication trends from 1995 to 2008. We then describe the prototypes of research that emerge based on reading the abstracts and review papers encountered in our search. Preliminary results suggest that there is a sharp rise in active nanostructures publications in 2006, and this rise is maintained in 2007 and through to early 2008. We present a typology that can be used to describe the kind of active nanostructures that may be commercialized and regulated in the future.

  6. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  7. Night shift work and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Laura; Benavente, Yolanda; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Casabonne, Delphine; Robles, Claudia; Gonzalez-Barca, Eva-Maria; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Alonso, Esther; Aymerich, Marta; Tardón, Adonina; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Gimeno-Vázquez, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has few known modifiable risk factors. Recently, circadian disruption has been proposed as a potential contributor to lymphoid neoplasms' etiology. Serum melatonin levels have been found to be significantly lower in CLL subjects compared with healthy controls, and also, CLL prognosis has been related to alterations in the circadian molecular signaling. We performed the first investigation of an association between night shift work and CLL in 321 incident CLL cases and 1728 population-based controls in five areas of Spain. Participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic factors, familial, medical and occupational history, including work shifts and other lifestyle factors. We used logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-nine cases (25%) and 339 controls (20%) had performed night work. Overall, working in night shifts was not associated with CLL (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.78-1.45, compared with day work). However, long-term night shift (>20 years) was positively associated with CLL (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 1.77; 95% = 1.14-2.74), although no linear trend was observed (P trend = 0.18). This association was observed among those with rotating (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.33-3.92; P trend = 0.07), but not permanent night shifts (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.60-2.25; P trend = 0.86). The association between CLL and long-term rotating night shift warrants further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Prolonged passive static stretching-induced innervation zone shift in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a bout of repeated and prolonged passive static stretching on the innervation zone (IZ) location of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eleven men performed 12 sets of 100-s passive stretches on their biceps brachii. Before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) the stretching intervention, isometric strength was tested during the maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the forearm flexors. The subjects also performed several separate isometric forearm flexion muscle actions at 30%, 50%, and 70% of their predetermined MVCs for examining the locations of the IZ at different contraction intensities. The IZ was identified through multi-channel surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a linear electrode array. The stretching intervention induced an average of 10% isometric strength loss for the forearm flexors (mean±SD: Pre-MVC vs. Post-MVC=332.12±59.40 N vs. 299.53±70.51 N; p<0.001). In addition, the average IZ shift was nearly 4.5 mm in average in the proximal direction. However, this shift was not specific to the contraction intensity. We believe that the IZ shift was caused by the elongation of the entire muscle-tendon unit in the proximal direction. Therefore, caution should be taken when using surface EMG technique to examine possible changes in the EMG variables after a stretching protocol, as these variables can be contaminated by the shift of the IZ.

  9. Prospective memory deficits in illicit polydrug users are associated with the average long-term typical dose of ecstasy typically consumed in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denis T; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Robinson, Sarita J; Judge, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that ecstasy-related reductions in SERT densities relate more closely to the number of tablets typically consumed per session rather than estimated total lifetime use. To better understand the basis of drug related deficits in prospective memory (p.m.) we explored the association between p.m. and average long-term typical dose and long-term frequency of use. Study 1: Sixty-five ecstasy/polydrug users and 85 nonecstasy users completed an event-based, a short-term and a long-term time-based p.m. task. Study 2: Study 1 data were merged with outcomes on the same p.m. measures from a previous study creating a combined sample of 103 ecstasy/polydrug users, 38 cannabis-only users, and 65 nonusers of illicit drugs. Study 1: Ecstasy/polydrug users had significant impairments on all p.m. outcomes compared with nonecstasy users. Study 2: Ecstasy/polydrug users were impaired in event-based p.m. compared with both other groups and in long-term time-based p.m. compared with nonillicit drug users. Both drug using groups did worse on the short-term time-based p.m. task compared with nonusers. Higher long-term average typical dose of ecstasy was associated with poorer performance on the event and short-term time-based p.m. tasks and accounted for unique variance in the two p.m. measures over and above the variance associated with cannabis and cocaine use. The typical ecstasy dose consumed in a single session is an important predictor of p.m. impairments with higher doses reflecting increasing tolerance giving rise to greater p.m. impairment.

  10. The effects of shift work and time of day on fine motor control during handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Patricia; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Vetter, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Handwriting is an elaborate and highly automatised skill relying on fine motor control. In laboratory conditions handwriting kinematics are modulated by the time of day. This study investigated handwriting kinematics in a rotational shift system and assessed whether similar time of day fluctuations at the work place can be observed. Handwriting performance was measured in two tasks of different levels of complexity in 34 shift workers across morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-6:00). Participants were tested during all three shifts in 2-h intervals with mobile testing devices. We calculated average velocity, script size and writing frequency to quantify handwriting kinematics and fluency. Average velocity and script size were significantly affected by the shift work schedule with the worst performance during morning shifts and the best performance during evening shifts. Our data are of high economic relevance as fine motor skills are indispensable for accurate and effective production at the work place. Handwriting is one of the most complex fine motor skills in humans, which is frequently performed in daily life. In this study, we tested handwriting repeatedly at the work place in a rotational shift system. We found slower handwriting velocity and reduced script size during morning shifts.

  11. Oxidative DNA damage during night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; psleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Multidirectional abundance shifts among North American birds and the relative influence of multifaceted climate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiongyu; Sauer, John R; Dubayah, Ralph O

    2017-09-01

    Shifts in species distributions are major fingerprint of climate change. Examining changes in species abundance structures at a continental scale enables robust evaluation of climate change influences, but few studies have conducted these evaluations due to limited data and methodological constraints. In this study, we estimate temporal changes in abundance from North American Breeding Bird Survey data at the scale of physiographic strata to examine the relative influence of different components of climatic factors and evaluate the hypothesis that shifting species distributions are multidirectional in resident bird species in North America. We quantify the direction and velocity of the abundance shifts of 57 permanent resident birds over 44 years using a centroid analysis. For species with significant abundance shifts in the centroid analysis, we conduct a more intensive correlative analysis to identify climate components most strongly associated with composite change of abundance within strata. Our analysis focus on two contrasts: the relative importance of climate extremes vs. averages, and of temperature vs. precipitation in strength of association with abundance change. Our study shows that 36 species had significant abundance shifts over the study period. The average velocity of the centroid is 5.89 km·yr -1 . The shifted distance on average covers 259 km, 9% of range extent. Our results strongly suggest that the climate change fingerprint in studied avian distributions is multidirectional. Among 6 directions with significant abundance shifts, the northwestward shift was observed in the largest number of species (n = 13). The temperature/average climate model consistently has greater predictive ability than the precipitation/extreme climate model in explaining strata-level abundance change. Our study shows heterogeneous avian responses to recent environmental changes. It highlights needs for more species-specific approaches to examine contributing

  13. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  14. SU-F-J-206: Systematic Evaluation of the Minimum Detectable Shift Using a Range- Finding Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M; Platt, M [College of Medicine University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lamba, M [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mascia, A [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Huang, K [UC Health Barret Cancer Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The robotic table used for patient alignment in proton therapy is calibrated only at commissioning under well-defined conditions and table shifts may vary over time and with differing conditions. The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate minimum detectable shifts using a time-of-flight (TOF) range-finding camera for table position feedback. Methods: A TOF camera was used to acquire one hundred 424 × 512 range images from a flat surface before and after known shifts. Range was assigned by averaging central regions of the image across multiple images. Depth resolution was determined by evaluating the difference between the actual shift of the surface and the measured shift. Depth resolution was evaluated for number of images averaged, area of sensor over which depth was averaged, distance from camera to surface, central versus peripheral image regions, and angle of surface relative to camera. Results: For one to one thousand images with a shift of one millimeter the range in error was 0.852 ± 0.27 mm to 0.004 ± 0.01 mm (95% C.I.). For varying regions of the camera sensor the range in error was 0.02 ± 0.05 mm to 0.47 ± 0.04 mm. The following results are for 10 image averages. For areas ranging from one pixel to 9 × 9 pixels the range in error was 0.15 ± 0.09 to 0.29 ± 0.15 mm (1σ). For distances ranging from two to four meters the range in error was 0.15 ± 0.09 to 0.28 ± 0.15 mm. For an angle of incidence between thirty degrees and ninety degrees the average range in error was 0.11 ± 0.08 to 0.17 ± 0.09 mm. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a TOF camera for measuring shifts in flat surfaces under clinically relevant conditions with submillimeter precision.

  15. Investigation of Innervation Zone Shift with Continuous Dynamic Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Nishihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innervation zone (IZ has been identified as the origin of action potential propagation in isometric contraction. However, IZ shifts with changes in muscle length during muscle activity. The IZ shift has been estimated using raw EMG signals. This study aimed to investigate the movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction, using a computer program. Subjects flexed their elbow joint as repetitive dynamic muscle contractions. EMG signals were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle using an eight-channel surface electrode array. Approximately 100 peaks from EMG signals were detected for each channel and summed to estimate the IZ location. For each subject, the estimated IZ locations were subtracted from the IZ location during isometric contractions with the elbow flexed at 90°. The results showed that the IZ moved significantly with elbow joint movement from 45° to 135°. However, IZ movement was biased with only a 3.9 mm IZ shift on average when the elbow angle was acute but a 16 mm IZ shift on average when it was obtuse. The movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction can be investigated using this signal processing procedure without subjective judgment.

  16. Integrating the flexibility of the average Serbian consumer as a virtual storage option into the planning of energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batas-Bjelić Ilija R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of more variable renewable energy, the need for storage is growing. Rather than utility scale storage, smart grid technology (not restricted, but mainly involving bidirectional communication between the supply and demand side and dynamic pricing enables flexible consumption to be a virtual storage alternative for moderation of the production of variable renewable energy sources on the micro grid level. A study, motivated with energy loss allocation, electric demand and the legal framework that is characteristic for the average Serbian household, was performed using the HOMER software tool. The decision to shift or build deferrable load rather than sell on site generated energy from variable renewable energy sources to the grid was based on the consumer's net present cost minimization. Based on decreasing the grid sales hours of the micro grid system to the transmission grid from 3,498 to 2,009, it was shown that the demand response could be included in long-term planning of the virtual storage option. Demand responsive actions that could be interpreted as storage investment costs were quantified to 1€2 per year in this article. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42009: Smart grid

  17. Category structure determines the relative attractiveness of global versus local averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Carr, Evan W; Davis, Tyler; Winkielman, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Stimuli that capture the central tendency of presented exemplars are often preferred-a phenomenon also known as the classic beauty-in-averageness effect . However, recent studies have shown that this effect can reverse under certain conditions. We propose that a key variable for such ugliness-in-averageness effects is the category structure of the presented exemplars. When exemplars cluster into multiple subcategories, the global average should no longer reflect the underlying stimulus distributions, and will thereby become unattractive. In contrast, the subcategory averages (i.e., local averages) should better reflect the stimulus distributions, and become more attractive. In 3 studies, we presented participants with dot patterns belonging to 2 different subcategories. Importantly, across studies, we also manipulated the distinctiveness of the subcategories. We found that participants preferred the local averages over the global average when they first learned to classify the patterns into 2 different subcategories in a contrastive categorization paradigm (Experiment 1). Moreover, participants still preferred local averages when first classifying patterns into a single category (Experiment 2) or when not classifying patterns at all during incidental learning (Experiment 3), as long as the subcategories were sufficiently distinct. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, we mapped our empirical results onto predictions generated by a well-known computational model of category learning (the Generalized Context Model [GCM]). Overall, our findings emphasize the key role of categorization for understanding the nature of preferences, including any effects that emerge from stimulus averaging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. North by north-west: climate change and directions of density shifts in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Virkkala, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate change shifts species distributions towards poles and mountain tops. However, most studies are based on presence-absence data, and either abundance or the observation effort has rarely been measured. In addition, hardly any studies have investigated the direction of shifts and factors affecting them. Here, we show using count data on a 1000 km south-north gradient in Finland, that between 1970-1989 and 2000-2012, 128 bird species shifted their densities, on average, 37 km towards the north north-east. The species-specific directions of the shifts in density were significantly explained by migration behaviour and habitat type. Although the temperatures have also moved on average towards the north north-east (186 km), the species-specific directions of the shifts in density and temperature did not correlate due to high variation in density shifts. Findings highlight that climate change is unlikely the only driver of the direction of species density shifts, but species-specific characteristics and human land-use practices are also influencing the direction. Furthermore, the alarming results show that former climatic conditions in the north-west corner of Finland have already moved out of the country. This highlights the need for an international approach in research and conservation actions to mitigate the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Attentional set-shifting deficit in Parkinson's disease is associated with prefrontal dysfunction: an FDG-PET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Sawada

    Full Text Available The attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD has long been considered neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of meso-prefrontal and prefrontal-striatal circuits in cognitive flexibility. However, recent studies have suggested that non-dopaminergic, posterior cortical pathologies may also contribute to this deficit. Although several neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue, the results of these studies were confounded by the use of tasks that required other cognitive processes in addition to set-shifting, such as rule learning and working memory. In this study, we attempted to identify the neural correlates of the attentional set-shifting deficit in PD using a compound letter task and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography during rest. Shift cost, which is a measure of attentional set-shifting ability, was significantly correlated with hypometabolism in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including the putative human frontal eye field. Our results provide direct evidence that dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex makes a primary contribution to the attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in PD patients.

  20. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-lived, charge-shift states in heterometallic, porphyrin-based dendrimers formed via click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pleux, Loïc; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Harriman, Anthony

    2011-05-26

    A series of multiporphyrin clusters has been synthesized and characterized in which there exists a logical gradient for either energy or electron transfer between the porphyrins. A central free-base porphyrin (FbP), for example, is equipped with peripheral zinc(II) porphyrins (ZnP) which act as ancillary light harvesters and transfer excitation energy to the FbP under visible light illumination. Additional energy-transfer steps occur at the triplet level, and the series is expanded by including magnesium(II) porphyrins and/or tin(IV) porphyrins as chromophores. Light-induced electron transfer is made possible by incorporating a gold(III) porphyrin (AuP(+)) into the array. Although interesting by themselves, these clusters serve as control compounds by which to understand the photophysical processes occurring within a three-stage dendrimer comprising an AuP(+) core, a second layer formed from four FbP units, and an outer layer containing 12 ZnP residues. Here, illumination into a peripheral ZnP leads to highly efficient electronic energy transfer to FbP, followed by charge transfer to the central AuP(+). Charge recombination within the resultant charge-shift state is intercepted by secondary hole transfer to the ZnP, which occurs with a quantum yield of around 20%. The final charge-shift state survives for some microseconds in fluid solution at room temperature.

  2. Long-term shifts in the phenology of rare and endemic Rocky Mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M; Sher, Anna A

    2015-08-01

    • Mountainous regions support high plant productivity, diversity, and endemism, yet are highly vulnerable to climate change. Historical records and model predictions show increasing temperatures across high elevation regions including the Southern Rocky Mountains, which can have a strong influence on the performance and distribution of montane plant species. Rare plant species can be particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their limited abundance and distribution.• We tracked the phenology of rare and endemic species, which are identified as imperiled, across three different habitat types with herbarium records to determine if flowering time has changed over the last century, and if phenological change was related to shifts in climate.• We found that the flowering date of rare species has accelerated 3.1 d every decade (42 d total) since the late 1800s, with plants in sagebrush interbasins showing the strongest accelerations in phenology. High winter temperatures were associated with the acceleration of phenology in low elevation sagebrush and barren river habitats, whereas high spring temperatures explained accelerated phenology in the high elevation alpine habitat. In contrast, high spring temperatures delayed the phenology of plant species in the two low-elevation habitats and precipitation had mixed effects depending on the season.• These results provide evidence for large shifts in the phenology of rare Rocky Mountain plants related to climate, which can have strong effects on plant fitness, the abundance of associated wildlife, and the future of plant conservation in mountainous regions. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Dipole, quadrupole, and octupole terms in the long-range hyperfine frequency shift for hydrogen in the presence of inert gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, W.G.; Tang, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The R -6 , R -8 , and R -10 terms in the long-range expansion for the hyperfine frequency shift are calculated for hydrogen in the presence of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The R -6 terms are based on the dipole oscillator strength sums. For helium, the R -8 and R -10 terms are based on quadrupole and octupole oscillator strength sums. For the heavier inert gases, the results for the R -8 and R -10 terms are obtained from the sum rules and the static polarizabilities. Upper bounds are also determined for the R -8 and R -10 terms

  4. Framework for a low-cost intra-operative image-guided neuronavigator including brain shift compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Bucki, Marek; Lobos, Claudio; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to address the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as 'brain-shift'. This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on pre-operative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a general description of the framework of our intra-operative image-guided system, we desc...

  5. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  6. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  7. Combined chemical shift changes and amino acid specific chemical shift mapping of protein-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Frank H.; Riepl, Hubert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Maurer, Till [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Analytical Sciences Department (Germany); Gronwald, Wolfram [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Neidig, Klaus-Peter [Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Software Department (Germany); Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)], E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-12-15

    Protein-protein interactions are often studied by chemical shift mapping using solution NMR spectroscopy. When heteronuclear data are available the interaction interface is usually predicted by combining the chemical shift changes of different nuclei to a single quantity, the combined chemical shift perturbation {delta}{delta}{sub comb}. In this paper different procedures (published and non-published) to calculate {delta}{delta}{sub comb} are examined that include a variety of different functional forms and weighting factors for each nucleus. The predictive power of all shift mapping methods depends on the magnitude of the overlap of the chemical shift distributions of interacting and non-interacting residues and the cut-off criterion used. In general, the quality of the prediction on the basis of chemical shift changes alone is rather unsatisfactory but the combination of chemical shift changes on the basis of the Hamming or the Euclidian distance can improve the result. The corrected standard deviation to zero of the combined chemical shift changes can provide a reasonable cut-off criterion. As we show combined chemical shifts can also be applied for a more reliable quantitative evaluation of titration data.

  8. Attractiveness of the female body: Preference for the average or the supernormal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to contrast the two hypotheses of female body attractiveness. The first is the “preference-for-the average” hypothesis: the most attractive female body is the one that represents the average body proportions for a given population. The second is the “preference-for-the supernormal” hypothesis: according to the so-called “peak shift effect”, the most attractive female body is more feminine than the average. We investigated the preference for three female body characteristics: waist to hip ratio (WHR, buttocks and breasts. There were 456 participants of both genders. Using a program for computer animation (DAZ 3D three sets of stimuli were generated (WHR, buttocks and breasts. Each set included six stimuli ranked from the lowest to the highest femininity level. Participants were asked to choose the stimulus within each set which they found most attractive (task 1 and average (task 2. One group of participants judged the body parts that were presented in the global context (whole body, while the other group judged the stimuli in the local context (isolated body parts only. Analyses have shown that the most attractive WHR, buttocks and breasts are more feminine (meaning smaller for WHR and larger for breasts and buttocks than average ones, for both genders and in both presentation contexts. The effect of gender was obtained only for the most attractive breasts: males prefer larger breasts than females. Finally, most attractive and average WHR and breasts were less feminine in the local than in the global context. These results support the preference-for the supernormal hypothesis: all analyses have shown that both male and female participants preferred female body parts which are more feminine than those judged average. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179033

  9. [Effect of the night shift work on micturition patterns of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Hu, H; Liang, C; Wang, J; Xu, K X

    2016-08-18

    To compare the effects of rotational night shifts on the micturition patterns of female nurses. A total of 58 nurses without lower urinary tract symptoms were recruited, who worked in the Peking University People's Hospital during January and June in 2014. The nurses aged 20-43 years were divided into two groups, the night-shift group (n=28) and the non-shift group (n=30). The alcohol or coffee intaking were forbidden. In the night-shift group, nurses had worked on rotational shifts for at least 6 months. Their average age was (26.75±4.11) years. In the non-shift group, nurses took regular day-time work, whose average age was (27.80±5.60) years. A voiding diary was kept for 7 consecutive days at the end of 6 months, starting 2 days before their night duties until 4 days after completion of their night duties. For comparison, the non-shift group with regular shifts completed a 7-day voiding diary. In the 7-day recording voiding diary, the nurses were required to have the normal intake of liquid about 1 500-2 000 mL/d. The frequency volume charts of nocturia, the 8-hour interval urine production and frequency were compared between the two groups. Nocturia frequency was increased in the night-shift group [0.5 (0-2.4)] compared with the non-shift group [0 (0-2), P=0.02]. The volume of nocturia was increased in the night-shift group [125 mL (0-660 mL)] compared with the non-shift group [0 mL (0-340 mL), Pshift (Pnight-shift group increased on the day after night shift. When the night-shift nurses returned to daytime duty, the volume of urine decreased but nocturnal urine production remained high, and the frequency of nocturia also increased significantly (Pnight-shift group's voiding volume [(542.35±204.66) mL] and voiding frequency (2.24±0.69) were more than those of the non-shift group at the afternoon time (from 2 pm to 10 pm). During the 8 h interval night time (from 10 pm to 6 am), the volume of nocturia in the night-shift group [(309.74±162.74) mL] was more

  10. Shift Performance Test and Analysis of Multipurpose Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an analysis of the gear shifting performances of a multipurpose vehicle transmission in driving condition by Ricardo's Gear Shift Quality Assessment (GSQA system. The performances of the transmission included the travel and effort of the gear shift lever and synchronizing time. The mathematic models of the transmission including the gear shift mechanism and synchronizer were developed in MATLAB. The model of the gear shift mechanism was developed to analyze the travel map of the gear shift lever and the model of the synchronizer was developed to obtain the force-time curve of the synchronizer during the slipping time. The model of the synchronizer was used to investigate the relationship between the performances of the transmission and the variation of parameters during gear shifting. The mathematic models of the gear shift mechanism and the synchronizer provided a rapid design and verification method for the transmission with ring spring.

  11. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Wasfy

    Full Text Available In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear.To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012.Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression.General community.All counties in the United States.Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese.The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift".Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%. Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8% had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump and 368 counties (12.2% had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump. The first principal component ("unhealthy score" accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16. Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p < 0.0001. This association was stronger in states that switched Electoral College votes from 2012 to 2016 than in other states (5.9% per unit unhealthy, p <0.0001.Substantial association exists between a shift toward voting for Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012

  12. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  13. Reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation induced by large Stokes shift in quantum dot-filled optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn; Lu, Min; Liu, Wenyan [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China); Xu, Jian [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (United States); Yu, William W., E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    With tunable emission wavelength, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and broad absorption, colloidal quantum dots are attractive for the application in optical fiber as dopants. However, most of the quantum dots have a large overlap between their absorption and photoluminescence spectra, resulting in reabsorption loss which hinders the realization of long-distance waveguides. Therefore, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots with large Stokes shift were proposed to fabricate a liquid-core optical fiber in this work. In this work, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs with an average size of 3.3 nm were synthesized and the optical properties of the QD-filled fiber were also investigated as a function of fiber length and doping concentration. Compared to the control sample filled with CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot-based waveguides showed reduced reabsorption and enhanced signal propagation, which demonstrates great potential of large Stokes-shift quantum dots in optical waveguide devices.Graphical AbstractA reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs-doped liquid-core optical fiber was achieved due to the large Stokes shift.

  14. Non-sky-averaged sensitivity curves for space-based gravitational-wave observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele; Galley, Chad R

    2012-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used in gravitational-wave observations as the basic figure of merit for detection confidence and, together with the Fisher matrix, for the amount of physical information that can be extracted from a detected signal. SNRs are usually computed from a sensitivity curve, which describes the gravitational-wave amplitude needed by a monochromatic source of given frequency to achieve a threshold SNR. Although the term 'sensitivity' is used loosely to refer to the detector's noise spectral density, the two quantities are not the same: the sensitivity includes also the frequency- and orientation-dependent response of the detector to gravitational waves and takes into account the duration of observation. For interferometric space-based detectors similar to LISA, which are sensitive to long-lived signals and have constantly changing position and orientation, exact SNRs need to be computed on a source-by-source basis. For convenience, most authors prefer to work with sky-averaged sensitivities, accepting inaccurate SNRs for individual sources and giving up control over the statistical distribution of SNRs for source populations. In this paper, we describe a straightforward end-to-end recipe to compute the non-sky-averaged sensitivity of interferometric space-based detectors of any geometry. This recipe includes the effects of spacecraft motion and of seasonal variations in the partially subtracted confusion foreground from Galactic binaries, and it can be used to generate a sampling distribution of sensitivities for a given source population. In effect, we derive error bars for the sky-averaged sensitivity curve, which provide a stringent statistical interpretation for previously unqualified statements about sky-averaged SNRs. As a worked-out example, we consider isotropic and Galactic-disk populations of monochromatic sources, as observed with the 'classic LISA' configuration. We confirm that the (standard) inverse-rms average sensitivity

  15. Shift technical advisors: in the eyes of the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1, 1980, the NRC has required that Shift Technical Advisors be on-shift at all operating nuclear power plants. The objective of the requirement is to assure that technical expertise is immediately available to each operating shift to assess off-normal events and to provide advice to control room personnel. Further, this advice and assistance is to be provided by an individual not responsible for control manipulations or for directing the activities of reactor operators. The long-term requirement for on-shift technical expertise is firm. However, the exact manner in which this expertise must be furnished has not been determined. Licensees have proposed various alternatives to meet this requirement. These proposals still are being reviewed by the NRC staff

  16. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts.Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases.Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained. Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1.Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration.During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering problem

  17. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts. Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases. Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained.Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1. Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration. During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering

  18. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  19. Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t,  t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

  20. Testing for Level Shifts in Fractionally Integrated Processes: a State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based on the autocorrela......Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based...... on the autocorrelation function or the periodogram. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification that allows to disentangle the level shifts from the fractionally integrated component. The estimation is carried out on the basis of a state-space methodology...... and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts. Once the memory parameter is correctly estimated, we use the KPSS test for presence of level shift. The Monte Carlo simulations show how this approach produces unbiased estimates of the memory parameter...

  1. Ripplonic Lamb Shift for Electrons on Liquid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, M. I.; Kono, K.; Konstantinov, D.; Lea, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    We study the shift of the energy levels of electrons on a helium surface due to the coupling to the quantum field of surface vibrations. As in quantum electrodynamics, the coupling is known, and it is known to lead to an ultraviolet divergence of the level shifts. We show that there are diverging terms of different nature and use the Bethe-type approach to show that they cancel each other, to leading order. This resolves the long-standing theoretical controversy and explains the existing experiments. The results allow us to study the temperature dependence of the level shift. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data, with no adjustable parameters.

  2. Protein backbone chemical shifts predicted from searching a database for torsion angle and sequence homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yang; Bax, Ad

    2007-01-01

    Chemical shifts of nuclei in or attached to a protein backbone are exquisitely sensitive to their local environment. A computer program, SPARTA, is described that uses this correlation with local structure to predict protein backbone chemical shifts, given an input three-dimensional structure, by searching a newly generated database for triplets of adjacent residues that provide the best match in φ/ψ/χ 1 torsion angles and sequence similarity to the query triplet of interest. The database contains 15 N, 1 H N , 1 H α , 13 C α , 13 C β and 13 C' chemical shifts for 200 proteins for which a high resolution X-ray (≤2.4 A) structure is available. The relative importance of the weighting factors for the φ/ψ/χ 1 angles and sequence similarity was optimized empirically. The weighted, average secondary shifts of the central residues in the 20 best-matching triplets, after inclusion of nearest neighbor, ring current, and hydrogen bonding effects, are used to predict chemical shifts for the protein of known structure. Validation shows good agreement between the SPARTA-predicted and experimental shifts, with standard deviations of 2.52, 0.51, 0.27, 0.98, 1.07 and 1.08 ppm for 15 N, 1 H N , 1 H α , 13 C α , 13 C β and 13 C', respectively, including outliers

  3. Shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform analysis for retinal image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, April; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2007-12-01

    This work involves retinal image classification and a novel analysis system was developed. From the compressed domain, the proposed scheme extracts textural features from wavelet coefficients, which describe the relative homogeneity of localized areas of the retinal images. Since the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is shift-variant, a shift-invariant DWT was explored to ensure that a robust feature set was extracted. To combat the small database size, linear discriminant analysis classification was used with the leave one out method. 38 normal and 48 abnormal (exudates, large drusens, fine drusens, choroidal neovascularization, central vein and artery occlusion, histoplasmosis, arteriosclerotic retinopathy, hemi-central retinal vein occlusion and more) were used and a specificity of 79% and sensitivity of 85.4% were achieved (the average classification rate is 82.2%). The success of the system can be accounted to the highly robust feature set which included translation, scale and semi-rotational, features. Additionally, this technique is database independent since the features were specifically tuned to the pathologies of the human eye.

  4. Using chemical shift perturbation to characterise ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mike P

    2013-08-01

    Chemical shift perturbation (CSP, chemical shift mapping or complexation-induced changes in chemical shift, CIS) follows changes in the chemical shifts of a protein when a ligand is added, and uses these to determine the location of the binding site, the affinity of the ligand, and/or possibly the structure of the complex. A key factor in determining the appearance of spectra during a titration is the exchange rate between free and bound, or more specifically the off-rate koff. When koff is greater than the chemical shift difference between free and bound, which typically equates to an affinity Kd weaker than about 3μM, then exchange is fast on the chemical shift timescale. Under these circumstances, the observed shift is the population-weighted average of free and bound, which allows Kd to be determined from measurement of peak positions, provided the measurements are made appropriately. (1)H shifts are influenced to a large extent by through-space interactions, whereas (13)Cα and (13)Cβ shifts are influenced more by through-bond effects. (15)N and (13)C' shifts are influenced both by through-bond and by through-space (hydrogen bonding) interactions. For determining the location of a bound ligand on the basis of shift change, the most appropriate method is therefore usually to measure (15)N HSQC spectra, calculate the geometrical distance moved by the peak, weighting (15)N shifts by a factor of about 0.14 compared to (1)H shifts, and select those residues for which the weighted shift change is larger than the standard deviation of the shift for all residues. Other methods are discussed, in particular the measurement of (13)CH3 signals. Slow to intermediate exchange rates lead to line broadening, and make Kd values very difficult to obtain. There is no good way to distinguish changes in chemical shift due to direct binding of the ligand from changes in chemical shift due to allosteric change. Ligand binding at multiple sites can often be characterised, by

  5. Effect of magnetic axis shift on neoclassical transport in helical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Heiji; Todoroki, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Neoclassical transport for large helical device (LHD) configurations is studied by solving the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation. Numerical code employed in the present paper (CHD1) is much faster and more efficient than existing transport codes. Effects of the magnetic axis shift on the mono-energetic transport coefficients are studied in detail for the LHD configurations, revealing that a strong inward shift of the magnetic axis can reduce remarkably the neoclassical ripple transport. (author)

  6. Performance study of highly efficient 520 W average power long pulse ceramic Nd:YAG rod laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Ali, Sabir; Jain, R. K.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report the performance study of a 2% atomic doped ceramic Nd:YAG rod for long pulse laser operation in the millisecond regime with pulse duration in the range of 0.5-20 ms. A maximum average output power of 520 W with 180 J maximum pulse energy has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 5.4% using a dual rod configuration, which is the highest for typical lamp pumped ceramic Nd:YAG lasers. The laser output characteristics of the ceramic Nd:YAG rod were revealed to be nearly equivalent or superior to those of high-quality single crystal Nd:YAG rod. The laser pump chamber and resonator were designed and optimized to achieve a high efficiency and good beam quality with a beam parameter product of 16 mm mrad (M2˜47). The laser output beam was efficiently coupled through a 400 μm core diameter optical fiber with 90% overall transmission efficiency. This ceramic Nd:YAG laser will be useful for various material processing applications in industry.

  7. Evaluation of a well-established task-shifting initiative: the lay counselor cadre in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%), in-depth interviews (n = 79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7), lay counselors observations (n = 25), and client exit interviews (n = 47). Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. For this and other similar task shifting initiatives

  8. Simulation of the Long period Core Design for WH type of KHNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji-Eun; Moon, Sang-Rae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The current core design of the reactor and the new design of long period based on ANC code are compared here targeting the unit of WH type(Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system) operated by KHNP. The reactor core is composed of 157 fuel assemblies, consisting of a 17×17 array with 264 fuel rods, 24 guide thimbles. To investigate susceptibility of CIPS(crud-induced power shift) for long period core design, the boron mass is also calculated here. The long period core design for WH type of KHNP is simulated and evaluated the risk assessment for the result. 89 feed assemblies and 4.95w/o uranium enrichment (3.2w/o for Axial-blanket) are used for fresh fuel rods. The cycle length of long period design is increased by 6 month than the average of operated cycles satisfying the criteria of risk assessment for the core design; maximum F△h and maximum pin burnup and so on, except burndown curve.

  9. Simulation of the Long period Core Design for WH type of KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji-Eun; Moon, Sang-Rae

    2016-01-01

    The current core design of the reactor and the new design of long period based on ANC code are compared here targeting the unit of WH type(Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system) operated by KHNP. The reactor core is composed of 157 fuel assemblies, consisting of a 17×17 array with 264 fuel rods, 24 guide thimbles. To investigate susceptibility of CIPS(crud-induced power shift) for long period core design, the boron mass is also calculated here. The long period core design for WH type of KHNP is simulated and evaluated the risk assessment for the result. 89 feed assemblies and 4.95w/o uranium enrichment (3.2w/o for Axial-blanket) are used for fresh fuel rods. The cycle length of long period design is increased by 6 month than the average of operated cycles satisfying the criteria of risk assessment for the core design; maximum F△h and maximum pin burnup and so on, except burndown curve

  10. Long-Term Visual Training Increases Visual Acuity and Long-Term Monocular Deprivation Promotes Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Adult Standard Cage-Raised Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Leon; Yusifov, Rashad; Löwel, Siegrid

    2018-01-01

    For routine behavioral tasks, mice predominantly rely on olfactory cues and tactile information. In contrast, their visual capabilities appear rather restricted, raising the question whether they can improve if vision gets more behaviorally relevant. We therefore performed long-term training using the visual water task (VWT): adult standard cage (SC)-raised mice were trained to swim toward a rewarded grating stimulus so that using visual information avoided excessive swimming toward nonrewarded stimuli. Indeed, and in contrast to old mice raised in a generally enriched environment (Greifzu et al., 2016), long-term VWT training increased visual acuity (VA) on average by more than 30% to 0.82 cycles per degree (cyc/deg). In an individual animal, VA even increased to 1.49 cyc/deg, i.e., beyond the rat range of VAs. Since visual experience enhances the spatial frequency threshold of the optomotor (OPT) reflex of the open eye after monocular deprivation (MD), we also quantified monocular vision after VWT training. Monocular VA did not increase reliably, and eye reopening did not initiate a decline to pre-MD values as observed by optomotry; VA values rather increased by continued VWT training. Thus, optomotry and VWT measure different parameters of mouse spatial vision. Finally, we tested whether long-term MD induced ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the visual cortex of adult [postnatal day (P)162-P182] SC-raised mice. This was indeed the case: 40-50 days of MD induced OD shifts toward the open eye in both VWT-trained and, surprisingly, also in age-matched mice without VWT training. These data indicate that (1) long-term VWT training increases adult mouse VA, and (2) long-term MD induces OD shifts also in adult SC-raised mice.

  11. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method

  12. Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Kissling, W.D.; Carvalheiro, L.G.; WallisDeVries, M.F.; Franzén, M.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species’ functional traits that

  13. Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Kissling, W.D.; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; WallisDevries, Michiel F.; Franzén, Markus; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species' functional traits

  14. Long-term rate orientations: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's preferred rate orientations for Quebec markets are presented. The background for a rate structure revision is outlined, followed by proposed changes to residential and general rates, and by a plan to implement the new rate structure. Some of the principles used in setting rates are described. The new rate structure proposals are intended to provide a better reflection of the utility's costs of supply and a clearer signal in favor of the rational use of electricity, thereby limiting long-term increases in both supply costs and electricity rates. It is proposed to use marginal costs to design rate structures, while the overall rate level will continue to reflect changes in average costs of supply. Also included in the proposed changes are time-of-use rates, which will help reduce costs by shifting loads from peak to off-peak periods and by encouraging the adoption of energy-conservation measures. Moreover, the integration of time-of-use options into the rate system will not only provide Hydro-Quebec with more powerful load-management tools but also give customers the opportunity to change their consumption patterns and thereby reduce their electricity bills. 11 figs., 11 tabs

  15. The rise and fall of plankton: long-term changes in the vertical distribution of algae and grazers in Lake Baikal, Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Hampton

    Full Text Available Both surface water temperatures and the intensity of thermal stratification have increased recently in large lakes throughout the world. Such physical changes can be accompanied by shifts in plankton community structure, including changes in relative abundances and depth distributions. Here we analyzed 45 years of data from Lake Baikal, the world's oldest, deepest, and most voluminous lake, to assess long-term trends in the depth distribution of pelagic phytoplankton and zooplankton. Surface water temperatures in Lake Baikal increased steadily between 1955 and 2000, resulting in a stronger thermal gradient within the top 50 m of the water column. In conjunction with these physical changes our analyses reveal significant shifts in the daytime depth distribution of important phytoplankton and zooplankton groups. The relatively heavy diatoms, which often rely on mixing to remain suspended in the photic zone, shifted downward in the water column by 1.90 m y(-1, while the depths of other phytoplankton groups did not change significantly. Over the same time span the density-weighted average depth of most major zooplankton groups, including cladocerans, rotifers, and immature copepods, exhibited rapid shifts toward shallower positions (0.57-0.75 m y(-1. As a result of these depth changes the vertical overlap between herbivorous copepods (Epischura baikalensis and their algal food appears to have increased through time while that for cladocerans decreased. We hypothesize that warming surface waters and reduced mixing caused these ecological changes. Future studies should examine how changes in the vertical distribution of plankton might impact energy flow in this lake and others.

  16. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  17. A criticism of big bang cosmological models based on interpretation of the red shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierein, J.W. (Ball Aerospace Systems Div., Boulder, CO (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of light with the intergalactic plasma produces the Hubble red shift versus distance relationship. This interaction also produces an isotopic long wavelength background radiation from the plasma. Intrinsic red shifts in quasars and other objects are similarly explained, showing why they are exceptions to Hubble's law. Because the red shift is not doppler-shifted, big bang cosmological models should be replaced with static models. (author).

  18. Evaluating the traditional day and night shift in an acute care surgery fellowship: Is the swing shift a better choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestovich, Paul J; McNicoll, Christopher F; Ingalls, Nichole K; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fraser, Douglas R; Morrissey, Shawna L; Fildes, John J

    2018-01-01

    Fellowship trainees in acute care surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12-hour or 24-hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. We reviewed 10 years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations. Hourly volumetric trends were observed, and three specific events were chosen for detailed analysis: (1) trauma activation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15, (2) laparotomy for trauma, and (3) thoracotomy for trauma. A retrospective shift log was created, which included day (7:00 AM to 7:00 PM), night (7:00 PM to 7:00 AM), and swing (noon to midnight) shifts. A swing shift was chosen because it captures the peak volume for all three events. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and comparisons were made between shifts using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, and p less than 0.05 considered significant. During the 10-year study period, 28,287 patients were treated at our trauma center. This included the evaluation and management of 7,874 patients with ISS greater than 15, performance of 1,766 laparotomies, and 392 thoracotomies for trauma. Swing shift was superior to both day and night shifts for ISS greater than 15 (p night shifts were superior to day shift for laparotomies (p day shift (p night shift (p = 0.031). Shifts with the highest yield of ISS greater than 15, laparotomies, and thoracotomies include night and swing shifts on Fridays and Saturdays. Projected experience of acute care surgery fellows in managing complex trauma patients increases with the integration of swing shifts into the schedule. Daily trauma volume follows a temporal pattern

  19. Comparison of sleep disturbances in shift workers and people working with a fixed shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different types of sleep disturbances can have a serious negative effect on a person’s ability, function and overall well-being. One of the most important issues that can result in sleep disturbances are occupational causes, the most important among them is shift work. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep disturbances between shift work and non-shift workers. Material and Methods: This study was designed as a case-control study in 196 shift workers and 204 non-shift workers in a textile factory. The data were collected by using a comprehensive questionnaire including Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Restless Leg Syndrome Questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using the SPSS software version 13 by student's t-test, Chi square and multiple logistic regressions. Results: The duration of night sleep in shift workers was less than day workers (p<0.001. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia were higher in shift workers significantly than non shift workers (p<0.001, OR=2.3 95% CI: 1.7-2.9. The most prevalent type of insomnia was problems in initiating sleep (P=0.022, OR=2.2 95% CI: 1.5-3.2. There was no difference in the prevalence of excessive day-time sleepiness, restless leg syndrome, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea and different types of parasomnias between two groups. Conclusion: Reduced length of sleep and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia in shift workers emphasizes the importance of serious attention to sleep disorders in shift workers.

  20. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  1. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Emily K; Huggins, Catherine E; Huggins, Chris T; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P

    2017-02-26

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups ( n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls ( n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (ED energy , kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  2. Red shift, blue shift: investigating Doppler shifts, blubber thickness, and migration as explanations of seasonal variation in the tonality of Antarctic blue whale song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Miller

    Full Text Available The song of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia comprises repeated, stereotyped, low-frequency calls. Measurements of these calls from recordings spanning many years have revealed a long-term linear decline as well as an intra-annual pattern in tonal frequency. While a number of hypotheses for this long-term decline have been investigated, including changes in population structure, changes in the physical environment, and changes in the behaviour of the whales, there have been relatively few attempts to explain the intra-annual pattern. An additional hypothesis that has not yet been investigated is that differences in the observed frequency from each call are due to the Doppler effect. The assumptions and implications of the Doppler effect on whale song are investigated using 1 vessel-based acoustic recordings of Antarctic blue whales with simultaneous observation of whale movement and 2 long-term acoustic recordings from both the subtropics and Antarctic. Results from vessel-based recordings of Antarctic blue whales indicate that variation in peak-frequency between calls produced by an individual whale was greater than would be expected by the movement of the whale alone. Furthermore, analysis of intra-annual frequency shift at Antarctic recording stations indicates that the Doppler effect is unlikely to fully explain the observations of intra-annual pattern in the frequency of Antarctic blue whale song. However, data do show cyclical changes in frequency in conjunction with season, thus suggesting that there might be a relationship among tonal frequency, body condition, and migration to and from Antarctic feeding grounds.

  3. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which

  4. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  5. Alternative approaches to providing engineering expertise on shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Melber, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a project studying the role of engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. Using the present shift technical advisor (STA) position as the base case, several alternatives are analyzed. On-shift alternatives included the STA, the SS (shift supervisor), and the SE (shift engineer). The SE is degreed, experienced, trained, and licensed as a Senior Reactor Operator. Some non-shift alternatives were also studied. These included a cadre of on-call engineers and specialists within continual contact and easy reach of the plant; a technical system of phone and data lines linking the plant with a facility similar to an on-site technical support center; and finally, an SPDS (safety parameter display system) to agument technical upgrading of operator aids presently available. Potential problems considered in the analysis of implementation of these alternatives included job content constraints, problems of crew acceptance, and problems of labor supply and retention. Of the considered alternatives, the SE and SS options appear superior to the current STA approach. The SE approach appears the easiest to implement and the most effective under varied plant conditions. The SE may also serve as liaison to off-site support facilities

  6. Impact of shift work on critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a common practice in the health care field to maintain 24-hour patient care. The purpose of this article is to recognize the negative impact of shift work on critical care nurses, and identify strategies to mitigate these effects. A review of the literature was completed, using the search terms: 'shift work, 'critical care', impact, and health. The literature revealed that shift work has an adverse effect on the health of a nurse. Some of the health implications include stress, sleep deprivation, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal symptoms, and mental health illnesses. Furthermore, shift work impacts a nurse's social life and may result in patient harm. Strategies to reduce the negative impact of shift work will be focused on educating critical care nurses and managers. These strategies include frontline staff maintaining a moderate amount of exercise, sustaining a well-balanced diet, using relaxation techniques, reducing the use of cigarettes, working an eight-hour work day, and napping during scheduled breaks. Recommendations for managers include implementing quiet time at the workplace, providing a safe space for staff to nap during breaks, facilitating an eight-hour work day, and encouraging a multidisciplinary team approach when managing workload.

  7. Is suicidal ideation linked to working hours and shift work in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Bae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to use the community health survey (CHS) to identify the effect of long working hours (long WHs) and night/shift work on suicidal ideation among the employed population of Korea. This study used data from 67,471 subjects who were administered the 2008 CHS which obtained information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors and working environment, using structured questionnaires and personal interviews. We adopted multiple logistic regression models for gender and employment stratification. Among male employees, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with only moderately long WHs (51-60 hours), after controlling covariates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.07 to 1.57). Self-employed/male employer populations had higher suicidal ideation when they had moderately long WHs (aOR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.01 to 1.50) and very long WHs (over 60 hours) (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.59). Among the female population, suicidal ideation was significantly association with moderately long WHs in the employee group (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.58) and moderately (aOR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.69) and very (aOR, 1.33; 95%CI, 1.07 to 1.65) long WHs in the self-employed/employer group. Shift work was a significant predictor only in the female population in the employee groups (aOR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.23 to 1.70). Long WHs and shift work were associated with suicidal ideation when taking into account gender and employment differences. The harmful effects of exceptionally long WHs in Korea, among other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, raise concerns about public and occupational health. To address the issue of long WHs, labor policies that reduce maximum working hours and facilitate job stability are needed.

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  9. Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Matt; Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; North-Morris, Michael; Hayes, John; Wyant, James

    2005-11-10

    Recent technological innovations have enabled the development of a new class of dynamic (vibration-insensitive) interferometer based on a CCD pixel-level phase-shifting approach. We present theoretical and experimental results for an interferometer based on this pixelated phase-shifting technique. Analyses of component errors and instrument functionality are presented. We show that the majority of error sources cause relatively small magnitude peak-to-valley errors in measurement of the order of 0.002-0.005lambda. These errors are largely mitigated by high-rate data acquisition and consequent data averaging.

  10. Shift work and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Turner, Michelle C; Alonso-Aguado, Maria Henar; Martin, Vicente; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pozo, Benito Mirón; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone M; Peiro, Rosana; Tardon, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; García-Palomo, Andrés; Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan; Ierssen, Trinidad; Ederra, Maria; Amiano, Pilar; Pollan, Marina; Moreno, Victor; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Shift work that involves circadian disruption has been associated with a higher cancer risk. Most epidemiological studies to date have focused on breast cancer risk and evidence for other common tumors is limited. We evaluated the risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to shift work history in a population-based case-control study in Spain. Methods This analysis included 1626 incident CRC cases and 3378 randomly selected population controls of both sexes, enrolled in 11 regions of Spain. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was assessed in face-to-face interviews. Shift work was assessed in detail throughout lifetime occupational history. We estimated the risk of colon and rectal cancer associated with rotating and permanent shift work (ever, cumulative duration, age of first exposure) using unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Results Having ever performed rotating shift work (morning, evening and/or night) was associated with an increased risk for CRC [odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.43], as compared to day workers. Having ever worked permanent night shifts (≥3 nights/month) was not associated with CRC risk (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). OR increased with increasing lifetime cumulative duration of rotating shift work (P-value for trend 0.005) and were highest among subjects in the top quartiles of exposure (3 rd quartile, 20-34 years, OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.06-1.81; 4 th quartile, ≥35 years, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.79). Conclusions These data suggest that rotating shift work may increase the risk of CRC especially after long-term exposures.

  11. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  12. Healthy Diet And Reduction Of Chronic Disease Risks Of Night Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Giovanni M; Cavone, Domenica; Intranuovo, Graziana; Macinagrossa, Linda

    2017-07-20

    The large increase in epidemiological studies on night shift work is due to the important effects of night shift work on workers' health and psychophysical wellbeing. The short-term effects-insomnia, difficulties in managing work and private life, lower work performance, and more work and extra-work accidents-are easily studied. However, there are several long-term effects that are difficult to study because of the need for detailed exposure assessment and the long latency periods of these diseases. The aim was to collect epidemiologic evidence of diseases in night shift workers, describing their biological pathways and a set of dietary guidelines. This is a review on diet and health effects in night shift workers. Significant increases in the rate ratios and hazard ratios of different diseases were associated with modified eating behaviours and poor eating habits among night shift workers. Night shift work is a risk factor for disruption of the circadian rhythms and for some genetic deregulation because it produces the inversion of the sleep/wake cycle and modifies the alternation between activity and rest. A healthy diet and improved dietary practices, together with other factors, can reduce shift workers' chronic disease risk. The literature showed the importance of eating behaviour in order to prevent diseases in these workers; therefore, educational programmes are necessary to encourage several important lifestyle changes. The target of our future research will be the role of food components in some dietetic habits for the prevention of disease in night shift workers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Pressure-dependent {sup 13}C chemical shifts in proteins: origins and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilton, David J. [University of Sheffield, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (United Kingdom); Kitahara, Ryo [Ritsumeikan University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Akasaka, Kazuyuki [Kinki University, Department of Biotechnological Science, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology (Japan); Williamson, Mike P. [University of Sheffield, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.williamson@sheffield.ac.uk

    2009-05-15

    Pressure-dependent {sup 13}C chemical shifts have been measured for aliphatic carbons in barnase and Protein G. Up to 200 MPa (2 kbar), most shift changes are linear, demonstrating pressure-independent compressibilities. CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2} and CH carbon shifts change on average by +0.23, -0.09 and -0.18 ppm, respectively, due to a combination of bond shortening and changes in bond angles, the latter matching one explanation for the {gamma}-gauche effect. In addition, there is a residue-specific component, arising from both local compression and conformational change. To assess the relative magnitudes of these effects, residue-specific shift changes for protein G were converted into structural restraints and used to calculate the change in structure with pressure, using a genetic algorithm to convert shift changes into dihedral angle restraints. The results demonstrate that residual {sup 13}C{alpha} shifts are dominated by dihedral angle changes and can be used to calculate structural change, whereas {sup 13}C{beta} shifts retain significant dependence on local compression, making them less useful as structural restraints.

  14. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Emily K.; Huggins, Catherine E.; Huggins, Chris T.; McCaffrey, Tracy A.; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. PMID:28245625

  15. The effect of shift rotation on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Hegney, Desley; O'Brien, Anthony; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2011-03-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythm, especially working night duty together with irregular sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and fatigue, creates an occupational health risk associated with diminished vigilance and work performance. This study reviewed the effect of shift rotations on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level. Researchers conducted a systematic review of relevant articles published between 1996 and 2008 that were listed on the following databases: SCOPUS, OVID, Blackwell Science, EBSCO Host, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and CEPS. A total of 28 articles were included in the review. Previous research into the effects of shift work on cortisol profiles, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention used data assessed at evidence Levels II to IV. Our systematic review confirmed a conflict between sleep-wake cycle and light-dark cycle in night work. Consequences of circadian rhythm disturbance include disruption of sleep, decreased vigilance, general feeling of malaise, and decreased mental efficiency. Shift workers who sleep during the day (day sleepers) experience cortisol secretion increases, which diminish the healing power of sleep and enjoy 1 to 4 hours less sleep on average than night sleepers. Sleep debt accumulation results in chronic fatigue. Prolonged fatigue and inadequate recovery result in decreased work performance and more incidents. Rotation from day shift to night shift and its effect on shift workers was a special focus of the articles retained for review. Disturbed circadian rhythm in humans has been associated with a variety of mental and physical disorders and may negatively impact on work safety, performance, and productivity.

  16. Staffing, overtime, and shift scheduling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent events at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant have demonstrated the need to establish a quantifiable basis for assessing the safety significance of long work hours on nuclear power plant operators. The incidents at TMI-2, Chernobyl, and Bhopal, which all occurred during the late evening/night shift, further highlight the importance of the relationship between shift scheduling and performance. The objective of this project is to estimate, using statistical analysis on data from the nuclear industry, the effects on safety of staffing levels, overtime, and shift scheduling for operators and maintenance personnel. Regarding staffing levels, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has no explicit regulation concerning the minimum acceptable levels of staffing in a plant that has an operating license. The NRC has no systematic method for collecting data on the number of licensed operators on the operating crews. In 1982 the NRC recommended that plants write into their technical specifications a model policy on overtime. Currently, 77 nuclear power plant units have the model policy or a modification of it written into their technical specifications; 33 units have no policy on overtime. The model policy sets limits on overtime for safety related personnel, although these limits can be exceeded with plant manger approval. The US nuclear power industry has three types of shift schedules: (1) forward-rotating 8-hour/day shift schedules, (2) backward-rotating 8-hour/day schedules, and (3) 12-hour/day schedules

  17. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  18. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  19. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The

  20. Shifts in biomass and productivity for a subtropical dry forest in response to simulated elevated hurricane disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Jennifer A.; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Larocque, Guy R.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean tropical forests are subject to hurricane disturbances of great variability. In addition to natural storm incongruity, climate change can alter storm formation, duration, frequency, and intensity. This model -based investigation assessed the impacts of multiple storms of different intensities and occurrence frequencies on the long-term dynamics of subtropical dry forests in Puerto Rico. Using the previously validated individual-based gap model ZELIG-TROP, we developed a new hurricane damage routine and parameterized it with site- and species-specific hurricane effects. A baseline case with the reconstructed historical hurricane regime represented the control condition. Ten treatment cases, reflecting plausible shifts in hurricane regimes, manipulated both hurricane return time (i.e. frequency) and hurricane intensity. The treatment-related change in carbon storage and fluxes were reported as changes in aboveground forest biomass (AGB), net primary productivity (NPP), and in the aboveground carbon partitioning components, or annual carbon accumulation (ACA). Increasing the frequency of hurricanes decreased aboveground biomass by between 5% and 39%, and increased NPP between 32% and 50%. Decadal-scale biomass fluctuations were damped relative to the control. In contrast, increasing hurricane intensity did not create a large shift in the long-term average forest structure, NPP, or ACA from that of historical hurricane regimes, but produced large fluctuations in biomass. Decreasing both the hurricane intensity and frequency by 50% produced the highest values of biomass and NPP. For the control scenario and with increased hurricane intensity, ACA was negative, which indicated that the aboveground forest components acted as a carbon source. However, with an increase in the frequency of storms or decreased storms, the total ACA was positive due to shifts in leaf production, annual litterfall, and coarse woody debris inputs, indicating a carbon sink into the

  1. Examining the Conservative Shift from Harsh Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a political shift has been observed, in that some political conservatives are now advocating, adjusting, or abandoning draconian drug laws, including mandatory minimums, and funding diversion, re-entry, and drug programs. Vocal proponents of this movement include Grover Norquist, Rand Paul, Edwin Meese, and Mark Levin, from the Texas Public Policy Council. Any movement away from the mass incarceration that has characterized the U.S. correctional policy for the last 30 years is welcomed; however, it is important to note carefully the philosophical foundation of the conservative’s interest in shifting correctional policy. This paper explores the potential factors contributing to this philosophical shift.

  2. Cyclohexanecarbonitriles: Assigning Configurations at Quaternary Centers From 13C NMR CN Chemical Shifts.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    13C NMR chemical shifts of the nitrile carbon in cyclohexanecarbonitriles directly correlate with the configuration of the quaternary, nitrile-bearing stereocenter. Comparing 13C NMR chemical shifts for over 200 cyclohexanecarbonitriles reveals that equatorially oriented nitriles resonate 3.3 ppm downfield, on average, from their axial counterparts. Pairs of axial/equatorial diastereomers varying only at the nitrile-bearing carbon consistently exhibit downfield shifts of δ 0.4–7.2 for the equatorial nitrile carbon, even in angularly substituted decalins and hydrindanes. PMID:19348434

  3. The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses: A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K; Akalonu, Chibuzo C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. The work period induced impairments for reaction time, errors on reaction time tasks, and balance performance, independent of shift type. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence was high in workers of both work shifts. Compressed work shifts caused performance-based fatigue in nurses. Reaction time and balance tests may be sensitive fatigue identification markers in nurses.

  4. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have...... shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems...

  5. Framework for a low-cost intra-operative image-guided neuronavigator including brain shift compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Lobos, C; Payan, Y

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to address the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as 'brain-shift'. This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on pre-operative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a general description of the framework of our intra-operative image-guided system, we describe a procedure to generate patient specific finite element meshes of the brain and propose a biomechanical model which can take into account tissue deformations and surgical procedures that modify the brain structure, like tumour or tissue resection.

  6. Associations of rotational shift work and night shift status with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sandhya; Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Mao, Michael A; Herrmann, Sandra M

    2017-10-01

    The reported risks of hypertension (HTN) in rotating shift and night shift workers are controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between shift work status and HTN. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database from inception through October 2016. Studies that reported odds ratios (OR) comparing the risk of HTN in shift workers were included. A prespecified subgroup analysis by rotating shift and night shift statuses were also performed. Pooled OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. The protocol for this study is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42016051843. Twenty-seven observational studies (nine cohort and 18 cross-sectional studies) with a total of 394 793 individuals were enrolled. The pooled ORs of HTN in shift workers in cohort and cross-sectional studies were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.60) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00-1.20), respectively. When meta-analysis was restricted only to cohort studies in rotating shift, the pooled OR of HTN in rotating shift workers was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.08-1.67). The data regarding night shift and HTN in cohort studies was limited. The pooled OR of HTN in night shift workers in cross-sectional studies was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.85-1.35). Based on the findings of our meta-analysis, shiftwork status may play an important role in HTN, as there is a significant association between rotating shift work and HTN. However, there is no significant association between night shift status and risk of HTN.

  7. Calculation of extracted ion beam particle distribution including within-extractor collisions from H-alpha Doppler shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Kim, Jinchoon; In, Sang Ryul; Jeong, Seung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Prototype long pulse ion sources are being developed and tested toward the goal of a deuterium beam extraction of 120 keV/65 A. The latest prototype source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator and a four-grid copper accelerator system with multicircular apertures of 568 holes. To measure the angular divergence and the ion species of the ion beam, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for a Doppler-shifted H-alpha lights was set up at the end of a gas-cell neutralizer. But the OMA data are very difficult to analyze due to a large background level on the top of the three energy peaks (coming from H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). These background spectra in the OMA signals seem to result from partially accelerated ion beams in the accelerator. Extracted ions could undergo a premature charge exchange as the accelerator column tends to have a high hydrogen partial pressure from the unused gas from the plasma generator, resulting in a continuous background of partially accelerated beam particles at the accelerator exit. This effect is calculated by accounting for all the possible atomic collision processes and numerically summing up three ion species across the accelerator column. The collection of all the atomic reaction cross sections and the numerical summing up will be presented. The result considerably depends on the background pressure and the ion beam species ratio (H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). This effect constitutes more than 20% of the whole particle distribution. And the energy distribution of those suffering from collisions is broad and shows a broad maximum in the vicinity of the half and the third energy region

  8. Contribution to forecast of environmental impact, in the long run, for fuel cells of low and average temperature using the Delphi methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Maria Alice Morato; Oliveira, Wagner dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Assessing future energy systems is of major importance for providing information on potential environmental awareness of some life cycle stages of innovative technologies, for determining competitive advantages compared to conventional technologies and for developing scenarios of future. Today, intense activity of R and D in cells is verified in fuel cells, practiced in centers of research, university, and laboratories of great companies, what it seems to indicate the use in wide scale of these generating right-handers of energy, before long. The work has a main objective, in the long run, to make a forecast of the environmental impact of low and average temperature fuel cells, analyzing all the stages of their useful life and final disposal of the materials that constitute them, using the Delphi methodology. The results of the environmental impact evaluation of the main materials used in the stacks are presented, considering their manufacture, operation and final disposal after their useful life ends. (author)

  9. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  10. Concentration and size dependence of peak wavelength shift on quantum dots in colloidal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Benjamin S.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that have significant advantages over organic fluorophores, including their extremely narrow Gaussian emission bands and broad absorption bands. Thus, QDs have a wide range of potential applications, such as in quantum computing, photovoltaic cells, biological sensing, and electronics. For these applications, aliasing provides a detrimental effect on signal identification efficiency. This can be avoided through characterization of the QD fluorescence signals. Characterization of the emissivity of CdTe QDs as a function of concentration (1 to 10 mg/ml aqueous) was conducted on 12 commercially available CdTe QDs (emission peaks 550 to 730 nm). The samples were excited by a 50-mW 405-nm laser with emission collected via a free-space CCD spectrometer. All QDs showed a redshift effect as concentration increased. On average, the CdTe QDs exhibited a maximum shift of +35.6 nm at 10 mg/ml and a minimum shift of +27.24 nm at 1 mg/ml, indicating a concentration dependence for shift magnitude. The concentration-dependent redshift function can be used to predict emission response as QD concentration is changed in a complex system.

  11. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  12. Analytical explicit formulas of average run length for long memory process with ARFIMA model on CUSUM control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilasinee Peerajit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the explicit formulas for the derivation of exact formulas from Average Run Lengths (ARLs using integral equation on CUSUM control chart when observations are long memory processes with exponential white noise. The authors compared efficiency in terms of the percentage of absolute difference to a similar method to verify the accuracy of the ARLs between the values obtained by the explicit formulas and numerical integral equation (NIE method. The explicit formulas were based on Banach fixed point theorem which was used to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution for ARFIMA(p,d,q. Results showed that the two methods are similar in good agreement with the percentage of absolute difference at less than 0.23%. Therefore, the explicit formulas are an efficient alternative for implementation in real applications because the computational CPU time for ARLs from the explicit formulas are 1 second preferable over the NIE method.

  13. Comparison of the biometric formulas used for applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcura, Fatih; Aktaş, Serdar; Sağdık, Hacı Murat; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of various biometric formulas for predicting postoperative refraction determined using applanation A-scan ultrasound. This retrospective comparative study included 485 eyes that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry and postoperative manifest refraction were obtained in all eyes. Biometric data were entered into each of the five IOL power calculation formulas: SRK-II, SRK/T, Holladay I, Hoffer Q, and Binkhorst II. All eyes were divided into three groups according to axial length: short (≤22.0 mm), average (22.0-25.0 mm), and long (≥25.0 mm) eyes. The postoperative spherical equivalent was calculated and compared with the predicted refractive error using each biometric formula. The results showed that all formulas had significantly lower mean absolute error (MAE) in comparison with Binkhorst II formula (P < 0.01). The lowest MAE was obtained with the SRK-II for average (0.49 ± 0.40 D) and short (0.67 ± 0.54 D) eyes and the SRK/T for long (0.61 ± 0.50 D) eyes. The highest postoperative hyperopic shift was seen with the SRK-II for average (46.8 %), short (28.1 %), and long (48.4 %) eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift was seen with the Holladay I for average (66.4 %) and long (71.0 %) eyes and the SRK/T for short eyes (80.6 %). In conclusion, the SRK-II formula produced the lowest MAE in average and short eyes and the SRK/T formula produced the lowest MAE in long eyes. The SRK-II has the highest postoperative hyperopic shift in all eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift is with the Holladay I for average and long eyes and SRK/T for short eyes.

  14. Frequency-Shift a way to Reduce Aliasing in the Complex Cepstrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen

    1998-01-01

    The well-known relation between a time signal and its frequency-shifted spectrum is introduced as an excellent tool for reduction of aliasing in the complex cepstrum. Using N points DFTs the frequency-shift property, when used in the right way, will reduce the aliasing error to a size which...... on average is identical to the one normally requiring 2N points DFTs. The cost is an insignificant increase in the number of operations compared to the total number needed for the transformation to the complex cepstrum domain...

  15. Long-Term Experimental Acidification Drives Watershed Scale Shift in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. SanClements; Ivan J. Fernandez; Robert H. Lee; Joshua A. Roberti; Mary Beth Adams; Garret A. Rue; Diane M. McKnight

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) in surface waters have increased throughout much of the northern hemisphere. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the drivers of this phenomenon including decreased sulfur (S) deposition working via an acidity- change mechanism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and data from two long-...

  16. Shift work schedule and night work load: Effects on body mass index - a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Waage, Siri; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2018-05-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate changes in body mass index (BMI) between different work schedules and different average number of yearly night shifts over a four-year follow-up period. Methods A prospective study of Norwegian nurses (N=2965) with different work schedules was conducted: day only, two-shift rotation (day and evening shifts), three-shift rotation (day, evening and night shifts), night only, those who changed towards night shifts, and those who changed away from schedules containing night shifts. Paired student's t-tests were used to evaluate within subgroup changes in BMI. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate between groups effects on BMI when adjusting for BMI at baseline, sex, age, marital status, children living at home, and years since graduation. The same regression model was used to evaluate the effect of average number of yearly night shifts on BMI change. Results We found that night workers [mean difference (MD) 1.30 (95% CI 0.70-1.90)], two shift workers [MD 0.48 (95% CI 0.20-0.75)], three shift workers [MD 0.46 (95% CI 0.30-0.62)], and those who changed work schedule away from [MD 0.57 (95% CI 0.17-0.84)] or towards night work [MD 0.63 (95% CI 0.20-1.05)] all had significant BMI gain (Pnight workers had significantly larger BMI gain compared to day workers [B=0.89 (95% CI 0.06-1.72), Pnight shifts and BMI change using our multiple linear regression model. Conclusions After adjusting for possible confounders, we found that BMI increased significantly more among night workers compared to day workers.

  17. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Sinclair

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2×10^{5}   C/cm^{2} and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  18. Multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations is considered. Particular attention is given to the periodic sine-Gordon and Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equations. The periodic sine-Gordon equation and its associated inverse spectral theory are analyzed, including a discussion of the spectral representations of exact, N-phase sine-Gordon solutions. The emphasis is on physical characteristics of the periodic waves, with a motivation from the well-known whole-line solitons. A canonical Hamiltonian approach for the modulational theory of N-phase waves is prescribed. A concrete illustration of this averaging method is provided with the periodic sine-Gordon equation; explicit averaging results are given only for the N = 1 case, laying a foundation for a more thorough treatment of the general N-phase problem. For the KdV equation, very general results are given for multiphase averaging of the N-phase waves. The single-phase results of Whitham are extended to general N phases, and more importantly, an invariant representation in terms of Abelian differentials on a Riemann surface is provided. Several consequences of this invariant representation are deduced, including strong evidence for the Hamiltonian structure of N-phase modulational equations

  19. SU-E-J-16: A Review of the Magnitude of Patient Imaging Shifts in Relation to Departmental Policy Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, M; Sansourekidou, P [Health Quest, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how changes in imaging policy affect the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Methods: In June 2012, the department's imaging policy was altered to require that any shifts derived from imaging throughout the course of treatment shall be considered systematic only after they were validated with two data points that are consistent in the same direction. Multiple additions and clarifications to the imaging policy were implemented throughout the course of the data collection, but they were mostly of administrative nature. Entered shifts were documented in MOSAIQ (Elekta AB) through the localization offset. The MOSAIQ database was queried to identify a possible trend. A total of 25,670 entries were analyzed, including four linear accelerators with a combination of MV planar, kV planar and kV three dimensional imaging. The monthly average of the magnitude of the vector was used. Plan relative offsets were excluded. During the evaluated period of time, one of the satellite facilities acquired and implemented Vision RT (AlignRT Inc). Results: After the new policy was implemented the shifts variance and standard deviation decreased. The decrease is linear with time elapsed. Vision RT implementation at one satellite facility reduced the number of overall shifts, specifically for breast patients. Conclusion: Changes in imaging policy have a significant effect on the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Using two statistical points before applying a shift as persistent decreased the overall magnitude of the shifts applied to patients.

  20. Application of the Value Averaging Investment Method on the US Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Širůček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on empirical testing and the use of the regular investment, particularly on the value averaging investment method on real data from the US stock market in the years 1990–2013. The 23-year period was chosen because of a consistently interesting situation in the market and so this regular investment method could be tested to see how it works in a bull (expansion period and a bear (recession period. The analysis is focused on results obtained by using this investment method from the viewpoint of return and risk on selected investment horizons (short-term 1 year, medium-term 5 years and long-term 10 years. The selected aim is reached by using the ratio between profit and risk. The revenue-risk profile is the ratio of the average annual profit rate measured for each investment by the internal rate of return and average annual risk expressed by selective standard deviation. The obtained results show that regular investment is suitable for a long investment horizon or the longer the investment horizon, the better the revenue-risk ratio (Sharpe ratio. According to the results obtained, specific investment recommendations are presented in the conclusion, e.g. if this investment method is suitable for a long investment period, if it is better to use value averaging for a growing, sinking or sluggish market, etc.

  1. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  2. First ever full size CdTE luminescent down-shifting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, D.; Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Fritsche, J.; Bauer, M.; Debije, M.G.; Fifield, R.M.; Richards, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time a luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer has been applied to a full size PV module to improve its short-wavelength response. An average 4.3% relative increase in the short-circuit current density (JSC) was recorded for the Calyxo cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules after the best LDS

  3. Origin of metallic surface core-level shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Abrikosov, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The unique property of the open 4f energy shell in the lanthanide metals is used to show that the initial-state energy shift gives an insufficient description of surface core-level shifts. Instead a treatment, which fully includes the final-state screening, account for the experimentally observed...

  4. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fifteen-hour day shifts have little effect on the performance of taskwork by anaesthesia trainees during uncomplicated clinical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, A L; Robinson, B J; Kappus, L J; Macleod, I; Gander, P H

    2012-11-01

    Shiftwork and work-hour limits for junior doctors are now well established in hospital work patterns. In order to ensure that trainees have adequate exposure to daytime elective surgical procedures, there is a tendency to have long shifts that include an after-hours component. However, long shifts can cause performance decrement due to time-on-task fatigue. In addition, shifts that encroach upon sleep time result in sleep loss. Using a high-fidelity patient simulation environment, we undertook a randomised, controlled trial to examine fatigue effects. A within-subjects comparison was used to evaluate the effect of 15-hour day shifts on the performance of 12 anaesthesia registrars. Preoperative assessment, machine check and taskwork using 42 task categories were evaluated. In both conditions, there was failure to meet current guidelines for preoperative evaluation or machine check, and when fatigued there was a 'trend' (P=0.06) to a reduction in the number of items in the machine check. With increase in time awake, there was an increase in time taken for explanation to the patient, an increase in mean duration of explanation to the patient, more time looking at the intravenous line or fluids when multi-tasking but less time adjusting the intravenous fluid. These effects are minor during routine uncomplicated induction of anaesthesia, but further investigation is needed to examine fatigue effects during non-routine circumstances.

  6. Task Shifting in Dermatology: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danielle N; Langan, Sinéad M; Freeman, Esther E

    2017-11-01

    Can task shifting be used to improve the delivery of dermatologic care in resource-poor settings worldwide? Task shifting is a means of redistributing available resources, whereby highly trained individuals train an available workforce to provide necessary care in low-resource settings. Limited evidence exists for task shifting in dermatology; however, studies from psychiatry demonstrate its efficacy. In the field of dermatology there is a need for high-quality evidence including randomized clinical trials to validate the implementation of task shifting in low-resource settings globally.

  7. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P; Kecklund, Göran; Almansa, Josue; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2016-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (F ST  = 0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species' need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

  9. Chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marochnik, L S [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1980-11-01

    The cosmological solutions are found for the equations for correlators, describing a statistically chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average in which delta-correlated fluctuations with amplitudes h >> 1 are excited. For the equation of state of matter p = n epsilon, the kind of solutions depends on the position of maximum of the spectrum of the metric disturbances. The expansion of the Universe, in which long-wave potential and vortical motions and gravitational waves (modes diverging at t ..-->.. 0) had been excited, tends asymptotically to the Friedmannian one at t ..-->.. identity and depends critically on n: at n < 0.26, the solution for the scalefactor is situated higher than the Friedmannian one, and lower at n > 0.26. The influence of finite at t ..-->.. 0 long-wave fluctuation modes leads to an averaged quasiisotropic solution. The contribution of quantum fluctuations and of short-wave parts of the spectrum of classical fluctuations to the expansion law is considered. Their influence is equivalent to the contribution from an ultrarelativistic gas with corresponding energy density and pressure. The restrictions are obtained for the degree of chaos (the spectrum characteristics) compatible with the observed helium abundance, which could have been retained by a completely chaotic Universe during its expansion up to the nucleosynthesis epoch.

  10. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  11. Shift work and the incidence of prostate cancer: a 10-year follow-up of a German population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Rabstein, Sylvia; Wichert, Katharina; Erbel, Raimund; Eisele, Lewin; Arendt, Marina; Dragano, Nico; Brüning, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We investigated the association of shift and night work with the incidence of prostate cancer using data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study from the highly industrialized Ruhr area in Germany. Methods Participants of the baseline survey were recruited between 2000-2003. A follow-up survey including, a detailed interview on shift and night work, was conducted from 2011-2014. We included 1757 men who did not report a history of prostate cancer at baseline. We assessed shift- and night-work exposure up to time of the baseline interview. Incident prostate cancers were recorded from baseline through September 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of shift- and night-work exposure using Cox proportional hazards regression with age at event as timescale, adjusting for smoking status, family history of prostate cancer, education (≤13, 14-17, ≥18 years), and equivalent income (low, medium, high). Results We observed a twofold increased HR for prostate cancer among shift and night workers. Ever employment in shift work was associated with HR 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.67 and night work with HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.64. HR increased steadily with duration of employment in shift or night work. Stratifying analyses by preferred midpoint of sleep, yielded strongly elevated HR among subjects with early sleep preference, although these analyses were limited by small number of cases. Conclusions We identified increased risks for prostate cancer among men with employment in shift or night work. HR were strongly elevated among long-term employed shift workers and men with early preferred midpoint of sleep.

  12. Electrostatic Origin of the Red Solvatochromic Shift of DFHBDI in RNA Spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Samik; Chakrabarty, Suman; Ghosh, Debashree

    2017-05-11

    Interactions with the environment tune the spectral properties of biological chromophores, e.g., fluorescent proteins. Understanding the relative contribution of the various types of noncovalent interactions in the spectral shifts can provide rational design principles toward developing new fluorescent probes. In this work, we investigate the origin of the red shift in the absorption spectra of the difluoro hydroxybenzylidene dimethyl imidazolinone (DFHBDI) chromophore in RNA spinach as compared to the aqueous solution. We systematically decompose the effects of various components of interactions, namely, stacking, hydrogen bonding, and long-range electrostatics, in order to elucidate the relative role of these interactions in the observed spectral behavior. We find that the absorption peak of DFHBDI is red-shifted by ∼0.35 eV in RNA relative to the aqueous solution. Earlier proposals from Huang and co-workers have implicated the stacking interactions between DFHBDI and nucleic acid bases to be the driving force behind the observed red shift. In contrast, our findings reveal that the long-range electrostatic interactions between DFHBDI and negatively charged RNA make the most significant contribution. Moreover, we notice that the opposing electrostatic fields due to the RNA backbone and the polarized water molecules around the RNA give rise to the resultant red shift. Our results emphasize the effect of strong heterogeneity in the various environmental factors that might be competing with each other.

  13. Initial colonization of Long Island, New York by the eastern coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora, Canidae), including first record of breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy,Christopher; Weckel,Mark; Monzón,Javier; Duncan,Neil; Rosenthal,Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) have increased their range dramatically over the past century. Formerly restricted to western North America, they now roam across the continent, in many habitats including large cities. One of the last areas in North America without coyotes has been Long Island, NY, a 3629 km2 island in the New York metropolitan area. Here we summarize all verified accounts of coyotes on Long Island, including the first record of breeding. There are few coyotes on Long Islan...

  14. Study on small long-life LBE cooled fast reactor with CANDLE burn-up. Part 1. Steady state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Mingyu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Small long-life reactor is required for some local areas. CANDLE small long-life fast reactor which does not require control rods, mining, enrichment and reprocessing plants can satisfy this demand. In a CANDLE reactor, the shapes of neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power density distributions remain constant and only shift in axial direction. The core with 1.0 m radius, 2.0 m length can realize CANDLE burn-up with nitride (enriched N-15) natural uranium as fresh fuel. Lead-Bismuth is used as coolant. From steady state analysis, we obtained the burn-up velocity, output power distribution, core temperature distribution, etc. The burn-up velocity is less than 1.0 cm/year that enables a long-life design easily. The core averaged discharged fuel burn-up is about 40%. (author)

  15. Local and average structure of Mn- and La-substituted BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Selbach, Sverre M.

    2017-06-01

    The local and average structure of solid solutions of the multiferroic perovskite BiFeO3 is investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The average experimental structure is determined by Rietveld refinement and the local structure by total scattering data analyzed in real space with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. With equal concentrations of La on the Bi site or Mn on the Fe site, La causes larger structural distortions than Mn. Structural models based on DFT relaxed geometry give an improved fit to experimental PDFs compared to models constrained by the space group symmetry. Berry phase calculations predict a higher ferroelectric polarization than the experimental literature values, reflecting that structural disorder is not captured in either average structure space group models or DFT calculations with artificial long range order imposed by periodic boundary conditions. Only by including point defects in a supercell, here Bi vacancies, can DFT calculations reproduce the literature results on the structure and ferroelectric polarization of Mn-substituted BiFeO3. The combination of local and average structure sensitive experimental methods with DFT calculations is useful for illuminating the structure-property-composition relationships in complex functional oxides with local structural distortions.

  16. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  17. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  18. Crosstalk Cancellation for a Simultaneous Phase Shifting Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of minimizing fringe print-through in a phase-shifting interferometer, includes the steps of: (a) determining multiple transfer functions of pixels in the phase-shifting interferometer; (b) computing a crosstalk term for each transfer function; and (c) displaying, to a user, a phase-difference map using the crosstalk terms computed in step (b). Determining a transfer function in step (a) includes measuring intensities of a reference beam and a test beam at the pixels, and measuring an optical path difference between the reference beam and the test beam at the pixels. Computing crosstalk terms in step (b) includes computing an N-dimensional vector, where N corresponds to the number of transfer functions, and the N-dimensional vector is obtained by minimizing a variance of a modulation function in phase shifted images.

  19. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  20. Precise Doppler shift compensation in the hipposiderid bat, Hipposideros armiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppler, Diana; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette

    2018-03-15

    Bats of the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae families, and Pteronotus parnellii, compensate for Doppler shifts generated by their own flight movement. They adjust their call frequency such that the frequency of echoes coming from ahead fall in a specialized frequency range of the hearing system, the auditory fovea, to evaluate amplitude and frequency modulations in echoes from fluttering prey. Some studies in hipposiderids have suggested a less sophisticated or incomplete Doppler shift compensation. To investigate the precision of Doppler shift compensation in Hipposideros armiger, we recorded the echolocation and flight behaviour of bats flying to a grid, reconstructed the flight path, measured the flight speed, calculated the echo frequency, and compared it with the resting frequency prior to each flight. Within each flight, the average echo frequency was kept constant with a standard deviation of 110 Hz, independent of the flight speed. The resting and reference frequency were coupled with an offset of 80 Hz; however, they varied slightly from flight to flight. The precision of Doppler shift compensation and the offset were similar to that seen in Rhinolophidae and P. parnellii. The described frequency variations may explain why it has been assumed that Doppler shift compensation in hipposiderids is incomplete.

  1. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Time Clusters for Following Users’ Shifts in Rating Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Margaris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Users that enter ratings for items follow different rating practices, in the sense that, when rating items, some users are more lenient, while others are stricter. This aspect is taken into account by the most widely used similarity metric in user-user collaborative filtering, namely, the Pearson Correlation, which adjusts each individual user rating by the mean value of the ratings entered by the specific user, when computing similarities. However, a user’s rating practices change over time, i.e. a user could start as strict and subsequently become lenient or vice versa. In that sense, the practice of using a single mean value for adjusting users’ ratings is inadequate, since it fails to follow such shifts in users’ rating practices, leading to decreased rating prediction accuracy. In this work, we address this issue by using the concept of dynamic averages introduced earlier and we extend earlier work by (1 introducing the concept of rating time clusters and (2 presenting a novel algorithm for calculating dynamic user averages and exploiting them in user-user collaborative, filtering implementations. The proposed algorithm incorporates the aforementioned concept and is able to follow more successfully shifts in users’ rating practices. It has been evaluated using numerous datasets, and has been found to introduce significant gains in rating prediction accuracy, while outperforming the dynamic average computation approaches that are presented earlier.

  3. Impact of 12h shift patterns in nursing: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth; Sims, Sarah; Parr, Jenny; Davies, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive scoping review of evidence of the impact and effectiveness of 12h shifts in the international nursing literature, supplemented by a review of evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. A search of the academic literature was undertaken in electronic databases (AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Scopus, HMIC, the Cochrane Library, Business Source Premier, Econ Lit, ASSIA and Social Policy and Practice). A total of 158 potentially relevant nursing research papers and reviews were published between 1973 and 2014. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 85 primary research studies and 10 review papers in the nursing field to be included in the scoping review. Thirty-one relevant primary research papers and reviews were also identified in the non-nursing related industries literature. Research into 12h nursing shifts fell within five broad themes: 'risks to patients', 'patient experience', 'risks to staff', 'staff experience' and 'impact on the organisation of work'. There was inconclusive evidence of the effects of 12h shift patterns in all five themes, with some studies demonstrating positive impacts and others negative or no impacts. This also mirrors the evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. The quality of research reviewed is generally weak and most studies focus on the risks, experience and work/life balance for staff, with few addressing the impact on patient outcomes and experience of care or work productivity. There is insufficient evidence to justify the widespread implementation or withdrawal of 12h shifts in nursing. It is not clearly understood where there are real benefits and where there are real and unacceptable risks to patients and staff. More research focusing on the impact of 12h nursing shifts on patient safety and experience of care and on the long term impact on staff and work organisation is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, K.; Kosiński, P.; Maślanka, P.

    2017-06-01

    Recently (Stone et al. (2015) [16]) the influence of the so called ;Wigner translations; (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.

  5. Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bolonek-Lasoń

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently (Stone et al. (2015 [16] the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.

  6. Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, K. [Department of Statistical Methods, Faculty of Economics and Sociology (Poland); Kosiński, P. [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Maślanka, P., E-mail: pmaslan@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)

    2017-06-10

    Recently (Stone et al. (2015) ) the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.

  7. The collective Lamb shift in nuclear γ-ray superradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röhlsberger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic transitions of Mössbauer nuclei provide almost ideal two-level systems to transfer quantum optical concepts into the regime of hard x-rays. If many identical atoms collectively interact with a resonant radiation field, one observes (quantum) optical properties that are strongly different from those of a single atom. The most prominent effect is the broadening of the resonance line known as collective enhancement, resulting from multiple scattering of real photons within the atomic ensemble. On the other hand, the exchange of virtual photons within the ensemble leads to a tiny energy shift of the resonance line, the collective Lamb shift, that remained experimentally elusive for a long time after its prediction. Here we illustrate how highly brilliant synchrotron radiation allows one to prepare superradiant states of excited Mössbauer nuclei, an important condition for observation of the collective Lamb shift.

  8. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Liira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work results in sleep-wake disturbances, which cause sleepiness during night shifts and reduce sleep length and quality in daytime sleep after the night shift. In its serious form it is also called shift work sleep disorder. Various pharmacological products are used to ameliorate symptoms of sleepiness or poor sleep length and quality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions to reduce sleepiness or to improve alertness at work and decrease sleep disturbances whilst of work, or both, in workers undertaking shift work. METHODS: Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO up to 20 September 2013 and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 2013. We also screened reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews. Selection criteria: We included all eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs, including cross-over RCTs, of pharmacological products among workers who were engaged in shift work (including night shifts in their present jobs and who may or may not have had sleep problems. Primary outcomes were sleep length and sleep quality while of work, alertness and sleepiness, or fatigue at work. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included trials. We performed meta-analyses where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised placebo-controlled trials with 718 participants. Nine trials evaluated the effect of melatonin and two the effect of hypnotics for improving sleep problems. One trial assessed the effect of modafinil, two of armodafinil and one examined cafeine plus naps to decrease sleepiness or to increase alertness.

  9. Why Does a Shift in Precipitation from Snow Towards Rain Lead to a Decrease in Long Term Mean River Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that a shift in precipitation from snow towards rain leads to a strong decrease in long term mean river flow, for a diverse set of snow-dominated catchments across the USA (Berghuijs et al, 2014, Nature Climate Change). Mutually inconsistent hypotheses have been proposed, but no comprehensive explanations are available to explain the observations. Why does less snow apparently lead to less river flow and more evaporation? Is it caused by changes in snow cover, soil freezing, infiltration processes, timing of plant water uptake or something else? Which processes are important where? Solving this scientific puzzle will have significant follow-on impacts for hydrological models, flood risk assessment, seasonal water forecasts, and climate change impacts on water availability, ecosystem functions and other systems impacted by long-term reductions in river flow and evaporation, and their feedbacks to the water cycle.A large international research collaboration (CHIPPER, 35 groups from 15 countries) has formed to make a joint contribution to improved understanding of links between the phase of precipitation and the hydrological cycle, with a particular focus on water balance. This presentation will review progress since 2014 on the topic, outline intended future lines of investigation, and invite feedback and additional collaborations.

  10. A Capital Mistake? The Neglected Effect of Immigration on Average Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Declan Trott

    2011-01-01

    Much recent literature on the wage effects of immigration assumes that the return to capital, and therefore the average wage, is unaffected in the long run. If immigration is modelled as a continuous flow rather than a one off shock, this result does not necessarily hold. A simple calibration with pre-crisis US immigration rates gives a reduction in average wages of 5%, larger than most estimates of its effect on relative wages.

  11. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanfu; Kohn, Taylor P; Lipshultz, Larry I; Pastuszak, Alexander W

    2018-01-19

    More than 21 million Americans and nearly 20% of the U.S. workforce are shift workers. Non-standard shift work, defined as work that falls outside of 6 am-6 pm, can lead to poor diet, exercise, and sleep habits that lead to decreased productivity, increased workplace accidents, and a variety of negative health outcomes. To investigate the associations between shift work exposure and chronic medical conditions such as metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disturbances, and depression as well as urologic complications including hypogonadism, male infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms, and prostate cancer with a focus on the effects of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) on the severity of these negative health outcomes. We reviewed the literature examining effects of shift work and SWSD on general and urologic health. We produced a summary of effects of shift work on health with focus on the increased risk of negative health outcomes in non-standard shift workers, particularly those with SWSD, when compared to daytime workers or workers without SWSD. Studies have associated non-standard shift work schedules and poor health outcomes, including increased risks of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, peptic ulcer disease, and depression, in shift workers. However, few studies have focused on the role that shift work plays in men's urologic health. Current evidence supports associations between non-standard shift work and increased hypogonadal symptoms, poor semen parameters, decreased fertility, lower urinary tract symptoms, and prostate cancer. These associations are strengthened by the presence of SWSD, which affects up to 20% of shift workers. Unfortunately, interventions, such as planned naps, timed light exposure, melatonin, and sedative hypnotics, aimed at alleviating excessive nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia in non-standard shift workers experiencing SWSD, are limited and lack strong evidence to support

  12. Isomer shift and magnetic moment of the long-lived 1/2$^{+}$ isomer in $^{79}_{30}$Zn$_{49}$: signature of shape coexistence near $^{78}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, X.F.; Xie, L.; Babcock, C.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M.L.; Blaum, K.; Cheal, B.; Flanagan, K.T.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Gorges, C.; Grob, L.K.; Heylen, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Kowalska, M.; Kraemer, J.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papuga, J.; Sánchez, R.; Yordanov, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been performed on the $^{79}_{30}$Zn$_{49}$ isotope at ISOLDE-CERN. The existence of a long-lived isomer with a few hundred milliseconds half-life was confirmed, and the nuclear spins and moments of the ground and isomeric states in $^{79}$Zn as well as the isomer shift were measured. From the observed hyperfine structures, spins $I = 9/2$ and $I = 1/2$ are firmly assigned to the ground and isomeric states. The magnetic moment $\\mu$ ($^{79}$Zn) = $-$1.1866(10) $\\mu_{\\rm{N}}$, confirms the spin-parity $9/2^{+}$ with a $\

  13. X-ray refractive index: A tool to determine the average composition in multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miceli, P.F.; Neumann, D.A.; Zabel, H.

    1986-01-01

    We present a novel and simple method to determine the average composition of multilayers and superlattices by measuring the x-ray refractive index. Since these modulated structures exhibit Bragg reflections at small angles, by using a triple axis x-ray spectrometer we have accurately determined the peak shifts due to refraction in GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As and Nb/Ta superlattices. Knowledge of the refractive index provides the average fractional composition of the periodic structure since the refractive index is a superposition of the refractive indices of the atomic constituents. We also present a critical discussion of the method and compare the values of the average fractional composition obtained in this manner to the values obtained from the lattice parameter change in the GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As superlattices due to the Al

  14. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  15. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  16. Signal-averaged P wave duration and the long-term risk of permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Larsen, Mette Vang; Ravn, Lasse Steen

    2008-01-01

    of permanent AF. The risk of permanent AF after 3 years follow-up was 0.72 with an SAPWD equal to 180 ms versus 0.39 with a normal SAPWD (130 ms). We found no prognostic effect of age, gender, dilated left atrium, long duration of AF history, or long duration of the most recent episode of AF. Co...

  17. Health consequences of shift-work: the case of iranian hospital security personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Roghayeh; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Faghih, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Heidar; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Mohraz, Majid Habibi; Arassi, Maziyar; Veyseh, Peyman Piran; Aghaei, Hamed; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2015-01-01

    Shift-work, which is an ergonomics issue in workplaces, can negatively affect workers. The security personnel of medical centers in Iran have multiple responsibilities and consequently are exposed to such unwanted situations as observing patients, disputing with patient's attendants, unwanted shift schedules, and being away from family for long periods. This study assessed health problems of Iranian hospital security personnel (shift-worker personnel) using the Survey of Shift-workers (SOS) questionnaire (Persian version). This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven medical centers (4 hospitals and 3 clinics). A total of 416 workers were surveyed: shift-workers (exposed group) (n=209) and non-shift-workers (unexposed group) (n=207). The prevalence of adverse health effects was higher in shift-workers than day-workers. The level of education and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) in shift-workers were significantly higher compared with day-workers. The prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular and psychological problems were also significantly higher in shift-workers compared with day-workers. Overall, the prevalence of health problems among the security personnel of medical centers was high. Hence, it is recommended that personnel be put under periodic monitoring and receive medical counseling and treatment if there is any disorder.

  18. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  19. Error estimates in horocycle averages asymptotics: challenges from string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardella, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    For modular functions of rapid decay, a classical result connects the error estimate in their long horocycle average asymptotic to the Riemann hypothesis. We study similar asymptotics, for modular functions with not that mild growing conditions, such as of polynomial growth and of exponential growth

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of weekday and weeknight or weekend shifts for assessment of appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Andrea S.; Babyn, Paul; Chait, Peter; Amernic, Heidi; Coyte, Peter C.; Dick, Paul; Langer, Jacob; Ungar, Wendy J.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of appendicitis during a weeknight or weekend shift (after-hours period, AHP) might be more costly and less effective than its assessment on a weekday shift (standard hours period, SHP) because of increased costs (staff premium fees) and perforation risk (longer delays and less experience of fellows). Objectives: The objectives were to compare the costs and effectiveness of assessing children with suspected appendicitis who required a laparotomy and had US or CT after-hours with those of assessing children during standard hours, and to evaluate the importance of diagnostic imaging (DI) within the overall costs. We retrospectively microcosted resource use within six areas of a tertiary hospital (emergency [ED], diagnostic imaging (DI), surgery, wards, transport, and pathology) in a tertiary hospital. About 41 children (1.8-17 years) in the AHP and 35 (2.9-16 years) in the SHP were evaluated. Work shift effectiveness was measured with a histological score that assessed the severity of appendicitis (non-perforated appendicitis: scores 1-3; perforated appendicitis: score 4). The SHP was less costly and more effective regardless of whether the calculation included US or CT costs only. For a salary-based fee schedule, US$733 were saved per case of perforated appendicitis averted in the SHP. For a fee-for-service payment schedule, $847 were saved. Within the overall budget, the highest costs were those incurred on the ward for both shifts. The average cost per patient in DI ranged from 2 to 5% of the total costs in both shifts. Most perforation cases were found in the AHP (31.7%, AHP vs. 17.1%, SHP), which resulted in higher ward costs for patients in the AHP. (orig.)

  1. Working hours of obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jade; Tucker, Paige E; Bulsara, Max K; Cohen, Paul A

    2017-10-01

    The importance of doctors' working hours has gained significant attention with evidence suggesting long hours and fatigue may compromise the safety and wellbeing of both patients and doctors. This study aims to quantify the working hours of The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) specialist trainees in order to better inform discussions of working hours and safety within our region. An anonymous, online survey of RANZCOG trainees was conducted. Demographic data were collected. The primary outcomes were: hours per week at work and hours per week on-call. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of long days (>12 h) and 24-h shifts, time spent studying, staff shortages and opinions regarding current rostering. Response rate was 49.5% (n = 259). Full-time trainees worked an average of 53.1 ± 10.0 h/week, with 11.6% working on-call. Long-day shifts were reported by 85.8% of respondents, with an average length of 14.2 h. Fifteen percent reported working 24-h shifts, with a median duration of uninterrupted sleep during this shift being 1-2 h. Trainees in New Zealand worked 7.0 h/week more than Australian trainees (P ≤0.001), but reported less on-call (P = 0.021). Trainees in Western Australia were more likely to work on-call (P ≤0.001) and 24-h shifts (P ≤0.001). While 53.1 h/week at work is similar to the average Australian hospital doctor, high rates of long days and 24-h shifts with minimal sleep were reported by RANZCOG trainees in this survey. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-11-01

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  3. Reduction of client waiting time using task shifting in an antiretroviral clinic at Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisser A. Umar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess the impact of the intervention in reducing the patients’ waiting time in the clinic, two surveys were conducted before and after task shifting intervention in an anti-retroviral (ARV clinic at the Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria in November 2008 and April 2009, respectively. Before the task shifting, six nurses from the clinic were trained on integrated management of adolescent and adult illness, as well as on the principle and guidelines for the anti-retroviral therapy, after which their schedule in the clinic was broadened to include seeing HIV patients presenting for routine refill and follow-up visits. In this study, fifty-six and sixty patients, respectively out of 186 and 202 who attended the clinic on the days of the pre- and post-intervention surveys, were randomly sampled. Data on patients’ sex, age and marital status, whether patient a first timer or follow up visitor and the time spent in the clinic on that day as well as the number and composition of staff and equipment in the clinic was collected. The difference in waiting time spent between the first group before task shifting and second group after task shifting was statistically analyzed and significance tested using unpaired t- test. There was a reduction in the average waiting time for patients attending the clinic from 6.48 h before task shifting to 4.35 h after task shifting. The difference of mean was -2.13 h, with 95% CI: -2.44:-1.82 hours and the test of significance by unpaired t-test P

  4. [Relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI : 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI : 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =7.43, P shift work years and obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =10.48, P Shift work was associated with overweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.

  5. Changing environments or shifting paradigms? Strategic decision making toward water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Simo; Laurila, Sari

    2007-04-01

    The study examines the history of strategic decision-making concerning water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000. We identified five major strategic decisions that occurred during the study period. The results indicate that strategic decision-making evolves in long-term policy cycles that last on average 20-30 years. New policy cycles are caused by paradigm shifts. Paradigms are shared and predominant ways of understanding reality that help when groups must act to solve common and complex environmental problems. However the internal structure and external dynamics of paradigms are contradictory. Although paradigms serve initially as means to redefine problems and find creative solutions, as time goes by each paradigm seems to become also a barrier that restricts the introduction of new ways of thinking and acting. The power of paradigms lies in the fact that they can be defined as scientific but also social, political, or cultural agreements depending on the context.

  6. Health promotion and work: prevention of shift work disorders in companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kneginja D; Acker, Jens; Scholz, Friederike; Niklewski, Günter

    2010-12-01

    Workplace health promotion is a strategy to improve the health and well-being of people at work. The measures aim at the personal, organisational and work environment. Shift work is one of many reasons provoking increased job stress. According to worldwide epidemiological data, up to 30% of the working population are employed in shifts. Taking into consideration that shift work causes a large number of somatic and psychiatric diseases which bear considerable negative consequences for the health status and the quality of life, it seems to be important to initiate health promotion strategies for shift workers in the companies. The results of recent studies indicate that well-scheduled und targeted health programmes can change the lifestyle of shift working employees and have an impact on the risk factors involved. One problem, though, is a considerable time lag till effects become apparent; therefore, the long-term economic effects of workplace health promotion have not been evaluated sufficiently to date. These definitely positive effects highlight the demand for trainings and workshops for people in shift work. We urgently suggest a speedy implementation of the recommended strategies by companies with shift work systems. In our view, this poses a challenge to the "infant" interdisciplinary field of sleep medicine that should be solved.

  7. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  8. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  9. On The Designed And Constructed Feedback Shift-Register Encoder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information transmission in noisy channels can be achieved with vanishingly small probability of error by proper coding of the information as long as the encoding rate is less than the channel capacity. An encoder capable of cyclical shifting of data, and which can therefore be used for Bose-Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem ...

  10. Shift work with and without night work as a risk factor for fatigue and changes in sleep length: A cohort study with linkage to records on daily working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-01-31

    We examined shift work with or without night work as a risk factor for fatigue and short or long sleep. In a prospective cohort study with 4- and 6-year follow-ups (the Finnish Public Sector study), we linked survey responses of 3,679 full-time hospital employees on sleep duration and fatigue to records on daily working hours in 2008 (baseline), 2012 and 2014. We used logistic regression to estimate risk ratios and their confidence intervals to examine whether continuous exposure to shift work or changes between shift work and day work were associated with short (≤6.5 hr) or long (≥9.0 hr) sleep over 24 hr and fatigue at work and during free days. Compared with continuous day work and adjusting for age, gender, education and fatigue/sleep duration at baseline, continuous shift work with night shifts was associated with increased fatigue during free days (risk ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.63) and long sleep (risk ratio = 8.04, 95% confidence interval 2.88-22.5, without adjustment for education) after 6-year follow-up. Exposure to shift work without night shifts increased only long sleep after 6 years (risk ratio = 5.87, 95% confidence interval 1.94-17.8). A change from day work to shift work with or without night shifts was associated with an increased risk for long sleep, and a change from shift work to day work with a decreased risk for long sleep and fatigue. This study suggests that irregular shift work is a modifiable risk factor for long sleep and increased fatigue, probably reflecting a higher need for recovery. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. The effect of shift work on red blood cell distribution width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-04-01

    Limited research demonstrates that shift work (e.g., evening shift, night shift, rotating shift) increases the risk of certain health outcomes, such as hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), which is commonly assessed and reported by physicians, is a novel biomarker of cardiovascular disease. However, no study has examined the association of shift work on RDW, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2005-2010 NHANES were used. RDW was assessed from a blood sample; shift work was assessed from a questionnaire, and various demographic, behavioral/psychological, occupational, and biological parameters were included as covariates. The fully adjusted model showed that the odds of having an elevated RDW for women on rotating shift vs. day shift increased by 46% (OR=1.46; 95% CI: 1.03-2.08). Women on a rotating shift had increased odds of having an elevated RDW, which is concerning as elevated RDW increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Health care professionals are encouraged to include questions about organization of work schedules and their tolerance of such schedules during the patient's consultation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A canonical correlation analysis based EMG classification algorithm for eliminating electrode shift effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Fan; Zhong Wang; Guanglin Li; Ruomei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Motion classification system based on surface Electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition has achieved good results in experimental condition. But it is still a challenge for clinical implement and practical application. Many factors contribute to the difficulty of clinical use of the EMG based dexterous control. The most obvious and important is the noise in the EMG signal caused by electrode shift, muscle fatigue, motion artifact, inherent instability of signal and biological signals such as Electrocardiogram. In this paper, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was developed to eliminate the reduction of classification accuracy caused by electrode shift. The average classification accuracy of our method were above 95% for the healthy subjects. In the process, we validated the influence of electrode shift on motion classification accuracy and discovered the strong correlation with correlation coefficient of >0.9 between shift position data and normal position data.

  13. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  14. Averaged 30 year climate change projections mask opportunities for species establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Franklin, Janet; Sweet, Lynn C.; McCullough, Ian M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Regan, Helen M.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Dingman, John; Moritz, Max A.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W.

    2016-01-01

    Survival of early life stages is key for population expansion into new locations and for persistence of current populations (Grubb 1977, Harper 1977). Relative to adults, these early life stages are very sensitive to climate fl uctuations (Ropert-Coudert et al. 2015), which often drive episodic or ‘event-limited’ regeneration (e.g. pulses) in long-lived plant species (Jackson et al. 2009). Th us, it is diffi cult to mechanistically associate 30-yr climate norms to dynamic processes involved in species range shifts (e.g. seedling survival). What are the consequences of temporal aggregation for estimating areas of potential establishment? We modeled seedling survival for three widespread tree species in California, USA ( Quercus douglasii, Q. kelloggii , Pinus sabiniana ) by coupling a large-scale, multi-year common garden experiment to high-resolution downscaled grids of climatic water defi cit and air temperature (Flint and Flint 2012, Supplementary material Appendix 1). We projected seedling survival for nine climate change projections in two mountain landscapes spanning wide elevation and moisture gradients. We compared areas with windows of opportunity for seedling survival – defi ned as three consecutive years of seedling survival in our species, a period selected based on studies of tree niche ontogeny (Supplementary material Appendix 1) – to areas of 30-yr averaged estimates of seedling survival. We found that temporal aggregation greatly underestimated the potential for species establishment (e.g. seedling survival) under climate change scenarios.

  15. CE: Original Research: Napping on the Night Shift: A Two-Hospital Implementation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Sagherian, Knar; Zhu, Shijun; Wieroniey, Margaret Ann; Blair, Lori; Warren, Joan; Hinds, Pamela S; Szeles, Rose

    2016-05-01

    : Nurses who work the night shift often experience high levels of sleepiness. Napping has been adopted as an effective countermeasure to sleepiness and fatigue in other safety-sensitive industries, but has not had widespread acceptance in nursing. To assess the barriers to successful implementation of night-shift naps and to describe the nap experiences of night-shift nurses who took naps. In this two-hospital pilot implementation project, napping on the night shift was offered to six nursing units for which the executive nursing leadership had given approval. Unit nurse managers' approval was sought, and where granted, further explanation was given to the unit's staff nurses. A nap experience form, which included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, was used to assess pre-nap sleepiness level, nap duration and perceived sleep experience, post-nap sleep inertia, and the perceived helpfulness of the nap. Nurse managers and staff nurses were also interviewed at the end of the three-month study period. Successful implementation occurred on only one of the six units, with partial success seen on a second unit. Barriers primarily occurred at the point of seeking the unit nurse managers' approval. On the successful unit, 153 30-minutes naps were taken during the study period. A high level of sleepiness was present at the beginning of 44% of the naps. For more than half the naps, nurses reported achieving either light (43%) or deep (14%) sleep. Sleep inertia was rare. The average score of helpfulness of napping was high (7.3 on a 1-to-10 scale). Nurses who napped reported being less drowsy while driving home after their shift. These data suggest that when barriers to napping are overcome, napping on the night shift is feasible and can reduce nurses' workplace sleepiness and drowsy driving on the way home. Addressing nurse managers' perceptions of and concerns about napping may be essential to successful implementation.

  16. Unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Louise; Schneider, Justine; Hare Duke, Laurie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts on work performance and patient care. Many unregistered health care staff work 12 hour shifts, but it is unclear whether these are compatible with good quality care or work performance. Twenty five health care assistants from a range of care settings with experience of working 12 hour shifts took part in interviews or focus groups. A wide range of views emerged on the perceived impact of 12 hour shifts in different settings. Negative outcomes were perceived to occur when 12 hour shifts were combined with short-staffing, consecutive long shifts, high work demands, insufficient breaks and working with unfamiliar colleagues. Positive outcomes were perceived to be more likely in a context of control over shift patterns, sufficient staffing levels, and a supportive team climate. The perceived relationship between 12 hour shifts and patient care and work performance varies by patient context and wider workplace factors, but largely focuses on the ability to deliver relational aspects of care. Nursing managers need to consider the role of other workplace factors, such as shift patterns and breaks, when implementing 12 hour shifts with unregistered health care staff. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  18. Shifting visual perspective during retrieval shapes autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Szpunar, Karl K; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective. In a separate fMRI session, they were asked to retrieve the memories across three repetitions while maintaining the same visual perspective as their initial rating or by shifting to an alternative perspective. Visual perspective shifting during autobiographical memory retrieval was supported by a linear decrease in neural recruitment across repetitions in the posterior parietal cortices. Additional analyses revealed that the precuneus, in particular, contributed to both online and subsequent changes in the phenomenology of memories. Our findings show that flexibly shifting egocentric perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval is supported by the precuneus, and suggest that this manipulation of mental imagery during retrieval has consequences for how memories are retrieved and later remembered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anxiety about starting three-shift work among female workers: findings from the Female Shift Workers' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Shirane, Kiyoyumi; Otomo, Hajime; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2008-03-01

    In 1999, the Japanese Law on Equal Employment Opportunity and Conditions was amended and the previous prohibition of the assignment of female workers to night work was abolished. Subsequently, the number of female shift workers has been increasing in Japan, necessitating greater attention to the health care of this population. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the relationship between anxiety expressed about starting three-shift work and background characteristics among female workers who were being assigned to three-shift work for the first time. The subjects were 38 middle-aged female workers (age range: 44 to 59 years) who were working at a chemical plant. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire before starting three-shift work. Levels of anxiety about starting three-shift work were assessed by the question 'Do you feel anxious about starting three-shift work?' The available responses were: 'Very agree', 'Considerably agree', 'Rather agree', 'Slightly agree' and 'Not agree at all', and 63% of the subjects gave one of the first two answers, which were defined as indicating anxiety. We also acquired information regarding lifestyle and occupation for each subject, including the following factors: frequency of breakfast consumption, subjective sleep insufficiency, previous experience of similar work before beginning shift work, previous experience of two-shift work, and responsibility for household duties. In the study, we found a marginally statistically significant trend association between frequent breakfast consumption and anxiety about starting three-shift work (P(trend) = 0.09). Anxiety was also high among subjects with sleep disorders, especially those suffering from subjective sleep insufficiency (P = 0.08). Due to the small study population, these results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by future studies.

  20. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  1. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  2. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  3. Chromospheric oscillations observed with OSO 8. III. Average phase spectra for Si II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, O.R.; Athay, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Time series of intensity and Doppler-shift fluctuations in the Si II emission lines lambda816.93 and lambda817.45 are Fourier analyzed to determine the frequency variation of phase differences between intensity and velocity and between these two lines formed 300 km apart in the middle chromosphere. Average phase spectra show that oscillations between 2 and 9 mHz in the two lines have time delays from 35 to 40 s, which is consistent with the upward propagation of sound wave at 8.6-7.5 km s -1 . In this same frequency band near 3 mHz, maximum brightness leads maximum blueshift by 60 0 . At frequencies above 11 mHz where the power spectrum is flat, the phase differences are uncertain, but approximately 65% of the cases indicate upward propagation. At these higher frequencies, the phase lead between intensity and blue Doppler shift ranges from 0 0 to 180 0 with an average value of 90 0 . However, the phase estimates in this upper band are corrupted by both aliasing and randomness inherent to the measured signals. Phase differences in the two narrow spectral features seen at 10.5 and 27 mHz in the power spectra are shown to be consistent with properties expected for aliases of the wheel rotation rate of the spacecraft wheel section

  4. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  6. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  7. Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Kim, Son H.

    2015-01-01

    With high reliance on light-duty vehicles in the present, the future of global transportation system is also geared towards private modes, which has significant energy and emission implications. Public transportation has been argued as an alternative strategy for meeting the rising transportation demands of the growing world, especially the poor, in a sustainable and energy efficient way. The present study analyzes an important yet under-researched question – what are the long-term energy and emission implications of an electric rail based passenger transportation system for meeting both long and short distance passenter transportation needs? We analyze a suite of electric rail share scenarios with and without climate policy. In the reference scenario, the transportation system will evolve towards dominance of fossil based light-duty vehicles. We find that an electric rail policy is more successful than an economy wide climate policy in reducing transport sector energy demand and emissions. Economy wide emissions however can only be reduced through a broader climate policy, the cost of which can be reduced by hundreds of billions of dollars across the century when implemented in combination with the transport sector focused electric rail policy. Moreover, higher share of electric rail enhances energy security for oil importing nations and reduces vehicular congestion and road infrastructure requirement as well. -- Highlights: •Economy wide carbon price policy will have little impact on transportation emissions. •Focused energy and emission mitigation policies required for transportation sector. •Large global shift towards electric rail based public transport is one possible option. •Transport sector focused policy will have marginal impact on total global emissions. •A combined transport sector and economy wide policy can reduce costs significantly

  8. Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Auffret

    Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.

  9. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)]. E-mail: glen.w.kilcup@intel.com; Hickox, Dick [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States); Reynaga, Adolfo [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  10. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  11. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcup P E, Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-04-11

    New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident & Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5. Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7. Shift 5 had no severe (recordable

  12. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Interpreting Bivariate Regression Coefficients: Going beyond the Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Statistics, econometrics, investment analysis, and data analysis classes often review the calculation of several types of averages, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and various weighted averages. This note shows how each of these can be computed using a basic regression framework. By recognizing when a regression model…

  14. Shifts in the abundance and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers in a wet sclerophyll forest under long-term prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi-En; Chen, Chengrong; Xu, Zhihong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Fire shapes global biome distribution and promotes the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen (N). However, behaviors of AOB and AOA under long-term prescribed burning remain unclear. This study was to examine how fire affected the abundances and communities of soil AOB and AOA. A long-term repeated forest fire experiment with three burning treatments (never burnt, B0; biennially burnt, B2; and quadrennially burnt, B4) was used in this study. The abundances and community structure of soil AOB and AOA were determined using quantitative PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library. More frequent fires (B2) increased the abundance of bacterium amoA gene, but tended to decrease archaeal amoA genes. Fire also modified the composition of AOA and AOB communities. Canonical correspondence analysis showed soil pH and dissolved organic C (DOC) strongly affected AOB genotypes, while nitrate-N and DOC shaped the AOA distribution. The increased abundance of bacterium amoA gene by fires may imply an important role of AOB in nitrification in fire-affected soils. The fire-induced shift in the community composition of AOB and AOA demonstrates that fire can disturb nutrient cycles. © 2013.

  15. Decadal and long-term boreal soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration rates across a variety of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Turetsky, Merritt

    2016-01-01

    Boreal soils play a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control soil C accumulation and loss for this region. Examining C & nitrogen (N) accumulation rates over decades to centuries may provide additional understanding of the dominant mechanisms for their storage, which can be masked by seasonal and interannual variability when investigated over the short term. We examined longer-term accumulation rates, using 210Pb and 14C to date soil layers, for a wide variety of boreal ecosystems: a black spruce forest, a shrub ecosystem, a tussock grass ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen. All ecosystems had similar decadal C accumulation rates, averaging 84 ± 42 gC m−2 yr−1. Long-term (century) C accumulation rates were slower than decadal rates, averaging 14 ± 5 gC m−2 yr−1 for all ecosystems except the rich fen, for which the long-term C accumulation rates was more similar to decadal rates (44 ± 5 and 76 ± 9 gC m−2 yr−1, respectively). The rich fen also had the highest long-term N accumulation rates (2.7 gN m−2 yr−1). The lowest N accumulation rate, on both a decadal and long-term basis, was found in the black spruce forest (0.2 and 1.4 gN m−2 yr−1, respectively). Our results suggest that the controls on long-term C and N cycling at the rich fen is fundamentally different from the other ecosystems, likely due to differences in the predominant drivers of nutrient cycling (oxygen availability, for C) and reduced amounts of disturbance by fire (for C and N). This result implies that most shifts in ecosystem vegetation across the boreal region, driven by either climate or succession, will not significantly impact regional C or N dynamics over years to decades. However, ecosystem transitions to or from a rich fen will promote significant shifts in soil C and N storage.

  16. Level Shifts in Volatility and the Implied-Realized Volatility Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; de Magistris, Paolo Santucci

    We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization to the mult......We propose a simple model in which realized stock market return volatility and implied volatility backed out of option prices are subject to common level shifts corresponding to movements between bull and bear markets. The model is estimated using the Kalman filter in a generalization...... to the multivariate case of the univariate level shift technique by Lu and Perron (2008). An application to the S&P500 index and a simulation experiment show that the recently documented empirical properties of strong persistence in volatility and forecastability of future realized volatility from current implied...... volatility, which have been interpreted as long memory (or fractional integration) in volatility and fractional cointegration between implied and realized volatility, are accounted for by occasional common level shifts....

  17. The impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on IL-6 and TNF-α immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIM Sleep disturbances induce proinflammatory immune responses, which might increase cardiovascular disease risk. So far the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep illnesses on the immune system have been investigated. The particular impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on specific immune responses has not been addressed so far. Methods Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index (PSQI questionnaire and blood sampling was performed by 225 shift workers and 137 daytime workers. As possible markers the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and lymphocyte cell count were investigated. A medical examination was performed and biometrical data including age, gender, height, weight, waist and hip circumference and smoking habits were collected by a structured interview. Results Shift workers had a significantly higher mean PSQI score than day workers (6.73 vs. 4.66; p Conclusion Shift work induces chronic sleep debt. Our data reveals that chronic sleep debt might not always lead to an activation of the immune system, as we did not observe differences in lymphocyte count or level of IL-6 or TNF-α serum concentration between shift workers and day workers. Therefore chronic sleep restriction might be eased by a long-term compensating immune regulation which (in healthy protects against an overstimulation of proinflammatory immune mechanisms and moderates metabolic changes, as they are known from short-term sleep deprivation or sleep related breathing disorders.

  18. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  19. Dynamical resonance shift and unification of resonances in short-pulse laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Pronounced maximum absorption of laser light irradiating a rare-gas or metal cluster is widely expected during the linear resonance (LR) when Mie-plasma wavelength λM of electrons equals the laser wavelength λ . On the contrary, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an argon cluster irradiated by short 5-fs (FWHM) laser pulses it is revealed that, for a given laser pulse energy and a cluster, at each peak intensity there exists a λ —shifted from the expected λM—that corresponds to a unified dynamical LR at which evolution of the cluster happens through very efficient unification of possible resonances in various stages, including (i) the LR in the initial time of plasma creation, (ii) the LR in the Coulomb expanding phase in the later time, and (iii) anharmonic resonance in the marginally overdense regime for a relatively longer pulse duration, leading to maximum laser absorption accompanied by maximum removal of electrons from cluster and also maximum allowed average charge states for the argon cluster. Increasing the laser intensity, the absorption maxima is found to shift to a higher wavelength in the band of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM than permanently staying at the expected λM. A naive rigid sphere model also corroborates the wavelength shift of the absorption peak as found in MD and unequivocally proves that maximum laser absorption in a cluster happens at a shifted λ in the marginally overdense regime of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM instead of λM of LR. The present study is important for guiding an optimal condition laser-cluster interaction experiment in the short-pulse regime.

  20. Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Books, Candie; Coody, Leon C; Kauffman, Ryan; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue-related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.

  1. Passing the Baton: An Experimental Study of Shift Handover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Bonny; Hobbs, Alan; Kanki, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Shift handovers occur in many safety-critical environments, including aviation maintenance, medicine, air traffic control, and mission control for space shuttle and space station operations. Shift handovers are associated with increased risk of communication failures and human error. In dynamic industries, errors and accidents occur disproportionately after shift handover. Typical shift handovers involve transferring information from an outgoing shift to an incoming shift via written logs, or in some cases, face-to-face briefings. The current study explores the possibility of improving written communication with the support modalities of audio and video recordings, as well as face-to-face briefings. Fifty participants participated in an experimental task which mimicked some of the critical challenges involved in transferring information between shifts in industrial settings. All three support modalities, face-to-face, video, and audio recordings, reduced task errors significantly over written communication alone. The support modality most preferred by participants was face-to-face communication; the least preferred was written communication alone.

  2. Blue and red shifted temperature dependence of implicit phonon shifts in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Jindal, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated the implicit shift for various modes of frequency in a pure graphene sheet. Thermal expansion and Grüneisen parameter which are required for implicit shift calculation have already been studied and reported. For this calculation, phonon frequencies are obtained using force constants derived from dynamical matrix calculated using VASP code where the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is used in interface with phonopy software. The implicit phonon shift shows an unusual behavior as compared to the bulk materials. The frequency shift is large negative (red shift) for ZA and ZO modes and the value of negative shift increases with increase in temperature. On the other hand, blue shift arises for all other longitudinal and transverse modes with a similar trend of increase with increase in temperature. The q dependence of phonon shifts has also been studied. Such simultaneous red and blue shifts in transverse or out plane modes and surface modes, respectively leads to speculation of surface softening in out of plane direction in preference to surface melting.

  3. Long work hours and adiposity among police officers in a US northeast city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ja K; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Sarkisian, Khachatur; Andrew, Michael E; Ma, Claudia; Violanti, John M

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the associations between long work hours and adiposity measures in police officers. Participants included 408 officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study who were examined between 2004 and 2009. Total work hours were abstracted from payroll records and questionnaires. Analysis of variance and covariance models were used. Among male officers who worked the midnight shift, mean values of waist circumference and body mass index increased with longer work hours after adjustment for age, physical activity, energy intake, sleep duration, smoking status, police rank, activities after work (eg, child/family care, sports), and household income. Adiposity measures were not associated with work hours among women on any shift. Working longer hours was significantly associated with larger waist circumferences and higher body mass index among male police officers working the midnight shift.

  4. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  5. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  6. Shift in genomic RNA patterns of human rotaviruses isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotalvirus-positive specimens from 322 infants and young children submitted to private patl1ology laboratories were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the viral RNA. A predominance of long RNA profiles occurred and a temporal shift in the genomic patterns was identified. An epidemic of the classic shorter ...

  7. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  8. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  9. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2018-03-01

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  10. Revisiting the 'paradigm shift' in opioid use: Developments and implications 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-03-23

    A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care. At the same time, heroin use has been increasing again, now commonly tied into interdependent opioid use trajectories, initiated with POs yet shifting to heroin as influenced by economic or availability factors. For policy, there are now two major and urgent-yet partly conflicting-tasks: one is to reduce the determinants of PO misuse and harms by reducing medical prescribing to levels supported by good evidence, while the other is to effectively protect those many active problematic PO users from acute harms (including overdose mortality) by providing effective treatment and survival aids (e.g. naloxone). Surprisingly, it appears that a major 'homemade' and medical system-induced drug crisis has been at least as challenging for North American policy systems to address as other, more conventional illicit drug problems. Lessons for policy hence need to be urgently identified and applied for the future. [Fischer B, Rehm J. Revisiting the 'paradigm shift' in opioid use: Developments and implications 10 years later. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  12. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  13. Effects of Napping During Shift Work on Sleepiness and Performance in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Similar Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Barger, Laura K; Moore, Charity G; Higgins, J Stephen; Teasley, Ellen M; Weiss, Patricia M; Condle, Joseph P; Flickinger, Katharyn L; Coppler, Patrick J; Sequeira, Denisse J; Divecha, Ayushi A; Matthews, Margaret E; Lang, Eddy S; Patterson, P Daniel

    2018-02-15

    Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups. A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety. Secondary (important) outcomes were patient safety; personnel performance; acute states of fatigue, alertness, and sleepiness; indicators of sleep duration and/or quality; employee retention/turnover; indicators of long-term health; and cost to the system. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of napping on a measure of personnel performance (the psychomotor vigilance test [PVT]) and measures of acute fatigue. Of 4,660 unique records identified, 13 experimental studies were determined relevant and summarized. The effect of napping on reaction time measured at the end of shift was small and non-significant (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.36; p = 0.34). Napping during work did not change reaction time from the beginning to the end of the shift (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -25.0 to 0.24; p = 0.96). Naps had a moderate, significant effect on sleepiness measured at the end of shift (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). The difference in sleepiness from the start to the end of shift was moderate and statistically significant (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). Reviewed literature indicated that scheduled naps at work improved performance and decreased fatigue in shift workers. Further research is required to identify the optimal timing and duration of scheduled naps to maximize the beneficial outcomes.

  14. Yearly, seasonal and monthly daily average diffuse sky radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.S.; Mujahid, A.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    A daily average diffuse sky radiation regression model based on daily global radiation was developed utilizing two year data taken near Blytheville, Arkansas (Lat. =35.9 0 N, Long. = 89.9 0 W), U.S.A. The model has a determination coefficient of 0.91 and 0.092 standard error of estimate. The data were also analyzed for a seasonal dependence and four seasonal average daily models were developed for the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. The coefficient of determination is 0.93, 0.81, 0.94 and 0.93, whereas the standard error of estimate is 0.08, 0.102, 0.042 and 0.075 for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. A monthly average daily diffuse sky radiation model was also developed. The coefficient of determination is 0.92 and the standard error of estimate is 0.083. A seasonal monthly average model was also developed which has 0.91 coefficient of determination and 0.085 standard error of estimate. The developed monthly daily average and daily models compare well with a selected number of previously developed models. (author). 11 ref., figs., tabs

  15. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  16. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States); Seaman, John [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  17. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  18. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  20. Coping with shift work-related circadian disruption: A mixed-methods case study on napping and caffeine use in Australian nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie; Banks, Siobhan; Colella, Antonietta; Dingle, Caroline; Devine, Lisa; Galindo, Helen; Pantelios, Sophie; Brkic, Gorjana; Dorrian, Jillian

    2018-05-15

    Two of the most ubiquitous fatigue countermeasures used by shift-working nurses are napping and caffeine. This mixed-methods case study investigated the ways nurses and midwives utilised napping and caffeine countermeasures to cope with shift work, and associated sleep, physical health and psychological health outcomes. N = 130 Australian shift-working nurses and midwives (mean age = 44 years, range = 21-67, 115F, 15M) completed the Standard Shiftwork Index. A sub-set of 22 nurses and midwives completed an in-depth interview. Nearly 70% of participants reported napping. Those who napped during night shifts had significantly less total sleep time before (F 2,75  = 5.5, p 400 mg/day) increased from 15% to 33% of the sample and an average of 4 (SD = 2) caffeinated beverages per day was reported. Increased caffeine consumption was associated with greater sleep disturbance (r = 0.26, p napping on night shift was dependent on a number of factors including ability to sleep during the day. This study identified reasons shift workers chose to engage in or abstain from napping and consuming caffeine, and how these strategies related to poor sleep and health outcomes. Further research is required to help develop recommendations for shift workers regarding napping and caffeine consumption as fatigue countermeasures, whilst taking into account the associated hazards of each strategy.

  1. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  2. Long-Term Precipitation Isotope Ratios (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) in the Northeast US Reflect Atlantic Ocean Warming and Shifts in Moisture Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntsag, T.; Welker, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Klein, E. S.; Campbell, J. L.; Likens, G.

    2014-12-01

    The global water cycle is exhibiting dramatic changes as global temperatures increase resulting in increases in: drought extremes, flooding, alterations in storm track patterns with protracted winter storms, and greater precipitation variability. The mechanisms driving these changes can be difficult to assess, but the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) provide a means to help understand these water cycle changes. However, extended temporal records of isotope ratios in precipitation are infrequent, especially in the US. In our study we analyzed precipitation isotope ratio data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire that has the longest US precipitation isotope record, to determine: 1) the monthly composited averages and trends from 1967 to 2012 (45 years); ; 2) the relationships between abiotic properties such as local temperatures, precipitation type, storm tracks and isotope ratio changes; and 3) the influence of regional shifts in moisture sources and/or changes in N Atlantic Ocean water conditions on isotope values. The seasonal variability of Hubbard Brook precipitation isotope ratios is consistent with other studies, as average δ18O values are ~ -15‰ in January and ~ -5 ‰ in July. However, over the 45 year record there is a depletion trend in the δ 18O values (becoming isotopically lighter with a greater proportion of 16O), which coupled with less change in δ 2H leads to increases in d-excess values from ~ -10‰ around 1970 to greater than 10‰ in 2009. These changes occurred during a period of warming as opposed to cooling local temperatures indicating other processes besides temperature are controlling long-term water isotope traits in this region. We have evidence that these changes in precipitation isotope traits are controlled in large part by an increases in moisture being sourced from a warming N Atlantic Ocean that is providing evaporated, isotopically

  3. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  5. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  6. Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

    2013-09-01

    Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

  7. The androgen receptor malignancy shift in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Ben T; Pal, Sumanta K; Bolton, Eric C; Jones, Jeremy O

    2018-05-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) are necessary for the development, function, and homeostatic growth regulation of the prostate gland. However, once prostate cells are transformed, the AR is necessary for the proliferation and survival of the malignant cells. This change in AR function appears to occur in nearly every prostate cancer. We have termed this the AR malignancy shift. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the AR malignancy shift, including the DNA-binding patterns that define the shift, the transcriptome changes associated with the shift, the putative drivers of the shift, and its clinical implications. In benign prostate epithelial cells, the AR primarily binds consensus AR binding sites. In carcinoma cells, the AR cistrome is dramatically altered, as the AR associates with FOXA1 and HOXB13 motifs, among others. This shift leads to the transcription of genes associated with a malignant phenotype. In model systems, some mutations commonly found in localized prostate cancer can alter the AR cistrome, consistent with the AR malignancy shift. Current evidence suggests that the AR malignancy shift is necessary but not sufficient for transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Reinterpretation of prostate cancer genomic classification systems in light of the AR malignancy shift may improve our ability to predict clinical outcomes and treat patients appropriately. Identifying and targeting the molecular factors that contribute to the AR malignancy shift is not trivial but by doing so, we may be able to develop new strategies for the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reducing hours of work of preregistration house officers: report on a shift system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasmyth, D G; Pickersgill, A; Hogarth, M

    1991-01-12

    To determine the advantages and disadvantages of a shift system of working compared with the conventional on call system for preregistration house officers. A shift system of working was employed in the unit from 1 August 1989 to 31 July 1990. During attachments of three or six months four house officers rotated at intervals of one month among three daytime shifts and one night shift (Mondays to Fridays only). Weekends (48 hours) were worked on a one in three rota by the doctors working a day shift. The views of the house officers working this shift system were sought in writing and by direct interview. Professorial surgical unit, Royal Liverpool Hospital. The 14 house officers who were attached to the unit for three or six months during their preregistration year. The shift system was preferred to conventional on call without exception. The incidence of chronic tiredness was reduced and formal hand-over between shifts resulted in more informed decision making by doctors while on call. During annual leave it was sometimes necessary to revert to the conventional one in three on call system to ensure that daytime work was completed. Other disadvantages were the long weekend shift and an inequitable distribution of the night shift. The house officers recommended extending the shifts to weekends and working the night shift one week in four. A shift system of working was effective in reducing chronic tiredness among house officers, who found it preferable to conventional on call arrangements. Shift working is feasible only if the daytime duties of the doctor working at night can be completed by the other doctors on the rota.

  9. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yongjun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga + clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga + states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga 2+ ion. (paper)

  10. Limitations of a convolution method for modeling geometric uncertainties in radiation therapy. I. The effect of shift invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Tim; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2003-01-01

    Convolution methods have been used to model the effect of geometric uncertainties on dose delivery in radiation therapy. Convolution assumes shift invariance of the dose distribution. Internal inhomogeneities and surface curvature lead to violations of this assumption. The magnitude of the error resulting from violation of shift invariance is not well documented. This issue is addressed by comparing dose distributions calculated using the Convolution method with dose distributions obtained by Direct Simulation. A comparison of conventional Static dose distributions was also made with Direct Simulation. This analysis was performed for phantom geometries and several clinical tumor sites. A modification to the Convolution method to correct for some of the inherent errors is proposed and tested using example phantoms and patients. We refer to this modified method as the Corrected Convolution. The average maximum dose error in the calculated volume (averaged over different beam arrangements in the various phantom examples) was 21% with the Static dose calculation, 9% with Convolution, and reduced to 5% with the Corrected Convolution. The average maximum dose error in the calculated volume (averaged over four clinical examples) was 9% for the Static method, 13% for Convolution, and 3% for Corrected Convolution. While Convolution can provide a superior estimate of the dose delivered when geometric uncertainties are present, the violation of shift invariance can result in substantial errors near the surface of the patient. The proposed Corrected Convolution modification reduces errors near the surface to 3% or less

  11. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  12. Optical isotype shifts of 146Sm and 151Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; England, J.G.; Grant, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the optical isotope shifts of 146 Sm and 151 Sm by laser resonance fluorescence. From these measurements the changes in the mean square nuclear radii are: delta 2 > (A=144 to 146)=0.266(10) fm 2 , and delta 2 > (A=151 to 152)=0.262(10) fm 2 . These results, together with those of the stable isotopes, show that the average nuclear expansion of samarium can be accounted for by the liquid drop model with deformations. (orig.)

  13. Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24 h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor = 50.26 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude = 45.24 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13 h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle.

  14. Hydrological regulation drives regime shifts: evidence from paleolimnology and ecosystem modeling of a large shallow Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Janssen, Annette B G; Kuiper, Jan J; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Qin, Ning; Jiang, Yujiao; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Chen; Bai, Zelin; Zhang, Min; Kong, Fanxiang; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative evidence of sudden shifts in ecological structure and function in large shallow lakes is rare, even though they provide essential benefits to society. Such 'regime shifts' can be driven by human activities which degrade ecological stability including water level control (WLC) and nutrient loading. Interactions between WLC and nutrient loading on the long-term dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems are, however, often overlooked and largely underestimated, which has hampered the effectiveness of lake management. Here, we focus on a large shallow lake (Lake Chaohu) located in one of the most densely populated areas in China, the lower Yangtze River floodplain, which has undergone both WLC and increasing nutrient loading over the last several decades. We applied a novel methodology that combines consistent evidence from both paleolimnological records and ecosystem modeling to overcome the hurdle of data insufficiency and to unravel the drivers and underlying mechanisms in ecosystem dynamics. We identified the occurrence of two regime shifts: one in 1963, characterized by the abrupt disappearance of submerged vegetation, and another around 1980, with strong algal blooms being observed thereafter. Using model scenarios, we further disentangled the roles of WLC and nutrient loading, showing that the 1963 shift was predominantly triggered by WLC, whereas the shift ca. 1980 was attributed to aggravated nutrient loading. Our analysis also shows interactions between these two stressors. Compared to the dynamics driven by nutrient loading alone, WLC reduced the critical P loading and resulted in earlier disappearance of submerged vegetation and emergence of algal blooms by approximately 26 and 10 years, respectively. Overall, our study reveals the significant role of hydrological regulation in driving shallow lake ecosystem dynamics, and it highlights the urgency of using multi-objective management criteria that includes ecological sustainability perspectives when

  15. Characterization of the conformational equilibrium between the two major substates of RNase A using NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilloni, Carlo; Robustelli, Paul; De Simone, Alfonso; Cavalli, Andrea; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-03-07

    Following the recognition that NMR chemical shifts can be used for protein structure determination, rapid advances have recently been made in methods for extending this strategy for proteins and protein complexes of increasing size and complexity. A remaining major challenge is to develop approaches to exploit the information contained in the chemical shifts about conformational fluctuations in native states of proteins. In this work we show that it is possible to determine an ensemble of conformations representing the free energy surface of RNase A using chemical shifts as replica-averaged restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of this surface indicates that chemical shifts can be used to characterize the conformational equilibrium between the two major substates of this protein. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Comparison of menstrual disorders in hospital nursing staff according to shift work pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Sabater, Josep Amílcar; Martínez, José Miguel; Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E; Ronda-Perez, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To assess the association between work in a rotating shift schedule and menstruation characteristics among nurse staff in a prospective study. Rotating shifts have been linked to alterations in the reproductive cycle. In the case of menstrual alterations, the conclusions are not clear. Prospective epidemiological study with follow-up over four months. All the female nurse staff (shifts and characteristics of their menstruation (duration, amount of blood, dysmenorrhoea). They had two types of shifts: (1) Rotating shift schedule (two mornings, two afternoons, one night and two days off) including morning shifts (8:00-15:00), afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-8:00), and (2) Day shift schedule including morning shifts (8:00-15:00) and/or afternoon/evening shifts (15:00-22:00). The crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic generalised estimating equations (GEE) taking into account the correlations of multiple cycles per worker. One hundred and thirteen workers on the rotating shift and 75 on the day shift participated, and information from 730 menstrual cycles were obtained. There were no differences in prolonged duration, dysmenorrhoea, prolonged duration dysmenorrhoea and excessive bleeding among nurses on rotating shift compared to those on the day shift. For prolonged duration of menstruation, workers with more than five years on the rotating shift showed a slightly lower (nonsignificant) risk compared with those with shift did not show increased risk of having menstrual disorders comparing with day staff. Shifts with short rotation cycles and a progressive sequence do not appear to cause menstrual disorders in nurse staff who work rotating shifts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic polymorphism and average life expectancy of exposed individuals and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, V.I.; Sotnik, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    A population-genetic analysis of the average life expectancy (ALE) was performed for nuclear workers at the Mayak Production Association exposed to external and internal radiation over a wide dose range and their off spring. A methodical approach was proposed to determine ALE for individuals with different genotypes and estimate ALE in the population based on genotype distribution. The analysis has revealed significant shifts in the Hp type distribution of genetic markers in the nuclear workers off spring, especially an increased proportion of Hp 2-2 at parents external g-irradiation doses over 2Gy by the conception time

  18. Dynamical damping terms for symmetry-seeking shift conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alic, Daniela; Rezzolla, Luciano; Hinder, Ian; Moesta, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Suitable gauge conditions are fundamental for stable and accurate numerical-relativity simulations of inspiralling compact binaries. A number of well-studied conditions have been developed over the last decade for both the lapse and the shift and these have been successfully used both in vacuum and non-vacuum spacetimes when simulating binaries with comparable masses. At the same time, recent evidence has emerged that the standard 'Gamma-driver' shift condition requires a careful and non-trivial tuning of its parameters to ensure long-term stable evolutions of unequal-mass binaries. We present a novel gauge condition in which the damping constant is promoted to be a dynamical variable and the solution of an evolution equation. We show that this choice removes the need for special tuning and provides a shift damping term which is free of instabilities in our simulations and dynamically adapts to the individual positions and masses of the binary black-hole system. Our gauge condition also reduces the variations in the coordinate size of the apparent horizon of the larger black hole and could therefore be useful when simulating binaries with very small mass ratios.

  19. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Improvement of the chromatic dispersion tolerance in coherent optical OFDM systems using shifted DFT windows for ultra-long-haul optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minkyu; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-09-22

    In a high-capacity ultra-long-haul optical coherent orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, the dispersion tolerance is determined by the length of cyclic extension (CE). In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to substantially improve the dispersion tolerance of CO-OFDM systems without increasing the CE length. Multiple time-shifted discrete Fourier transform (DFT) windows are exploited at the receiver, each demodulating only a part of the subcarriers. Effectively, the proposed scheme reduces the bandwidth of the OFDM signals under demodulation. Numerical simulations are performed to show the improved dispersion tolerance of the proposed scheme in comparison with the conventional CO-OFDM system. We show that the dispersion tolerance improves by a factor equal to the number of DFT windows. The tradeoff between the improved dispersion tolerance and increased receiver complexity is also presented.

  1. Some implications of batch average burnup calculations on predicted spent fuel compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of using batch-averaged burnups to determine spent fuel characteristics (such as isotopic composition, activity, etc.) was examined for a typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel discharge batch by comparing characteristics computed by (a) performing a single depletion calculation using the average burnup of the spent fuel and (b) performing separate depletion calculations based on the relative amounts of spent fuel in each of twelve burnup ranges and summing the results. The computations were done using ORIGEN 2. Procedure (b) showed a significant shift toward a greater quantity of the heavier transuranics, which derive from multiple neutron captures, and a corresponding decrease in the amounts of lower transuranics. Those characteristics which derive primarily from fission products, such as total radioactivity and total thermal power, are essentially identical for the two procedures. Those characteristics that derive primarily from the heavier transuranics, such as spontaneous fission neutrons, are underestimated by procedure (a)

  2. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we present three challenges for residential shifting: getting users to understand the concept of shifting...

  3. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  4. Lamb-shift measurement in hydrogenic phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pross, H.; Budelsky, D.; Kremer, L.; Platte, D.; von Brentano, P.; Gassen, J.; Mueller, D.; Scheuer, F.; Pape, A.; Sens, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The final result of a 2s 2 S 1/2-- 2p 2 P 1/2 Lamb-shift measurement by the laser resonance method in hydrogenic phosphorus is reported. Metastable 2s 2 S 1/2 ions were prepared using a β∼0.08 velocity beam of 31 P 14+ ions obtained from the MP tandem accelerator at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires in Strasbourg. From the metastable state the transition to the 2p 2 P 3/2 state was induced with a high-power dye laser leading to a measured transition energy of ΔE=2.231 33(12) eV. Subtracting the well-known fine-structure splitting ΔE FS =2.314 82(2) eV, the Lamb shift is deduced to be E expt (LS)=20 188(29) GHz. This result is compared with the theoretical value E theor (LS)=20 254(10) GHz and with other experimental results for the Lamb shift in the region Z≤18. Finally, the utility of the Lamb-shift measurements in testing the G(Zα) function of the self-energy, which includes only terms in (Zα) n , n≥6, is discussed

  5. Actigraph measures of sleep among female hospital employees working day or alternating day and night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsiak, Jill; Tranmer, Joan; Leung, Michael; Borghese, Michael M; Aronson, Kristan J

    2017-07-14

    Sleep disturbance is common among shift workers, and may be an important factor in the effect of shift work on chronic disease development. In this cross-sectional study, we described sleep patterns of 294 female hospital workers (142 alternating day-night shift workers, 152 day workers) and determined associations between shift work and sleep duration. Rest-activity cycles were recorded with the ActiGraph GT3X+ for 1 week. Analyses were stratified by chronotype of shift workers. Using all study days to calculate average sleep duration, shift workers slept approximately 13 min less than day workers during main sleep periods, while 24-h sleep duration did not differ between day workers and shift workers. Results from age-adjusted models demonstrated that all shift workers, regardless of chronotype, slept 20-30 min less than day workers on day shifts during main and total sleep. Early and intermediate chronotypes working night shifts slept between 114 and 125 min less than day workers, both with regard to the main sleep episode and 24-h sleep duration, while the difference was less pronounced among late chronotypes. When sleep duration on free days was compared between shift workers and day workers, only shift workers with late chronotypes slept less, by approximately 50 min, than day workers during main sleep. Results from this study demonstrate how an alternating day-night shift work schedule impacts sleep negatively among female hospital workers, and the importance of considering chronotype in sleep research among shift workers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Averaging models: parameters estimation with the R-Average procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noventa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982, can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto & Vicentini, 2007 can be used to estimate the parameters of these models. By the use of multiple information criteria in the model selection procedure, R-Average allows for the identification of the best subset of parameters that account for the data. After a review of the general method, we present an implementation of the procedure in the framework of R-project, followed by some experiments using a Monte Carlo method.

  7. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liira, Juha; Verbeek, Jos H; Costa, Giovanni; Driscoll, Tim R; Sallinen, Mikael; Isotalo, Leena K; Ruotsalainen, Jani H

    2014-08-12

    Shift work results in sleep-wake disturbances, which cause sleepiness during night shifts and reduce sleep length and quality in daytime sleep after the night shift. In its serious form it is also called shift work sleep disorder. Various pharmacological products are used to ameliorate symptoms of sleepiness or poor sleep length and quality. To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions to reduce sleepiness or to improve alertness at work and decrease sleep disturbances whilst off work, or both, in workers undertaking shift work in their present job and to assess their cost-effectiveness. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO up to 20 September 2013 and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 2013. We also screened reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews. We included all eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cross-over RCTs, of pharmacological products among workers who were engaged in shift work (including night shifts) in their present jobs and who may or may not have had sleep problems. Primary outcomes were sleep length and sleep quality while off work, alertness and sleepiness, or fatigue at work. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included trials. We performed meta-analyses where appropriate. We included 15 randomised placebo-controlled trials with 718 participants. Nine trials evaluated the effect of melatonin and two the effect of hypnotics for improving sleep problems. One trial assessed the effect of modafinil, two of armodafinil and one examined caffeine plus naps to decrease sleepiness or to increase alertness.Melatonin (1 to 10 mg) after the night shift may increase sleep length during daytime sleep (mean difference (MD) 24 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8 to 38.9; seven trials, 263 participants, low quality evidence) and night-time sleep (MD 17 minutes, 95% CI 3.71 to 30.22; three trials, 234 participants, low quality evidence) compared

  8. Shift work disorder, depression, and anxiety in the transition to rotating shifts: the role of sleep reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Cheng, Philip; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate premorbid sleep reactivity as a vulnerability to incident shift work disorder (SWD), and related changes in depression as well as anxiety following a transition to a rotating shifts work schedule. This is a longitudinal study with two waves of data collection. The community-based sample included normal sleeping non-shift workers (N = 96; 62.5% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 years) without a lifetime history of insomnia or baseline excessive daytime sleepiness who transitioned to rotating shift work one year later. Participants reported demographic characteristics, trait sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test, depression symptoms on the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology, and anxiety symptoms on the Beck Anxiety Inventory. SWD was determined based on significant sleep disturbance and/or excessive sleepiness in the context of working in a rotating-shift schedule. Analyses revealed that the odds were over five times greater for highly sleep-reactive individuals to develop SWD after transitioning to rotating shifts (OR = 5.59, p = 0.04). Nearly 90% of participants who suffered from SWD were accurately identified as high risk at one year before disease onset. Furthermore, individuals who developed SWD reported greater increases in symptoms of depression and anxiety. Finally, analyses revealed significant indirect effects wherein high sleep reactivity increased risk for SWD, which led to greater severity of anxiety and depression symptoms. The Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) accurately identifies a focused target population in which the premorbid psychobiological processes complicit in SWD onset and progression, as well as shift work-related depression and anxiety changes, can be better investigated, thus improving future preventative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  10. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  11. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  12. On the relation between activity-related frequency shifts and the sunspot distribution over the solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ângela R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity-related variations in the solar acoustic frequencies have been known for 30 years. However, the importance of the different contributions is still not well established. With this in mind, we developed an empirical model to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts, which takes into account the sunspot properties, such as area and latitude. The comparison between the model frequency shifts obtained from the daily sunspot records and those observed suggests that the contribution from a stochastic component to the total frequency shifts is about 30%. The remaining 70% is related to a global, long-term variation. We also propose a new observable to investigate the short-and mid-term variations of the frequency shifts, which is insensitive to the long-term variations contained in the data. On the shortest time scales the variations in the frequency shifts are strongly correlated with the variations in the total area covered by sunspots. However, a significant loss of correlation is still found, which cannot be fully explained by ignoring the invisible side of the Sun when accounting for the total sunspot area. We also verify that the times when the frequency shifts and the sunspot areas do not vary in a similar way tend to coincide with the times of the maximum amplitude of the quasi-biennial variations found in the seismic data.

  13. Fitting a function to time-dependent ensemble averaged data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelmark, Karl; Lomholt, Michael A.; Irbäck, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Time-dependent ensemble averages, i.e., trajectory-based averages of some observable, are of importance in many fields of science. A crucial objective when interpreting such data is to fit these averages (for instance, squared displacements) with a function and extract parameters (such as diffusion...... method, weighted least squares including correlation in error estimation (WLS-ICE), to particle tracking data. The WLS-ICE method is applicable to arbitrary fit functions, and we provide a publically available WLS-ICE software....

  14. Set shifting in anorexia nervosa: an examination before and after weight gain, in full recovery and relationship to childhood and adult OCPD traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, K; Morris, R G; Anderluh, M Brecelj; Collier, D A; Nikolaou, V; Treasure, J

    2004-01-01

    Deficits in set shifting tasks are present in anorexia nervosa (AN), but it is not known whether these deficits are traits independent of current disease or nutritional status or merely a temporary consequence of starvation or psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to determine if set-shifting sub-optimal performance are state or trait-related by examining set shifting in patients with current or past AN, and the extent of association of these deficits with obsessive compulsive traits and behaviours. To achieve this we examined set shifting abilities in three groups of subjects: (a) AN patients with current illness, prior to receiving treatment (AN); (b) people with past AN currently in long term recovery (ANRec) and a healthy comparison group (HC). We also longitudinally followed up a subset for the AN group who showed weight recovery in response to in patient treatment (ANWR). We administered a group of set shifting tests, which included cognitive, perceptual and motor shifting tasks. A semi-structured interview was obtained to ascertain obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits as a child and adult. Set-shifting difficulties were observed in the AN group, but to a lesser extent in the ANRec group. In the AN group these difficulties did not show any improvement follow re-testing after weight recovery. Performance on set shifting tasks was associated with childhood rigidity and inflexibility. Some aspects of set shifting sub-optimal performance in AN appear to be a trait rather than a state marker.

  15. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemecka, Joanna; Bojar, Iwona; Strzemecka, Ewa; Owoc, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland) software. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0%) Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%). The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%), three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%). Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%). Among those, nearly half (68.2%) stated that shift - work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0%) admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one) at specified times of the day.

  16. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Share, G.H.; Kinzer, R.L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system. 19 refs

  17. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  18. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2012-03-09

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  19. The impact of chronotype on melatonin levels among shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott

    2014-03-01

    The association between shift work and cancer, which is thought to be mediated by effects on circulating melatonin levels, may be modified by chronotype (ie, the inherent preference for activity in the morning or the evening); however, few studies have examined the potential impact of chronotype on the carcinogenic effects of shift work. The authors analysed the impact of chronotype on previously reported differences in melatonin levels among healthcare workers that exclusively worked night or day shifts. The cross-sectional study included 664 men and women (310 day shift and 354 night shift workers) from which urine samples were collected throughout work and sleep periods and were assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Participants also completed the Composite Scale of Morningness, a questionnaire used to assess chronotype. Among both morning and evening-type night shift workers, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were constitutively lower during daytime sleep, night-time sleep and night work compared with day shift workers during night-time sleep. However, morning-type night shift workers consistently showed 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels that were closer to levels in day shift workers than did evening-type night shift workers. Differences in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels between morning-type and evening-type night shift workers relative to day shift workers were statistically significant in every instance (pnight shift workers may be better able to maintain a 'normal' circadian pattern of melatonin production as compared with evening-type night shift workers. The impact of this chronotype effect on cancer risk among shift workers requires further study.

  20. Shift of the superconducting critical parameters due to correlated disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitterman, M.; Shapiro, I.; Shapiro, B.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Shift of the critical temperature and second critical magnetic field are calculated for a superconductor with Gaussian correlated disorder. All calculations have been performed in the framework of the stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation. For uncorrelated disorder the macroscopic critical temperature is determined by the average of the local critical temperature across the sample, while for correlated disorder both the critical temperature and the upper critical magnetic field depend on disorder correlation length. In a nonuniform superconductor with randomly distributed local critical temperature both the macroscopic critical temperature and the upper critical magnetic field strongly depend on the characteristic correlation length ρ 0 of correlated disorder. The shift of the macroscopic critical parameters from those for non-correlated disorder, which does not exist for white noise, is obtained for small ρ 0 in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  1. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  2. Delineation of facial archetypes by 3d averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaweesh, Ashraf I; Thomas, C David L; Bankier, Agnes; Clement, John G

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of creating archetypal 3D faces through computerized 3D facial averaging. A 3D surface scanner Fiore and its software were used to acquire the 3D scans of the faces while 3D Rugle3 and locally-developed software generated the holistic facial averages. 3D facial averages were created from two ethnic groups; European and Japanese and from children with three previous genetic disorders; Williams syndrome, achondroplasia and Sotos syndrome as well as the normal control group. The method included averaging the corresponding depth (z) coordinates of the 3D facial scans. Compared with other face averaging techniques there was not any warping or filling in the spaces by interpolation; however, this facial average lacked colour information. The results showed that as few as 14 faces were sufficient to create an archetypal facial average. In turn this would make it practical to use face averaging as an identification tool in cases where it would be difficult to recruit a larger number of participants. In generating the average, correcting for size differences among faces was shown to adjust the average outlines of the facial features. It is assumed that 3D facial averaging would help in the identification of the ethnic status of persons whose identity may not be known with certainty. In clinical medicine, it would have a great potential for the diagnosis of syndromes with distinctive facial features. The system would also assist in the education of clinicians in the recognition and identification of such syndromes.

  3. Guide to good practices for the selection, training, and qualification of shift technical advisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The DOE Guide to Good Practices For The Selection, Training, and Qualification of Shift Technical Advisors can be used by any DOE nuclear facility that has implemented the shift technical advisor position. DOE Order 5480-20, ``Personnel Selection, Qualification, Training, and Staffing Requirements at DOE Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities,`` states that only Category A reactors must use shift technical advisor position. However, many DOE nuclear facilities have implemented the shift technical advisor position to provide independent on-shift technical advice and counsel to the shift operating personnel to help determine cause and mitigation of facility accidents. Those DOE nuclear facilities that have implemented or are going to implement the shift technical advisor position will find this guide useful. This guide addresses areas that may be covered by other training programs. In these cases, it is unnecessary (and undesirable) to duplicate these areas in the STA training program as long as the specific skills and knowledge essential for STAs are addressed. The guide is presented based on the premise that the trainee has not completed any facility-specific training other than general employee training.

  4. What Does Average Really Mean? Making Sense of Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Karen J.; Ayers, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent shift toward greater accountability has put many educational leaders in a position where they are expected to collect and use increasing amounts of data to inform their decision making. Yet, because many programs that prepare administrators, including school business officials, do not require a statistics course or a course that is more…

  5. Oceanographic regime shift during 1997 in Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc Overgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2012-01-01

    conditions, while the deeper water strata were more stable and were primarily influenced by large-scale circulation patterns. There was a marked increase in the average water temperatures at 200-m depth in spring 1997, with the long-term average increasing from 1.30uC to 2.25uC. Weekly data from 1996 to 1997...

  6. Options for including all lands in a future greenhouse gas accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Annette L.; Kirschbaum, Miko U.F.; Ward, Murray

    2007-01-01

    The current framework through which greenhouse gas emissions and removals in the land use sector are accounted under the Kyoto Protocol has several problems. They include a complex structure, onerous monitoring and reporting requirements, and potential for omission of some important fluxes. One solution that may overcome some of these problems is to include all lands and associated processes within a country's jurisdiction, rather than restrict accounting to specific nominated land categories or activities. Ideally, the accounting approach should cover all significant biospheric sources and sinks, avoid biased or unbalanced accounting, avoid leakage and require no arbitrary adjustments to remedy unintended consequences. Furthermore, accounting should focus on the direct human-induced component of biospheric emissions/removals so that debits/credits can be allocated equitably and provide appropriate incentives to adopt land-use management options with beneficial outcomes for the atmosphere. This paper focuses on biospheric emissions and removals resulting from carbon stock changes. It considers four alternative accounting options that include all land areas: Gross-Net Accounting, Net-Net Accounting, Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines and the Average Carbon Stocks approach. Each option is described, and assessed with respect to defined criteria for effectiveness. Gross-Net Accounting and Net-Net Accounting do not adequately distinguish the anthropogenic component of carbon-stock changes from indirect and natural effects, so large undeserved credits or debits could be created. Under Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines, countries' projected emissions and removals during the commitment period would be taken into account in the negotiation of emissions targets. In the commitment period, countries would then gain credits/debits for biospheric removals/emissions. Difficulties with this approach would lie in reaching agreed baselines for emissions and removals

  7. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts, w...

  8. Research on Gear Shifting Process without Disengaging Clutch for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with AMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Long Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.

  9. Napping during night shift: practices, preferences, and perceptions of critical care and emergency department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Wendy M; McMillan, Diana E; Edwards, Marie P

    2011-04-01

    Nurses working night shifts are at risk for sleep deprivation, which threatens patient and nurse safety. Little nursing research has addressed napping, an effective strategy to improve performance, reduce fatigue, and increase vigilance. To explore nurses' perceptions, experiences, barriers, and safety issues related to napping/not napping during night shift. A convenience sample of critical care nurses working night shift were interviewed to explore demographics, work schedule and environment, and napping/ not napping experiences, perceptions, and barriers. Transcripts were constantly compared, and categories and themes were identified. Participants were 13 critical care nurses with an average of 17 years' experience. Ten nurses napped regularly; 2 avoided napping because of sleep inertia. The need for and benefits of napping or not during night shift break were linked to patient and nurse safety. Ability to nap was affected by the demands of patient care and safety, staffing needs, and organizational and environmental factors. Nurses identified personal health, safety, and patient care issues supporting the need for a restorative nap during night shift. Barriers to napping exist within the organization/work environment.

  10. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  11. Directionality of recent bird distribution shifts and climate change in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Simon; Balmer, Dawn E; Fuller, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    There is good evidence that species' distributions are shifting poleward in response to climate change and wide interest in the magnitude of such responses for scientific and conservation purposes. It has been suggested from the directions of climatic changes that species' distribution shifts may not be simply poleward, but this has been rarely tested with observed data. Here, we apply a novel approach to measuring range shifts on axes ranging through 360°, to recent data on the distributions of 122 species of British breeding birds during 1988-1991 and 2008-2011. Although previously documented poleward range shifts have continued, with an average 13.5 km shift northward, our analysis indicates this is an underestimate because it ignores common and larger shifts that occurred along axes oriented to the north-west and north-east. Trailing edges contracted from a broad range of southerly directions. Importantly, these results are derived from systematically collected data so confounding observer-effort biases can be discounted. Analyses of climate for the same period show that whilst temperature trends should drive species along a north-north-westerly trajectory, directional responses to precipitation will depend on both the time of year that is important for determining a species' distribution, and the location of the range margin. Directions of species' range centroid shift were not correlated with spatial trends in any single climate variable. We conclude that range shifts of British birds are multidirectional, individualistic and probably determined by species-specific interactions of multiple climate factors. Climate change is predicted to lead to changes in community composition through variation in the rates that species' ranges shift; our results suggest communities could change further owing to constituent species shifting along different trajectories. We recommend more studies consider directionality in climate and range dynamics to produce more

  12. Survey and comparison of sleep quality among fixed and changing shift staff in a steel factory in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Farugh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Mehdi; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Asadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Given the hazardous nature of the work in steel factories and that the staff has to deal with hazardous equipment and machines, improper sleep quality and drowsiness among the works tackles performance and boosts rate of job accidents. This study is aimed to survey the quality of sleep and sleepiness status and the pertinent factors among the workers in a rolling mill and a steel production company in Tehran, Iran. In a Cross-Sectional study 2011, 180 workers were selected randomly from a rolling mill and a steel production company in Tehran. A questionnaire was designed to collect demographic data and variables of work condition. Pitersborg's sleep quality questionnaire was used to survey quality and problems of Participants' sleep. Epworth Sleepiness questionnaire was used to deals with sleepiness during work, studying, watching TV, or during time spent in public. Average score of sleep quality for the fixed shift staff and changing shift staff were 7.5±2.82 and 8.49±2.95 respectively. Surveys of sleep quality for the two groups of the participants based on T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups so that the changing shift staff group suffered poorer sleep quality (p=0.03). Comparison of average drowsiness scores between the two groups of participants based on Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference (p>0.005). Chi square test showed a significant difference between severity of drowsiness and type of working shift (p =0.028 and 0.009). Staff in revolving shifts suffers poor sleep quality comparing with staff with fixed working shift. Moreover, type of working shift greatly affects severity of drowsiness as staff at different work shift experienced different level of sleepiness. It is essential to survey sleep disorder of the staff in the industry and pay more emphasis on sleep disorder epidemic in other fields of industry.

  13. Rapid upslope shifts in New Guinean birds illustrate strong distributional responses of tropical montane species to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G.; Class Freeman, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperate-zone species have responded to warming temperatures by shifting their distributions poleward and upslope. Thermal tolerance data suggests that tropical species may respond to warming temperatures even more strongly than temperate-zone species, but this prediction has yet to be tested. We addressed this data gap by conducting resurveys to measure distributional responses to temperature increases in the elevational limits of the avifaunas of two geographically and faunally independent New Guinean mountains, Mt. Karimui and Karkar Island, 47 and 44 y after they were originally surveyed. Although species richness is roughly five times greater on mainland Mt. Karimui than oceanic Karkar Island, distributional shifts at both sites were similar: upslope shifts averaged 113 m (Mt. Karimui) and 152 m (Karkar Island) for upper limits and 95 m (Mt. Karimui) and 123 m (Karkar Island) for lower limits. We incorporated these results into a metaanalysis to compare distributional responses of tropical species with those of temperate-zone species, finding that average upslope shifts in tropical montane species match local temperature increases significantly more closely than in temperate-zone montane species. That tropical species appear to be strong responders has global conservation implications and provides empirical support to hitherto untested models that predict widespread extinctions in upper-elevation tropical endemics with small ranges. PMID:24550460

  14. Shift work and burnout among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetborisut, A; Angkurawaranon, C; Jiraporncharoen, W; Uaphanthasath, R; Wiwatanadate, P

    2014-06-01

    Burnout, defined as a syndrome derived from prolonged exposure to stressors at work, is often seen in health care workers. Shift work is considered one of the occupational risks for burnout in health care workers. To identify and describe the association between shift work and burnout among health care workers. A cross-sectional study of health care workers in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Data were collected via an online self-answered questionnaire and included details of shift work and burnout. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Two thousand seven hundred and seventy two health care workers participated, a 52% response rate. Burnout was found more frequently among shift workers than those who did not work shifts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.9). Among shift workers, over 10 years of being a shift worker was associated with increasing burnout (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) and having 6-8 sleeping hours per day was associated with having less burnout (aOR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9). Nurses who had at least 8 days off per month had lower odds of burnout compared with those with fewer than 8 days off (aOR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8). Shift work was associated with burnout in this sample. Increased years of work as a shift worker were associated with more frequent burnout. Adequate sleeping hours and days off were found to be possible protective factors. Policies on shift work should take into account the potential of such work for contributing towards increasing burnout. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors and primary selection into shift work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Tüchsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between future shift workers and future day workers as regards cardiovascular risk factors before they began different work schedules and the differences that remained after control for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy. METHODS......: In the unadjusted analyses, baseline obesity was associated with fixed evening work at follow-up. Minimal or light-to-moderate leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decrease in the odds ratio (OR) for two or three shifts including night work. Smoking status was associated with fixed evening work......, fixed night work, and two- or three- shift work including night work. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy, smoking was prospectively associated with fixed evening work [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.02] and fixed night work (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1...

  16. Opacity in compact extragalactic radio sources and the core shift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Y Y; Lobanov, A P; Pushkarev, A B; Zensus, J A

    2008-01-01

    The apparent position of the 'core' in a parsec-scale radio jet (a compact, bright emitting region at the narrow end of the jet) depends on the observing frequency, owing to synchrotron self-absorption and external absorption. This dependency both provides a tool to probe physical conditions in the vicinity of the core and poses problems for astrometric studies using compact radio sources. We investigate the frequency-dependent shift of the positions of the cores (core shift) observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in parsec-scale jets. We present results for 29 selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). In these AGN, the magnitude of the measured core shift between 2.3 and 8.6 GHz reaches 1.4 mas, with a median value for the sample of 0.44 mas. We discuss related physics as well as astrometry applications and plans for further studies.

  17. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  18. Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other Absence Behaviour at an Oil Refinery from 1962 to 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of continuous process shift work in modern industry, few studies on the medical aspects of shift work can be found in recent literature of occupational health. Physiologists have shown that the ability of the body to adjust its circadian rhythms to alteration in hours of work or sleep can take up to a month. The usual type of shift work in industry involves weekly changes of hours, and thus on theoretical grounds at least this may not be the most suitable frequency for shift changes. Sickness absence of male refinery workers has been studied over a four-year period. The figures show that continuous three-cycle shift workers have consistently and significantly lower rates of sickness than day workers in similar occupations. The annual inception rate (spells) standardized for age was 108% for shift workers and 182% for day workers, and the average annual duration per man was 11 days for shift workers and 18 days for day workers, although the average length of spell was slightly longer among shift workers. As far as is known, such a difference has not been described before in detail. Age-related lateness and absenteeism have been measured and show similar wide differences between the two groups. Although both types of worker are largely self-selected, the difference is not due to medical selection or to an excess of any one type of disease in day workers. Over three-quarters of 150 shift workers interviewed stated that they preferred shift work hours and that sleeping difficulties were not common. It is suggested that the main reasons for the difference between shift and day workers' sickness absence lie in the degree of personal involvement in the work and in the social structure of the working group. PMID:6023084

  19. Dark refraction shift with allowance for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show that the dark refraction shift (dark focus is a more complicated phenomenon than implied when presented as spherical. Methods: Fifty autorefractor measurements of refractive state of the right eye were obtained in light  and  dark  conditions.  Multivariate  methods were used to analyze the data and stereo-pair scat-ter plots, polar meridional profiles and other means of presenting results are used to show important characteristics of the dark refraction shift. Results: The complexity of the dark refrac-tion shift is indicated by stereo-pair scatter plots showing the amount of stigmatic and antistigmatic variation that occurs in light and dark conditions. The mean dark refraction shift is presented in a complete manner including all three components of refractive state. The greater variance and covari-ance under dark conditions is clearly shown by the term-by-term dark-light variance-covariance ratio and polar profiles  of variance and covariance.Conclusions: The  dark  refraction  shift  is  a more complicated phenomenon than implied by representations as purely spherical in nature.

  20. Shift work and breast cancer among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Thomas, David B; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Camp, Janice E; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Although night-shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,709 incident breast cancer cases and 4,780 non-cases. Data on historical shift work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories, where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night-shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggests that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women.

  1. SHIFT WORK AND BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN TEXTILE WORKERS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Although night shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. METHODS The study included 1709 incident breast cancer cases and 4780 non-cases. Data on historical shift-work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. RESULTS We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work, or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggest that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women. PMID:25421377

  2. Influence of Two Photon Absorption on Soliton Self-Frequency Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    The creation of mid-infrared supercontinua necessitates the use of soft-glass fibers. However, some materials, like chalcogenide, have a substantial two photon absorption. We introduce a model for soliton self-frequency shift that successfully includes this effect.......The creation of mid-infrared supercontinua necessitates the use of soft-glass fibers. However, some materials, like chalcogenide, have a substantial two photon absorption. We introduce a model for soliton self-frequency shift that successfully includes this effect....

  3. Modified parity space averaging approaches for online cross-calibration of redundant sensors in nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moath Kassim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To maintain safety and reliability of reactors, redundant sensors are usually used to measure critical variables and estimate their averaged time-dependency. Nonhealthy sensors can badly influence the estimation result of the process variable. Since online condition monitoring was introduced, the online cross-calibration method has been widely used to detect any anomaly of sensor readings among the redundant group. The cross-calibration method has four main averaging techniques: simple averaging, band averaging, weighted averaging, and parity space averaging (PSA. PSA is used to weigh redundant signals based on their error bounds and their band consistency. Using the consistency weighting factor (C, PSA assigns more weight to consistent signals that have shared bands, based on how many bands they share, and gives inconsistent signals of very low weight. In this article, three approaches are introduced for improving the PSA technique: the first is to add another consistency factor, so called trend consistency (TC, to include a consideration of the preserving of any characteristic edge that reflects the behavior of equipment/component measured by the process parameter; the second approach proposes replacing the error bound/accuracy based weighting factor (Wa with a weighting factor based on the Euclidean distance (Wd, and the third approach proposes applying Wd,TC,andC, all together. Cold neutron source data sets of four redundant hydrogen pressure transmitters from a research reactor were used to perform the validation and verification. Results showed that the second and third modified approaches lead to reasonable improvement of the PSA technique. All approaches implemented in this study were similar in that they have the capability to (1 identify and isolate a drifted sensor that should undergo calibration, (2 identify a faulty sensor/s due to long and continuous missing data range, and (3 identify a healthy sensor. Keywords: Nuclear Reactors

  4. Optimal bounds and extremal trajectories for time averages in nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobasco, Ian; Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles R.

    2018-02-01

    For any quantity of interest in a system governed by ordinary differential equations, it is natural to seek the largest (or smallest) long-time average among solution trajectories, as well as the extremal trajectories themselves. Upper bounds on time averages can be proved a priori using auxiliary functions, the optimal choice of which is a convex optimization problem. We prove that the problems of finding maximal trajectories and minimal auxiliary functions are strongly dual. Thus, auxiliary functions provide arbitrarily sharp upper bounds on time averages. Moreover, any nearly minimal auxiliary function provides phase space volumes in which all nearly maximal trajectories are guaranteed to lie. For polynomial equations, auxiliary functions can be constructed by semidefinite programming, which we illustrate using the Lorenz system.

  5. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  6. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Strzemecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland software. Results. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0% Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%. The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%, three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%. Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%. Among those, nearly half (68.2% stated that shift – work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0% admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Conclusions. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one at specified times of the day.

  7. Is average daily travel time expenditure constant? In search of explanations for an increase in average travel time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.; Meurs, H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the average time spent travelling by the Dutch population has increased over the past decades. However, different data sources show different levels of increase. This paper explores possible causes for this increase. They include a rise in incomes, which has probably

  8. Neutron resonance averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  9. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  10. Effects of shift operation according to theory and in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Reinartz, G.

    1985-01-01

    The specific conditions applicable during rotating shift work including night work represent an additional qualitative impairment of the performance assumptions relating to maintenance personnel in addition to other work stresses. Factors affecting performance during rotating shift work in nuclear power plant operationhave been investigated as part of a research project. The basic chronobiological data were developed and the features of shift systems being practized and the operating principles of the structure of shift systems have been deduced by means of a literature survey and consulations with power plant operators. The investigation has shown that - with various compromise solutions - industrial medicine and social requirements and also operational objectives are to a large extent mutually compatible when the five or six shift systems which prevail in nuclear power stations are considered. (orig.) [de

  11. Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravveji Ali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating. Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009 in rotating-shift nurses (81.9% than in day-shift nurses (59.2%. Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01 and GI medications (p = 0.002 were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.

  12. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  13. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    OpenAIRE

    Sciare , J.; Oikonomou , K.; Favez , O.; Markaki , Z.; Liakakou , E.; Cachier , H.; Mihalopoulos , N.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Long-term (5-yr) measurements of Black Carbon (BC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these BC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols have shown to poorly contribute (+17% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (babs) measurements performed by an optical m...

  14. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    OpenAIRE

    Sciare, J.; Oikonomou, K.; Favez, O.; Liakakou, E.; Markaki, Z.; Cachier, H.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (babs) measurements performed by an optical m...

  15. Mott scattering as a probe of long range QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Balantekin, A.B.

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the Mott scattering between identical nuclei to assess the existence of long range QCD, e.g., a color Van der Waals interaction, as suggested recently. Among other effects which were not considered before, the tail of the nuclear potential, emission of radiation by Bremsstrahlung, atomic screening, emission of delta-electrons, and the quasi-molecule binding are included in our calculations. We show that the sum of these effects can explain the observed shift in the Mott oscillations in a recent experiment. (orig.)

  16. Association of shift-work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep with cancer incidence and cancer-caused mortality in Dongfeng-tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yansen; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shi; Wang, Suhan; Chen, Zhuowang; Wu, Xiulong; Fu, Wenshan; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2016-12-01

    Few studies investigated the combined effects of night-shift work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep on cancer incidence and mortality. A total of 25,377 participants were included in this study. Information on sleep habits, cancer incidences, and mortalities were collected. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95%CIs). Male subjects experienced ≥20 years of night-shift work, or without daytime napping had an increased risk of cancer, when compared with males who did not have night-shift work or napped for 1-30 min [HR (95%CI) = 1.27 (1.01-1.59) and 2.03 (1.01-4.13), respectively]. Nighttime sleep for ≥10 h was associated with a separate 40% and 59% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.40 (1.04-1.88)] and cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.59 (1.01-2.49)] than sleep for 7-8 h/night. Combined effects of three sleep habits were further identified. Male participants with at least two above risk sleep habits had a 43% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.43 (1.07-2.01)] and a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 2.07 (1.25-3.29)] than those who did not have any above risk sleep habits. However, no significant associations were observed among women. Long night-shift work history, without daytime napping, and long nighttime sleep duration were independently and jointly associated with higher cancer incidence among males. KEY MESSAGES Night-shift work of ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep of ≥10 h were associated with increased cancer incidence. Nighttime sleep ≥10 h was associated with a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality among males. Combined effects of night-shift work ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep ≥10 h on increasing cancer incidence were existed among males.

  17. Prevalence of Skin Tears in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Chart Review of Incidence Reports in 6 Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joyce; Shannon, Mary

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and prevalence of skin tears in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been well established. To ascertain the point prevalence of reported skin tears, a retrospective review of incident reports was performed in 6 LTC facilities in western Pennsylvania from November 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016. Report data, including resident age; gender; mobility limitations; skin tear location, number, and cause (if known); occurrence time (7 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 11 pm, or 11 pm to 7 am nursing shift); and history of previous skin tears, were abstracted. All data were entered into a statistical analysis program and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Period prevalence was used to determine prevalence rate; an independent t test was used to compare the presence of skin tears between genders. Differences between location and cause of skin tears were evaluated using a multinomial test of related proportions. A test of proportions was used to evaluate skin tear occurrence time (nursing shift) differences. The overall point prevalence rate was 9% (N = 1253 residents) ranging from 6 to 28 skin tears per facility. The average age of residents with a skin tear (n = 119) was 83.5 years. The majority (111, 93%) had mobility limitations. Falls accounted for 38 skin tears (31.9%), followed by propelling in a wheelchair (18, 15.1%; X2 =7.14; P = .008). Forearm skin tears (37, 31.1%) occurred significantly more frequently than lower leg skin tears (19, 16%; P = .016). Significantly more skin tears occurred during the 7 am to 3 pm shift (47, 39.5%) and 3 pm to 11 pm shift (49, 41.2%) than during the 11 pm to 7 am shift (23, 19.3%; X2 = 5.78; P skin tears are a significant problem among elderly residents in LTC, especially because the reported rate is likely lower than the actual rate. Research to further elucidate the incidence and prevalence of skin tears and associated risk factors is needed to help develop evidence-based risk assessment, classification systems

  18. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  19. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  20. Shift work in a security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide's explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker's response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work

  1. Tendon surveillance requirements - average tendon force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed Rev. 3 to USNRC Reg. Guide 1.35 discusses the need for comparing, for individual tendons, the measured and predicted lift-off forces. Such a comparison is intended to detect any abnormal tendon force loss which might occur. Recognizing that there are uncertainties in the prediction of tendon losses, proposed Guide 1.35.1 has allowed specific tolerances on the fundamental losses. Thus, the lift-off force acceptance criteria for individual tendons appearing in Reg. Guide 1.35, Proposed Rev. 3, is stated relative to a lower bound predicted tendon force, which is obtained using the 'plus' tolerances on the fundamental losses. There is an additional acceptance criterion for the lift-off forces which is not specifically addressed in these two Reg. Guides; however, it is included in a proposed Subsection IWX to ASME Code Section XI. This criterion is based on the overriding requirement that the magnitude of prestress in the containment structure be sufficeint to meet the minimum prestress design requirements. This design requirement can be expressed as an average tendon force for each group of vertical hoop, or dome tendons. For the purpose of comparing the actual tendon forces with the required average tendon force, the lift-off forces measured for a sample of tendons within each group can be averaged to construct the average force for the entire group. However, the individual lift-off forces must be 'corrected' (normalized) prior to obtaining the sample average. This paper derives the correction factor to be used for this purpose. (orig./RW)

  2. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  3. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  4. Femtosecond-pulse inscription of fiber Bragg gratings with single or multiple phase-shifts in the structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexey; Dostovalov, Alexandr; Skvortsov, Mikhail; Raspopin, Kirill; Parygin, Alexandr; Babin, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    In this work, long high-quality fiber Bragg gratings with phase shifts in the structure are inscribed directly in the optical fiber by point-by-point technique using femtosecond laser pulses. Phase shifts are introduced during the inscription process with a piezoelectric actuator, which rapidly shifts the fiber along the direction of its movement in a chosen point of the grating with a chosen shift value. As examples, single and double π phase shifts are introduced in fiber Bragg gratings with a length up to 34 mm in passive fibers, which provide corresponding transmission peaks with bandwidth less than 1 pm. It is shown that 37 mm π -phase-shifted grating inscribed in an active Er-doped fiber forms high-quality DFB laser cavity generating single-frequency radiation at 1550 nm with bandwidth of 20 kHz and signal-to-noise ratio of >70 dB. The inscription technique has a high degree of performance and flexibility and can be easily implemented in fibers of various types.

  5. Protein backbone angle restraints from searching a database for chemical shift and sequence homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornilescu, Gabriel; Delaglio, Frank; Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    1999-03-15

    Chemical shifts of backbone atoms in proteins are exquisitely sensitive to local conformation, and homologous proteins show quite similar patterns of secondary chemical shifts. The inverse of this relation is used to search a database for triplets of adjacent residues with secondary chemical shifts and sequence similarity which provide the best match to the query triplet of interest. The database contains 13C{alpha}, 13C{beta}, 13C', 1H{alpha} and 15N chemical shifts for 20 proteins for which a high resolution X-ray structure is available. The computer program TALOS was developed to search this database for strings of residues with chemical shift and residue type homology. The relative importance of the weighting factors attached to the secondary chemical shifts of the five types of resonances relative to that of sequence similarity was optimized empirically. TALOS yields the 10 triplets which have the closest similarity in secondary chemical shift and amino acid sequence to those of the query sequence. If the central residues in these 10 triplets exhibit similar {phi} and {psi} backbone angles, their averages can reliably be used as angular restraints for the protein whose structure is being studied. Tests carried out for proteins of known structure indicate that the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) between the output of TALOS and the X-ray derived backbone angles is about 15 deg. Approximately 3% of the predictions made by TALOS are found to be in error.

  6. The association between long working hours and health: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between long working hours and health. By focusing on differences in the definition of long working hours and the influence of shift work, we attempt to explain why the results of these studies remain inconclusive. We defined long working hours as working time greater than around 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day. Since previous studies have indicated that shift work is detrimental to health, we minimized the influence of shift work in the studies. We also placed importance on the existence of reference groups since this made the results clearer. Based on these points, we analyzed previous studies to clarify the epidemiological evidence regarding the association between long working hours and health. We established inclusion criteria and carried out a systematic search for articles published in the Medline and PsycINFO databases between 1995-2012. We identified a total of 17 articles and 19 studies (12 prospective cohort and 7 cross-sectional studies). The outcomes were all-cause mortality, circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depressive state, anxiety, other psychological disorders, sleep condition, cognitive function, and health-related behavior. Long working hours had significant adverse effects on most health outcomes. We concluded that working long hours is associated with depressive state, anxiety, sleep condition, and coronary heart disease. However, further studies that appropriately deal with the definition of long working hours and shift work are needed.

  7. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Marga B M; Koppes, Lando L J; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Steeg, Harry; Proper, Karin I

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association changes in night and shift work with weight change and changes in lifestyle behaviors. A larger weight change was seen in normal-weight workers changing from day to shift work (β = 0.93%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.85) compared with stable no shift workers. No further associations of night and shift work with weight change were observed, neither in normal-weight, overweight, and obese workers. Despite the fact that starting night or shift work is associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits, this study did not confirm a positive association of night and shift work with weight change over 1 year, except for normal-weight workers moving from day to shift work.

  8. Shift work in hospitals: what are the effects on patient and employee outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Peter; Dall'ora, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The healthcare sector works around the clock and requires the availability of staff 24 hours a day. This means that shift work is an essential aspect of staffing hospital departments. However, concerns have been raised about the consequences of some shift patterns for both patient and staff. Although there is no “ideal” shift system, this brief reports on evidence of the effect of shift characteristics including the length of the shift, rotation and days off on patient and employee outcomes.

  9. Stress and Fatigue in Operators Under Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR on stress indices, health complaints and fatigue of operators working fast-rotating extended shifts. Working conditions, job content, job control, social support, health complaints and fatigue were followed in 220 operators, 110 exposed to EMR and 110 control operators, matched by age and sex. The EMR was measured and time-weighted average (TWA was calculated. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the extended shifts in 36 operators, working at different levels of exposure and 24-hour exposure was calculated. The exposed group pointed more problems with the working conditions, including EMR, noise, currents and risk of accidents, more health complaints and higher level of fatigue. The most common health complaints were mental and physical exhaustion after work, pains in the chest, musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and apathy. High level EMR exposure (TWAmean = 3.10 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 μW/cm2 significantly increased the 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline, whereas the increase of adrenaline excretion did not reach significance, as well as hormone excretion rates under low level exposure (TWAmean = 1.89 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 μW/cm2. In conclusion, higher number of health complaints, higher stress hormone excretion rates and fatigue were found in operators under EMR.

  10. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2003-01-01

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state

  11. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, S. E-mail: lemaire@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B

    2003-09-22

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state.

  12. Shifting Global Climate Governance: Creating Long-Term Goals Through UNFCCC Article 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brian Fisher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that the long-term risk of global climate change has been mischaracterized as an environmental issue, and therefore, solutions based solely on national emission targets will be ineffective. Thus, this paper argues for establishing long-term goals emphasizing both adaptation and clean energy to generate equitable and effective global climate policy that addresses this fundamental threat. This requires defining and operationalizing the overall objective contained in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A second key aspect to operationalizing Article 2 is to understand those ‘particularly vulnerable’ as declared in the Article and in various climate agreements. Once operationalized, these long-term objectives can be achieved through approaches that emphasize the development of clean energy (and concomitant technology, and adaptation within vulnerable communities in their local context. It necessitates dropping formal mechanisms at the current core of the regime designed to regulate national emissions, and instead build the core of the regime around the ‘stabilization’ of both the climate system through clean energy and vulnerable people through effective adaptation.

  13. Modelling a Nurse Shift Schedule with Multiple Preference Ranks for Shifts and Days-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to nurse shift schedules, it is found that the nursing staff have diverse preferences about shift rotations and days-off. The previous studies only focused on the most preferred work shift and the number of satisfactory days-off of the schedule at the current schedule period but had few discussions on the previous schedule periods and other preference levels for shifts and days-off, which may affect fairness of shift schedules. As a result, this paper proposes a nurse scheduling model based upon integer programming that takes into account constraints of the schedule, different preference ranks towards each shift, and the historical data of previous schedule periods to maximize the satisfaction of all the nursing staff's preferences about the shift schedule. The main contribution of the proposed model is that we consider that the nursing staff’s satisfaction level is affected by multiple preference ranks and their priority ordering to be scheduled, so that the quality of the generated shift schedule is more reasonable. Numerical results show that the planned shifts and days-off are fair and successfully meet the preferences of all the nursing staff.

  14. Constraining the Long-Term Average of Earthquake Recurrence Intervals From Paleo- and Historic Earthquakes by Assimilating Information From Instrumental Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, G.

    2017-12-01

    Paleo- and historic earthquakes are the most important source of information for the estimationof long-term recurrence intervals in fault zones, because sequences of paleoearthquakes cover more than one seismic cycle. On the other hand, these events are often rare, dating uncertainties are enormous and the problem of missing or misinterpreted events leads to additional problems. Taking these shortcomings into account, long-term recurrence intervals are usually unstable as long as no additional information are included. In the present study, we assume that the time to the next major earthquake depends on the rate of small and intermediate events between the large ones in terms of a ``clock-change'' model that leads to a Brownian Passage Time distribution for recurrence intervals. We take advantage of an earlier finding that the aperiodicity of this distribution can be related to the Gutenberg-Richter-b-value, which is usually around one and can be estimated easily from instrumental seismicity in the region under consideration. This allows to reduce the uncertainties in the estimation of the mean recurrence interval significantly, especially for short paleoearthquake sequences and high dating uncertainties. We present illustrative case studies from Southern California and compare the method with the commonly used approach of exponentially distributed recurrence times assuming a stationary Poisson process.

  15. Radon and radon daughters indoors, problems in the determination of the annual average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The annual average of the concentration of radon and radon daughters in indoor air is required both in studies such as determining the collective dose to a population and at comparing with limits. Measurements are often carried out during a time period shorter than a year for practical reasons. Methods for estimating the uncertainties due to temporal variations in an annual average calculated from measurements carried out during various lengths of the sampling periods. These methods have been applied to the results from long-term measurements of radon-222 in a few houses. The possibilities to use correction factors in order to get a more adequate annual average have also been studied and some examples have been given. (orig.)

  16. Ophthalmic changes and increased intracranial pressure associated with long duration spaceflight: An emerging understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bowman, Karina; Barratt, Michael R.; Gibson, C. Robert

    2013-06-01

    For many years, there have been anecdotal reports of vision changes by astronauts following short and long-duration spaceflight. Much of this was attributed to hyperopic shifts related to the age of the flying population. However, it has recently been recognized that vision changes are actually quite common in astronauts and are associated with a constellation of findings including elevated intracranial pressure, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath thickening, hyperopic shifts and retinal changes. With advanced imaging modalities available on the ground along with the fidelity of in-flight diagnostic capabilities previously unavailable, information on this newly recognized syndrome is accumulating. As of this writing, 11 cases of visual impairment experienced by astronauts during missions on-board the International Space Station (ISS) have been documented and studied. Although the exact mechanisms of the vision changes are unknown, it is hypothesized that increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a contributing factor. Microgravity is the dominant cause of many physiological changes during spaceflight and is thought to contribute significantly to the observed ophthalmic changes. However, several secondary factors that could contribute to increased ICP and vision changes in spaceflight have been proposed. Possible contributors include microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, venous obstruction due to microgravity-induced anatomical shifts, high levels of spacecraft cabin carbon dioxide, heavy resistive exercise, and high sodium diet. Individual susceptibility to visual impairment is not fully understood, though a demographic of affected astronauts is emerging. This paper describes the current understanding of this newly recognized syndrome, presents data from 11 individual cases, and discusses details of potential contributing factors. The occurrence of visual changes in long duration missions in microgravity is one of the most significant

  17. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  18. The STAR ESL, electronic shift and handover log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, L; Lauret, J, E-mail: lbhajdu@bnl.gov

    2008-07-01

    Keeping a clear and accurate experiment log is important for any scientific experiment. The concept is certainly not new but keeping accurate while useful records for a Nuclear Physics experiment such as the Solenoidal Tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR at RHIC) is not a priori a simple matter - STAR operates 24 hours a day for six months out of the year with more than 24 shift crews operating 16 different subsystems (some located remotely). To meet the challenge of not only logging the information but passing it in a concise manner from one shift to another, the STAR experiment has designed an Electronic Shift-Log (ESL), a flexible application written in Java and interfacing with the Data Acquisition tools, Quality Assurance reporting, Online shift crews or remote personnel and experts as well as including features such as shift change-over (or handover) forms, tailored to the sub-group of interest. We will present an overview of STAR's Electronic Log, a system that is clear, reliable, safe, consistent, easy to use and globally viewable in real time with secure connections.

  19. Temporal shift of sea turtle nest sites in an eroding barrier island beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.

  20. Big-bang nucleosynthesis with a long-lived CHAMP including He4 spallation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masato; Jittoh, Toshifumi; Kohri, Kazunori; Koike, Masafumi; Sato, Joe; Sugai, Kenichi; Yazaki, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    We propose helium-4 spallation processes induced by long-lived stau in supersymmetric standard models, and investigate an impact of the processes on light elements abundances. We show that, as long as the phase space of helium-4 spallation processes is open, they are more important than stau-catalyzed fusion and hence constrain the stau property. This talk is based on the work of ref. [1].

  1. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  2. Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for the Measurement of Liquid Level and Fluid-Flow Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO2-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen’s test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1–5 were in the range of 1.35–9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG’s length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7–12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  3. Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for the Measurement of Liquid Level and Fluid-Flow Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Luo, Ching-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO2-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen's test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1–5 were in the range of 1.35–9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG's length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7–12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds. PMID:22666046

  4. Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Luo, Ching-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO(2)-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen's test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1-5 were in the range of 1.35-9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG's length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7-12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  5. Circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes of rotating night shift nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Edyta; Peplonska, Beata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Sobala, Wojciech; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Kjuus, Helge; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Transcript levels of BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were determined by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After adjusting for hour of blood collection, there were no statistically significant changes of investigated circadian genes among nurses and midwives currently working rotating night shifts compared to nurses working day shifts. The highest expression of PER1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was observed for women currently working shifts who had worked >15 years in rotating night shift work. PER1 gene expression was associated with the lifetime duration of rotating night shift work among women currently working night shifts (P=0.04). PER1 and PER3 transcript levels in blood leukocytes were significantly down-regulated in the later versus early hours of the morning between 06.00-10.00 hours (β-coefficient -0.226, P=0.001 and β-coefficient -0.181, Pnight shift work does not affect circadian gene expression in human circulating leukocytes. In analysis of the peripheral clock in human studies, the hour of blood collection should be precisely specified.

  6. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  7. Mathematical modeling of sleep state dynamics in a rodent model of shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rempe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide are required to work when their physiology is tuned for sleep. By forcing wakefulness out of the body’s normal schedule, shift workers face numerous adverse health consequences, including gastrointestinal problems, sleep problems, and higher rates of some diseases, including cancers. Recent studies have developed protocols to simulate shift work in rodents with the intention of assessing the effects of night-shift work on subsequent sleep (Grønli et al., 2017. These studies have already provided important contributions to the understanding of the metabolic consequences of shift work (Arble et al., 2015; Marti et al., 2016; Opperhuizen et al., 2015 and sleep-wake-specific impacts of night-shift work (Grønli et al., 2017. However, our understanding of the causal mechanisms underlying night-shift-related sleep disturbances is limited. In order to advance toward a mechanistic understanding of sleep disruption in shift work, we model these data with two different approaches. First we apply a simple homeostatic model to quantify differences in the rates at which sleep need, as measured by slow wave activity during slow wave sleep (SWS rises and falls. Second, we develop a simple and novel mathematical model of rodent sleep and use it to investigate the timing of sleep in a simulated shift work protocol (Grønli et al., 2017. This mathematical framework includes the circadian and homeostatic processes of the two-process model, but additionally incorporates a stochastic process to model the polyphasic nature of rodent sleep. By changing only the time at which the rodents are forced to be awake, the model reproduces some key experimental results from the previous study, including correct proportions of time spent in each stage of sleep as a function of circadian time and the differences in total wake time and SWS bout durations in the rodents representing night-shift workers and those representing day-shift workers

  8. The Atmospheric Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Through Hydrogen Shift Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Hasse Christian

    a radical is denoted as a H-shift reaction. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the potential energy surface of the H-shift reactions and the subsequent decomposition pathways. The transition state theory including the Eckart quantum tunneling correction have been used to calculate...... the reaction rate constants of the H-shift reactions. The autoxidation of volatile organic compounds is an important oxidation mechanism that produces secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and recycles hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The autoxidation cycle produces a second generation peroxy radical (OOQOOH) through...... a series of H-shift reactions and O2 attachments. I have investigated the H-shift reactions in two OOQOOH radicals (hydroperoxy peroxy radicals and hydroperoxy acyl peroxy radicals). The H-shift reaction rate constants have been compared with the bimolecular reaction rate constants of the peroxy radicals...

  9. Local and average structure of Mn- and La-substituted BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo; Selbach, Sverre M., E-mail: selbach@ntnu.no

    2017-06-15

    The local and average structure of solid solutions of the multiferroic perovskite BiFeO{sub 3} is investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The average experimental structure is determined by Rietveld refinement and the local structure by total scattering data analyzed in real space with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. With equal concentrations of La on the Bi site or Mn on the Fe site, La causes larger structural distortions than Mn. Structural models based on DFT relaxed geometry give an improved fit to experimental PDFs compared to models constrained by the space group symmetry. Berry phase calculations predict a higher ferroelectric polarization than the experimental literature values, reflecting that structural disorder is not captured in either average structure space group models or DFT calculations with artificial long range order imposed by periodic boundary conditions. Only by including point defects in a supercell, here Bi vacancies, can DFT calculations reproduce the literature results on the structure and ferroelectric polarization of Mn-substituted BiFeO{sub 3}. The combination of local and average structure sensitive experimental methods with DFT calculations is useful for illuminating the structure-property-composition relationships in complex functional oxides with local structural distortions. - Graphical abstract: The experimental and simulated partial pair distribution functions (PDF) for BiFeO{sub 3}, BiFe{sub 0.875}Mn{sub 0.125}O{sub 3}, BiFe{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}O{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}.

  10. Night shift work, chronotype and prostate cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Burgos, Javier; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Arredondo, Francisco; Tardón, Adonina; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-09-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on experimental studies and limited human evidence on breast cancer. Evidence on other common cancers, such as prostate cancer, is scarce. Chronotype is an individual characteristic that may relate to night work adaptation. We evaluated night shift work with relation to prostate cancer, taking into account chronotype and disease severity in a population based case-control study in Spain. We included 1,095 prostate cancer cases and 1,388 randomly selected population controls. We collected detailed information on shift schedules (permanent vs. rotating, time schedules, duration, frequency), using lifetime occupational history. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and chronotype through a validated questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Subjects who had worked at least for one year in night shift work had a slightly higher prostate cancer risk [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.14; 95%CI 0.94, 1.37] compared with never night workers; this risk increased with longer duration of exposure (≥ 28 years: OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.05, 1.81; p-trend = 0.047). Risks were more pronounced for high risk tumors [D'Amico classification, Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 1.40; 95%CI 1.05, 1.86], particularly among subjects with longer duration of exposure (≥28 years: RRR 1.63; 95%CI 1.08, 2.45; p-trend = 0.027). Overall risk was higher among subjects with an evening chronotype, but also increased in morning chronotypes after long-term night work. In this large population based study, we found an association between night shift work and prostate cancer particularly for tumors with worse prognosis. © 2014 UICC.

  11. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  12. 40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions more than the reference control technology, but the combination of the pollution prevention... emissions average. This must include any Group 1 emission points to which the reference control technology... agrees has a higher nominal efficiency than the re