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Sample records for included serum standards

  1. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  2. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...

  3. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...... can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations....

  4. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Please cite this paper as: Egan N, Bartels A, Khashan A, Broadhurst D, Joyce C, O\\'Mullane J, O\\'Donoghue K. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy. BJOG 2012;00:000-000. DOI: 10.1111\\/j.1471-0528.2011.03245.x. Objective Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a liver disorder characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids (SBA) that affects one in 200 pregnant women. It is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as premature delivery and stillbirth. Mild OC is defined as SBA levels of 10-39 mumol\\/l, and severe OC is defined by levels >40 mumol\\/l. SBA levels in normal pregnancy have not been investigated. We aimed to establish reference values for SBA in healthy pregnant women across different trimesters of pregnancy. Design Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels. Setting A large tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Population Healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and a body mass index (BMI) < 40, excluding women with significant alcohol intake, history of liver disease, prior cholecystectomy and OC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and on days 1-3 postpartum. Main outcome measures SBA levels in mumol\\/l. Results A total of 219 women attending for antenatal care were recruited, and SBA levels were assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and up to 72 hours postpartum (n = 44-49 cases at each stage). The majority were white European women, with a median age of 30 years (range 17-46 years) and median BMI of 25 (range 18-38). Values of SBA ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mumol\\/l in 216 women, with only three measurements outside this range. There were no significant changes throughout pregnancy. Conclusions SBA values in uncomplicated pregnancies are consistent, regardless of gestation, and are not elevated in pregnancy. The current reference values for the diagnosis of OC appear to be appropriate.

  5. A standardized method for quantitating the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Peterson, I; Svehag, S E

    1983-01-01

    A standardized radioassay for measuring the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity (CMSC) and the initial kinetics of the solubilization (IKS) reaction is described. The total complement (C)-mediated solubilizing capacity was determined after incubation of diluted serum and 125I......-BSA-anti-BSA. Percentage C-mediated solubilization (CMS) was measured after centrifugation by determining the distribution of radioactivity. The dependency of CMSC upon factors such as serum dilution and buffer system used, amount of IC added to serum, serum storage conditions and centrifugation conditions...

  6. 2016 Updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards, Including Standards for Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .

  7. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  8. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  9. Migration path for structured documentation systems including standardized medical device data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ann-Kristin; Ingenerf, Josef; Halkaliev, Stoyan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A standardized end-to-end solution has been implemented with the aim of supporting the semantic integration of clinical content in institution spanning applications. The approach outlined is a proof-of-concept design. It has shown that the standards chosen are suitable to integrate device data into forms, to document the results consistently and finally enable semantic interoperability. In detail the implementation includes a standardized device interface, a standardized representation of data entry forms and enables the communication of structured data via HL7 CDA. Because the proposed method applies a combination of standards semantic interoperability and the possibility of a contextual interpretation at each stage can be ensured.

  10. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum standard reference materials using independent analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Jessica L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States); Phinney, Karen W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C{sub 8} stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods. (orig.)

  11. Surveillance evaluation of the standardization of assay values for serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Kiuchi, Sachiko; Ishige, Takayuki; Nishimura, Motoi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Yamashita, Mine; Kitajima, Isao; Tsugawa, Naoko; Okano, Toshio; Hirota, Kouichi; Miura, Masakazu; Totani, Masayuki; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2018-01-01

    Background To assess the vitamin D nutritional status, serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is measured. We used six automated 25(OH)D immunoassays (AIAs) available in Japan and certified by the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the concordance of the assay results. Methods Serum total 25(OH)D concentrations in SRM 972a and 20 serum samples from patients were determined using three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and six AIAs (pilot study), and an additional 110 serum samples were assessed by the six AIAs (surveillance study). The assay bias from the results of LC-MS/MS by Chiba University or consensus values (i.e. average of six AIAs) was estimated using the procedure described in CLSI document EP09-A3. Results LC-MS/MS at Chiba University could completely separate 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and the observed values including total 25(OH)D in SRM 972a were all within ±1·SD of the assigned values. All AIAs produced results greater than ±3·SD. In the pilot study, four of the six AIAs had an average percentage bias, as estimated by confidence interval (CI), larger than ±5% (acceptance criterion in CLSI); the bias converged from -6.5% to 3.2% after adjustment by LC-MS/MS. In the surveillance study, 25(OH)D concentrations in AIAs all adjusted to LC-MS/MS converged within ±5% from consensus values. However, some AIAs showed negative or positive bias from the consensus values. Conclusions Current AIAs in Japan continue to lack standardization. Manufacturers should implement quality assurance strategies so that their values more closely align to those of standard reference material 972a.

  12. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  13. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What...

  14. Standard operating procedures for serum and plasma collection: early detection research network consensus statement standard operating procedure integration working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Melissa K; Chan, Daniel W; Chia, David; Godwin, Andrew K; Grizzle, William E; Krueger, Karl E; Rom, William; Sanda, Martin; Sorbara, Lynn; Stass, Sanford; Wang, Wendy; Brenner, Dean E

    2009-01-01

    Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.

  15. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  16. Standardized serum GM-CSF autoantibody testing for the routine clinical diagnosis of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kanji; Nakata, Koh; Carey, Brenna; Chalk, Claudia; Suzuki, Takuji; Sakagami, Takuro; Koch, Diana E; Stevens, Carrie; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Trapnell, Bruce C

    2014-01-15

    Autoantibodies against granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMAbs) cause autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and measurement of the GMAb level in serum is now commonly used to identify this disease, albeit, in a clinical research setting. The present study was undertaken to optimize and standardize serum GMAb concentration testing using a GMAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GMAb ELISA) to prepare for its introduction into routine clinical use. The GMAb ELISA was evaluated using serum specimens from autoimmune PAP patients, healthy people, and GMAb-spiked serum from healthy people. After optimizing assay components and procedures, its accuracy, precision, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and ruggedness were evaluated. The coefficient of variation in repeated measurements was acceptable (standards, or by storage of serum samples at -80°C. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the PAP patient-derived polyclonal GMAb reference standard (PCRS) was 0.78ng/ml. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a serum GMAb level of 5μg/ml (based on PCRS) as the optimal cut off value for distinguishing autoimmune PAP serum from normal serum. A pharmaceutical-grade, monoclonal GMAb reference standard (MCRS) was developed as the basis of a new unit of measure for GMAb concentration: one International Unit (IU) of GMAb is equivalent to 1μg/ml of MCRS. The median [interquartile range] serum GMAb level was markedly higher in autoimmune PAP patients than in healthy people (21.54 [12.83-36.38] versus 0.08 [0.05-0.14] IU; n=56, 38; respectively; Pstandardized units. These findings support the use of this GMAb ELISA for the routine clinical diagnosis of autoimmune PAP and introduce a new unit of measure to enable standardized reporting of serum GMAb data from different laboratories. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  18. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  19. Serum parameters in the spectrum of coeliac disease: beyond standard antibody testing - a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tack Greetje J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive techniques are still required to distinguish between uncomplicated and complicated forms of CD. Methods We set out to investigate the potential use of novel serum parameters, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-22, sCD25, sCD27, granzyme-B, sMICA and sCTLA-4 in patients diagnosed with active CD, CD on a GFD, Refractory coeliac disease (RCD type I and II, and enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL. Results In both active CD and RCDI-II elevated levels of the proinflammatory IL-8, IL-17 and sCD25 were observed. In addition, RCDII patients displayed higher serum levels of soluble granzyme-B and IL-6 in comparison to active CD patients. In contrast, no differences between RCDI and active CD or RCDII were observed. Furthermore, EATL patients displayed higher levels of IL-6 as compared to all other groups. Conclusions A series of novel serum parameters reveal distinctive immunological characteristics of RCDII and EATL in comparison to uncomplicated CD and RCDI.

  20. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  1. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from four Nordic population samples using the Vitamin D Standardization Program protocols: Shedding new light on vitamin D status in Nordic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the distributions of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in representative population samples is critical for the quantification of vitamin D deficiency as well as for setting dietary reference values and food-based strategies for its prevention. Such data for the E...... standardization. In conclusion, standardization of serum 25(OH)D concentrations is absolutely necessary in order to compare serum 25(OH)D concentrations across different study populations, which is needed to quantify and prevent vitamin D deficiency.......Knowledge about the distributions of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in representative population samples is critical for the quantification of vitamin D deficiency as well as for setting dietary reference values and food-based strategies for its prevention. Such data...... for the European Union are of variable quality making it difficult to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across member states. As a consequence of the widespread, method-related differences in measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed...

  3. A standardized method for quantitating the complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Peterson, I; Svehag, S E

    1983-01-01

    -BSA-anti-BSA. Percentage C-mediated solubilization (CMS) was measured after centrifugation by determining the distribution of radioactivity. The dependency of CMSC upon factors such as serum dilution and buffer system used, amount of IC added to serum, serum storage conditions and centrifugation conditions...

  4. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  5. Degeneration of retinal on bipolar cells induced by serum including autoantibody against TRPM1 in mouse model of paraneoplastic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Ueno

    Full Text Available The paraneoplastic retinopathies (PRs are a group of eye diseases characterized by a sudden and progressive dysfunction of the retina caused by an antibody against a protein in a neoplasm. Evidence has been obtained that the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 (TRPM1 protein was one of the antigens for the autoantibody against the ON bipolar cells in PR patients. However, it has not been determined how the autoantibody causes the dysfunction of the ON bipolar cells. We hypothesized that the antibody against TRPM1 in the serum of patients with PR causes a degeneration of retinal ON bipolar cells. To test this hypothesis, we injected the serum from the PR patient, previously shown to contain anti-TRPM1 antibodies by westerblot, intravitreally into mice and examined the effects on the retina. We found that the electroretinograms (ERGs of the mice were altered acutely after the injection, and the shape of the ERGs resembled that of the patient with PR. Immunohistochemical analysis of the eyes injected with the serum showed immunoreactivity against bipolar cells only in wild-type animals and not in TRPM1 knockout mice,consistent with the serum containing anti-TRPM1 antibodies. Histology also showed that some of the bipolar cells were apoptotic by 5 hours after the injection in wild type mice, but no bipolar cell death was found in TRPM1 knockout mice, . At 3 months, the inner nuclear layer was thinner and the amplitudes of the ERGs were still reduced. These results indicate that the serum of a patient with PR contained an antibody against TRPM1 caused an acute death of retinal ON bipolar cells of mice.

  6. Standardization and clinical application of human serum somotomedin B radioimmunoassay. Development of the enzimatic radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Gomes, E.N.D. da.

    1979-01-01

    The various steps that are necessary for the setting up of Somatomedin B radioimunoassay are presented. Radioiodination was carried out through the enzimatic method of Lactoperoxidase while the purification of the labelled was performed first of Sephadex G-25 fine and then on Sephadex G-75. It was found that a preparation of 125 I labelled Somatomedin B presented a radiochemical purity of 99,8%, a mean specific activity determined by the self-displacement method of 54.1 +-3.6μCi/μg and a binding of 98% in the presence of antibody excess. It was also shown that the high stability of this preparation allows its use for up to one month after labelling, if it is stored in refrigerator at + 4 0 C. The separation between the free and the bound antigen was achieved through the method of the second antibody after a period of incubation of 4 days at 4 0 C. The statistic analysis of the method showed also its specificity, which is proved through a study of the dilution effect on human seruns where endogenous Somatomedin B is determined. The sensitivity of the method determined by discrete analysis of the first values on the standard curve was of 0.31 ng/ml. Finally are presented the serum levels of Somatomedin B that have been found in normal subjects and in individuals with alteration HGH secretion [pt

  7. Characterization of chemically modified chitosan microspheres as adsorbents using standard Proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan microspheres with a mean size of 140 ± 119 µm were produced by the spray and coagulation methods. The microspheres were chemically modified using the following routes: a crosslinking with glutaraldehyde b crosslinking with epychlorohydrin and c acetylation. For investigation of their ability as adsorbents, the following standard proteins were chosen as adsorbates: bovine serum albumin - BSA (pI = 4.8 and MW = 66 kDa and lysozyme (pI = 11 and MW = 14 kDa. The adsorption experiments were performed using a static method. The adsorption media and equilibrium concentration of adsorbates were varied in the ranges of pH 4-11 and 0.07-0.70 mg.ml-1, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (q m and the constant of the Langmuir model (Ks were shown to be dependent on charge interactions and on the kind of treatment performed on chitosan microspheres. The satisfactory fit of a kinetic model to the experimental data shows that the step that controls the adsorption kinetics is probably the initial adsorbate transport.

  8. [Investigation of the hygienic standard in two hospitals including the control of disinfection (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfanzelt, R; Schassan, H H

    1978-08-01

    In two operative departments with different architectural presuppositions, the hygienic standard was checked up. Under favourable conditions in clinic B (Hosch-filter, sluice-systems) the relative frequency of demonstrable bacteria amounted to 55%. In clinic A, where these conditions failed, it amounted to 80%. Among the non pathogenic bacteria DNase-negative staphylococci were demonstrated more frequently than others. 13.4% and 18.9% resp. of the bacteria were DNase-positive staphylococci. We used Clostridium perfringens for detecting invasion-paths of germs. The most important ones are leaky windows, air conditioning and insufficient sluice-systems. The success of desinfection was examined. It fluctuates from 67% to 100%. One control amounted to 42%. The results show, that it is impossible to establish sterile rooms for common operative departments. But they show as well that a satisfying hygienic standard cannot be arrived without sluice-systems and appropriate air conditioning.

  9. Broadening the Reach of Standardized Patients in Nurse Practitioner Education to Include the Distance Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Kathleen; Garritano, Nicole; Beery, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Using standardized patients (SP) presenting with a specific complaint has been a mainstay in health care education. Increased use of technology has facilitated the move of instruction from the on-campus classroom to distance learning for many nurse practitioner programs. Using interactive case studies provides distance learners SP encounters. This technologically facilitated encounter gives the distance learner the opportunity for integrative thinking and development of problem solving and clinical reasoning skills.

  10. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  11. International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set (version 2.0)-including standardization of reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biering-Sorensen, F.; DeVivo, M. J.; Charlifue, S.; Chen, Y.; New, P. W.; Noonan, V.; Post, M. W. M.; Vogel, L.

    Study design: The study design includes expert opinion, feedback, revisions and final consensus. Objectives: The objective of the study was to present the new knowledge obtained since the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set (Version 1.0) published in 2006, and describe the

  12. 2013 updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards including standards for the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Polovich, Martha; McNiff, Kristen; Esper, Peg; Gilmore, Terry R; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Schulmeister, Lisa; Jacobson, Joseph O

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) published standards for the safe use of parenteral chemotherapy in the outpatient setting, including issues of practitioner orders, preparation, and administration of medication. In 2011, these were updated to include inpatient facilities. In December 2011, a multistakeholder workgroup met to address the issues associated with orally administered antineoplastics, under the leadership of ASCO and ONS. The workgroup participants developed recommended standards, which were presented for public comment. Public comments informed final edits, and the final standards were reviewed and approved by the ASCO and ONS Boards of Directors. Significant newly identified recommendations include those associated with drug prescription and the necessity of ascertaining that prescriptions are filled. In addition, the importance of patient and family education regarding administration schedules, exception procedures, disposal of unused oral medication, and aspects of continuity of care across settings were identified. This article presents the newly developed standards.

  13. 2013 updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards including standards for the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Polovich, Martha; McNiff, Kristen; Esper, Peg; Gilmore, Terry R; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Schulmeister, Lisa; Jacobson, Joseph O

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, ASCO and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) published standards for the safe use of parenteral chemotherapy in the outpatient setting, including issues of practitioner orders, preparation, and administration of medication. In 2011, these were updated to include inpatient facilities. In December 2011, a multistakeholder workgroup met to address the issues associated with orally administered antineoplastics, under the leadership of ASCO and ONS. The workgroup participants developed recommended standards, which were presented for public comment. Public comments informed final edits, and the final standards were reviewed and approved by the ASCO and ONS Boards of Directors. Significant newly identified recommendations include those associated with drug prescription and the necessity of ascertaining that prescriptions are filled. In addition, the importance of patient and family education regarding administration schedules, exception procedures, disposal of unused oral medication, and aspects of continuity of care across settings were identified. This article presents the newly developed standards.

  14. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  15. Evaluation of standard and advanced preprocessing methods for the univariate analysis of blood serum 1H-NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Tim; Sinnaeve, Davy; Van Gasse, Bjorn; Rietzschel, Ernst-R; De Buyzere, Marc L; Langlois, Michel R; Bekaert, Sofie; Martins, José C; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2010-10-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR)-based metabolomics enables the high-resolution and high-throughput assessment of a broad spectrum of metabolites in biofluids. Despite the straightforward character of the experimental methodology, the analysis of spectral profiles is rather complex, particularly due to the requirement of numerous data preprocessing steps. Here, we evaluate how several of the most common preprocessing procedures affect the subsequent univariate analyses of blood serum spectra, with a particular focus on how the standard methods perform compared to more advanced examples. Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill 1D (1)H spectra were obtained for 240 serum samples from healthy subjects of the Asklepios study. We studied the impact of different preprocessing steps--integral (standard method) and probabilistic quotient normalization; no, equidistant (standard), and adaptive-intelligent binning; mean (standard) and maximum bin intensity data summation--on the resonance intensities of three different types of metabolites: triglycerides, glucose, and creatinine. The effects were evaluated by correlating the differently preprocessed NMR data with the independently measured metabolite concentrations. The analyses revealed that the standard methods performed inferiorly and that a combination of probabilistic quotient normalization after adaptive-intelligent binning and maximum intensity variable definition yielded the best overall results (triglycerides, R = 0.98; glucose, R = 0.76; creatinine, R = 0.70). Therefore, at least in the case of serum metabolomics, these or equivalent methods should be preferred above the standard preprocessing methods, particularly for univariate analyses. Additional optimization of the normalization procedure might further improve the analyses.

  16. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  17. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P breakfast...

  18. 32 CFR 37.615 - What standards do I include for financial systems of for-profit firms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards do I include for financial... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.615 What...

  19. Validation of two point-of-care tests against standard lab measures of NO in saliva and in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Ashwin; Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Vergara, Jose; Patel, Rakesh P; Nichols, Alexandria; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2017-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signaling molecule, which plays important roles in cardiometabolic health. A significant source of NO is dietary nitrate (NO 3 ), which is initially metabolized by oral bacteria into nitrite (NO 2 - ) and is subsequently converted into NO once digested in the acidic gastric environment. Inexpensive non-invasive tests for measuring nitrite from saliva have been developed as a means for individuals to monitor their NO bioavailability. However, few studies exist in the literature validating and comparing these products with standard lab assays. The objective of this study was to validate two commonly used commercial strips: Nitric Oxide Test Strips (Berkeley Test) and Nitric Oxide Indicator Strips (Neogenesis) against standard lab measures for saliva and serum nitrite/nitrate. A stratified random sample of 20 non-smoking, overweight or obese participants between 40 to 65 years of age, were selected for this study from the baseline data of the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). There was a significant correlation between the measures from the two nitrite-detecting-strips after controlling for the stratification variables (metabolic syndrome, and mouthwash use) (r = 0.75). Measurements from both strips correlated significantly with salivary nitrite levels (r = 0.76 for Berkeley strips; r = 0.59 for Neogenesis). Neither of the strips had a significant correlation with the levels of saliva nitrate, serum nitrite and serum nitrate. In conclusion, commercially available Berkeley and Neogenesis strips provide a reasonable surrogate for salivary, but not for systemic nitrite levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by coupling a measurement standard to extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keke; Li, Ming; Li, Hongmei; Li, Mengwan; Jiang, You; Fang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Ambient ionization (AI) techniques have been widely used in chemistry, medicine, material science, environmental science, forensic science. AI takes advantage of direct desorption/ionization of chemicals in raw samples under ambient environmental conditions with minimal or no sample preparation. However, its quantitative accuracy is restricted by matrix effects during the ionization process. To improve the quantitative accuracy of AI, a matrix reference material, which is a particular form of measurement standard, was coupled to an AI technique in this study. Consequently the analyte concentration in a complex matrix can be easily quantified with high accuracy. As a demonstration, this novel method was applied for the accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by using extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) mass spectrometry. Over the concentration range investigated (0.166 ~ 1.617 μg/mL), a calibration curve was obtained with a satisfactory linearity (R2 = 0.994), and acceptable relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.6 ~ 8.0% (n = 6). Finally, the creatinine concentration value of a serum sample was determined to be 36.18 ± 1.08 μg/mL, which is in excellent agreement with the certified value of 35.16 ± 0.39 μg/mL.

  1. Dietary phosphorus restriction by a standard low-protein diet decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in patients with early and advanced stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Yonekura, Yuriko; Ito, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although recent studies demonstrated that FGF23 levels decreased in response to dietary restriction of phosphorus and/or use of phosphate binders, research on the effects of a standard low-protein diet is lacking. The effects of a standard low-protein diet on serum FGF23, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were investigated in patients with early (n = 15) and advanced (n = 20) CKD. Serum FGF23 levels decreased in both groups. Changes in FGF23 levels correlated with changes in 24 h urinary phosphorus excretion in the advanced CKD group. Decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were observed only in the advanced CKD group and increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels only in the early CKD group. These findings suggest that consuming standard low-protein diet decreased serum FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. Serum FGF23 levels may therefore be a useful marker to monitor the effects of a low-protein diet in early and advanced stage CKD.

  2. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  3. Change of serum prealbumin levels and serum protein markers between egg white powder and casein protein additives in standard enteral feeding formulas in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun; Sa-Nguansai, Sunatee

    2016-01-01

    Protein deficiency is a major problem in critically ill patients. Egg white powder recently became a standard additive for protein supplementation in our unit. However, clinical data are not available to support egg white powder supplementation compared to standard protein casein supplementation. This study aimed to determine the change of serum prealbumin (PAB) levels of egg white powder compared to casein additive in standard enteral feeding in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. A prospective double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority study was conducted in patients with acute respiratory failure in the medical intensive care unit and respiratory care unit. These patients randomly received 1500 kcal/day of enteral nutrition support with 40 g/day of protein additives by either egg white protein powder or casein protein for 7 days. The serum PAB and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined the group effects displayed by serum PAB and CRP levels. p values egg white powder group. The clinical characteristics, baseline nutritional status, and biochemistries were not significantly different between the groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in the serum PAB and serum CRP levels between the two groups. The average mean ± SEM difference of serum PAB level between the groups was 2.3 ± 2.5 mg% (p = 0.58). The levels of PAB between the egg white protein additive and casein protein additive were not significantly different and less than the non-inferior margin. Thai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20160126002.

  4. A probiotic mixture including galactooligosaccharides decreases fecal β-glucosidase activity but does not affect serum enterolactone concentration in men during a two-week intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Holma, Reetta; Hatakka, Katja; Suomalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2011-05-01

    A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 × 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal β-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased β-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal β-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal β-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone.

  5. Quality requirements for vegetables and fruit products in the European Union : training manual, product quality standards including UN-ECE quality standards for unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Baricicova, V.; Dandar, M.; Grzegorzewska, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Szabo, C.; Zmarlicji, K.

    2007-01-01

    This training manual is part of the pilot on agricultural quality standards. The objective of this pilot is the development and testing of a training course on quality requirements. The training manual informs growers and trainers on the basic quality requirements and the relationship of these

  6. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  7. Determination of trace elements in human blood serum and in the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Juergensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    Ag, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn were determined in biological materials by gamma-spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides after long-time irradiation with thermal neutrons. Blood was taken from a vein in the arm of the test person via an indwelling plastic cannula. The serum was separated from other blood components by centrifugation and stored at a temperature of -20 deg C. Ampoules of high purity silica quartz were chosen as irradiation containers. The vials were cleaned by etching with 40% hydrofluoric acid. For the analysis 300 μl of serum were taken. The ampoules were irradiated for 10 days at a thermal neutron flux density of 5.10 13 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . They were then cleaned by etching for 5 min with hydrofluoric acid. The gamma-ray spectra of the irradiated samples were measured twice. From the first spectra, which were obtained 10 days after irradiation, the concentrations of Br and Na were calculated. From the gamma-peaks after a decay time of 3 months Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were tested, using the standard reference material ''Bovine Liver'' and identical serum samples. In the case of blood serum the method proved to be suitable for the determination of Br, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. By analysing samples from several subjects information about element levels in human serum was obtained. (T.G.)

  8. ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (including modifications made in 1986). Summary of contents and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (EN5-ST) released in September 1979. The library contains complete evaluations for all significant neutron reactions in the energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV for H-1, He-3, Li-6, B-10, C-12, Au-197 and U-235 isotopes. In 1986 the files for C-12, Au-197 and U-235 were slightly modified. The entire library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained free of charge from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  9. Search for Non-Standard Model Behavior, including CP Violation, in Higgs Production and Decay to $ZZ^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Jordan

    This thesis presents an ATLAS study of the tensor structure characterizing the interaction of the scalar Higgs boson with two $Z$ bosons. The measurement is based on $25~\\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data produced at the Large Hadron Collider with center of mass energy equal to 7 and $8~\\textrm{TeV}$. Nine discriminant observables in the four lepton final state are used to search for CP-odd and CP-even components in the Lagrangian beyond those of the Standard Model. These are represented by $(\\tilde{\\kappa}_{AVV}/\\kappa_{SM})\\tan\\alpha$ and $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{HVV}/\\kappa_{SM}$, respectively. Both of these parameters are found to be consistent with their predicted Standard Model values of zero. Values outside the intervals $-3.24<(\\tilde{\\kappa}_{AVV}/\\kappa_{SM})\\tan\\alpha<0.91$ and $-0.82<\\tilde{\\kappa}_{HVV}/\\kappa_{SM}<0.87$ are excluded at 95\\% confidence level. These results are combined with a search for the same structure in the interaction of the Higgs with pairs of $W$ boson...

  10. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  11. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  13. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  14. Trans fat feeding results in higher serum alanine aminotransferase and increased insulin resistance compared with a standard murine high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Sean W P; Elias, Marc; Moseley, Richard H; Green, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Diets high in trans fats are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. The influence of these toxic fatty acids on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has not been significantly examined. Therefore, we sought to compare the effect of a murine diet high in trans fat to a standard high-fat diet that is devoid of trans fats but high in saturated fats. Male AKR/J mice were fed a calorically identical trans fat diet or standard high-fat diet for 10 days, 4 wk, and 8 wk. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid, insulin, and leptin levels were determined and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Additionally, hepatic triglyceride content and gene expression of several proinflammatory genes were assessed. By 8 wk, trans fat-fed mice exhibited higher ALT values than standard high-fat-fed mice (126 +/- 16 vs. 71 +/- 7 U/l, P Trans fat-fed mice also had increased insulin resistance compared with high-fat-fed mice at 4 and 8 wk with significantly higher insulin levels and lower QUICKI values. Additionally, hepatic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression was 3.6-fold higher at 4 wk (P trans fat-fed mice compared with standard high-fat-fed mice. Trans fat feeding results in higher ALT values, increased insulin resistance, and elevated IL-1beta levels compared with standard high-fat feeding.

  15. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of a new copper(II) Schiff-base complex and its interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jin-Qi [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Li, Chuan-Hua, E-mail: lichuanhua0526@126.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Dong, Jia-Xin [School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Qu, Wei; Pan, Lan; Peng, Meng-La; Xie, Ming-An; Tao, Xu; Yu, Cheng-Mao; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Ping-Hua; Tang, Chun-Guang [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China)

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • A new copper(II) Valen Schiff-base complex was synthesized and characterized. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the title complex was obtained. • The interaction between the complex and bovine serum albumin was investigated. - Abstract: A new copper(II) Schiff-base complex [Cu(HL)·NO{sub 3}·MeOH] was prepared by using equivalent molar of Valen Schiff-base ligand [H{sub 2}L=N,N′-ethylene-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneimine)] and Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O. The structure of the complex was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on an ideal and feasible thermochemical cycle, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the complex was estimated to be: Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup θ} [Cu(HL)·NO{sub 3}·MeOH(s), 298.15 K] = –(945.40 ± 2.44) kJ mol{sup −1} by an advanced solution-reaction isoperibol calorimeter. In particular, the interaction between the complex and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using the fluorescence quenching method. Fluorescence quenching data showed that the quenching mechanism of BSA treated by the complex was static quenching, which was highly accord with the non-radioactive energy transfer theory. And some relevant parameters such as binding sites, binding distance and intermolecular forces between the complex and BSA were also obtained by analyzing the fluorescence spectral data.

  16. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a microsphere immunoassay for serological leptospirosis diagnosis in human serum by comparison to the current gold standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Wynwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A microsphere immunoassay (MIA utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. The MIA was validated using 200 human samples submitted for routine leptospirosis serology testing. The traditional microscopic agglutination (MAT method (now 100 years old suffers from a significant range of technical problems including a dependence on antisera which is difficult to source and produce, false positive reactions due to auto-agglutination and an inability to differentiate between IgG and IgM antibodies. A comparative validation method of the MIA against the MAT was performed and used to determine the ability of the MIA to detect leptospiral antibodies when compared with the MAT. The assay was able to determine samples in the reactive, equivocal and non-reactive ranges when compared to the MAT and was able to differentiate leptospiral IgG antibodies from leptospiral IgM antibodies. The MIA is more sensitive than the MAT and in true infections was able to detect low levels of antibody in the later stages of the acute phase as well as detect higher levels of IgM antibody earlier in the immune phase of the infection. The relatively low cost, high throughput platform and significantly reduced dependency on large volumes of rabbit antisera make this assay worthy of consideration for any microbiological assay that currently uses agglutination assays.

  18. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  19. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-05

    Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains), the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses) and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 10(9) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi). The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. To detect and quantify a wide range of begomoviruses, five duplex

  20. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lett Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains, the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Results Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 109 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 108 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi. The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. Conclusions To detect and

  1. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Felix Greimel,1 Patrick Auer,2 Florian Zeman,3 Antje Göttermann,4 Joachim Grifka,1 Winfried Meissner,4 Frederik von Kunow1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, 2Clinic for anesthesia, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 3Centre for Clinical Studies, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Background: The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking.Methods: All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA. Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS. A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward.Results: From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0 on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2. Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0, whereas patient satisfaction

  2. Revisions to the 2009 American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards: expanding the scope to include inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joseph O; Polovich, Martha; Gilmore, Terry R; Schulmeister, Lisa; Esper, Peg; Lefebvre, Kristine B; Neuss, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    In November 2009, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) jointly published a set of 31 voluntary chemotherapy safety standards for adult patients with cancer, as the end result of a highly structured, multistakeholder process. The standards were explicitly created to address patient safety in the administration of parenteral and oral chemotherapeutic agents in outpatient oncology settings. In January 2011, a workgroup consisting of ASCO and ONS members was convened to review feedback received since publication of the standards, to address interim changes in practice, and to modify the standards as needed. The most significant change to the standards is to extend their scope to the inpatient setting. This change reflects the conviction that the same standards for chemotherapy administration safety should apply in all settings. The proposed set of standards has been approved by the Board of Directors for both ASCO and ONS and has been posted for public comment. Comments were used as the basis for final editing of the revised standards. The workgroup recognizes that the safety of oral chemotherapy usage, nononcology medication reconciliation, and home chemotherapy administration are not adequately addressed in the original or revised standards. A separate process, cosponsored by ASCO and ONS, will address the development of safety standards for these areas.

  3. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  4. Head-to-Head Comparison of Serum Fractionation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zhang, Heidi; Eng, Jimmy K.; Fang, Ruihua; Piening, Brian D.; Feng, Li-Chia; lorentzen, Travis D.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Keane, John F.; Holzman, Ted; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Lin, Chen Wei; Zhang, Hui; Cooke, Kelly; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Leigh N.; Watts, Julian; Smith, Richard D.; McIntosh, Martin; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2007-02-01

    Multiple approaches for simplifying the serum proteome have been described. These techniques are generally developed across different laboratories, samples, mass spectrometry platforms, and analysis tools. Hence, comparing the available schemes is impossible from the existing literature because of confounding variables. We describe a head-to-head comparison of several serum fractionation schemes, including N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, magnetic bead separation (C3, C8, and WCX), size fractionation, Protein A/G depletion, and immunoaffinity column depletion of abundant serum proteins. Each technique was compared to results obtained from unfractionated human serum. The results show immunoaffinity subtraction is the most effective means for simplifying the serum proteome and maintaining reasonable sample throughput. The reported dataset is publicly available and provides a standard against which emergent technologies can be compared and evaluated for their contribution to serum-based biomarker discovery.

  5. Dynamics of Serum Pepsinogens on the Background of Double Standard Doses of Omeprazole in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Functional Gastric Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Melashchenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In literature it has been reported that concentrations of serum pepsinogens increase during administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPI. However, the magnitude of these changes is still to be assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in levels of pepsinogen I (PG-1 and pepsinogen II (PG-2 on the background of therapy with omeprazole which has been administered before breakfast in double standard dose (40 mg. The regimen of PPI administration completely corresponds to conventional PPI-test. There were two groups of patients: 1st one (gastroesophageal reflux desiase — 10 women and 9 men, mean age (52.37 ± 3.25 years; 2nd one (functional dyspepsia — 11 women and 8 men, mean age (48.37 ± 3.56 years. It was found that in 1st group PGI rises from (141.90 ± 7.99 mcg/l to (177.61 ± 7.81 mcg/l, in 2nd group — from (115.02 ± 10.16 mcg/l to (152.37 ± 12.33 mcg/l (p < 0.05. PG-2 level changes in the same. In 1st group PG-2 rises from (21.65 ± 3.13 mcg/l to (32.64 ± 3.42 mcg/l, in 2nd group — from (14.84 ± 1.64 mcg/l to (23.55 ± 2.37 mcg/l (p < 0.05. In 6 cases absolute increase of PGI (ΔPG-2 didn’t reach threshold of 7.0 mcg/l considered by us as level of insufficient acid inhibition. Two of these patients had atrophic gastritis (PG-1 < 50 mcg/l; ratio PG-/PG-2 < 3.0, rest 4 patients didn’t have atrophic gastritis but in half cases they hadn’t adequate answer to PPI administration. There was a significant correlation between increase of PG-1 level and disappearance of reflux complaints evaluated by dynamics in RS-cluster of GSRS-questionnaire.

  6. Standard and routine metabolic rates of juvenile sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus), including the effects of body mass and acute temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd, William Wesley; Brill, R W; Bushnell, P G; Musick, J A

    2006-01-01

    Standard and routine metabolic rates (SMRs and RMRs, respectively) of juvenile sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus) were measured over a range of body sizes (n=34) and temperatures normally associated with western Atlantic coastal nursery areas. The mean SMR Q(10) (increase in metabolic rate with temperature) was 2.9 +/- 0.2. Heart rate decreased with increasing body mass but increased with temperature at a Q(10) of 1.8-2.2. Self-paired measures of SMR and RMR were obtained for 15 individua...

  7. Hemograma e perfil bioquímico sérico, inclusive hemogasométrico, de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin Blood cell counts and serum biochemical profile, including blood gas levels, in Salmonella Dublin-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o hemograma e o perfil bioquímico sérico, inclusive hemogasométrico, de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin. Foram utilizados 12 bezerros sadios da raça Holandesa com 10 a 15 dias de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais: grupo-controle (n= 6 e grupo infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin (n=6. Os bezerros foram submetidos ao exame físico diário, e as amostras de sangue foram coletadas minutos antes da inoculação (0h e 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 e 168h após a inoculação. Além do hemograma e das análises hemogasométricas, foram mensuradas as atividades séricas das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (ALP, creatina cinase (CK, gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT e lactato desidrogenase (LDH, e os teores de albumina, bilirrubinas, cálcio total, cálcio ionizado, sódio, potássio, cloretos, creatinina, ferro, fibrinogênio, fósforo, glicose, magnésio, proteína totais e ureia. As principais alterações foram: redução das concentrações de albumina, ferro, glicose, magnésio e proteína total, aumento do teor de fibrinogênio, leucocitose e acidose metabólica e hiponatremia.The blood cell counts and biochemical profile, including blood gas levels, were evaluated, in Salmonella Dublin-infected calves. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups: control (n=6 and group orally infected with 10(8 CFU Salmonella Dublin (n=6. The calves were submitted to physical examination and the blood samples were taken just before the inoculation (0h and at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168h later. Besides, blood cell counts, blood gas levels, and the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT, lactate desidrogenase (LDH, albumin, bilirubin, total calcium, ionic calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, creatinine

  8. A risk score including microdeletions improves relapse prediction for standard and medium risk precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rosemary; Venn, Nicola C; Law, Tamara; Boer, Judith M; Trahair, Toby N; Ng, Anthea; Den Boer, Monique L; Dissanayake, Anuruddhika; Giles, Jodie E; Dalzell, Pauline; Mayoh, Chelsea; Barbaric, Draga; Revesz, Tamas; Alvaro, Frank; Pieters, Rob; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Schrappe, Martin; Dalla Pozza, Luciano; Marshall, Glenn M

    2018-02-01

    To prevent relapse, high risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is treated very intensively. However, most patients who eventually relapse have standard or medium risk ALL with low minimal residual disease (MRD) levels. We analysed recurrent microdeletions and other clinical prognostic factors in a cohort of 475 uniformly treated non-high risk precursor B-cell ALL patients with the aim of better predicting relapse and refining risk stratification. Lower relapse-free survival at 7 years (RFS) was associated with IKZF1 intragenic deletions (P 5 × 10 -5 (P < 0·0001) and High National Cancer Institute (NCI) risk (P < 0·0001). We created a predictive model based on a risk score (RS) for deletions, MRD and NCI risk, extending from an RS of 0 (RS0) for patients with no unfavourable factors to RS2 +  for patients with 2 or 3 high risk factors. RS0, RS1, and RS2 +  groups had RFS of 93%, 78% and 49%, respectively, and overall survival (OS) of 99%, 91% and 71%. The RS provided greater discrimination than MRD-based risk stratification into standard (89% RFS, 96% OS) and medium risk groups (79% RFS, 91% OS). We conclude that this RS may enable better early therapeutic stratification and thus improve cure rates for childhood ALL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of a non-linear method for including the mass uncertainty of gravimetric standards and system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves for XRFA freeze-dried UNO3 standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-05-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s

  10. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, inclu...

  11. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  12. Characterization of murine anti-human Fab antibodies for use in an immunoassay for generic quantification of human Fab fragments in non-human serum samples including cynomolgus monkey samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Wessels, Uwe; Essig, Ulrich; Kowalewsky, Frank; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Generic immunoassay formats in animal serum have been described for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of human full-length antibodies, but not of human antigen binding fragment (Fab) proteins. Here we characterize two murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) raised against human immunoglobulin G (IgG) which bind to unique epitopes in the Fab region of human IgG. mAb M-1.7.10 is directed against the constant domain of the kappa light chain and mAb M-1.19.31 binds to the constant domain 1 (CH1) of the heavy chain. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that mAb M-1.7.10 does not cross-react with sera from mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, marmoset, rhesus macaque, baboon and cynomolgus monkey, but binds to human and chimpanzee serum (dissociation constant K(D) of 6.8 × 10(-12) and 3.1 × 10(-11)M, respectively). mAb M-1.19.31 shows a higher K(D) for human and chimpanzee IgG (2.0 × 10(-9)M and 5.8 × 10(-10)M, respectively), but also does not bind to serum of the other species. Therefore, mAb M-1.7.10 was used as capture and mAb M-1.19.31 as detection reagent in a generic enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the human anti-IGF-1R Fab in mouse serum. The generic human Fab assay showed a limit of detection of 31.5 ng/mL anti-IGF-1R Fab. Intra- and inter-assay precision was less than 12% and the accuracy range for all controls was within ±20% of the target concentration. The generic human Fab ELISA was applied to determine serum levels of human anti-IGF-1R Fab after intravenous (iv) administration of 10mg/kg to mice. The resulting concentration-time profile was nearly identical to that obtained by analysis with a validated specific ELISA for anti-IGF-1R Fab. The mean relative concentration of anti-IGF-1R Fab analyzed by the generic assay was 82-118% of that of the specific assay. This equivalence was confirmed in a cynomolgus monkey study with the full length human mAb anti-TROP-2 IgG. Both specific ELISAs used mAb M-1.7.10 as detection reagent and their targets for

  13. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  14. Increased serum urea and creatinine levels correlate with decreased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Khushboo; Saxena, Sandeep; Mahdi, Abbas A; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Correlation of increased levels of serum urea and creatinine with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was studied in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Sixty consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls were included. Cases were divided into three groups: without DR, non-proliferative DR with macular oedema and proliferative DR with oedema. Serum urea and creatinine were measured using a standard protocol. Average (RNFL) was measured using SD-OCT. Increased severity of DR was associated with decrease in levels of serum urea and serum creatinine levels. RNFL thinning correlated positively with increase in serum urea and creatinine levels.

  15. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  16. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after using nicotine transdermal delivery systems with standard heat application in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Inas A; Hammell, Dana C; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Hassan, Hazem E

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in human serum samples. Liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate was employed for serum sample extractions. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Phenomenex Luna(®) HILIC column (150 mm x 3.0mm, 5 μm). Isocratic elution was performed using acetonitrile:100mM ammonium formate buffer (pH=3.2) (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was employed at positive electrospray ionization in MRM mode for the determination of both nicotine and cotinine and their stable isotope labeled internal standards. Analysis was carried out in 8 min over a concentration range of 0.26-52.5 ng/mL and 7.0-1500 ng/mL for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The assay was validated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained; the accuracy ranged between 93.39% and 105.73% for nicotine and between 93.04% and 107.26% for cotinine. No significant matrix effect was observed. Stability assays indicated both nicotine and cotinine were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytical procedures. The method was successfully applied to biological samples obtained from a pharmacokinetic study conducted in adult smokers to investigate heat effect on nicotine and cotinine serum levels after nicotine transdermal delivery system (TDS) application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  18. A Closer Look at Evolution: Variants (SNPs) of Genes Involved in Skin Pigmentation, Including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, Are Associated With 25(OH)D Serum Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saternus, R.; Pilz, S.; Graber, S.; Kleber, M.; Marz, W.; Vogt, T.; Reichrath, J.

    2015-01-01

    VitaminDdeficiency iscommonin the Caucasian populationandis associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, andautoimmunediseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitaminDstatus, such as

  19. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules.

  1. Protein standardization III: Method optimization basic principles for quantitative determination of human serum proteins on automated instruments based on turbidimetry or nephelometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blirup-Jensen, S

    2001-11-01

    Quantitative protein determinations in routine laboratories are today most often carried out using automated instruments. However, slight variations in the assay principle, in the programming of the instrument or in the reagents may lead to different results. This has led to the prerequisite of method optimization and standardization. The basic principles of turbidimetry and nephelometry are discussed. The different reading principles are illustrated and investigated. Various problems are identified and a suggestion is made for an integrated, fast and convenient test system for the determination of a number of different proteins on the same instrument. An optimized test system for turbidimetry and nephelometry should comprise high-quality antibodies, calibrators, controls, and buffers and a protocol with detailed parameter settings in order to program the instrument correctly. A good user program takes full advantage of the optimal reading principles for the different instruments. This implies--for all suitable instruments--sample preincubation followed by real sample blanking, which automatically corrects for initial turbidity in the sample. Likewise it is recommended to measure the reagent blank, which represents any turbidity caused by the antibody itself. By correcting all signals with these two blank values the best possible signal is obtained for the specific analyte. An optimized test system should preferably offer a wide measuring range combined with a wide security range, which for the user means few re-runs and maximum security against antigen excess. A non-linear calibration curve based on six standards is obtained using a suitable mathematical fitting model, which normally is part of the instrument software.

  2. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  3. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  4. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  5. Preparation of rat serum suitable for mammalian whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Makino, Sayaka; Kikkawa, Takako; Osumi, Noriko

    2014-08-03

    Mammalian whole embryo culture (WEC) is a widely used technique for examining pharmacological toxicity in developing mouse and rat embryos and for investigating the mechanisms of developmental processes. Immediately centrifuged (IC) rat serum is commonly used for WEC and is essential for the growth and development of cultured mouse and rat embryos ex vivo. For the culture of midgestation embryos (i.e., E8.0-12.5 for the mouse, and E10.0-14.5 for the rat), 100% rat serum is the best media for supporting the growth of the embryo ex vivo. To prepare rat serum suitable for WEC, the collected blood should be centrifuged immediately to separate the blood cells from the plasma fraction. After centrifugation, the fibrin clot forms in the upper layer; this clot should be squeezed gently using a pair of sterile forceps and subsequently centrifuged to completely separate the blood cells from the serum. In this video article, we demonstrate our standard protocol for the preparation of optimal IC rat serum, including blood collection from the abdominal aorta of male rats and extraction of the serum by centrifugation.

  6. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  7. An analysis on the roles of angiogenesis-related factors including serum vitamin D, soluble endoglin (sEng), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the diagnosis and severity of late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cim, Numan; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Ege, Serhat; Yoruk, Ibrahim; Yaman, Gorkem; Yildizhan, Recep

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of proangiogenic factors including serum vitamin D and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-angiogenic factors including soluble endoglin (sEng) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) in the diagnosis and severity of late-onset preeclampsia. The study was conducted at Yuzuncu Yil University Research and Education Hospital Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study included a patient group of 40 women with late-onset preeclampsia who were pregnant at ≥32 weeks of gestation according to the last menstrual period (LMP) or ultrasonographic fetal biometric measurement and a control group of 40 healthy pregnant women who presented to our clinic for routine pregnancy examination and were at the same age and gestational period with those in the patient group. The two groups were compared in terms of maternal age, gravida, parity, week of gestation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total protein in spot urine sample, 24-h urine protein, white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), platelet count, urea, creatinine, liver function tests (AST, ALT, LDH), vitamin D 3 , 25(OH) vitamin D 3 , 1,25(OH) vitamin D 3 , sEng, sFlt1, and VEGF levels, mode of delivery, the infant APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after delivery, and infant weight at delivery. The groups were similar in terms of age, gravida, parity, week of gestation, serum vitamin D 3 , 25(OH) vitamin D 3 , 1,25(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 and VEGF levels, and infant weight at delivery (p > 0.05). Systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total protein in spot urine sample, 24-h urine protein, WBC, Hgb, serum urea, creatine, AST, ALT, and LDH were significantly higher in the preeclamptic group compared to the healthy group (p preeclampsia compared to the women with mild preeclampsia (p preeclampsia (p > 0.05). Both sEng and sFlt1 levels are remarkably high in patients with late-onset preeclampsia; however, only sEng may be a useful tool in the

  8. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  9. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  10. Albumin-based or albumin-linked calibrators cause a positive bias in serum proteins assayed by the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Sváchová, Lenka; Novosád, Lukás; Jarkovský, Jirí; Sedlák, Pavel; Horák, Petr; Dobrovolná, Hana; Hlavácová, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    Assay of total serum protein by the biuret method calibrated with albumin standards according to the reference method provides results with a positive bias approximately 3%-5% exceeding the total error of 3.4% allowable for total protein in serum analysis made by analysers using two-part reagents and short-term procedures. We used two types of two-part biuret reagents utilised in a short-term measurement in analysers with albumin or serum calibrators, in which protein was attested by the Kjeldahl method. Tests with potentially interfering substances proved that serum blanking used in a short-term biuret procedure is not capable of sufficiently eliminating effects of serum interferents. A short-term blanking is evidently capable of suppressing only an absorbance caused by serum-present coloured and turbid interferents, but its capacity to transform them (oxidise, hydrolyse, saponify, etc.) to some other not-interfering substances is very low compared with a long-term blanking. Lipids and bilirubin are responsible for significant positive bias of total protein in normal serum samples (approximately 3%) and even a greater positive offset in lipaemic and icteric sera (approximately 5%). We verified that interference tests based on a normal serum spiked with endogenous lipids and bilirubin give quite false and misleading results in the biuret reaction. A pure albumin, not depending on its bovine/human origin, gives absorbance responding only to its copper complexes with protein with a biuret regent, while its absorbance with a serum also includes the absorbance of interferents present in serum. The simplest way to improve current short-term biuret procedures is the use of a human serum calibrator with total protein attested by the Kjeldahl method. A serum calibrator, behaving analogously to serum samples, compensates for a positive bias in most normal sera. Reagents with a greater concentration of active biuret components (copper and alkali, reference method included

  11. Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate – comparison between serum creatinine, cystatin c and calculated creatinine clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hojs

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing emphasis on the earlier detection and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD, estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR has assumed greater importance. GFR is often estimated from serum creatinine, recently also from serum cystatin C and by Cockcroft-Gault (C&G and Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD formulas. In our study different markers of GFR were compared with gold standard 51CrEDTA clearance.Patients and methods: We included 468 patients with CKD stages 2–5 (216 women and 252 men, average age 60.4 ± 14.3 years, who performed 51CrEDTA clearance. In each patient, serum creatinine and cystatin C were determined, creatinine clearance was calculated using C&G and MDRD formulas.Results: We found significant correlation between 51CrEDTA clearance with serum creatinine (r = –0.889, reciprocal of serum creatinine (r = 0.866, serum cystatin C (r = –0.902, reciprocal of serum cystatin C (r = 0.901 and with calculated creatinine clearance from C&G (r = 0.808 and MDRD formulas (r = 0.901. The ROC curve analysis (cut–off for GFR 60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed that serum cystatin C had higher diagnostic accuracy than serum creatinine (P = 0.006 and calculated creatinine clearance from C&G formula (P = 0.004. No difference in diagnostic accuracy was found between serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance calculated from the MDRD formula.Conclusions: Serum cystatin C is a better marker of GFR and has a higher diagnostic accuracy than serum creatinine and calculated creatinine clearance from C&G formula. No difference in diagnostic accuracy was found between serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance calculated from the MDRD formula.

  12. Equine dendritic cells generated with horse serum have enhanced functionality in comparison to dendritic cells generated with fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Anja; Everett, Helen; Hamza, Eman; Garbani, Mattia; Gerber, Vinzenz; Marti, Eliane; Steinbach, Falko

    2016-11-15

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in the initiation and modulation of T cell responses. They have been studied widely for their potential clinical applications, but for clinical use to be successful, alternatives to xenogeneic substances like fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture need to be found. Protocols for the generation of dendritic cells ex vivo from monocytes are well established for several species, including horses. Currently, the gold standard protocol for generating dendritic cells from monocytes across various species relies upon a combination of GM-CSF and IL-4 added to cell culture medium which is supplemented with FBS. The aim of this study was to substitute FBS with heterologous horse serum. For this purpose, equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (eqMoDC) were generated in the presence of horse serum or FBS and analysed for the effect on morphology, phenotype and immunological properties. Changes in the expression of phenotypic markers (CD14, CD86, CD206) were assessed during dendritic cell maturation by flow cytometry. To obtain a more complete picture of the eqMoDC differentiation and assess possible differences between FBS- and horse serum-driven cultures, a transcriptomic microarray analysis was performed. Lastly, immature eqMoDC were primed with a primary antigen (ovalbumin) or a recall antigen (tetanus toxoid) and, after maturation, were co-cultured with freshly isolated autologous CD5 + T lymphocytes to assess their T cell stimulatory capacity. The microarray analysis demonstrated that eqMoDC generated with horse serum were indistinguishable from those generated with FBS. However, eqMoDC incubated with horse serum-supplemented medium exhibited a more characteristic dendritic cell morphology during differentiation from monocytes. A significant increase in cell viability was also observed in eqMoDC cultured with horse serum. Furthermore, eqMoDC generated in the presence of horse serum

  13. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm Serum globulin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins ...

  14. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  16. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  17. A novel radioassay for the determination of folate in serum and red cells and new observations on the stability of serum folate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, E.P.J.; Tovey, K.C.; Guilford, H.

    1977-01-01

    A Competitive Protein Binding assay for the determination of folate in serum and red cells has been developed. The assay has been fully validated in hospital trials and comparisons have been made with the microbiological assay. We have based the standardization of the radioassay on N 5 -methyltetrahydrofolate (N 5 -MTHF) as this is the predominant folate derivative in serum samples. At about pH 9.5 pteroylglutamic acid (PGA) and N 5 -MTHF demonstrate the same affinity for folate binding proteins. Therefore, many folate assays have adopted PGA largely because of the popular belief that N 5 -MTHF is highly unstable. However, we have demonstrated that N 5 -MTHF in serum standards is surprisingly stable at -20 0 C. All the reagents for the assay (including the N 5 -MTHF standards) have shown perfectly acceptable stability, permitting their storage for at least three weeks at -20 0 C and one week at 4 0 C. Evidence will be presented to support the use of N 5 -MTHF as being the more appropriate standard. Folate in human serum samples is stable even at room temperature in the presence of 0.1% sodium azide. (orig./AJ) [de

  18. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  19. An immunoradiometric assay for Helicobacter pylori urease B in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanyan; Wang Zhaoyue; Bai Xia; Ruan Changgen; Miao Jingcheng; Gu Guanbing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a novel immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detecting helicobacter pylori (HP) urease B (ureB) in serum. Methods: HP ureB was prepared by the DNA recombinant technique. Monoclonal antibodies against HP ureB were produced by hybridoma technique and were used to establish IRMA for detecting HP ureB. Fifty patients with chronic gastric diseases were recruited in this study, including 36 with gastric ulcer disease, 9 with chronic gastritis and 5 with gastric cancer. The IRMA was compared with rapid urease test (RUT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and direct-ELISA test of serum anti-ureB antibody, using HP culture from gastric biopsy samples as a 'golden standard'. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of IRMA for HP ureB were 94.6% and 76.9%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values being 92.1% and 83.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of RUT, PCR and serum anti-ureB antibody test were 94.6% and 23.1% , 66.8% and 84.6%, 86.5% and 38.5%, respectively. IRMA and the test of serum anti-ureB antibody was not significantly different from the 'golden standard' (X 2 =1.165, P>0.05), but RUT and PCR showed statistically significant difference with the 'gold standard' (X 2 =5.333, 9.436; all P<0.05). Conclusion: IRMA for HP ureB antigen is a sensitive and specific method for detection of HP infection, and can be used in the study of etiology and pathogenesis of gastric and some other related diseases. (authors)

  20. Simple way to determine nonspecific effects of plasma and serum components in radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.V.; Hussa, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    A simple approach is validated for the determination of nonspecific effects of human plasma and serum in the radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The approach is based on the findings that, despite differences in the degree of inhibition of 125 I-hCG binding to its receptors and antibodies by nonhormonal components in different dilutions of pool plasma and serum, the standard curves (plotted as the percentage of control for each serum or plasma dilution) are superimposable. The approach consists of (1) running a single standard curve with no pool plasma or serum, (2) including a set of ''correction'' tubes which contain pool plasma or serum diluted correspondingly to the dilution of the unknown samples in the assay, (3) dividing the counts per minute found in the correction tubes into the counts per minute of the unknown samples and multiplying by 100, and (4) using this value to obtain the amount of hCG in the unknown samples by comparison with the no pool plasma or serum standard curve

  1. Simple way to determine nonspecific effects of plasma and serum components in radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.V.; Hussa, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    A simple approach is validated for the determination of nonspecific effects of human plasma and serum in the radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The approach is based on the findings that, despite differences in the degree of inhibition of 125 I-hCG binding to its receptors and antibodies by nonhormonal components in different dilutions of pool plasma and serum, the standard curves (plotted as the percentage of control for each serum or plasma dilution) are superimposable. The approach consists of (1) running a single standard curve with no pool plasma or serum, (2) including a set of correction tubes which contain pool plasma or serum diluted correspondingly to the dilution of the unknown samples in the assay, (3) dividing the counts per minute found in the correction tubes into the counts per minute of the unknown samples and multiplying by 100, and (4) using this value to obtain the amount of hCG in the unknown samples by comparison with the no pool plasma or serum standard curve

  2. Routine serum creatinine measurements: how well do we perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, Liesbeth; Deiteren, Kathleen; Pottel, Hans; Callewaert, Nico; Martens, Frank

    2015-02-14

    The first aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy and intra-laboratory variation of serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories in Flanders. The second purpose was to check the effect of this variation in serum creatinine concentration results on the calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the impact on classification of patients into a chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage. 26 routine instruments were included, representing 13 different types of analyzers from 6 manufacturers and covering all current methodologies (Jaffe, compensated Jaffe, enzymatic liquid and dry chemistry methods). Target values of five serum pools (creatinine concentrations ranging from 35 to 934 μmol/L) were assigned by the gold standard method (ID-GC/MS). Intra-run CV (%) (n = 5) and bias (%) from the target values were higher for low creatinine concentrations. Especially Jaffe and enzymatic dry chemistry methods showed a higher error. The calculated eGFR values corresponding with the reported creatinine concentration ranges resulted in a different CKD classification in 47% of cases. Although most creatinine assays claim to be traceable to the gold standard (ID-GC/MS), large inter-assay differences still exist. The inaccuracy in the lower concentration range is of particular concern and may lead to clinical misinterpretation when the creatinine-based eGFR of the patient is used for CKD staging. Further research to improve harmonization between methods is required.

  3. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  4. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  5. Online Serum PFOA Calculator for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Scott M

    2017-10-24

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been detected in >100 public water systems in the United States alone. A variety of epidemiological investigations of PFOA have been published, mostly using measured or modeled serum PFOA concentrations as the exposure metric. Comparison of drinking water PFOA concentrations to those study findings or to typical serum concentrations requires pharmacokinetic modeling. This brief communication describes an online Javascript calculator that easily plots the expected serum PFOA concentration over time and at steady state for adults after starting or stopping consumption of PFOA-contaminated water. Two examples of usage are provided, including increasing serum PFOA after ongoing consumption of contaminated water at the federal limit, and decreasing serum PFOA after carbon filtration began in a contaminated water system. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2820.

  6. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  7. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although various factors including foods and physical conditions have been reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+2+ in dogs at different conditions using the guide dog candidates for the blind. Serum Mg2+ was decreased in winter and increased in summer. Guide dog candidates in an elementary ...

  8. Serum thyroglobulin in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement. The limitations of Tg immunoassay are well described and include potential interference from TgAb. For the majority of patients with DTC who are TgAb-negative, Tg measurement remains the most useful method of follow-up. For the TgAb-positive minority, interference and the possibility of producing erroneous results is a concern. Some assays are less badly affected than others and laboratories are advised to choose their assays carefully. Laboratories have sought to identify interferences using measurement of TgAb, lack of concordance between RIAs and immunometric assays and recovery of added Tg. More recently LC-MSMS assays to quantify Tg have been developed. They are not currently as sensitive as Tg immunoassays and it is likely these assays will, like immunoassays, be limited by Tg heterogeneity and standardization issues, although initial evaluations indicate that they may have value in the clinical setting as a second line test in antibody-positive DTC patients in whom Tg is unmeasurable by immunoassay.

  9. Serum calcium levels are associated with novel cardiometabolic risk factors in the population-based CoLaus study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of serum calcium levels with the metabolic syndrome and other novel cardio-metabolic risk factors not classically included in the metabolic syndrome, such as those involved in oxidative stress, are largely unexplored. We analyzed the association of albumin-corrected serum calcium levels with conventional and non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors in a general adult population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The CoLaus study is a population-based study including Caucasians from Lausanne, Switzerland. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors considered included: fat mass, leptin, LDL particle size, apolipoprotein B, fasting insulin, adiponectin, ultrasensitive CRP, serum uric acid, homocysteine, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. We used adjusted standardized multivariable regression to compare the association of each cardio-metabolic risk factor with albumin-corrected serum calcium. We assessed associations of albumin-corrected serum calcium with the cumulative number of non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors. We analyzed 4,231 subjects aged 35 to 75 years. Corrected serum calcium increased with both the number of the metabolic syndrome components and the number of non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors, independently of the metabolic syndrome and BMI. Among conventional and non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors, the strongest positive associations were found for factors related to oxidative stress (uric acid, homocysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Adiponectin had the strongest negative association with corrected serum calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum calcium was associated with the metabolic syndrome and with non-conventional cardio-metabolic risk factors independently of the metabolic syndrome. Associations with uric acid, homocysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase were the strongest. These

  10. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  11. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  12. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  13. Synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and body mass on serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Tomé, Santiago; Fernandez-Merino, Carmen; Rey, Jesus; Meijide, Luis; Gude, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Cytokeratin-18 is an essential component of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells (including hepatocytes). Serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen [TPS]) are used as a marker of epithelial neoplasms. Here, we investigated the potential interaction between alcohol and obesity in relation to serum TPS concentrations. Alcohol consumption, body mass index, and components of metabolic syndrome were measured in a random sample (n = 420) of the adult population (aged 18 to 92 years, 45% men) from a single municipality. Regular alcohol intake of >20 g/d (women) or >30 g/d (men) was considered risky drinking. Serum TPS was measured with a commercial immunoassay. Risky drinking was associated with increased serum concentrations of TPS, which was particularly evident among obese individuals. Among individuals without risky drinking, TPS concentrations were similar for all levels of body mass. Conversely, among risky drinkers, serum TPS concentrations increased in parallel with body mass (p = 0.002). The odds ratio of a high (>100 U/l) TPS concentration for the combination of risky drinking and obesity was greater than the additive effect of the 2 separate factors, after adjusting for age and sex. A similar interaction was observed between risky drinking and abdominal adiposity, a major component of the metabolic syndrome. Serum TPS concentrations were correlated with markers of liver damage. Serum TPS was not superior to standard markers (gamma-glutamyl transferase and red blood cell mean volume) for the detection of risky drinking. There is a synergism between risky alcohol consumption and common metabolic disorders (particularly obesity) in relation to serum concentrations of cytokeratin-18 (TPS), which probably reflect liver disease. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Performance of serum-supplemented and serum-free media in IFNgamma Elispot Assays for human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetzki, Sylvia; Price, L; Britten, C M; van der Burg, S H; Caterini, J; Currier, J R; Ferrari, G; Gouttefangeas, C; Hayes, P; Kaempgen, E; Lennerz, V; Nihlmark, K; Souza, V; Hoos, A

    2010-04-01

    The choice of serum for supplementation of media for T cell assays and in particular, Elispot has been a major challenge for assay performance, standardization, optimization, and reproducibility. The Assay Working Group of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium (CVC-CRI) has recently identified the choice of serum to be the leading cause for variability and suboptimal performance in large international Elispot proficiency panels. Therefore, a serum task force was initiated to compare the performance of commercially available serum-free media to laboratories' own medium/serum combinations. The objective of this project was to investigate whether a serum-free medium exists that performs as well as lab-own serum/media combinations with regard to antigen-specific responses and background reactivity in Elispot. In this way, a straightforward solution could be provided to address the serum challenge. Eleven laboratories tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from four donors for their reactivity against two peptide pools, following their own Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). Each laboratory performed five simultaneous experiments with the same SOP, the only difference between the experiments was the medium used. The five media were lab-own serum-supplemented medium, AIM-V, CTL, Optmizer, and X-Vivo. The serum task force results demonstrate compellingly that serum-free media perform as well as qualified medium/serum combinations, independent of the applied SOP. Recovery and viability of cells are largely unaffected by serum-free conditions even after overnight resting. Furthermore, one serum-free medium was identified that appears to enhance antigen-specific IFNgamma-secretion.

  15. In vitro inhibition of the paraoxonase from human serum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... at 595 nm according to Bradford (Bradford, 1976), with bovine se- rum albumin as a standard. Purification of paraoxonase. Human serum was isolated from 50 ml fresh human blood and put into a dry tube. For this, the blood samples were centrifuged at. 1500 rpm for 15 min and the serum was removed.

  16. Adequacy of a hospital-wide standard dose of 7mg/kg bodyweight gentamicin sufficient to achieve an adequate prophylactic maximum serum concentration (Cmax) in burn patients undergoing surgical burn wound treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, L.C.P.; Bosch, T.M.; Baar, M.E. van; Dokter, J.; Oen, I.M.; Ruijgrok, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetics of drugs can be significantly altered in burn patients. The aim of our study was to validate if the current hospital-wide standard dosage of 7mg/kg total bodyweight gentamicin is sufficient to achieve an adequate prophylactic Cmax (Cmax>/=20mg/L). MATERIALS AND

  17. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  18. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Studies on the 2-site immunoradiometric assay of serum ferritin and its applications for diagnosis of iron deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Junichi; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    1980-01-01

    The 2-site immunoradiometric assay using paper discs as a solid phase material was established for the measurement of serum ferritin. The standard curve was found the range from 0.5ng -- 500ng ferritin per ml and the sensitivity limit of the assay was 0.1ng ferritin per ml. The clinical value of serum ferritin assay was then investigated for diagnosis of iron deficiency. The mean serum ferritin concentrations of normal subjects were greater for males (119.8+-55.5ng/ml) than for females (56.5+-55.5ng/ml) although this sex difference was not distinct beyond the age of 45. All 15 patients with iron deficient anemia had serum ferritin concentrations below the normal range, whereas in other anemias including anemia associated with chronic inflammation, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, serum ferritin concentrations were normal oe elevated. In 116 apparently normal subjects, 13.8% of total females had abnormally low serum ferritin concentrations with normal hemoglobin levels. The cytochrome c oxidase activity of peripheral leucocytes from those subjects were generally depleted. Most of them frequently suffered from easy fatiguability, weakness, and dizziness and these complications were clearly relieved by the administration of iron. Measurement of serum ferritin was found to be quite useful for diagnosis and assessment of iron deficient states. (author)

  1. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Individuals Aged 75 Years or Older: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Hua, C; Sun, H; Qin, L-Y; Niu, P-P; Guo, Z-N; Yang, Y

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum uric acid level and the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older. Case-control study. In a teaching hospital. Five hundred and sixty-four elderlies (75 years or above) who underwent general health screening in our hospital were enrolled. The detailed carotid ultrasound results, physical examination information, medical history, and laboratory test results including serum uric acid level were recorded, these data were used to analyze the relationship between serum uric acid level and carotid atherosclerosis. Then, subjects who underwent the second carotid ultrasound 1.5-2 years later were further identified to analyzed the relationship between serum uric acid and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 564 subjects were included, carotid plaque was found in 482 (85.5%) individuals. Logistic regression showed that subjects with elevated serum uric acid (expressed per 1 standard deviation change) had significantly higher incidence of carotid plaque (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.75; P= 0.012) after controlling for other factors. A total of 236 subjects underwent the follow-up carotid ultrasound. Linear regression showed that serum uric acid level (expressed per 1 standard deviation change; 1 standard deviation = 95.5 μmol/L) was significantly associated with percentage of change of plaque score (P = 0.008). Multivariable linear regression showed that 1 standard deviation increase in serum uric acid levels was expected to increase 0.448% of plaque score (P = 0.023). The elevated serum uric acid level may be independently and significantly associated with the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older.

  2. Diet-induced obesity suppresses ghrelin in rat gastrointestinal tract and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ibrahim; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Guzel, Saadet Pilten; Catak, Zekiye; Ozercan, Mehmet Resat

    2011-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine ghrelin expression in serum and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tissues, and to measure tissue ghrelin levels and obesity-related alterations in some serum biochemical variables in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). The study included 12 male rats, 60 days old. The rats were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 6). Rats in the DIO group were fed a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity, while those in the control group were fed on standard rat pellets. After a 12 week diet program including an adaptation period all rats were decapitated, tissues were individually fixed, ghrelin expression was examined by immunohistochemistry , and tissue and serum ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum biochemical variables were measured using an autoanalyzer. When the baseline and week 12 body mass index and GIT ghrelin expression were compared between DIO and control rats, BMI had increased and ghrelin expression decreased due to obesity. The RIA results were consistent with these findings. Serum glucose, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels were elevated and HDL cholesterol significantly decreased in the DIO group. A comparison of GIT tissues between the control and obese groups demonstrated that ghrelin was decreased in all tissues of the latter. This decrease was brought about a decline in the circulating ghrelin pool. This suggests that rather than being associated with a change in a single tissue, obesity is a pathological condition in which ghrelin expression is changed in all tissues.

  3. National serum bio bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, F.; Facchiano, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian Bio bank is hosted at 'Ospedale Maggiore. Policlinico' of Milan. This structure occupies an area of 300 sq meters and includes laboratories and a cryogenic area. This facility has been built a in compliance with the standards defined by the Foundation for Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) mostly related to adequacy of spaces, equipment and governmental and institutional policies for bio safety. The Cryogenic area follows written procedures in the event of an ambient disaster and for safety personnel and of the samples stored

  4. Ready-made allogeneic ABO-specific serum eye drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Nielsen, Connie; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To overcome problems and delays of the preparation of autologous serum eye drops, a production line of ABO-specific allogeneic serum eye drops from male blood donors was set up in a blood bank. Feasibility, clinical routine, safety and efficacy were evaluated in a cohort of patients...... serum treatment. CONCLUSION: Ready-made ABO-identical allogeneic serum eye drops were straightforwardly produced, quality-assured and registered as a safe standard blood product for the treatment of certain cases of severe dry eye disease. Therapeutic efficacy was comparable to previous reports...

  5. Pattern of serum vitamin d in opd patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.; Anjum, M.P.; Khani, M.K.; Rahman, A.U.; Islam, N.U.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of Vitamin-D deficiency in conditions other than osteomalcia and rickets in our part of the world. Only those patients were included who had any structural or biochemical changes in the body. Serum Vitamin-D level of all patients was sent for estimation from a single reputable laboratory, apart from serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and routine blood investigations. All data was collected and processed on SPSS Version 10. Of the total 79 patients, 58(73%) were females and 21(27%) males. Minimum age was one year and maximum 90 years, with a mean age of 41.91 and standard deviation of 19.1. Majority of the patients were seen in the 4th, 5th and 6th decades of life, and most of them were house wives. The serum Vitamin-D level was found low in 73(92%) patients and the most severe form of deficiency was seen in patients with tuberculosis. Vitamin-D deficiency was seen in 92% of our patients, belonging to all age groups and suffering from different diseases. (author)

  6. Dickkopf-1 levels and serum Osteoprotegerin in women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Hajialilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In bone the Wnt signaling pathway has diverse roles in bone modeling and remodeling. Dickkopf related protein 1(DKK-1,as an end ogenous inhibitors of the canonical Wnt/–catenin path ways pecific to bone and Osteoprotegerin(OPG,have been demonstrated to be key molecules involved in bone erosion and bone remodeling.The present study aimedto evaluate DKK-1 and OPG in women with osteoporosis to predict activity and severity of this common disease. METHODS: The study population included 44 women with osteoporosis and 44 controls with normal bone mineral density (BMD. Serum levels of DKK-1 and OPG were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The serum Dkk1 concentration in the osteoporosis group (2.91 ± 1.27 was significantly increased compared to the control group (2.07 ± 0.87 (P < 0.010. The serum concentration of OPG was significantly higher incontrol group than patients (4.70 ± 2.16 vs. 4.56 ± 1.21; P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this study indicate that DKK-1 and OPG may play different roles in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, the increase of DKK-1 level and its correlation with FN-BMD might be related to disease activity and bone remodeling in osteoporosis.

  7. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  8. Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malki Abdulrahman L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds (total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation percent, ferritin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity blood hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin,. Subjects and methods Two groups of male firefighter volunteers were included; the first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah city, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu city with an overall age rang of 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for relevant parameters. Results The results obtained showed that there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of serum heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal control subjects. Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin were statistically increased in Jeddah firefighters, (p Conclusion Such results might point to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects (elevated Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin and decreased serum TIBC and UIBC that might endanger firefighters working under dangerous conditions. Firefighters must be under regular medical follow-up through standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes.

  9. Regulation of serum phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  10. Multiple myeloma: Looking beyond standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Kaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma has been regarded as an incurable disease with frequent relapses. The diagnostic criteria have been revised multiple times to include early stage of the disease where treatment can be effective and can prolong the survival. Newer diagnostic criteria for myeloma have incorporated ≥60% plasma cells in the bone marrow and serum free light chain ratio (involved to uninvolved free light chains of ≥100. The role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans has been recognized, and it has been increasingly utilized upfront in the management of multiple myeloma. Role of minimal residual disease monitoring has been studied in multiple trials and will in near future guide the treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant is still the preferred consolidation therapy after initial three or four drug induction. With the use of novel drugs combinations and with emerging treatment options the standard of care of myeloma patients will change.

  11. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  12. Can urine dipstick predict an elevated serum creatinine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kaushal; Kilian, Barbara; Hsieh, Wei-Jen; Kyrillou, Emily; Hedge, Vishal; Newman, David H

    2010-06-01

    Chart review studies have suggested that point-of-care urine dipstick testing may accurately predict an elevation in serum creatinine (Cr). We aimed to prospectively evaluate the test characteristics of proteinuria/hematuria in predicting elevated serum Cr. A prospective, observational study was conducted between March 2007 and June 2008 at 2 affiliated, urban hospitals with an annual emergency department census of 150,000. Patients undergoing laboratory urinalysis, point-of-care urine dipstick, and a serum chemistry panel were enrolled. Trained research assistants collected data on consecutive patients 18 hours per day using preformatted data forms and entry into an anonymized Access (Microsoft, Seattle, Wash) database. Demographic baseline variables including age, sex, chief complaint, vital signs, and source of sample (catheter vs "clean catch") were also collected. An elevated Cr level was defined as greater than 1.3 based on the laboratory reference range. Standard statistical methods were used to calculate diagnostic test operating characteristics of proteinuria or hematuria as a predictor of elevated serum Cr. Five thousand four hundred sixteen subjects were enrolled with 28.3% male and a mean age of 50.2 years. Elevated serum Cr greater than 1.3 mg/dL was found in 13.9% (755/5416) of subjects. The sensitivity of either proteinuria or hematuria for elevated Cr was 82.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-85%) and specificity was 34.4% (95% CI, 33%-36%). Positive predictive value was 16.9% (95% CI, 16%-18%) and negative predictive value was 92.4% (95% CI, 91-94%). The likelihood ratio for a positive test was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5), and the likelihood ratio for a negative test was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.8). Although negative predictive value was high, the presence of proteinuria/hematuria was only moderately predictive of elevated serum Cr level. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between Serum Cholesterol Level and Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanmao; Dai, Jiezhi; Zhong, Wanrun; Hu, Chengfang; Lu, Shengdi; Chai, Yimin

    2018-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have found an association between serum cholesterol level and bone mineral density. However, epidemiological studies evaluating the association between serum cholesterol level and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture are scant. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cholesterol levels in Chinese participants aged 55 years or older was associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. We performed a cross-sectional study, including 1,791 participants (62.1% postmenopausal women and 213 fractures). Standardized self-administered questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry examination were performed. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between serum cholesterol [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C)] levels and the osteoporotic fracture risk. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, there were no associations between per SD increase in TC and LDL level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants, and in men and women as individual groups. There was a significant association between per SD increase in HDL-C level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants [odds ratios (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.40, P  = 0.023] and in women (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12, 1.68, P  = 0.003), whereas no association was observed in men (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.73, 1.40, P  = 0.951). Additionally, we found a significant association between per SD increase in TG level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in total participants (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04, 1.38, P  = 0.015). In women, a nonlinear relationship was observed between per SD increase in TG level and an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. The risk of osteoporotic fracture in women increased

  14. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham

    2005-12-01

    Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged

  16. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  17. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN SOKOTO, ... Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and .... acid and alpha tocopherol in Sickle cell anaemia. Cent Af J. Med., 41: ...

  18. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, padults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  19. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douchi, T; Yoshimitsu, N; Nagata, Y

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects were 67 women with PCOS (mean age +/- standard deviation, 28.8 +/- 6.6 years). Baseline characteristics included age and height. Trunk-leg fat ratio and trunk-leg muscle ratio were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured with radioimmunoassays. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution were investigated using Pearson and partial correlation tests. Serum testosterone levels were positively correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.398, P fat ratio (r = -0.360, P testosterone levels were still correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.500, P fat ratio was still correlated with trunk-leg muscle ratio, after adjusting for age, height, and serum testosterone levels. Based on these results, we concluded that higher serum testosterone levels may contribute to the upper body fat distribution and peripheral muscle mass distribution. In addition, peripheral muscle mass distribution may also contribute to the upper body fat distribution.

  20. The relationship between serum magnesium levels with childhood obesity and insulin resistance: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Nurullah; Andiran, Nesibe; Yilmaz, Ayse Esra

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium, the second most abundant intracellular cation, plays a major role in regulating insulin effect and insulin mediated glucose uptake. It has been shown that serum magnesium levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (homeostasis model of insulin resistance) index. To investigate the relationship between serum magnesium levels with obesity and insulin resistance in childhood. Two hundred and three children and adolescents (117 obese children and 86 controls) were included. Obese cases were also subgrouped according to the presence or absence of insulin resistance (IR) as "IR (+) obese" and "IR (-) obese", respectively. Serum glucose, insulin and magnesium levels were measured after a 12-h fasting at 8-8.30 a.m. We assessed insulin sensitivity by using HOMA-IR index as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. Serum levels of magnesium were significantly lower in the IR (+) obese group than controls (p = 0.014). At the same time, there was a positive correlation between serum magnesium levels and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) (r = -0.28, p = 0.03) in the IR (-) obese group. Low serum magnesium levels may contribute to the development of insulin resistance in obese children.

  1. Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Nathan, Abel Arul; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Rose, Rajiv; Gopalsamy, Jayaraman

    2012-05-01

    The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India's automobile industry. All the study subjects, exposed to spray paint were working in a workshop without standard spraying room and did not wore any aerosol removing respirator. The controls were selected from random population irrespective of occupation. Data relevant to the socioeconomic features and personal history was collected using a questionnaire. The current study included 50 spray painters and 25 control subjects of same age group. We examined the level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum differentiation markers of bone such as alkaline phosphatase (bone specific) and serum osteocalcin in which these levels were found to be high in serum of spray painters. The current study concludes dysregulation in bone remodeling of spray painters exposed to chronic solvents and paint pigments.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Serum Ascorbic Acid and Serum Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the serum ascorbic acid and serum lipid composition of the baboons under natural environmental conditions. We consider these data important as they .... way analysis of covariance" was computed on serum cholesterol, using cubic regression on body mass. Since 5 variables were under consideration, IO signi-.

  3. Basal serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, C; Tennant, K; Reeve, J; Murphy, K F

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Retrospective case-control study. The records of all dogs having had an ACTH stimulation test performed between January 2005 and September 2011 at the University of Bristol were reviewed. Dogs were included if the test was performed as a screening for hypoadrenocorticism. The sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol concentration to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were calculated using 2 cut-offs and compared to the gold standard ACTH stimulation test. Using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of basal cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism were 100% and 63.3%, respectively, whereas for a cut-off of ≤1 μg/dL (≤28 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.8%, respectively. Measurement of basal serum cortisol is useful as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), and the disease is unlikely with a basal serum cortisol >2 μg/dL (>55 nmol/L). A basal serum cortisol ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L) cannot be used to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism, and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed in these cases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Radioimmunoassay for serum paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatori, D.; Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two variants of a radioimmunoassay for the bipyridylium herbicide Paraquat are described. Both employ antiserum raised to Paraquat-BSA which has been covalently linked to particulate solid-phase support media. The rapid assay for clinical use employs a [ 3 H] Paraquat tracer, requires no agitation and yields results in the range 10-2500 ng/ml serum in 20 min from receipt of sample. The more sensitive assay, designed for research purposes, employs a 125 iodinated tracer, requires 2 h continuous agitation but can detect Paraquat at 0.1 ng/ml in simple aqueous solution or 0.25 ng/ml serum. Results from rapid clinical assay agree well with the existing colorimetric method. (Auth.)

  5. Reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal males from Fangchenggang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Mo, Cuiju; Zeng, Zhiyu; Chen, Zhiping; Deng, Yan; Peng, Qiliu; Gao, Yong; Yi, Zhen; Li, Shan; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to establish the reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal residents of the Chinese male population. A total of 1436 subjects, aged between 19 and 86 years, were selected from the Fangchenggang Area for Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). Reference intervals of serum lipids were measured by enzymatic endpoint colorimetry and information was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The total nonparametric reference intervals for TC 1.90 mmol/L (73.08 mg/dL), and LDL-C serum lipid levels were correlated with older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and more smoking, but not with alcohol consumption. The established reference intervals of serum lipids for coastal Chinese male residents would be helpful for assessing risk of cardiovascular disease. We recommend establishing population-based reference intervals for serum lipids in clinical laboratories.

  6. Serum amylase and lipase and urinary trypsinogen and amylase for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompianesi, Gianluca; Hann, Angus; Komolafe, Oluyemi; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    The treatment of people with acute abdominal pain differs if they have acute pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with abdominal pain has acute pancreatitis. There is currently no Cochrane review of the diagnostic test accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase, either alone or in combination, in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in people with acute onset of a persistent, severe epigastric pain or diffuse abdominal pain. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR HTA and DARE), and other databases until March 2017. We searched the references of the included studies to identify additional studies. We did not restrict studies based on language or publication status, or whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively. We also performed a 'related search' and 'citing reference' search in MEDLINE and Embase. We included all studies that evaluated the diagnostic test accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We excluded case-control studies because these studies are prone to bias. We accepted any of the following reference standards: biopsy, consensus conference definition, radiological features of acute pancreatitis, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during laparotomy or autopsy, and organ failure. At least two review authors independently searched and screened the references located by the search to identify relevant studies. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included studies. The thresholds used

  7. Serum biomarkers in periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A; George, J; Faour, M; Klika, A K; Higuera, C A

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult and requires a battery of tests and clinical findings. The purpose of this review is to summarize all current evidence for common and new serum biomarkers utilized in the diagnosis of PJI. We searched two literature databases, using terms that encompass all hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, as well as PJI and statistical terms reflecting diagnostic parameters. The findings are summarized as a narrative review. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were the two most commonly published serum biomarkers. Most evidence did not identify other serum biomarkers that are clearly superior to ESR and CRP. Other serum biomarkers have not demonstrated superior sensitivity and have failed to replace CRP and ESR as first-line screening tests. D-dimer appears to be a promising biomarker, but more research is necessary. Factors that influence serum biomarkers include temporal trends, stage of revision, and implant-related factors (metallosis). Our review helped to identify factors that can influence serum biomarkers' level changes; the recognition of such factors can help improve their diagnostic utility. As such, we cannot rely on ESR and CRP alone for the diagnosis of PJI prior to second-stage reimplantation, or in metal-on-metal or corrosion cases. The future of serum biomarkers will likely shift towards using genomics and proteomics to identify proteins transcribed via messenger RNA in response to infection and sepsis. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2018;7:85-93. © 2018 Saleh et al.

  8. The Impact of Pre-Analytical Conditions on Human Serum Peptidome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Andrea

    2018-02-24

    The successful use of proteomic technology for the discovery of clinically relevant, new candidate biomarkers, especially in the low molecular weight range (peptidome), calls for a careful consideration of standardized operating procedures (SOP) for pre-analytical variables, including samples handling and storage. The current lack of standardization, widely considered a relevant source of random and systematic errors, underlies the uncertainty of analytical results and poor comparability, especially in multi-centric or inter-laboratory studies. In their recent study, Tsuchida et al. used the MALDI-TOF/MS technique to investigate the effect of long-term storage at -20 °C, -80 °C, and in liquid nitrogen on serum samples obtained for peptidomic analyses. The authors have also evaluated the effects of different sample thawing modalities. By including results from the same series as that reported on in a previous publication, they have effectively defined some important requirements for the peptidomic analysis of serum samples (e.g., maximum time intervals between venepuncture and serum separation [1 h], minimum temperature for long-term sera storage temperature [-80 °C], ideal conditions for sample thawing). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  10. The measurement of total serum proteins by the Biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M M

    1978-01-01

    The biuret reaction for proteins provides a simple and precise method for measuring serum proteins; Beer's law is obeyed to at least 10 g per dl. Several stable biuret reagents are available. Hemoglobin is the only important cause of interference which cannot be minimized by use of a sample blank. The mechanism of the biuret reaction is described and attention is drawn to the heterogeneity of the serum proteins and to the use of a certified albumin standard.

  11. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  12. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  13. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...

  14. Study Of The Relationship Between Serum Cortisol And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dementia is the general term that refers to the decline of mental abilities including memory and other thinking skills while a person is alert and awake. Dementia is considered a ... level decrease with age and mean serum cortisol levels was higher in both AD and VD than normal controls while mean serum ...

  15. Ambience-associated variation in serum biomarkers of oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out in donkeys to discover serum biomarkers of oxidative stress during moderate and extremely hot conditions. Serum biomarkers included vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, glutathione reductase, xanthine oxidase, oxidase and ...

  16. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma and serum paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Z Boy; Aydin, S; Unur, M; Cakmakoglu, B; Toptas, B; Hafiz, G; İsbir, T

    2013-12-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 is involved in mechanisms that protect cells from oxidative stress damage. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Fifty-seven patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 59 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in blood samples were compared with results for polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism tests. Mean serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels were lower in patients than controls (mean ± standard deviation, 21.9 ± 5 units/l and 120.4 ± 2 units/l, respectively) (p = 0.001). The serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine polymorphism was more common in patients than controls. Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma had significantly lower serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels and a greater prevalence of the serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine allele, compared with controls. Serum paraoxonase 1 may play a role in the aetiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Serum uric acid and standardized urinary protein: Reliable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question as to whether lead causes renal damage still remains largely controversial. Eighty-five male lead workers and 51 control subjects who had never been occupationally exposed to lead were studied. They were also classified according to duration of exposure. The mean age of the lead workers was similar to ...

  19. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  20. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  1. Positive association between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid in Wuhan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine whether serum uric acid concentrations were associated with metabolic syndrome in a population from Wuhan. 5,628 subjects (2,838 men, 2,790 women) aged 18-80 years were recruited in Wuhan, China. Biochemical parameters of venous blood were measured by standard methods and metabolic syndrome was defined by Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression. 8.2% of the included subjects were confirmed as having metabolic syndrome and 14.4% were confirmed as having hyperuricemia. After multivariable adjustment, logistic regression showed the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentration was 2.84 (95% CI: 2.09-3.86) compared with those in the lowest quartile and no gender difference was found. For each component of metabolic syndrome, subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentrations had increased multivariable odds ratios for high BMI (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.71-3.98), for hypertension (OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.93-3.86), for dyslipidemia (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.98-3.14), but not for hyperglycemia (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.87-1.67). Odd ratio of metabolic syndrome was significantly positively associated with serum uric acid concentration among the present sample of 5,628 subjects in Wuhan.

  2. Increased serum level of homocysteine correlates with retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Khushboo; Saxena, Sandeep; Mahdi, Abbas A; Shukla, Rajendra K; Meyer, Carsten H; Akduman, Levent; Khanna, Vinay K

    2016-01-01

    To study the correlation between serum levels of vitamin B 12 , folic acid, and homocysteine and the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In a tertiary care center-based prospective cross-sectional study, 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls in the age group of 40-65 years were included. The eyes of the cases were divided into three groups according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification: diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (n = 20), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20). The serum levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid were measured using a standard protocol. The serum homocysteine assay was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Average RNFL thickness was measured using SD-OCT. Statistical analysis was used to assess the correlations between the study variables. Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was found to correlate with an increase in the serum levels of homocysteine (F = 53.79; phomocysteine (phomocysteine with a decrease in RNFL thickness and increased severity of diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Serum Transthyretin Level as a Plausible Marker for Diagnosis of Child Acute Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behailu Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children. We used a newly designed transthyretin test kit to evaluate nutritional status of children admitted to our hospital. There is no national reference standard; hence we made a comparative study using anthropometric measurements and measurement of serum albumin level. A total of 102 children (51 controls and 51 study subjects were included in this study. Transthyretin was found to be more sensitive to changes in acute malnutrition than albumin, and its level reflects recent dietary intake compared to overall nutritional status. The method is more sensitive and reliable for detection of acute malnutrition, along with anthropometric methods. Measurement of serum transthyretin level can be used as a valuable diagnostic method for assessment of acute malnutrition among children.

  4. Serum diamine oxidase activity in patients with histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Breda, D; Di Gioacchino, M; Burastero, S E

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to various foods, excluding bona fide coeliac disease and lactose intolerance, represents a growing cause of patient visits to allergy clinics.Histamine intolerance is a long-known, multifaceted clinical condition triggered by histamine-rich foods and alcohol and/or by drugs that liberate histamine or block diamine oxidase (DAO), the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of ingested histamine. Histamine limitation diets impose complex, non-standardized restrictions that may severely impact the quality of life of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who visited allergy outpatient facilities in northern Italy with a negative diagnosis for IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, coeliac disease, conditions related to gastric hypersecretion, and systemic nickel hypersensitivity, and who previously underwent a histamine limitation diet with benefits for their main symptoms. Serum diamine oxidase levels and the clinical response to diamine oxidase supplementation were investigated. We found that 10 out of 14 patients had serum DAO activityintolerance. Moreover, 13 out of 14 patients subjectively reported a benefit in at least one of the disturbances related to food intolerances following diamine oxidase supplementation. The mean value (±SD) of diamine oxidase activity in the cohort of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms was 7.04±6.90 U/mL compared to 39.50±18.16 U/mL in 34 healthy controls (P=0.0031). In patients with symptoms triggered by histamine-rich food, measuring the serum diamine oxidase activity can help identify subjects who can benefit from a histamine limitation diet and/or diamine oxidase supplementation.Properly designed, controlled studies investigating histamine intolerance that include histamine provocation are indispensable for providing insights into the area of food intolerances, which are currently primarily managed with non-scientific approaches in Italy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Status in Patients with Liver Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedage, Vivekananda; Muttigi, Manjunatha S.; Shetty, Mahesh S.; Suvarna, Renuka; Rao, Soumya S.; Joshi, Chitralekha; Prakash, Mungli

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14), cirrhosis with portal hypertension (33), leptospirosis (14), sepsis and multi organ failure (15), left ventricular failure (9), and falciparum malaria (10); and 53 healthy controls. Serum PON1 activity was measured manually using spectrophotometer. Liver function test parameters and fasting lipid profile were performed in clinical chemistry auto analyzer (Hitachi 912). Results: The serum PON1 activity in patients with acute viral hepatitis and sepsis decreased significantly (P<0.001) and moderately in falciparum malaria (P<0.05). However, in patients with cirrhosis, leptospirosis and left ventricular patients, its activity did not change significantly. On applying Pearson correlation, serum PON1 activity correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with sepsis (r=0.633, P<0.05), left ventricular failure patients (r=0.814, P<0.05) and negatively with acute viral hepatitis patients (r=– 0.528, P<0.05). Conclusion: PON1 activity has decreased significantly in acute viral hepatitis, sepsis with multi organ failure and falciparum malaria patients. Determination of PON1 activity may serve as a useful additional test in assessing these conditions. PMID:20339175

  6. Hormone abnormalities in patients with severe and chronic pain who fail standard treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with severe and chronic pain fail to obtain adequate pain relief with standard pharmacologic treatment agents, including low to moderate dosages of opioids. Understandably, physicians might not believe patients who claim that a standard opioid dosage is an ineffective treatment. These patients may be severely impaired, nonfunctional, and bedridden or housebound. To help characterize these individuals and develop treatment strategies for them, a serum hormone profile consisting of adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone was obtained on 61 chronic pain patients who failed standard treatments; 49 patients (80.3%) demonstrated ≥ 1 hormone abnormality defined as a serum concentration or level above or below the normal range, and 7 patients (11.5%) showed a severe pituitary-adrenal-gonadal deficiency as indicated by deficient serum levels of adrenocorticotropin and ≥ 2 adrenal-gonadal hormones. Hormone serum abnormalities are biomarkers of severe, uncontrolled pain, and, in a patient who has failed standard treatment, they are an indicator that enhanced analgesia is required and that hormone replacement may be indicated.

  7. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  8. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  9. Dietary chlorogenic acid regulates gut microbiota, serum-free amino acids and colonic serotonin levels in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Qi; Li, Yafei; Yan, Yali; Huang, Fang; Wu, Xin; Zhou, Quancheng; Shu, Xugang; Ruan, Zheng

    2017-11-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is one of the most abundant phenolic acids available in the human diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CGA on regulation of the gut microbiota, and on the levels of free amino acids and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). Ninety-six healthy growing pigs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: the Ctrl group (control group, standard feed) and the CGA group [standard feed plus 0.05% 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA)] for 60 days. The diversity of the gut microbiota was increased after CGA supplementation. Changes in these microbes were significantly associated with the serum free amino acid levels and colonic 5-HT level. Compared with the Ctrl group, the levels of serum aspartic acid, threonine, alanine, arginine, and colonic 5-HT were significantly increased (p acid levels.

  10. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  11. Comparison of FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy in determination of VLDL triglycerides in blood serum with PLS regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszko, Adam; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Wójtowicz, Anna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Huras, Hubert; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia, related with triglyceride (TG) in plasma above 1.7 mmol/L is one of the cardiovascular risk factors. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are the main TG carriers. Despite being time consuming, demanding well-qualified staff and expensive instrumentation, ultracentrifugation technique still remains the gold standard for the VLDL isolation. Therefore faster and simpler method of VLDL-TG determination is needed. Vibrational spectroscopy, including FT-IR and Raman, is widely used technique in lipid and protein research. The aim of this study was assessment of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with the isolation step omitted. TG concentration in serum and in ultracentrifugated VLDL fractions from 32 patients were measured with reference colorimetric method. FT-IR and Raman spectra of VLDL and serum samples were acquired. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for calibration and leave-one-out cross validation. Our results confirmed possibility of reagent-free determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantitative VLDL testing by FT-IR and/or Raman spectroscopy applied directly to maternal serum seems to be promising screening test to identify women with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and patient friendly method of choice based on ease of performance, accuracy and efficiency.

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum leptin concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-12-07

    There are controversies regarding the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum leptin. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of CLA on serum leptin concentrations. Databases such as Ovid, PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and ISI databases up to January 2017 were searched. The searches included RCTs conducted among human adults, and studies on the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on serum leptin concentrations as outcome variables. The mean difference and standard deviation of leptin changes in the intervention and control groups were used as effect size measures for the meta-analysis. Eleven trials with thirteen effect sizes were pooled in this meta-analysis. CLA supplementations could not reduce serum leptin levels significantly (-0.12 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.29, 1.05; P=0.837). However, the impact of CLA supplementation differed by sex and BMI status. Compared with the control group, CLA administration reduced serum leptin levels significantly in trials conducted among male (-0.86 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.11, -0.62; Peffects of conjugated linoleic acid. The protocol was registered as PROSPERO (No. CRD42017059165). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10 12 n cm - '2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75 Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L -1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  14. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  15. Survey and clinical application of serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham C; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Dunker, Freeland H; Garner, Michael M; Sargent, Eva L

    2005-12-01

    Serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. Data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. The survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated for iron overload with serial phlebotomies. Prior to therapy, both phlebotomized lemurs had excess hepatic iron deposition, but had serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin below the upper limits observed in the survey animals, suggesting that some clinically normal animals included in the survey may have accumulated excess systemic iron. Serial phlebotomy therapy reduced serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in both animals. Three years after the conclusion of therapy in the one remaining case, serum iron and transferrin saturation have risen substantially, whereas serum ferritin has risen slightly. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin may be useful predictors of systemic iron stores in this species, though the correlation between these parameters and systemic iron stores needs to be determined.

  16. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic...... marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data...

  17. Evaluation of serum procathepsin B, cystatin B and cystatin C as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashenko, Elena A; Lebedeva, Valentina A; Brak, Ivan V; Tsykalenko, Elena A; Vinokurova, Galina V; Korolenko, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate procathepsin B, as well as endogenous inhibitors of cysteine proteases (cystatin B and cystatin C) in biological fluids as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer. To observe levels of serum procathepsin B in different age groups. The sample (N=27) of women with gynaecological tumours included 18 patients with ovarian cancer (n=18) and 9 patients with benign ovarian tumours (n=9); 72 healthy women were in the control group. All patients were treated in Novosibirsk Regional Oncological Center, Russia. Serum samples of healthy women (n=40) aged 18-70 years were used as controls for common biomarker of ovarian cancer CA-125. In the Procathepsin B study, serum samples of healthy women (n=32) aged 18-40 years (n=14), 41-55 years (n=10) and 56-80 (n=8) years were used as controls. Common biomarker of ovarian cancer, CA-125, was assayed by using a commercial kit (Vector, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia). Procathepsin B was measured by means of a commercial kit for human procathepsin B (R&D, USA); cystatin C was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia); cystatin B was measured by ELISA kits for human (USCN Life Science Inc., Wuhan, China). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA (Statistica 10 Program). In the control group, serum procathepsin B concentration did not reveal age dependency. In the ovarian cancer group, both levels of serum procathepsin B and standard biomarker CA-125 increased significantly (both pcystatin B level increased up to 1.7-fold in the ovarian cancer group compared to the control group. The increase of serum CA-125 was about 3.5-fold higher (p=0.017) and procathepsin B was 1.8-fold higher (pcancer group compared to the benign tumour group. Cystatin B in ascites fluid increased equally in both ovarian cancer (pCystatin C concentration in ascites fluid increased only in patients with ovarian cancer (pcystatin C (1.8-fold, pcystatin B levels (1.4 fold, pcancer compared to the control serum. The

  18. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG in children with primary nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytokine system secreted by osteoblast, osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligand (OPGL regulates osteoclastogenesis. To determine the relation of the serum OPG levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS to the renal disease, we studied 30 patients with NS in comparison with 30 healthy children serving as controls. The study patients were divided into three equal groups: group 1 included newly diagnosed patients who were studied before and after a short course (one month of steroid therapy for the first time, group 2 included frequent relapsers (FR, and group 3 included infrequent relapsers (IFR. In addition to serum OPG (ELISA, osteocalcin (OC, parathormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and 24- hour urinary Ca and proteins were measured. The NS patients revealed a significantly lower serum OPG and parameters of bone formation (ALP and OC and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca than controls. A short course of glucocorticoids therapy for one month resulted in a significant decrease of serum OPG, ALP and OC levels and a significant increase of 24- hour urinary Ca, while serum PTH levels were not significantly affected by this the- rapy; the FR revealed a significantly lower serum level and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca and serum PTH than the IFR. OPG had significant negative correlations with markers of disease activity and severity (ESR, serum cholesterol, 24- hour urinary protein and cumulative steroid dose, PTH and 24- hour urinary Ca. On the other hand, OPG had significant positive correlations with ALP, OC, and serum albumin. Low serum OPG, which is attributed to the renal disease and/or steroid therapy, may be an important factor contributing to bone resorption in NS. Studies of the protective effect of OPG administration against bone loss in NS are warranted.

  20. DNA sequencing versus standard prenatal aneuploidy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Diana W; Parker, R Lamar; Wentworth, Jeffrey; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Saffer, Craig; Das, Anita F; Craig, Joseph A; Chudova, Darya I; Devers, Patricia L; Jones, Keith W; Oliver, Kelly; Rava, Richard P; Sehnert, Amy J

    2014-02-27

    In high-risk pregnant women, noninvasive prenatal testing with the use of massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA testing) accurately detects fetal autosomal aneuploidy. Its performance in low-risk women is unclear. At 21 centers in the United States, we collected blood samples from women with singleton pregnancies who were undergoing standard aneuploidy screening (serum biochemical assays with or without nuchal translucency measurement). We performed massively parallel sequencing in a blinded fashion to determine the chromosome dosage for each sample. The primary end point was a comparison of the false positive rates of detection of fetal trisomies 21 and 18 with the use of standard screening and cfDNA testing. Birth outcomes or karyotypes were the reference standard. The primary series included 1914 women (mean age, 29.6 years) with an eligible sample, a singleton fetus without aneuploidy, results from cfDNA testing, and a risk classification based on standard screening. For trisomies 21 and 18, the false positive rates with cfDNA testing were significantly lower than those with standard screening (0.3% vs. 3.6% for trisomy 21, Paneuploidy (5 for trisomy 21, 2 for trisomy 18, and 1 for trisomy 13; negative predictive value, 100% [95% confidence interval, 99.8 to 100]). The positive predictive values for cfDNA testing versus standard screening were 45.5% versus 4.2% for trisomy 21 and 40.0% versus 8.3% for trisomy 18. In a general obstetrical population, prenatal testing with the use of cfDNA had significantly lower false positive rates and higher positive predictive values for detection of trisomies 21 and 18 than standard screening. (Funded by Illumina; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01663350.).

  1. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  2. Quantification of active infliximab in human serum with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a tumor necrosis factor alpha -based pre-analytical sample purification and a stable isotopic labeled infliximab bio-similar as internal standard: A target-based, sensitive and cost-effective method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, Mohsin; van den Broek, Marcel P H; Göbel, Camiel; van Maarseveen, Erik M

    2016-07-08

    The therapeutic monoclonal antibody Infliximab (IFX) is a widely used drug for the treatment of several inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, approximately 10% of patients develop anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) rendering the treatment ineffective. Early detection of underexposure to unbound IFX would result in a timely switch of therapy which could aid in the treatment of this disease. Streptavidin coated 96 well plates were used to capture biotinylated-tumor necrosis factor -alpha (b-TNF-α), which in turn was used to selectively extract the active form of IFX in human serum. After elution, IFX was digested using trypsin and one signature peptide was selected for subsequent analysis on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The internal standard used was a stable isotopic labeled IFX bio-similar. The assay was successfully validated according to European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines and was found to be linear in a range of 0.5-20μg/mL (r(2)=0.994). Lower limit of quantification for the assay (<20% CV) was 0.5μg/mL, requiring only 2μL of sample. Cross-validation against enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) resulted in a high correlation between methods (r(2)=0.95 with a ρc=0.83) and the accuracy was in line with previously published results. In conclusion, a sensitive, robust and cost-effective method was developed for the bio-analysis of IFX with LC-MS/MS by means of a target-based pre-analytical sample purification. Moreover, low volume and costs of consumables per sample promote its feasibility in (pre)clinical studies and in therapeutic drug monitoring. This method should be considered as first choice due to its accuracy and multiple degree of selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  4. Is coffee consumption associated with a lower level of serum C-reactive protein? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Dian-Zhong

    2018-02-06

    The association between coffee consumption and the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been evaluated in several epidemiological studies with conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and the serum CRP level. A comprehensive literature search up to August 2017, using PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases, was conducted to identify the relevant observational studies that examined the association between coffee consumption and the serum CRP level. A total of nine cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis. According to the combined standard mean difference (SMD) between the highest and the lowest coffee intake category, coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum CRP level (SMD = -0.34, 95%CI: -0.62 to -0.06; p = .016). Subgroup analysis for CRP marker showed that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) (SMD = -0.51, 95%CI: -0.88 to -0.14; p = .007), but not standard CRP (SMD = 0.02, 95%CI: -0.28 to 0.32; p = .913). The existing evidence suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum CRP. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to elaborate the concerned issues further.

  5. Modifiable risk factors promoting neurodegeneration is associated with two novel brain degradation markers measured in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    truncated tau fragments (Tau-A and Tau-C) in serum. Platelets, albumin and several modifiable risk factors, including Body Mass Index, high density lipoprotein and White Blood Cell count were associated with the serum level of tau fragments. The factors associated with tau in serum may promote...

  6. Serum hyaluronic acid in polymyositis: high serum levels tend to correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M B; Silva, M G; Shinjo, S K

    2014-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a rare systemic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is closely linked to inflammatory cellular reactions and disease activity. Increased serum levels of HA have been reported in several inflammatory diseases, but currently, there are no studies analysing the HA in PM. Thus, clinical association of HA with PM in patients was determined in the present study. The present cross-sectional study was performed at one centre from 2012 to 2013 and included 35 consecutive adult patients with PM (Bohan and Peter criteria, 1975) and 38 adult healthy volunteers. The serum HA was assessed with anti-HA antibody, using the specific ELISA/EIA kits according to the manufacturer's protocol. The average age, distribution of females and ethnicity were comparable in patients with PM and the control group. Regarding disease status, patients with PM had a median patient visual analogue score (VAS) of 2 [0-6], physician VAS of 1 [0-3], MMT-8 of 74 [68-80] and HAQ of 0.48 [0.00-1.14]. The serum levels of HA were also significantly increased in patients with PM (390±412 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects (129±119 ng/mL), p=0.001. In an additional analysis, the serum levels of HA did not correlate with PM demographic data (gender and ethnicity), current organ involvement or autoantibodies and were not been influenced by the use of prednisolone and/or immunosuppressives by the PM patients. However, there was a positive correlation between serum levels of HA and VAS (patient and physician), and a negative correlation between serum levels of HA and MMT-8. High serum levels of HA were observed in patients with PM and tended to correlate with PM disease activity. Additional studies are needed to assess this correlation, as well as to understand the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PM by HA.

  7. Effect of minimally invasive surgery on related serum factors in patients with lumbar degenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Zhong Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of minimally invasive surgery and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF on the related serum factors in patients with lumbar degenerative disease. Methods: A total of 100 patients with lumbar degenerative disease who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2014 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different surgical methods. The patients in the observation group were given MIS-TLIF, while the patients in the control group were given the traditional TLIF. The peripheral venous blood before operation, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h after operation in the two groups was collected, and centrifuged for the serum. ELISA was used to detect the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels. The peripheral venous blood before operation, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h and 7 d after operation in the two groups was collected. DGKC velocity method was used to detect CK activity and fusion rate. The fusion grade was evaluated 6 months after operation according to Bridwell fusion grading standard. Results: The serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h after operation in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before operation, and the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels at each timing point after operation in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. CK activity 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7d after operation in the two groups was significantly elevated when compared with before operation, and CK activity at each timing point after operation in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusions: MISTLIF has a small damage on the tissues, can effectively alleviate the inflammatory reaction, and preferably retain the stable structure of posterior column, whose advantage is significantly superior to that by the traditional TLIF.

  8. Serum hyaluronic acid as a marker of hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, N.A.; Mehmood, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels as biochemical marker of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and correlate it with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study was performed on 100 patients of chronic liver disease whose liver biopsies had been carried out. Fifty healthy controls were also included in the study. Routine liver function tests, hepatitis serology and serum hyaluronic acid levels were carried out on patients and controls. Liver biopsy of 100 patients revealed that 21 were in stage 0 fibrosis, 38 in stage 1 fibrosis, 26 in stage 3 fibrosis and 15 in stage 4 fibrosis. Mean Serum HA (mean +- SD) concentration in patients were 189 +- 98 mg/L vs. 21 +- 10 mg/L of healthy controls. The difference observed was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients in stage 4 fibrosis had significantly higher (p <0.001) mean serum HA concentration as compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. Diagnostic accuracy of serum HA at marginally elevated level of 60 mg/L determined the sensitivity 78.4 %, specificity 80.9%, positive predicted value 93.9% and negative predicted value of 50%. Serum HA is a useful non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. There is a strong positive correlation between serum HA levels and degree of liver fibrosis. The concentration of serum HA rises according to progression of liver fibrosis and levels are highest in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  9. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  10. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  11. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  12. Diet, Alcohol Consumption and Serum Lipid Levels of Elderly Men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Elderly subjects attending quarterly medical lectures organized by a non-governmental organization at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba were recruited. Information on diet, alcohol consumption and hypertension were obtained and serum lipids were determined using standard cholesterol / low density ...

  13. Relationship between admission serum C-reactive protein and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... were 30 day Glasgow outcome scale score and functional impairment on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). An age- and gender-matched healthy control group had serum CRP determined at inclusion. Elevated CRP was defined as any level above the cutoff (mean +2 x standard deviation of CRP level of ...

  14. Relationship between admission serum C-reactive protein and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures were 30 day Glasgow outcome scale score and functional impairment on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). An age- and gender-matched healthy control group had serum CRP determined at inclusion. Elevated CRP was defined as any level above the cutoff (mean +2 x standard deviation of CRP level ...

  15. serum immunoglobulin levels in white, asiatic and bantu blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.

  16. The effect of serum magnesium levels and serum endothelin-1 levels on bone mineral density in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C F; Karakelleoglu, C; Orbak, Z; Yildiz, L

    2012-06-01

    An inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy results in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). It is known that bone mineral density and serum magnesium levels are low in malnourished children. However, the roles of serum magnesium and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the pathophysiology of bone mineralization are obscure. Thus, the relationships between serum magnesium and ET-1 levels and the changes in bone mineral density were investigated in this study. There was a total of 32 subjects, 25 of them had PEM and seven were controls. While mean serum ET-1 levels of the children with kwashiorkor and marasmus showed no statistically significant difference, mean serum ET-1 levels of both groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Serum magnesium levels were lower than normal value in 9 (36%) of 25 malnourished children. Malnourished children included in this study were divided into two subgroups according to their serum magnesium levels. While mean serum ET-1 levels in the group with low magnesium levels were significantly higher than that of the group with normal magnesium levels (p malnutrition. Our study suggested that lower magnesium levels and higher ET-1 levels might be important factors in changes of bone mineral density in malnutrition. We recommend that the malnourished patients, especially with hypomagnesaemia, should be treated with magnesium early.

  17. Circadian pattern and the effect of standardized physical exercise on procollagen IIA N-peptide (PIIANP) in rheumatoid arthritis at different stages and in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Lottenburger, T; Lindegaard, Hanne Merete

    2010-01-01

    and in healthy subjects. Methods: Patients with early and longstanding RA and controls were included. Fasting and serial blood samples were collected during 24 h. PIIANP response to physical activity was studied before and serially after standardized exercise. Results and conclusion: In RA at different stages...... and healthy individuals, PIIANP exhibited no circadian rhythmicity, and PIIANP in serum was not influenced by physical activity....

  18. Serum Irisin Predicts Mortality Risk in Acute Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutong Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irisin is a peptide hormone cleaved from a plasma membrane protein fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5. Emerging studies have indicated association between serum irisin and many major chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of serum irisin as a predictor for mortality risk in acute heart failure (AHF patients is not clear. Methods: AHF patients were enrolled and serum was collected at the admission and all patients were followed up for 1 year. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum irisin levels. To explore predictors for AHF mortality, the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis were used. To determine the role of serum irisin levels in predicting survival, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used. Results: In this study, 161 AHF patients were enrolled and serum irisin level was found to be significantly higher in patients deceased in 1-year follow-up. The univariate logistic regression analysis identified 18 variables associated with all-cause mortality in AHF patients, while the multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 2 variables namely blood urea nitrogen and serum irisin. ROC curve analysis indicated that blood urea nitrogen and the most commonly used biomarker, NT-pro-BNP, displayed poor prognostic value for AHF (AUCs ≤ 0.700 compared to serum irisin (AUC = 0.753. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that AHF patients with higher serum irisin had significantly higher mortality (P<0.001. Conclusion: Collectively, our study identified serum irisin as a predictive biomarker for 1-year all-cause mortality in AHF patients though large multicenter studies are highly needed.

  19. Serum creatine kinase isoenzymes in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eufemia, P; Finocchiaro, R; Zambrano, A; Lodato, V; Celli, L; Finocchiaro, S; Persiani, P; Turchetti, A; Celli, M

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates serum creatine kinase isoenzyme activity in children with osteogenesis imperfecta to determine its usefulness as a biochemical marker during treatment with bisphosphonate. The changes of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme activity during and after discontinuation therapy were observed. These results could be useful in addressing over-treatment risk prevention. The brain isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKbb) is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis, thus plays an important role in bone resorption. We previously identified high serum CKbb levels in 18 children with osteogenesis imperfect (OI) type 1 treated for 1 year with bisphosphonate (neridronate). In the present study, serum CK isoenzymes were evaluated in the same children with continuous versus discontinued neridronate treatment over a further 2-year follow-up period. This study included 18 children with OI type 1, 12 with continued (group A) and 6 with ceased (group B) neridronate treatment. Auxological data, serum biochemical markers of bone metabolism, bone mineral density z-score, and serum total CK and isoenzyme activities were determined in both groups. Serum CKbb was progressively and significantly increased in group A (p < 0.004) but rapidly decreased to undetectable levels in group B. In both groups, the cardiac muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKmb) showed a marked decrease, while serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) levels were almost unchanged. This study provides evidence of the cumulative effect of neridronate administration in increasing serum CKbb levels and the reversible effect after its discontinuation. This approach could be employed for verifying the usefulness of serum CKbb as a biochemical marker in patients receiving prolonged bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the decreased serum CKmb levels suggest a systemic effect of these drugs.

  20. Association of Increased Serum Ferritin With Impaired Muscle Strength/Quality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Chie; Inaba, Masaaki; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Okuno, Senji

    2016-07-01

    We reported previously that muscle quality and muscle strength provide clinically relevant predictors for better survival in hemodialysis patients. Iron overload might impair muscle function by its accumulation in muscle in such patients. Serum ferritin, a marker for body iron store, was examined for its association with handgrip strength (HGS) and muscle quality which was defined as the ratio of HGS to arm lean mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 300 Japanese hemodialysis patients, age, hemodialysis duration, body mass index, and serum albumin were 58.0 ±12.0 (mean ± standard deviation) years, 4.2 (1.8-10.4) (median [25th-75th percentile]) years, 20.4 ± 2.8 kg/m(2), 4.0 ± 0.3 g/dL, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were 8.9 ± 1.2 g/dL, and 28.8 ± 3.9%, respectively, whereas transferrin saturation and serum ferritin were 29.8 ± 11.0% and 100 (54-172) ng/mL, respectively. Serum ferritin significantly correlated in a positive manner with the total dose of iron orally administered during the previous 6 months (r = 0.185, P = .0013). HGS and muscle quality were 23.1 ± 10.4 kg and 11.6 ± 3.8 kg/kg, respectively. In multivariate analysis to elucidate the factors associated with HGS and muscle quality in 300 hemodialysis patients, which included transferrin saturation and log serum ferritin, in addition to age, gender, hemodialysis duration, the presence/absence of diabetes, body mass index as independent variables, log serum ferritin emerged as a significant and independent factor which associated in a negative fashion with HGS (β = -0.091, P = .0395) and tendency toward negative association with muscle quality (β = -0.100, P = .0754). In summary, the present study demonstrated the significant association of serum ferritin with HGS and muscle quality in hemodialysis patients and thus suggested that we should be careful of iron overload to avoid its possible harmful effect on muscle in such patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney

  1. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  2. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  3. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  4. Evaluation of serum procathepsin B, cystatin B and cystatin C as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Gashenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate procathepsin B, as well as endogenous inhibitors of cysteine proteases (cystatin B and cystatin C in biological fluids as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer. To observe levels of serum procathepsin B in different age groups. Study design. The sample (N=27 of women with gynaecological tumours included 18 patients with ovarian cancer (n=18 and 9 patients with benign ovarian tumours (n=9; 72 healthy women were in the control group. All patients were treated in Novosibirsk Regional Oncological Center, Russia. Serum samples of healthy women (n=40 aged 18–70 years were used as controls for common biomarker of ovarian cancer CA-125. In the Procathepsin B study, serum samples of healthy women (n=32 aged 18–40 years (n=14, 41–55 years (n=10 and 56–80 (n=8 years were used as controls. Methods. Common biomarker of ovarian cancer, CA-125, was assayed by using a commercial kit (Vector, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Procathepsin B was measured by means of a commercial kit for human procathepsin B (R&D, USA; cystatin C was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; cystatin B was measured by ELISA kits for human (USCN Life Science Inc., Wuhan, China. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA (Statistica 10 Program. Results. In the control group, serum procathepsin B concentration did not reveal age dependency. In the ovarian cancer group, both levels of serum procathepsin B and standard biomarker CA-125 increased significantly (both p<0.001 compared with the control group. In the benign ovarian tumour group, serum procathepsin B (p<0.001 and CA-125 (p=0.004 increased about 2.5- and 8-fold compared to the control group. Serum cystatin B level increased up to 1.7-fold in the ovarian cancer group compared to the control group. The increase of serum CA-125 was about 3.5-fold higher (p=0.017 and procathepsin B was 1.8-fold higher (p<0.05 in the ovarian cancer group compared to the benign

  5. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  6. Detection of cryoglobulins in serum of Caspian miniature horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyabi, N,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy miniature Caspian horses at 37 °C. Isolation of cryoglobulin was performed based on a standard method in present study. Harvested sera were kept at 4 °C for two hours and then examined for cryoglubolin. Four serum samples containing precipitate Suspicious of containing cryoglobulin were selected. Subsequently serum protein electrophoresis was performed on normal serum samples and also on four serum samples containing precipitates using an automated electrophoresis system on cellulose acetate strips. In addition Ig isotypes detection (IgG, IgM and IgA was performed on both precipitates and serum containing precipitates using single radio immunediffusion method (SRID. A narrow-based peak on gamma region of precipitate acetate cellulose strips was observed. Precipitate concentrations were strikingly higher than normal concentration of serum immuneglobulins. It can be suggested that cryoglobulin concentration in a proportion of Caspian miniature horse is higher than other equides may be in relation with animal susceptibility to neoplasias such as lymphoma and leukemia.

  7. Practical methods for handling human periodontal ligament stem cells in serum-free and serum-containing culture conditions under hypoxia: implications for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabayashi, Dai; Mochizuki, Mai; Tamaki, Yuichi; Nakahara, Taka

    2017-07-01

    Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Cell growth, gene and protein expression, cytodifferentiation potential, genomic stability, cytotoxic response, and in vivo hard tissue generation of PDLSCs were examined. Our findings indicated that cultivation in serum-free medium does not affect the MSC phenotype or chromosomal stability of PDLSCs. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium exhibited more active growth than in fetal bovine serum-containing medium. We found that hypoxia does not alter the cell growth of PDLSCs under serum-free conditions, but inhibits their osteogenic and adipogenic cytodifferentiation while enabling maintenance of their multidifferentiation potential regardless of the presence of serum. PDLSCs expanded in serum-free medium were found to retain common MSC characteristics, including the capacity for hard tissue formation in vivo. However, PDLSCs cultured in serum-free culture conditions were more susceptible to damage following exposure to extrinsic cytotoxic stimuli than those cultured in medium supplemented with serum, suggesting that serum-free culture conditions do not exert protective effects against cytotoxicity on PDLSC cultures. The present work provides a comparative evaluation of cell culture in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, for applications in regenerative medicine.

  8. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons of the bias of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

  9. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  10. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  11. Serum annexin A2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug Demir, N; Kolgelier, S; Sumer, S; Inkaya, A C; Ozcimen, S; Demir, L S; Ural, O; Arpaci, A

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic granulomatous infection and may present with various clinical manifestations. Brucellar spondylodiscitis symptoms are initially subtle and nonspecific. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is involved in various biological functions, including osteoclast formation, bone resorption, and cell growth regulation. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum ANXA2 levels in acute brucellosis and brucellar spondylodiscitis. This prospective study included 96 acute brucellosis patients and 51 healthy controls. Acute brucellosis was diagnosed by a 1/160 or higher titer in a standard tube agglutination (STA) test or a four-fold increase in titers between two STA tests performed two weeks apart in the presence of clinical symptoms within the last eight weeks and/or growth of Brucella spp. in appropriately prepared culture media. ANXA2 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty (41.7 %) of 96 acute brucellosis patients were male and 56 (58.3 %) were female. Serum ANXA2 levels were elevated in patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Eighteen of 96 (18.7 %) acute brucellosis patients had brucellar spondylodiscitis. The serum ANXA2 levels of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis were higher than those of patients with acute disease without brucellar spondylodiscitis (p = 0.001). ANXA2, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were elevated in the brucellar spondylodiscitis group compared to patients without brucellar spondylodiscitis. Serum ANXA2 measurement together with ESR and CRP is thought to be indicative in the diagnosis of brucellar spondylodiscitis, a common complication of brucellosis.

  12. Serum repressing efflux pump CDR1 in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jen-Chung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades, the prevalence of candidemia has increased significantly and drug resistance has also become a pressing problem. Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, has been proposed as a major mechanism contributing to the drug resistance in Candida albicans. It has been demonstrated that biological fluids such as human serum can have profound effects on antifungal pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of serum in drug susceptibility via monitoring the activity of CDR1 promoter of C. albicans. Results The wild-type C. albicans cells (SC5314 but not the cdr1/cdr1 mutant cells became more susceptible to the antifungal drug when the medium contained serum. To understand the regulation of CDR1 in the presence of serum, we have constructed CDR1 promoter-Renilla luciferase (CDR1p-RLUC reporter to monitor the activity of the CDR1 promoter in C. albicans. As expected, the expression of CDR1p-RLUC was induced by miconazole. Surprisingly, it was repressed by serum. Consistently, the level of CDR1 mRNA was also reduced in the presence of serum but not N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a known inducer for germ tube formation. Conclusion Our finding that the expression of CDR1 is repressed by serum raises the question as to how does CDR1 contribute to the drug resistance in C. albicans causing candidemia. This also suggests that it is important to re-assess the prediction of in vivo therapeutic outcome of candidemia based on the results of standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing, conducted in the absence of serum.

  13. Serum chemistry of the minke whale from the northeastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Brun, E

    2001-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 42 harpooned minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) during commercial whaling off the coast of northern Norway (1997 and 1998) and analyzed for serum chemistry parameters in order to find clinical reference values for the northeastern Atlantic stock of this species. Mean and median values, as well as standard deviation and 90% central range, are presented for 28 different serum chemistry parameters. Lipemia is a common finding in marine mammals such as the minke whale, and chemical analysis of lipemic serum samples may produce artifacts. We found statistically significant elevated values of total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium and chloride in strongly-lipemic compared to non-lipemic samples, all which may be artifacts due to interference of lipids with the methods used for analysis. In addition, we found significantly elevated levels of creatin kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, uric acid and triglycerides, as well as a decrease in creatinine in the strongly lipemic samples. Reanalyzing serum samples after twelve mo storage at -20 C (n = 13) revealed reduction in the serum concentration of the enzymes ALT (42%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 10%), LDH (19%), gamma glutamyl transferase (17%) and amylase (11%), as well as for triglycerides (9%) and non-esterified fatty acids (16%). It is crucial that serum chemistry analysis is performed without delay after sampling. Possible changes in the values of some parameters due to the presence of high amounts of lipids or long term storage of samples must be considered when interpreting results from serum chemistry analysis in these animals.

  14. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  15. Post-MI depression and levels of serum IL-6 and CRP in AMI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tiejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the presence and severity of post-MI depression and the increased inflammatory activity, as marked by the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were measured in 58 AMI patients within 36 hours after onset of event. Depression was evaluated by self-reporting standardized questionnaire, using a validated Chinese version of Hospiatla Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression Subscale (7 items) within 7 days. Demographic and medical data including LVEF, NYHA cardiac function grading, atherosclerosis severity shown from angiography as well as cardiac risk factors were recorded. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher in depressive AMI patients than those in non-depressive ones (0.93 ± 0.64 vs 0.48 ± 0.37 ng/L, P<0.05 and 0.96 ± 0.41 vs 0.47 ± 0.26 mg/dL, P<0.05). Neither levels of IL-6 nor HADS-D scores were found to be correlated to the severity of atherosclerosis shown in angiography. Conclusion: Presence and severity of post-MI depression is associated with increased activity of inflammation in patients after myocardial infarction. (authors)

  16. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  17. The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, number of chronic diseases, and education level . Results: The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19. But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741. Conclusion: High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.

  18. Serum paraoxonase activity is associated with variants in the PON gene cluster and risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Porat M; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Abraham, Carmela R; Green, Robert C; Baldwin, Clinton T; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 contiguous genes (PON1, PON2, and PON3) encoding paraoxonase with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the association of serum paraoxonase activity measured by phenyl acetate (PA) and thiobutyl butyrolactone (TBBL) with risk of AD and with 26 SNPs spanning the PON gene cluster in 266 AD cases and 306 sibling controls from the MIRAGE study. The odds of AD (adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity) increased 20% for each standard deviation decrease in PA or TBBL activity. There were association signals with activity in all 3 genes. Haplotypes including SNPs spanning the PON genes were generally more significant than haplotypes comprising SNPs from 1 gene. Significant interactions were observed between SNP pairs located across the PON cluster with either serum activity measure as the outcome, and between several PON SNPs and PA activity with AD status as the outcome. Our results suggest that low serum paraoxonase activity is a risk factor for AD. Furthermore, multiple variants in PON influence serum paraoxonase activity and their effects may be synergistic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of serum levels of anti-myeloperoxidase antibody with retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shivani; Saxena, Sandeep; Prasad, Senthamizh; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bhasker, Shashi Kumar; Das, Siddharth; Krasnik, Vladimir; Caprnda, Martin; Opatrilova, Radka; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-05-01

    To study the association of serum levels of anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody with retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption in diabetic retinopathy. Consecutive patients with type 2 DM [diabetes mellitus with no retinopathy (NODR; n=20); non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; n=18); proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n=16)] and healthy controls (n=20) between the ages of 40 and 65years were included. Disruption of EZ was graded by spectral domain optical coherence tomography as no disruption of EZ and disrupted EZ. The serum levels of anti-MPO antibody was analyzed using standard protocol. Association between the variables was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. A significant difference was found between the serum levels of anti-MPO antibody in various study groups (pdisruption and levels of anti-MPO antibody [adjusted odd's ratio (AOR)=1.079, CI 1.010-1.124, p=0.04]. A significant positive correlation was found between logMAR visual acuity and grade of disruption (AOR=1.008, CI 1.006-5.688, p=0.04). An increased serum anti-MPO antibody levels is associated with retinal photoreceptor EZ disruption and decreased visual acuity in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  1. Nuclear standards index, January 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This issue covers October through December 1980. An order form is included for making requests. Listings of discontinued or superseded NE(RDT) standards and of inactive standards are given as appendices. (DLC)

  2. Correlation of periodontitis with mandibular radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol in postmenopausal women: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Govind Chandak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and periodontitis have several risk factors in common. The majority of studies evaluating periodontal bone loss and systemic bone mineral density have found that low bone mineral density systemically is significantly associated with an increase in loss of alveolar bone height and periodontal destruction. Hence, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of periodontitis on mandibular radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol levels in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients in the age group of 35–55 years were included in the study. The participants were divided into two equal groups, i.e., control group A (twenty - postmenopausal women with healthy periodontium and study group B (twenty - postmenopausal women with periodontitis. A thorough clinical examination of all the forty patients was carried out to detect the presence of periodontitis on the basis of clinical attachment level. Quantitative indices were measured on digital panoramic radiographs, and serum calcium and estradiol levels were estimated. Results: No statistically significant correlation of periodontitis with any of the radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol levels was observed in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There is little evidence of correlation of serum estradiol, serum calcium levels, and morphometric indices with periodontitis and therefore detailed further research about this correlation is required.

  3. Association between physical activity and serum C-peptide levels among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Meng, Lu; Miao, QianQian; Sato, Yasuto

    2014-07-01

    Serum C-peptide is an active peptide that has important physiological functions and characteristics in the elderly. The present study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and serum C-peptide level independent of insulin level among the elderly. The study included 1700 elderly participants aged ≥ 65 years. Stratified analysis of covariance was used to compare serum C-peptide levels in participants with different physical activity levels. Two separate multiple linear regression models were created to estimate the association between physical activity and serum C-peptide level. The results of analysis of covariance stratified by sex, body mass index and serum insulin level showed that those who engaged in vigorous physical activity had lower serum C-peptide levels than those who engaged in light or no physical activity. Separate multiple linear regression analysis showed that in those with low serum C-peptide levels (≤ 0.621 nmol/L), physical activity was significantly positively associated with the serum C-peptide level. In contrast, physical activity was negatively associated with the serum C-peptide level among those with serum C-peptide level >0.621 nmol/L. The serum C-peptide level showed a significant two-way association with physical activity. The present findings suggest that physical activity modification is important for improving serum C-peptide levels among the elderly. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  5. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  6. Evaluating serum prolactin and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in patients with pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Maryam; Mozafari, Nikoo; Hosseini, Mahboobeh Sadat; Gholamin, Sharareh; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-06-01

    Altered levels of sex hormones have been observed in many autoimmune disorders, but there is no considerable data about pemphigus. The aim of this study is to compare serum total and free prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels between patients with pemphigus and healthy controls and to determine the correlation of these hormones with disease severity. This study included 52 newly diagnosed cases of pemphigus and 57 healthy controls. Serum prolactin (total and free) and DHEAS were measured in all subjects. Data analyses were performed using JMP, Version 7. Pemphigus patients had significantly higher levels of total and free serum prolactin (both P = 0.01) and lower levels of DHEAS (P = 0.005) than healthy controls. A significant association was found between severity of pemphigus and total prolactin levels (r = 0.40, P = 0.003). The patients with pemphigus had higher total and free prolactin and lower DHEAS concentrations, and patients with more severe disease had higher levels of serum total prolactin. These new data may suggest a potential role for sex hormones in the pathogenesis of pemphigus disease and provide new insights for the better management of this chronic and life-threatening disease. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...... in nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed Danish and Swedish patients with incident Hodgkin lymphoma (N=470) and population controls from Denmark (n=245 for YKL-40; n=348 for IL-6). Serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels were determined by ELISA, and log-transformed data were analyzed...... by linear regression, adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: Serum levels of YKL-40 and IL-6 increased in Hodgkin lymphoma patients compared with controls (YKL-40, 3.6-fold; IL-6, 8.3-fold; both, PHodgkin lymphoma patients (n=176), levels were correlated...

  8. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (pturnover serum bone markers, at least in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  9. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum serotonin in females of reproductive age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faryal, U.; Hajra, B.; Saqib, J.; Rashid, S.; Hassan, M.; Ali, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. Methods: A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on proforma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way anova and a p-value 0.05 percentage was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. Results: The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4±6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9±4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5±6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean±SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68±53.27 ng/dl, 227.3±63.98 ng/dl and 118.19±31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p=0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p=0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p=0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p=0.00). Conclusion: It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non

  10. Pancreatic elastase in human serum. Determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geokas, M.C. (Univ. of California, Davis); Brodrick, J.W.; Johnson, J.H.; Largman, C.

    1977-01-10

    This study demonstrates that a serine endopeptidase of pancreatic origin (elastase 2) circulates in human blood. A specific and highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed for pancreatic elastase 2 in human serum. The inactivation of elastase 2 employed as radioiodinated tracer with an active site-specific reagent (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) was necessary to prevent its binding by serum ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin while maintaining its immunoreactivity. The assay is based upon competition of standard human pancreatic elastase 2 with /sup 125/I-labeled phenylmethanesulfonyl elastase 2 for specific antibody binding sites, after which a second antibody precipitation step is used to separate bound from free /sup 125/I-labeled phenylmethanesulfonyl elastase 2. The minimum detectable concentration of elastase 2 was 0.9 ng/ml. The average normal fasting serum level determined was 71 ng/ml, approximately 80-fold greater than the minimum detectable amount.

  11. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  12. INCREASED SERUM LEVELS OF UREA AND CREATININE ARE SURROGATE MARKERS FOR DISRUPTION OF RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR EXTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE AND INNER SEGMENT ELLIPSOID ZONE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Ruia, Surabhi; Prasad, Senthamizh; Jain, Astha; Mishra, Nibha; Natu, Shankar M; Meyer, Carsten H; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Kruzliak, Peter; Akduman, Levent

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the role of serum urea and creatinine as surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor external limiting membrane (ELM) and inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ) in Type 2 diabetic retinopathy (DR) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, for the first time. One hundred and seventeen consecutive cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes without retinopathy [No DR; n = 39], nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR; n = 39], proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR; n = 39]) and 40 healthy control subjects were included. Serum levels of urea and creatinine were assessed using standard protocol. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to grade the disruption of ELM and EZ as follows: Grade 0, no disruption of ELM and EZ; Grade 1, ELM disrupted, EZ intact; Grade 2, ELM and EZ disrupted. Data were analyzed statistically. Increase in serum levels of urea (F = 22.93) and creatinine (F = 15.82) and increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (γ = 116.3) were observed with increased severity of DR (P serum levels of urea (F = 10.45) and creatinine (F = 6.89) was observed with increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (P = 0.001). Serum levels of urea and creatinine are surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor ELM and EZ on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in DR.

  13. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency ..... and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer- assisted potassium control. Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;19(1):1–11.

  14. Production of antiserum and development of radioimmunoassay for progesterone measurement in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M; Abbas, S.H.

    2004-03-01

    The anti progesterone antibody was obtained by injection of local sudanese sheep (bevies arias) intramuscularly and subcutaneously using 11-a-hydroxy progesterone conjugated with bovine serum albumin and emulsified in friend's adjuvant. The blood samples collected one week after the 3 rd injection was tested for anti-progesterone antibodies. Different dilutions of antisera in Pbs containing 0.0.1 % BSA and 0.1 % Na N 3 (Ph 7.4) were made. Using these dilutions, polystyrene balls of 6.4 mm diameter were coated with a coating volume of 500 μ1/bead.The antibody dilution of 1/200000 was selected and used for assembling a kit to measure progesterone level in serum. Optimization of the assay condition resulted in the following recipes: Fifty μ1 of standard or Qc (Low, normal and high) from Bio Rad for 2 hours. The reaction medium aspirated, washed twice and read for 100 seconds in gamma counter. Assay validation tests including Linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability were done. In regards to linearity, the measured concentrations of progesterone in serum samples were plotted against the expected values. The correlation coefficient was 0.997 and a linear regression equation was Y=1.1019+0.9895 X. The mean recovery was 96.86% of the sample replicates ranged from 0.2% to 6%. between assay reproducibility was assessed fro the results obtained from 3 samples which were used for quality control in different assays. The results obtained were in the reference range and were close to each other. Comparison between local and American Dpc reagents for progesterone determination in serum showed high correlation high correlation where r 0.9492.(Author)

  15. EFFECT OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON SERUM SEROTONIN IN FEMALES OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryal, Uzma; Rashid, Shazia; Hajra, Bibi; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Saqib, Javeria; Ali, Muhammad Afaq

    2016-01-01

    Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on pro forma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA and a p-value 0.05% was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4 ± 6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9 ± 4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5 ± 6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean ± SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68 ± 53.27 ng/dl, 227.3 ± 63.98 ng/dl and 118.19 ± 31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p = 0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey's HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p = 0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p = 0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p = 0.00). It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.

  16. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  17. An overview of serum prostatic surface antigen cut points for recommendation of prostatic biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Sujata K; Patil, Bhushan P; Shelke, Umesh Ravikant; Singh, Abhishek G

    2018-01-01

    Patients in India frequently present with prostatic surface antigen (PSA) report and request for prostatic biopsy to rule out malignancy. With fear of harboring malignancy set in patient's mind, it becomes difficult to counsel them about absolute indications and need of biopsy. Whether serum PSA has same predictability in symptomatic patients in the Indian context for advising prostatic biopsy at same reference ranges as in western countries, remains to be answered. Symptomatic patients between 45 and 70 years of age presenting with either raised serum PSA (>4 ng/ml) reports or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) were considered as cases. Standard 12 core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy was done. Statistical analysis using optimal cut points, an R package was done to overview different PSA cut points for the recommendation of prostatic biopsy. A total of 534 patients were included. Mean age was 64 years. Malignancy was detected in total 77 patients (14.42%). Malignancy was identified in 3.59% (10/279) and 30% (63/210) patients at serum PSA ranges 4-10 ng/ml and serum PSA >10 ng/ml, respectively. Both, maximum sensitivity and specificity were found at PSA cut point 9.7 ng/ml. We evaluated these patients to identify the PSA cut point above which unnecessary biopsies will be avoided. We kept power of study maximum, i.e., 1 with confidence interval of 0.95. PSA value 9.7 ng/ml should be considered as the cut point above which prostatic biopsy should be done to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Unless accompanied by abnormal DRE finding at PSA range 4-10 ng/ml, morbidity of prostatic biopsy procedure can be avoided using this cut-point.

  18. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers in Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torren, Cornelis R; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A; Lee, DaHae; Meerding, Jenny; van de Velde, Ursule; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter; Keymeulen, Bart; de Jager, Wilco; Roep, Bart O

    2016-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation holds a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but many islet recipients do not reach long-lasting insulin independence. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines are associated with the clinical outcome of islet transplantation. Thirteen islet transplant patients were selected on basis of good graft function (reaching insulin independence) or insufficient engraftment (insulin requiring) from our cohort receiving standardized grafts and immune suppressive therapy. Patients reaching insulin independence were divided in those with continued (>12 months) versus transient (cytokines and adipokines was measured in sera taken before and at one year after transplantation using a validated multiplex immunoassay platform. Ninety serum proteins were detectable in concentrations varying markedly among patients at either time point. Thirteen markers changed after transplantation, while another seven markers changed in a clinical subpopulation. All other markers remained unaffected after transplantation under generalized immunosuppression. Patterns of cytokines could distinguish good graft function from insufficient function including IFN-α, LIF, SCF and IL-1RII before and after transplantation, by IL-16, CCL3, BDNF and M-CSF only before and by IL-22, IL-33, KIM-1, S100A12 and sCD14 after transplantation. Three other proteins (Leptin, Cathepsin L and S100A12) associated with loss of temporary graft function before or after transplantation. Distinct cytokine signatures could be identified in serum that predict or associate with clinical outcome. These serum markers may help guiding patient selection and choice of immunotherapy, or act as novel drug targets in islet transplantation.

  19. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  20. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  1. Description of analytical method and clinical utility of measuring serum 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4) by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Leslie J; Lueke, Alan; Kenyon, Stacy M; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Camilleri, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Imbalance of bile acids (BA) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation when BA in the colon are in excess or low, respectively. Since both disturbances of bowel function can result from other etiologies, identifying BA imbalance is important to tailor treatment strategies. Serum concentrations of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4), a precursor in bile acid synthesis, reflect BA homeostasis. Here we describe a method to accurately measure serum 7aC4 and evaluate the clinical utility in patients with diarrhea or constipation phenotypes. Serum 7aC4 is measured after acetonitrile protein precipitation using C18 liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and deuterium-labeled 7aC4 internal standard. Assay performance including linearity, precision, and accuracy was assessed using waste serum samples. The reference interval was established in healthy individuals without BA-altering conditions or medications. Clinical performance was assessed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The method precisely and accurately measured 7aC4 in human serum from 1.4-338ng/mL with no ion suppression or interference from related 7-keto-cholesterol. Central 95th percentile reference interval was 2.5-63.2ng/mL. Lower serum 7aC4 was found in patients with constipation with sensitivity/specificity of 79%/55% compared to healthy controls. Higher 7aC4 was found in patients with bile acid diarrhea (BAD) compared to those without BAD with sensitivity/specificity of 82%/53%. We have developed a sensitive and precise assay for measuring the concentration of 7aC4 in serum. The assay can be used to screen for diarrhea caused by bile acid malabsorption. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The usefulness of serum LH radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of male hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Serum LH was determined in a group of 56 males with gandal insufficiency. In this group were included 20 cases of Klinefelter's syndronme, 14 patients with total anterior pituitary insufficiency and 22 patients with eunuchoidism. Serum LH was also performed in a group of 50 healthy men. In the presented studies the LH radioimmunoassay with double antibodies was applied. In most cases of Klinefelter's syndrome the concentration of LH in serum was increased but in four subjects was normal. In total hypopituitarism serum LH was undetectable. Among patients with eunuchoidism the results of serum LH concentrations were different. Three cases with anorchia as well as four patients with testicular atrophy had elevated serum LH. In the other fifteen subjects serum LH was undetectable; hypogonadotropic eunuchoidism was diagnosed in these patients. (author)

  3. Teachers Voices Interpreting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo C. Rigsby

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The State of Virginia has adopted state-mandated testing that aims to raise the standards of performance for children in our schools in a manner that assigns accountability to schools and to teachers. In this paper we argue that the conditions under which the standards were created and the testing implemented undermine the professionalism of teachers. We believe this result has the further consequence of compromising the critical thinking and learning processes of children. We argue this has happened because teachers’ views and experiences have driven neither the setting of standards nor the assessment of their achievement. We use data from essays by teachers in an innovative masters program to compare teachers’ experiences involving the Virginia Standards of Learning with ideal standards for professional development adopted by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. We argue that there are serious negative consequences of the failure to include dialogue with K-12 teachers in setting standards and especially in the creation of assessments to measure performances relative to the standards. We believe the most successful, honest, and morally defensible processes must be built on the experience and wisdom of classroom teachers.

  4. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of an immunoassay for human-specific quantitation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Wessels, Uwe; Lenz, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic characterization of therapeutic antibodies plays an important role during preclinical and clinical development. However, accurate pharmacokinetic evaluation of therapeutic antibodies in serum samples from non-human primates is often complicated by insufficient specificity of the assays to measure drug levels. The present paper describes the use of a murine monoclonal antibody in an immunoassay format to specifically and quantitatively measure human therapeutic antibodies in serum from non-human primates. This murine antibody is directed against a unique epitope on the constant region CH2 domain of all isotypes of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The antibody, designated anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9, does not cross-react with serum from mouse, rat, and the non-human primates marmoset, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey and baboon when using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or surface plasmon resonance technology (Biacore) format for measurement of the therapeutic antibody. Use of the antibody anti-human Fcgamma-pan: R10Z8E9 as capturing and detection reagent allowed human-specific quantitation of total therapeutic antibody anti-IGF-1R in spiked cynomolgus monkey serum via a Sandwich ELISA format. In contrast, a commercially available polyclonal antibody (PAB) directed to the Fcgamma fragment of human IgG only specifically measured the therapeutic antibody in buffer samples, but not in serum from cynomolgus monkeys. This generic human IgG assay was already applied in several pharmacokinetic studies in cynomolgus monkeys to determine serum levels of different therapeutic antibodies, including the anti-IGF-1R. Validation of the assay for a humanized IgG1 therapeutic antibody against a membrane protein revealed a lower limit of quantitation of 8 ng/mL in undiluted serum. Intra-assay and inter-assay precision was characterized by a coefficient of variation of less than 10% and accuracy was within 15%. Dilutional linearity was evidenced by a

  6. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Results: Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [−0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Conclusions: Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF. PMID:28591049

  7. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  8. Serum magnesium status among acute myocardial infarction patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P K; Hoque, M R; Islam, M R; Paul, U K; Husain, F

    2014-01-01

    This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in collaboration with Cardiology Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2004 to June 2005. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum magnesium among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 100 subjects were selected and were grouped as Group I (50 healthy control subjects) and Group II (50 subjects of AMI Cases). Serum magnesium was estimated by colorimetric method from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum magnesium were 2.16±0.25 and 1.71±0.17mg/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum magnesium (p<0.001). It is evident from the study that serum magnesium level significantly decreases among acute myocardial infarction patients in Bangladesh.

  9. A new approach for rapid detection and typing of serum monoclonal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, P; Camproux, A C; Thiolières, J M; Assogba, U; Hausfater, P; Mallet, A; Foglietti, M J; Piette, J C; Bernard, M

    2000-12-01

    When used independently, none of the routine methods to explore serum monoclonal components (MC), including: serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), immunoelectrophoresis (IEP), kappa to lambda ratio (KLR) and immunofixation (IFE), provides a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative identification of the MC. In the past few years the concept of 'protein profile', based on immunonephelometric quantifications of serum proteins, has become widely used. It consists of a qualitative and quantitative graphic representation of numerous serum proteins including immunoglobulins. Aim of study was to develop a multidimensional model based exclusively on protein profiles labeled the protein profile prediction method (PPPM) to improve routine MC detection and typing. Serum samples from 127 hospitalized patients and 99 healthy blood donors were submitted to all of the following: SPE, IFE, KLR and a protein profile (which included IgM, IgA, IgG, kappa and lambda chain detections and quantification). The presence of a MC using IFE was chosen as the gold standard. Healthy donors and patients were randomly divided into two groups defined as testing and validation groups. A logistic model was designed based on the protein profiles of the testing group leading to the determination of a threshold value (called Z(r)) for MC detection. It was then tested to detect MC in the validation group. Using IFE, 73 MC were found in the 127 hospitalized patients. Using the threshold value for MC detection of Z(r)=1.86, the PPPM showed greater sensitivity (94.6%) in detecting a MC compared to either SPE (64.8%) or KLR (89.2%). This result was obtained without diminished specificity (80.8%). The association of SPE or KLR to PPPM did not significantly increase the sensitivity of the PPPM. In the validation group, for samples which had a high predictive probability of a MC using PPPM, the correct MC typing was identified in up to 77% of sera using PPPM only. These results may be interesting in helping

  10. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... pathogenesis of several other diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (Katrib et al., 2003; Yoshihara et al.,. 2000), which share several features with periodontitis, including the chronic nature of the inflammatory reaction and tissue destruction activity. In the present study, TIMP-1 serum levels were increa-.

  11. Serum hypercoagulability states in Coats’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi F

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fariba Ghassemi,1 Carol L Shields,2 Masoumeh Mohebbi,1 Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi,1 Fatemeh Morsali,1 Siamak Sabour3,4 1Ocular Oncology and Retina and Vitreous Service, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Centre, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods: In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results: The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years, and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years. In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG (P≤0.01, homocysteine (P=0.03, and serum beta globulin (P<0.001 were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04, beta globulin (P=0.05, and gamma globulin (P=0.04 were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02. Conclusion: Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. Keywords: anti-cytomegalovirus antibody, anti-herpes simplex antibody, Coats’ disease

  12. Evaluation of umbilical cord serum therapy in acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Goel, Manik; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Tandon, Radhika; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-02-25

    To evaluate the role of umbilical cord serum therapy in cases of acute ocular chemical burns. In a double-blind prospective randomized controlled clinical study, 33 eyes of 32 patients with acute ocular chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V severity were randomized into three groups: umbilical cord serum (n = 12), autologous serum (n = 11), and artificial tears (0.5% HPMC+0.3% glycerin; n = 10). In addition, all eyes received standard medical therapy. The parameters evaluated were pain score, size, and area of epithelial defect, extent of limbal ischemia, corneal clarity, and symblepharon formation. The patients were followed up at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. Mean time to complete epithelialization was 21.16 ± 26.81, 56.6 ± 35.5, and 40.13 ± 35.79 days in cord serum, autologous serum, and artificial tears groups respectively (P = 0.02). By day 21, the mean percentage decrease in epithelial defect diameter was 94.63 ± 11.99 with cord serum compared with 53.17 ± 34.81 and 64.22 ± 42.43 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.01). By month 3, the extent of limbal ischemia with cord serum showed a mean percentage decrease of 73.43 ± 25.51 compared with 35.64 ± 25.60 and 43.71 ± 28.71 with autologous serum and artificial tears, respectively (P = 0.008). More patients had clear corneas with cord serum compared with autologous serum and artificial tears (P = 0.048). No significant difference was seen between the groups with regard to symblepharon formation (P = 0.07). Umbilical cord serum therapy is more effective than autologous serum eye drops or artificial tears in ocular surface restoration after acute chemical injuries. (www.controlled-trials.com number, ISRCTN08131903.).

  13. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Chavez-Negrete, Adolfo; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Posadas-Mondragon, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Background Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs). Methods Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x). The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field. PMID:28630868

  14. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Maldonado-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs. Methods. Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x. The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.

  15. Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in ... glucose in rats administered with the extract of 8000 mg/kg body weight increased two and half-fold.

  16. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  17. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  18. Increased proapoptotic serum activity in patients with chronic mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Brondino, Natascia; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction may be present in patients with chronic mood disorders. We hypothesized that circulating factors in the sera of patients with chronic mood disorders could induce vascular endothelial damage that in turn may be responsible for increased vascular risk. In this study, we sought to determine whether serum of patients with chronic mood disorders could directly induce apoptosis in human endothelial cells. We examined the proapoptotic activity by an ex vivo proapoptotic activity assay in the serum of 100 individuals: 25 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and no lifetime diagnosis of anxiety disorder, 25 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) with a current comorbid anxiety disorder, 25 patients with BPD and no anxiety, and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The proapoptotic serum activity of all mood disorder patients was significantly higher than that of the control group (all p values<0.01). This association was found to be independent from potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure parameters, family history of cardiovascular disease, serum creatinine, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein (beta=0.44, t=2.93, p=0.012). Together our findings indicate that chronic mood disorders are associated with higher proapoptotic serum capacity. Although subject to future confirmation, it is possible that the increased systemic proapoptotic activity of the serum in these patients could exert deleterious vascular effects resulting in endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Serum BAFF and thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Fang, Wen-Fang; Hsiao, Chia-Jung; Chagnaadorj, Amarzaya; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Cheng, Chao-Wen

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the association of serum B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) levels with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in a Chinese population. We enrolled 221 patients with AITD [170 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 51 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)], and 124 healthy controls. Serum BAFF levels, thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody (TAb) levels, including of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHRAb), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO Ab), and antithyroglobulin antibody (ATA), were measured at baseline. Serum BAFF levels were higher in the GD, HT, and AITD groups than in the control group. Significant correlations were observed between BAFF and TSHRAb levels (r=0.238, p=0.018), between BAFF and Anti-TPO Ab levels (p=0.038), and between BAFF and ATA titers (p=0.025) in women but not in men. In addition, serum BAFF levels were significantly associated with free thyroxine (r=0.430, p=0.004) and TSHRAb (r=0.495, p=0.001) levels in women with active GD but not in those with inactive GD. Serum BAFF levels are increased in GD, HT, and AITD. The correlation between serum BAFF and TAb levels exhibits a dimorphic pattern, particularly in active GD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  1. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  2. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  3. Decreased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takci, Z; Bilgili, S G; Karadag, A S; Kucukoglu, M E; Selek, S; Aslan, M

    2015-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be an important phenomenon in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme with three activities: paraoxonase, arylesterase and dyazoxonase. In this study, we evaluated serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and serum lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in patients with rosacea in comparison to healthy controls. The study included 39 rosacea patients and healthy controls, consisting of 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate substrates. Serum LOOH levels were measured with the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. In rosacea group mean serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were 74.54 ± 38.30 U L(-1) and 141.29 ± 22.27 kU L(-1) respectively, which were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.010, 0.005; respectively). Mean serum LOOH level of rosacea group was 8.17 ± 1.91 μmol L(-1) which was significantly higher than controls (P = 0.009). There were no statistically significant differences between the clinical subtypes of the disease, menopause situation or ocular involvement with the respect to the serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and LOOH levels (all; P > 0.05). Serum PON1 enzyme activities have decreased significantly in rosacea. These findings support that decreased PON1 activity and increased oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of PON1 activity in the pathophysiology of rosacea. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. [Serum values of interleukin-10, gamma-interferon and vitamin A in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy

    2007-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol 30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.

  5. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  6. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-11-23

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses.

  7. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  8. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    for lysozyme activity and a colorimetric one for protein concentration. Familiarity with the assays is reinforced by an independently designed project to modify a variable in one of these assays. The assay for lysozyme activity is that of Shugar (6), based on hydrolysis of a cell-wall suspension from the bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus, a substrate that is particularly sensitive to lysozyme. As the cell walls are broken down by the enzyme, the turbidity of the sample decreases. This decrease can be conveniently measured by following the decrease in absorbance at a wavelength of 450 nm, using a spectrophotometer or other device for measuring light scattering. The Bradford method (7), a standard assay, is used to determine protein concentration. Using the data from both lysozyme activity assays and protein concentration assays, students can calculate the specific activity for commercial lysozyme and an egg- white solution. These calculations clearly demonstrate the increase in specific activity with increasing purity, since the purified (commercial) preparation has a specific activity approximately 20-fold higher than that of the crude egg-white solution. Lysozyme Purification by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (5 weeks) As suggested by Strang (8), students can design a rational purification of lysozyme using ion-exchange chromatography when presented with information on the isoelectric point of the enzyme and the properties of ion- exchange resins. One week is spent discussing protein purification and the relative advantages and disadvantages of different resins. Each group has a choice of anion-exchange (DEAE) or cation-exchange (CM) resins. Because lysozyme is positively charged below a pH of 11, it will not be adsorbed to an anion-exchange resin, but will be adsorbed to the cation-exchange resin. Therefore, for the cation-exchange protocols, there are further options for methods of collecting and eluting the desired protein. A purification table, including

  9. Comparison of serum lipid profile in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Sharif, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum lipid profile between patients of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Study Design: Cross sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to February 2005. Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 100 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes were included in the study while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from study. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan of brain was done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of lipid profile in two subgroups, using proportion test for any significant difference. Results: The mean age at presentation of patients with stroke was 64.2+-12 years with a male to female ratio of 3.6:1. In 100 ischaemic stroke patients, raised serum total cholesterol was seen in 42, triglyceride in 04, LDL-cholesterol in 05 and VLDL-cholesterol in 07 patients. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below the normal reference in 31 cases. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was raised in 05 patients each, LDL-cholesterol in 09 and VLDL-cholesterol in 03 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below normal in 04 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. On comparison, there were significantly greater number of patients with raised serum cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in ischaemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found on comparing serum values of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke patients had high serum total cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to

  10. Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Skaaby, T; Thuesen, B H

    2012-01-01

    Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes.......Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes....

  11. Association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density measurements in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Turkish women. One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study in a University hospital clinic. Blood was drawn from women who had bone mineral density (BMD) measurements during routine visits. BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The serum paraoxonase concentration and serum lipid levels were measured. Women were divided into two groups: those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD and those with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae. Serum paraoxonase concentration was compared between the groups. The correlation between serum paraoxonase concentration and bone mass parameters was performed using Pearson's test. The paraoxonase concentration in the osteopenic group was significantly lower than in the group with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. The paraoxonase concentration was moderately correlated with total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels among early postmenopausal Turkish women. Early postmenopausal women with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae have significantly lower paraoxonase concentration than those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the osteoporosis risk factors and paraoxonase concentration during late postmenopausal years.

  12. Some metabolic and anthropometric variables in obes children by measuring serum insulin, and leptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour Eldin, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess serum leptin level in obese children to study its correlation with some metabolic variables as serum insulin and serum glucose. The study was conducted on 30 obese children of age from 9-14 years with body mass index (BMI) > 27.8 Kg/m 2 . All children were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations including fasting serum leptin, insulin and blood glucose. Serum leptin was significantly higher in obese children (102.3± 56.2 ng/ml) compared to non-obese ones (48.15±26.1 ng/ml). The relation between serum leptin and anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations including fasting serum insulin and blood glucose. Serum leptin was significantly higher in obese children (102.3± 56.2 ng/ml)compared to non-obese ones (48.15±26.1 ng/ml). The relation between serum leptin and anthropometric variables was positively correlated with BMI r s = 0.68, (p s = 0.59.(p<0.01). It is concluded that serum leptin is increased in obesity and its concentration effects the size of the body. Moreover, the relation of leptin and insulin suggests a positive role of leptin in insulin resistance, which are common metabolic disorders associated with obesity

  13. The Correlation between Serum and Peritoneal Fluid CA125 The Correlation between Serum and Peritoneal Fluid CA125

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high prevalence of endometriosis, there still exist many challenges indiagnosing the disease. This study aims to evaluate non-invasive and practical diagnostic methodsby measuring serum and peritoneal fluid CA 125 levels in patients with endometriosis. A secondaryaim is to determine the correlation between these markers with the stage of disease as well as therelationship of the two markers with each other.Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 60 women who underwent laparoscopyfor benign conditions. Based on laparoscopic findings and biopsy results, patients were divided to twogroups; one group included patients with pelvic endometriosis (35 patients and the second enrolledpatients free from endometriosis (25 patients. Serum and peritoneal fluid specimens were provided at thetime of laparoscopy and CA125 levels were then assessed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.Results: Mean serum and peritoneal fluid CA125 levels were significantly higher in women withendometriosis as compared to the control group (26.42 ± 24.34 IU/ml versus 12.64 ± 6.87 IU/mlin serum and 2203.54 + 993.19 IU/ml versus 1583.42 ± 912.51 IU/ml in peritoneal fluid, p<0.05.CA 125 levels also varied proportionally with the stage of endometriosis; but showed a significantdifference only in higher stages of the disease, both in serum and peritoneal fluid. We calculatedthe cut-off value suggesting a diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis as 14.70 IU/ml for serum and1286.5 IU/ml for peritoneal fluid CA125. A linear correlation between CA 125 levels in serum andperitoneal fluid in patients with pelvic endometriosis has also been observed.Conclusion: Serum and peritoneal fluid CA 125 levels are simple and non-surgical tools fordiagnosing and staging pelvic endometriosis. These markers are of greater diagnostic value inhigher stages of the disease.

  14. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  15. Correlation Between Preoperative Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels and Expression on Pancreatic and Rectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSF Boogerd

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA–targeted imaging and therapeutic agents are being tested in clinical trials. If CEA overexpression in malignant tissue corresponds with elevated serum CEA, serum CEA could assist in selecting patients who may benefit from CEA-targeted agents. This study aims to assess the relationship between serum CEA and CEA expression in pancreatic (n = 20 and rectal cancer tissues (n = 35 using histopathology. According to local laboratory standards, a serum CEA >3 ng/mL was considered elevated. In pancreatic cancer patients a significant correlation between serum CEA and percentage of CEA-expressing tumor cells was observed ( P  = .04, ρ = .47. All 6 patients with homogeneous CEA expression in the tumor had a serum CEA >3 ng/mL. Most rectal cancer tissues (32/35 showed homogeneous CEA expression, independent of serum CEA levels. This study suggests that selection of pancreatic cancer patients for CEA-targeted agents via serum CEA appears adequate. For selection of rectal cancer patients, serum CEA levels are not informative.

  16. Serum nicotine level among various tobacco users: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanandam Mala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of tobacco and its products has increased in the population over the past two decades, resulting in considerable systemic exposure to nicotine. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and compare the serum nicotine levels among smokers and gutkha chewers, along with the effect of nicotine replacement therapy on serum nicotine levels between them. Materials and Methods: Forty individuals were selected and divided into two groups with 20 individuals in each group. First group included individuals with a smoking habit, whereas the second group included individuals with the habit of chewing gutkha exclusively. Four blood samples were collected from all the participants in both the groups and subjected to serum nicotine estimation. Two blood samples were obtained (first sample after 30 min and the next sample after 60 min following smoking/chewing on the first day, and the other two were obtained after 24 h of tobacco abstinence (after 24 h all the participants were asked to chew nicotine chewing gums each containing 2 mg of nicotine. Statistical Analysis Used: The particulars of age, frequency of habit (smoking and chewing gutkha, and serum nicotine levels before and after replacement therapy (nicotine chewing gum were recorded and analyzed statistically by cross-tabulation for calculation of mean and frequency. Results: The serum concentration of nicotine in smokers at 30 min after smoking ranged 120-309 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 29-77 ng/ml. In group 1, individuals′ serum nicotine concentration after replacement therapy with nicotine chewing gum ranged 29-77 ng/ml at 30 min and 1-6 ng/ml at 60 min. Serum concentration of nicotine at 30 min after chewing gutkha ranged 86-200 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 61-102 ng/ml. The serum nicotine concentration in group 2 individuals at 30 min following chewing nicotine gum ranged 24-55 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 0-3 ng/ml. Conclusion: Serum nicotine concentration in chewers was less at 30 min

  17. Bovine serum albumin contained in culture medium used in artificial insemination is an important anaphylaxis risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Juan A; Postigo, Idoia; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Jorge R; Peña, Maribel; Guisantes, Jorge A; Martínez, Jorge

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the cause of the anaphylactic reaction after a standard artificial insemination process in a patient diagnosed with asthma. Case report. Residencia Sanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (Murcia, Spain) and University of the Basque Country (Vitoria, Spain). A 30-year-old woman with a previous medical history compatible with respiratory allergy who suffered an anaphylactic reaction after an artificial insemination with spermatozoids in capable medium (Upgraded B2 INRA medium; Laboratories CCD, Paris, France). Cutaneous tests and specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens, grass and Olea pollens, and insemination medium were performed. Specific IgE levels to mammal epithelia and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Skin prick tests were positive for inhalant allergens such as mites, cat, dog, horse, and rabbit epithelia, grasses and Olea pollens, and the insemination medium. The beta-lactamic tests were negative. The determination of specific IgE demonstrated positive values to mammal epithelia and mammal serum albumins including BSA. We report a case of an anaphylactic reaction to the BSA included in the insemination culture medium induced by a subclinical sensitivity to serum albumins of mammal epithelia. A previous testing with the medium is recommended and specific testing might be needed in women who have a history of animal epithelium allergies.

  18. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, Anne; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib J

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p...

  19. Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum biochemistry of Japanese quails fed with diets containing African pear seed meal. ... haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) serum total protein (PRO), Albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), creatinine (CREAT), cholesterol (CHOL) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  20. Serum Concentrations of Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Almes, K; Jewell, D E

    2016-05-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats an average of 17.0 months before serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations increased above the reference interval. To report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in dogs for detection of CKD before diagnosis by measurement of serum Cr. CKD dogs (n = 19) included those persistently azotemic for ≥3 months (n = 5), dogs that were azotemic at the time of death (n = 4), and nonazotemic dogs (n = 10). CKD dogs were compared with healthy control dogs (n = 20). Retrospective study, whereby serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry and serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in dogs with necropsy confirmed CKD. Serum SDMA increased before serum Cr in 17 of 19 dogs (mean, 9.8 months; range, 2.2-27.0 months). Duration of elevations in serum SDMA concentrations before the dog developed azotemia (N = 1) or before the dog died (N = 1) was not determined. Serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were linearly related (r = 0.84; P Serum SDMA (r = -0.80) and serum Cr (r = -0.89) concentrations were significantly related to glomerular filtration rate (both P serum SDMA as a biomarker for CKD allows earlier detection of kidney dysfunction in dogs than does measurement of serum Cr. Earlier detection might be desirable for initiating renoprotective interventions that slow progression of kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Estimation of serum ferritin for normal subject living in Khartoum area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted with a main objective; the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in Khartoum area.To fulfil this objective, two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study, 103 males with 15 to 45 years. serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of males' serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females' (p<0.001). (Author)

  2. A comparison of definitions of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with normal serum creatinine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Khatami; Nasrin Nikravan; Mojtaba Salari-Far; Safieh Davoudi; Mohammad Reza Pahlavan-Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of CIN is reported to range from 0% to 50%, depending not only on patient condition and the procedure used but also the definition of CIN applied. We aimed to determine the best diagnostic indicator of CIN in patients with normal serum creatinine. This study included 206 patients with normal serum creatinine who underwent coronary angiography/angioplasty. Serum creatin...

  3. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  4. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  5. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  6. Investigations of serum HPL during pregnancy using two different radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, H.

    1978-01-01

    The interassay investigations showed that it is absolutely necessary to standardize the HPL antisera as well as the standard sera, as it is otherwise impossible to compare and interpret the findings of different HPL radioimmunoassays. The investigations have shown that in addition to conventional clinical examinations and laboratory test methods (urine estriol determination, DHEAS-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate test-, urine pregnandiol determination, and determination of heat-resisting alkaline serum phosphatase), HPL concentration determination is a parameter of the nutritive function of the placenta. (orig.) [de

  7. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    45-56. Singh VK. (2009) Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Ann Clin Psychiat. 21:148-160. 5...spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication (verbal and nonverbal), social interactions, and... autoimmunity ; in particular, the generation of antibodies reactive against brain and CNS proteins. The goal of this grant is to identify serum

  8. Selection of candidate radiation bio-markers in the serum of rats exposed to gamma-rays by GC/TOFMS-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Wu, S.; Dong, F.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In the study, gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS) techniques coupled with principal components analysis (PCA) were used to investigate metabolite perturbations in the serum of the rats exposed to 0.75, 3 or 8 Gy gamma rays. Male standard deviation rats were gamma-irradiated at doses of 0.75, 3 and 8 Gy (1.9 Gy min -1 ) or sham-irradiated. Serum samples were collected over the first 24 h under the exposure to irradiation in order to analyse the samples by GC/TOFMS. And multivariate data were analysed by PCA. The composition of metabolites in serum yielded distinct metabolomic phenotypes for 0.75, 3 and 8 Gy at 24 h after irradiation. Nine serum metabolites were significantly altered as a result of radiation exposure. Up-regulated metabolites included inositol, serine, lysine, glycine, threonine and glycerol; down regulated metabolites included isocitrate, gluconic acid and stearic acid. The nine metabolites were significantly altered after ionising radiation for they may be the potential bio-markers for the diagnosis of radiation injury. All rights reserved. (authors)

  9. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  10. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha Gadicherla; Suma M. N; Parveen Doddamani

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in re...

  11. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  12. [The value of serum free light chain in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Wen, Y B; Li, H; Su, W; Li, J; Cai, J F; Chen, L M; Li, X M; Li, X W

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum free light chain (FLC) in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). Methods: Forty-nine hospitalized patients who underwent renal biopsy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Monoclonal gammopathy was detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), urine IFE and serum FLC. All patients were classified as MGRS ( n =32) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) ( n =17). Results: Renal lesions in MGRS subgroup included light chain amyloidosis ( n =24, 75.0%), light chain deposition disease ( n =7, 21.9%), and fibrillary glomerulopathy ( n =1, 3.1%). Renal diseases in MGUS subgroup included membranous nephropathy ( n =10), focal segmental glomerulosclerosi (FSGS) ( n =3), diabetic glomerulopathy ( n =1), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis ( n =1), anti-GBM disease concurrent with membranous nephropathy ( n =1) and glomerulomegaly ( n =1). Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGRS subgroup were 12, 16, 23 and 30, respectively. Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGUS subgroup were 11, 17, 6 and 3, respectively. MGRS and MGUS subgroups differed significantly in positive rate of serum IFE ( P value for MGRS, which was helpful for differential diagnosis of patients who had contraindication to renal biopsy.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...

  14. Serum HER-2 concentrations for monitoring women with breast cancer in a routine oncology setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Langkjer, Sven Tyge

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of positive serum human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) for monitoring women with breast cancer following diagnosis and treatment in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: Serum HER-2 was measured...... could be determined in ten tissue-positive patients was 3-24 months (mean 11.3 months), when compared to standard clinical imaging methods. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HER-2 is a useful marker for the detection of recurrence of breast cancer and for monitoring the effect of treatment, especially in tissue HER-2...... in 1348 patients with breast cancer: 837 during routine oncology clinic visits and 511 following new diagnosis. All patients with positive serum HER-2, 1/5 of negative patients from the oncology clinic, and all the newly diagnosed were followed; a total of 862 patients. Serum HER-2 was measured using...

  15. Serum paraoxonase level and paraoxonase polymorphism in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Dilek; Karakas Celik, Sevim; Can, Murat; Ermiş, Esra; Kuzu, Fatih; Kokturk, Furuzan; Hamamcioglu, Ayse Ceylan; Dursun, Ahmet; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-11-01

    Acromegalic patients have increased cardiometabolic risk factors due to an elevation of growth hormone (GH) levels. Human serum paraoxonase (PON), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related enzyme, is one of the major bioscavengers and decreases the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a key regulator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated a potential relationship between serum PON levels or PON polymorphisms and acromegaly. A total of 48 acromegalic patients and 44 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum GH levels, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and lipid profiles were measured. Serum PON levels, as well as PON 1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms, were examined. No significant differences were found in terms of age, gender, presence of diabetes, serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglyceride levels between the case and control groups (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in serum PON levels between the cases and controls (P = 0.007). The median serum PON level was 101 ± 63.36 U/l in the case group and 63 ± 60.50 U/l in the control group. There was a significant correlation between serum PON levels and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.004, r = 0.319); however, no significant differences were found in PON1 L55M and PON Q192R polymorphisms between the patients and controls (P = 0.607 and P = 0.308, respectively). In addition, no significant differences were found in serum PON levels in acromegalic patients who were and were not in remission (P = 0.385), nor between those with PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms (P = 0.161 and P = 0.336, respectively). Elevated serum PON levels were detected in acromegalic patients, independently of their remission status. This suggests protective effects for cardiometabolic risk parameters.

  16. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  17. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Health Standards for Human Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    James John T.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of air and water quality standards includes evidence-based standards, factors unique to spaceflight, effects from exposures to combinations of compounds, contingency versus nominal standards, tables of ISO standards for air quality (ppm) and water quality (mg/L), and updating of standards.

  19. Association of serum osteoprotegerin with vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Atsushi; Murata, Miho; Asano, Tomoko; Ikoma, Aki; Sasaki, Masami; Saito, Tomoyuki; Otani, Taeko; Jinbo, Sachimi; Ikeda, Nahoko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2013-01-09

    Osteoprotegerin is a member of the tumor necrosis factor-related family and inhibits RANK stimulation of osteoclast formation as a soluble decoy receptor. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 124 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including 88 males and 36 females with a mean (± SD) age of 65.6 ± 8.2 years old. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. Vascular calcification in the cervical artery was examined by ultrasound sonography. The subjects were divided into 4 quartiles depending on serum osteoprotegerin levels. Vascular calcification was significantly higher in the 4th quartile and significantly lower in the 1st quartile of serum osteoprotegerin levels, compared to other quartiles. There were no differences in serum osteoprotegerin and vascular calcification among patients with different stages of diabetic nephropathy, but serum FGF23 levels were elevated in those with stage 4 diabetic nephropathy. Simple regression analysis showed that serum osteoprotegerin levels had significant positive correlations with age, systolic blood pressure and serum adiponectin levels, and significant negative correlations with BMI and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. These findings suggest that elevated serum osteoprotegerin may be involved in vascular calcification independently of progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Maternal serum adiponectin multimers in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine with profound insulin-sensitizing effect, consists of heterogeneous species of multimers. These oligomeric complexes circulate as low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms and can exert differential biological effects. The aims of this study were to determine whether there is a change in circulating adiponectin multimers in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), overweight/obesity or with a treatment with sulfonylurea or insulin in patients with GDM. This cross-sectional study included women with: 1) normal pregnancy (n=149); and 2) patients with GDM (n=72). Thirty-three patients with GDM were managed with diet alone. Among the others 39 diabetic patients, 17 were treated with Glyburide and 22 with insulin. The study population was further stratified by first trimester body mass index (BMI) (normal weight or =25 kg/m(2)). Serum adiponectin multimers (total, HMW, MMW and LMW) concentrations were determined by ELISA. 1) The median maternal serum of total, HMW, MMW and LMW were lower in patients with GDM than in those with normal pregnancies (Pdiet, and those who were treated with pharmacological agents. 1) GDM is characterized by a distinctive pattern of concentrations and relative distribution of adiponectin multimers akin to Type 2 diabetes mellitus; 2) dysregulation of adiponectin multimeres can provide a mechanistic basis for the association between adiposity and GDM.

  1. Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid, Serum Vitamin B12, Serum Vitamin B6, MTHFR, and Risk of Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmiao; Xu, Fan; Zeng, Rui; Gong, Haijun; Lan, Yuqing

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the association between total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, and risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). A systematic search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed to evaluate plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acid, B vitamins' mean difference, and odds ratios of MTHFR C677T genotype between cases and controls. A total of 7 studies including 458 cases and 555 controls meeting the inclusion criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. There were 4 studies for tHcy (149 cases and 148 controls), 2 studies for vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate (90 cases and 82 controls), and 4 studies for MTHFR (343 cases and 449 controls). Overall, the mean plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acids, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 levels were 1.16 μmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.13, 2.45], -0.62 μmol/L (95% CI, -1.98, 0.74), 5.81 μmol/L (95% CI, -3.53, 15.14), and -16.79 μmol/L (95% CI, -86.09, 52.51). MTHFR TT genotype was found to be unrelated to NTG risk (odds ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 0.69, 1.69). NTG is not associated with elevated plasma tHcy, serum folic acid, serum vitamin B12, serum vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T genotype.

  2. Study of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase and Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in Breast Cancer Patients receiving Chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Singh Basnyat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common type of cancer worldwide, being a major cause of morbidity in female. In Nepal it is the second most common type of cancer among females of perimenopausal age group. More than one quarter of the BC diagnosed in young Nepalese female, with familial history of breast cancer, early pregnancy, longer lactation and estrogen exposure and often with tumors showing aggressive biological behaviors. Anthracyclines (Doxorubicin based treatment regime were reported to cause cardiotoxicity by increasing intramyocardial free radical production, lipid alterations and decreasing antioxidant level. Oxidative stress involving cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production is widely accepted mechanism but the molecular basis of chemotherapy induced organ toxicity remains highly controversial. An increased rate of metabolism and oxidative stress results rapid turnover of cancer cells that modulates the enzyme level in blood circulation. Serum LDH and GGT level correlates with tumor burden, metastatic character of BC and intensity of organtoxicity. The aim of our study is to evaluate the serum level of LDH and GGT in BC patients receiving chemotherapy and correlate these enzyme levels with different stages of BC. A total number of 150 subjects were included in the study, comprising 90 histopathologically confirmed 24 to 76 years aged patients of different breast cancer stages, receiving at least 3 cycles of 5-Fluorouracil, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (FAC chemotherapy. Sixty age- matched healthy women were enrolled as controls. Blood samples from each individual was collected after informed consent and analysed for serum LDH and GGT levels using standard biochemical methods. Data were analyzed using student's paired 't' test, Pearson correlation test and ANOVA. Serum LDH and GGT levels were significantly (p<0.001 increased in BC patients as compared to control group. When all 4 stages of BC were compared to control group

  3. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: junyosh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  4. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  5. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  6. The effect of novel probiotic on performance and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment, effects of two phosphate solublizing bacteria as a novel probiotic on performance factors and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were investigated. The experiment included 320 Ross broilers from 1 to 49 days of age. Birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, with 4 replicates of 20 ...

  7. Alterations in serum lipid, lipoprotein and visceral abdominal fat pad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially available garlic preparation in the form of garlic oil, garlic powder and pills are widely used for certain therapeutic purposes, including lowering blood pressure and improving lipid profile. The aim of the present study was to determine short term effects of dietary consumption of garlic on the serum levels of ...

  8. Haematological profiles and serum lead levels in male fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological profiles and serum lead levels of male fuel station attendants in Calabar metropolis were determined. The haematological parameters assessed included haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (HCT), total white blood cell count (WBC), differential white cell counts and platelet count. Age range of ...

  9. The relationship between serum bilirubin level with interleukin.6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Bilirubin has been shown to influence the mechanisms of both apoptosis and inflammation. Aims: The aim of the following study is to investigate the relationship between the serum bilirubin level with sepsis progression. Settings and Design: A total of 20 patients from intensive care unit were included for this study.

  10. Ligand-binding sites in human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Roepstorff, P.

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid P component (AP) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein that is found in serum and basement membranes, AP is also a component of all types of amyloid, including that found in individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Because AP has been found to bind strongly...

  11. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Serum leptin (P nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Serum hyaluronic acid levels during pregnancy and labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sun, G W; Tanaka, Y; Kondo, T; Terao, T

    1999-04-01

    To study the changes in concentrations of serum hyaluronic acid in uncomplicated human pregnancies. We determined the concentrations of serum hyaluronic acid, using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in 70 nonpregnant women, 250 women during their pregnancies, and 68 women at the time of parturition. Results were analyzed for statistical significance with Scheffé test for multiple comparisons. During pregnancy, mean (+/- standard deviation) serum hyaluronic acid levels were 11.4 +/- 4.5, 13.6 +/- 2.8, 20.6 +/- 1.5, and 46.9 +/- 7.9 ng/mL at 5-14 (n = 47), 15-26 (n = 46), 27-37 (n = 58), and 38-40 (n = 99) weeks' gestation, respectively. Pregnant women in labor (n = 68) had significantly higher levels (100.4 +/- 11.3 ng/mL) than did women at term but not in labor (P hyaluronic acid concentrations increase as pregnancy progresses and serum levels increase significantly at term. Hyaluronic acid may be associated with cervical ripening during parturition.

  13. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  14. A clinical study of serum phosphate and magnesium in type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi.R, Julius Amaldas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess serum phosphate and magnesium level in type-2 diabetic patients in comparison with those of control subjects. Methodology: There were 100 diabetic patients and 100 age matched non-diabetic (control subjects included in this study. Serum phosphate, serum magnesium and fasting and postprandial blood sugar measured among the diabetic and control groups using SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Results: Serum phosphate level was significantly lower in diabetic patients (2.92 ± 0.75 as compared to control subjects (3.38 ± 0.49. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients (0.9 ± 0.15 compared to controls (2.75 ± 0.46 Conclusion: The study reveals that hyperglycemia may reduce serum levels of magnesium and phosphorus.

  15. Serum cysteine proteases and their inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity and radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Iben; Kos, Janko; Krašovec, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the serum levels of cysteine proteases cathepsins B and H and their inhibitors stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C, as well as traditional inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate these markers with scores...... of disease activity and radiographic progression. Seventy-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included from two previously described cohorts of patients with chronic polyarthritis. At inclusion, disease activity was assessed by a 28-joint count, patient global assessment, and serum C-reactive protein...... associated with disease activity, presence or progression of erosive disease. Number of swollen joints correlated with serum levels of stefin A and B and correlated negatively with cystatin C serum levels. Erosive disease was associated with high serum levels of C-reactive protein and stefin A and low serum...

  16. Pretreated high lipid serum method and its significance before determine INS C-P by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Guangxia; Zhu Liqiang; Wu Yufang

    2004-01-01

    The method of predigest high lipid serum before determine INS and C-P for elimination of the high lipid in serum was studied. The specimen was divided into two groups, one was directly tested, the other was pretreated, then determined(including INS and QC of serum, normal and high lipid serum, pretreating serum). The results were compared by examine and analysed correlatively. Results show that INS and C-P of the specimens pretreated by PEG, were no statistic difference in relation to direct tested (P>0.05) and those were close correlatively (P<0.001) in normal. The results of high lipid serum after the specimens were predigest by PEG were marked by decrease in relation to direct tested (P<0.001). High lipid and INS antibody were eliminated by PEG so that was increased the results nicety. (authors)

  17. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  18. Impact of Three Doses of Vitamin D3 on Serum 25(OH)D Deficiency and Insufficiency in At-Risk Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M; Van Rompay, Maria I; Chomitz, Virginia R; Economos, Christina D; Eliasziw, Misha; Goodman, Elizabeth; Gordon, Catherine M; Holick, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the daily dose of vitamin D needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sufficiency among schoolchildren at risk for deficiency. The Daily D Health Study was a randomized double-blind vitamin D supplementation trial among racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n = 685) in the northeastern United States. Children were supplemented with vitamin D3 at 600, 1000, or 2000 IU/d for 6 months. Measurements included serum 25(OH)D at baseline (October to December), 3 months (January to March), 6 months (April to June), and 12 months (6 months after supplementation). At baseline, mean ± standard deviation serum 25(OH)D level was 22.0 ± 6.8 ng/mL, with 5.5% severely vitamin D deficient (D were found among black (17.9 ± 6.7 ng/mL) and Asian children (18.9 ± 4.8 ng/mL), with no baseline differences by weight status. Serum 25(OH)D increased over 6 months in all three dose groups. The 2000 IU/d group achieved a higher mean serum 25(OH)D level than the other two dose groups (33.1 vs 26.3 and 27.5 ng/mL; P D at 12 months. Children at risk for vitamin D deficiency benefited from daily sustained supplementation of 2000 IU/d compared with lower doses closer to the current recommended daily allowance for vitamin D intake. This benefit occurred over the winter months, when serum 25(OH)D level tend to fall. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Metabolic tumour burden assessed by 18F-FDG PET/CT associated with serum CA19-9 predicts pancreatic cancer outcome after resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hua-Xiang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Wen-Quan; Wu, Chun-Tao; Liu, Chen; Long, Jiang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Liang; Yu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Chen, Run-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tumour burden is one of the most important prognosticators for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive significance of metabolic tumour burden measured by 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with resectable PDAC. Included in the study were 122 PDAC patients who received preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT examination and radical pancreatectomy. Metabolic tumour burden in terms of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), pathological tumour burden (tumour size), serum tumour burden (baseline serum CA19-9 level), and metabolic activity (maximum standard uptake value, SUVmax) were determined, and compared for their performance in predicting overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). MTV and TLG were significantly associated with baseline serum CA19-9 level (P = 0.001 for MTV, P < 0.001 for TLG) and tumour size (P < 0.001 for MTV, P = 0.001 for TLG). Multivariate analysis showed that MTV, TLG and baseline serum CA19-9 level as either categorical or continuous variables, but not tumour size or SUVmax, were independent risk predictors for both OS and RFS. Time-dependent receiving operating characteristics analysis further indicated that better predictive performances for OS and RFS were achieved by MTV and TLG compared to baseline serum CA19-9 level, SUVmax and tumour size (P < 0.001 for all). MTV and TLG showed strong consistency with baseline serum CA19-9 level in better predicting OS and RFS, and might serve as surrogate markers for prediction of outcome in patients with resectable PDAC. (orig.)

  20. Metabolic tumour burden assessed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT associated with serum CA19-9 predicts pancreatic cancer outcome after resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hua-Xiang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Wen-Quan; Wu, Chun-Tao; Liu, Chen; Long, Jiang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Liang; Yu, Xian-Jun [Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Pancreatic Cancer Institute and Department of Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ying-Jian [Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Chen, Run-Hao [Fudan University, Department of General Surgery, Jinshan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Tumour burden is one of the most important prognosticators for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive significance of metabolic tumour burden measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with resectable PDAC. Included in the study were 122 PDAC patients who received preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examination and radical pancreatectomy. Metabolic tumour burden in terms of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), pathological tumour burden (tumour size), serum tumour burden (baseline serum CA19-9 level), and metabolic activity (maximum standard uptake value, SUVmax) were determined, and compared for their performance in predicting overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). MTV and TLG were significantly associated with baseline serum CA19-9 level (P = 0.001 for MTV, P < 0.001 for TLG) and tumour size (P < 0.001 for MTV, P = 0.001 for TLG). Multivariate analysis showed that MTV, TLG and baseline serum CA19-9 level as either categorical or continuous variables, but not tumour size or SUVmax, were independent risk predictors for both OS and RFS. Time-dependent receiving operating characteristics analysis further indicated that better predictive performances for OS and RFS were achieved by MTV and TLG compared to baseline serum CA19-9 level, SUVmax and tumour size (P < 0.001 for all). MTV and TLG showed strong consistency with baseline serum CA19-9 level in better predicting OS and RFS, and might serve as surrogate markers for prediction of outcome in patients with resectable PDAC. (orig.)

  1. HETEROGENIC SERUM, AGE, AND MULTIPLICATION OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; Ebeling, A H

    1922-01-01

    The presence in a culture medium of heterogenic serum of various concentrations exerts a definite influence on the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts. Dog serum does not inhibit the growth of See PDF for Structure chicken fibroblasts markedly until its concentration reaches 15 per cent. Beyond this figure, each increase of the concentration brings about a rapid decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. When the concentration reaches from 30 to 45 per cent, no growth takes place. The inhibiting action of cat serum begins to manifest itself at a concentration of 25 per cent and prevents cell proliferation completely at a concentration of 55 and 60 per cent. The ratio, See PDF for Equation can be taken as expressing the action of the serum on fibroblast multiplication; that is, as the growth index of the serum. See PDF for Structure The inhibiting influence of heterogenic serum was found to vary in direct ratio to the age of the animal from which it was obtained. The rate of proliferation of chicken fibroblasts was studied comparatively in media containing varied concentrations of serum from young and old animals. For each concentration of serum, the rate of growth in the serum of the old animal was expressed in relation to the rate of growth in the serum of the young animal. When cat serum was used, the curve obtained in plotting this ratio in ordinates and the serum concentration in abscissae showed a rapid increase in the inhibiting action of the old serum as soon as the concentration reached 30 per cent. The same tests were repeated with the serum from young and old dogs. The general results were identical, although See PDF for Structure the quantitative inhibiting action of both sera was greater than that of cat serum. It may be concluded that under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Heterogenicsera inhibit and prevent the growth of chicken fibroblasts when their concentration is made to vary within certain limits. 2. A relation exists between the rate

  2. Does thyroid gland examination by palpation alter serum hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Sema Zer; Ozel, Leyla; Yekrek, Mehmet Murat; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Naiboglu, Baris; Kara, Melih; Erdoğdu, Erdal; Egeli, Erol; Titiz, Izzet

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels. Prospective study at Haydarpaşa Numune Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. This study was carried out in two groups with a total of 50 consecutive adults. Group I consisted of 20 patients (12 female and 8 male, aged 20-48 years) with a diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease confirmed by ultrasound imaging techniques. The second group consisted of 30 otherwise healthy subjects (17 female and 13 male, aged 18-50 years) referred for neck and thyroid ultrasound and with no thyroid pathology detected. Thyroid gland palpations were performed by the same physician. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 hours after thyroid gland palpation. Serum total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (TG) measurements were made. We found that routine palpation in the first group caused a significant increase in serum TT3 (P .05). Preliminary data proposing a possible effect of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels suggest that serum thyroid hormone measurements should be performed before any manipulation of the gland, including palpation, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  3. Serum Enzyme Profiles Differentiate Five Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Differentiation among types of muscular dystrophy (MD has remained challenging. In this retrospective study, we sought to develop a methodology for differentiation of MD types using analysis of serum enzyme profiles. Methods. The serum levels of enzymes from 232 patients, including 120 with DMD, 36 with BMD, 36 with FSHD, 46 with LGMD, and 11 with EDMD, were evaluated. Results. The characteristic profiles of serum enzymes facilitated differentiation of these five types of MD. DMD was characterized by simultaneous elevation of ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP; BMD and LGMD were characterized by elevation of ALT, AST, and LDH; and FSHD and EDMD were characterized by a lack of abnormal serum enzyme levels. We further developed discriminant functions to distinguish BMD and LGMD. For LGMD, LGMD2B patients had significantly higher ALP levels than non-LGMD2B patients (98±59 U/L versus 45±9 U/L, resp., p<0.05. Conclusions. Our approach enabled the determination of MD subtypes using serum enzyme profiles prior to genetic testing, which will increase the chance a mutation will be found in the first gene analyzed.

  4. Association between Chronic Periodontitis and Serum Lipid Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Taleghani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the high prevalence of hyperlipidaemia, which is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease, and uncertain reports about the relation between periodontal disease and serum lipid profile, this study was conducted to assess this relation. The historical cohort study was conducted on 52 cases including 26 persons with chronic periodontitis as case group, and 26 healthy subjects as control group. Both groups had the same age and weight ranges, sex, and diet, without any periodontal treatment history in the past six months, underling systemic disease such as diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic drugs or active tobacco smoking history. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (CHOL were measured by direct enzymatic assay. TG level was 128.4±71.1 mg/dl in control group and 165.2± 83.7 in case group indicating a significantly higher level in case group (P<0.05. In control group, 30.8 percent and in case group, 61.5 percent had abnormal serum cholesterol levels, which presents a significantly higher level in case group (P<0.03. Other serum level indices did not show any significant difference. Although it seems that patients with chronic periodontal disease are more susceptible to hyperlipidemia, it is doubtful that the former causes an increase in serum lipid levels, so we suggest studying the effects of treating chronic periodontitis on serum lipid level.

  5. Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Alexiou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and 3 were primary central nervous system lymphomas. Patients with high-grade glioma had lower IgE levels than patients with low-grade glioma. Patients with glioma and meningioma had statistical significant lower serum IgE levels than patients with metastases. Patients with glioblastoma with serum IgE levels greater than 24 U/mL had a better survival. Conclusion: Patients with glioma and meningioma had lower IgE levels than patients with metastatic lesions. A prognostic role of serum IgE levels was found in glioblastoma. Further studies in larger patient series are required in order to verify our preliminary observations.

  6. Preparation, calibration and evaluation of the First International Standard for human C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melanie; Dougall, Thomas; Ferguson, Jackie; Rigsby, Peter; Burns, Chris

    2017-07-26

    Measurement of C-peptide by immunoassay contributes to the diagnosis of a number of disorders related to β cell function. Stocks of the current international reference reagent (IRR) for C-peptide, used to calibrate these immunoassays, are exhausted, and this report summarises the international study to establish a replacement World Health Organization (WHO) international standard (IS) to maintain the availability of a globally available reference material and support efforts to standardise C-peptide assays. The study was conducted in three phases; phase I involved the assignment of a value to a primary calibrant in mass units by amino acid analysis and phase II applied this value to the calibration of a candidate standard, 13/146, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay. In phase III, the candidate standard was compared to the first IRR by current immunoassays to assess its suitability to serve as an IS. Calibration of the candidate standard by RP-HPLC gave a final estimated content of 8.64 μg/ampoule with expanded uncertainty of 8.21-9.07 μg/ampoule (95% confidence; k=2.45). The candidate standard also appears sufficiently stable to serve as an IS, based on HPLC analysis of accelerated thermal degradation samples of 13/146, and was also shown to have appropriate immunological activity. A difference in bias approach was used to assess the commutability of 13/146 with human serum and urine samples. With the exception of two laboratories, the candidate standard demonstrated commutability with respect to the serum and urine samples included in this study. The candidate standard, 13/146, is suitable to serve as the First International Standard for human C-peptide, and it has been formally adopted by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation of the WHO.

  7. Lower serum albumin concentration and change in muscle mass: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low albumin concentrations in older persons increase the risk of poor health outcomes, including functional decline. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum albumin concentration and skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) in old age. DESIGN: Serum

  8. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-03

    Mar 3, 2016 ... various serums (i.e., human, rabbit, horse, and fetal bovine serum) used in the GTT and Mueller‑Hinton agar (MHA). Materials and Methods: Fifty species isolated from various clinical samples that were defined as C. albicans by both conventional and DNA sequence analysis methods were included in the ...

  9. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  10. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  11. Serum Albumin Predicts Long-Term Neurological Outcomes After Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bobo; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Grassner, Lukas; Schwab, Jan M; Casha, Steve; Geisler, Fred; Kramer, John L K

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to identify reliable biomarkers of spinal cord injury recovery for clinical practice and clinical trials. Our objective was to correlate serum albumin levels with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. We performed a secondary analysis of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (n = 591) participating in the Sygen clinical trial. Serum albumin concentrations were obtained as part of routine blood chemistry analysis, at trial entry (24-72 hours), 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injury. The primary outcomes were "marked recovery" and lower extremity motor scores, derived from the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic and linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. Serum albumin was significantly associated with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. Higher serum albumin concentrations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks were associated with higher 52-week lower extremity motor score. Similarly, the odds of achieving "marked neurological recovery" was greater for individuals with higher serum albumin concentrations. The association between serum albumin concentrations and neurological outcomes was independent of initial injury severity, treatment with GM-1, and polytrauma. In spinal cord injury, serum albumin is an independent marker of long-term neurological outcomes. Serum albumin could serve as a feasible biomarker for prognosis at the time of injury and stratification in clinical trials.

  12. Radioimmunoasay of hCG in urine and serum by use of anti-beta-subunit hCG serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Yutaka; Asai, Yasumasa; Miwa, Tadahito; Saeki, Akihiko; Ishizuka, Naotaka.

    1976-01-01

    Using anti-β-subunit hCG sera, radioimmunoassay (RIA) for hCG in urine and serum was developed, and its problems were examined. In the two measuring systems, the cross reaction between hCG and LH, and the non-specific inhibition of urine and serum were observed. For actual measurement, therefore, when a standard curve is prepared using urine or serum, and the measuring sensitivity is adjusted to 16 mIU/ml for urine hCG and to 8 mIU/ml for serum hCG, the effect of LH can be eliminated relatively, and the RIA obtained can be quite specific for hCG. When this method was applied clinically, the results were in agreement with the results from cases of trophoblastic tumors under treatment, those in remission, and menopausal females with high LH. Hardly any LH was detected in the cases in remission, menopausal females, or normal females. This method enables us to judge whether or not hCG-like substances are excreted from malignant tumors. In addition, it gives clearer information on the behavior of low level hCG in patients with trophoblastic tumors than does the pre-existing RIA for hCG. This method can be applied extensively to clinical practice. (Chiba, N.)

  13. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  14. Ore and metal standards vital to labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Information provided on ore and metal analytical standards available from CANMET includes preparation, certification, and use. The collection of standards includes four samples of uranium ore and three samples of uranium-thorium ores

  15. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  16. Standards for scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz F. Tyloch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description of essential equipment requirements for scrotal ultrasonography, including current ultrasound techniques, as well as a review of the most common scrotal pathologies. Patient preparation for the examination as well as ultrasound methodology for the assessment of scrotal and inguinal canal structures are discussed. The standard for scrotal ultrasound examination includes a precise B-mode evaluation, including testicular volumetric assessment performed using automatic measurement options based on the formula of a rotating ellipsoid or three measurements perpendicular to one another. Also, criteria for morphological assessment of abnormalities within testicular or epididymal parenchyma, including a precise evaluation of lesion size, delineation, shape and vascular pattern obtained with Doppler US, have been proposed. Standard assessment further includes epididymal evaluation, including epididymal size in the case of enlargement. The paper additionally discusses the method of ultrasonographic examination and describes the most common pathologies occurring within scrotal structures, including a quantitative analysis of hydrocele and other abnormal fluid reservoirs. We have also presented criteria for the assessment of varicocele as well as color and spectral Doppler flows in scrotal pathologies. Furthermore, we have proposed key components of scrotal ultrasound documentation, so that the contained data could be used to establish appropriate diagnosis, allowing for both adequate clinical management and the reproducibility of subsequent US evaluations performed by either the same or a different examiner. The most common causes of diagnostic errors have also been discussed.

  17. Standards for scrotal ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyloch, Janusz F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a description of essential equipment requirements for scrotal ultrasonography, including current ultrasound techniques, as well as a review of the most common scrotal pathologies. Patient preparation for the examination as well as ultrasound methodology for the assessment of scrotal and inguinal canal structures are discussed. The standard for scrotal ultrasound examination includes a precise B-mode evaluation, including testicular volumetric assessment performed using automatic measurement options based on the formula of a rotating ellipsoid or three measurements perpendicular to one another. Also, criteria for morphological assessment of abnormalities within testicular or epididymal parenchyma, including a precise evaluation of lesion size, delineation, shape and vascular pattern obtained with Doppler US, have been proposed. Standard assessment further includes epididymal evaluation, including epididymal size in the case of enlargement. The paper additionally discusses the method of ultrasonographic examination and describes the most common pathologies occurring within scrotal structures, including a quantitative analysis of hydrocele and other abnormal fluid reservoirs. We have also presented criteria for the assessment of varicocele as well as color and spectral Doppler flows in scrotal pathologies. Furthermore, we have proposed key components of scrotal ultrasound documentation, so that the contained data could be used to establish appropriate diagnosis, allowing for both adequate clinical management and the reproducibility of subsequent US evaluations performed by either the same or a different examiner. The most common causes of diagnostic errors have also been discussed. PMID:28138410

  18. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  19. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Vilar

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs.

  20. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  1. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    increased production diseases and fertility problems. (Hewett, 1974). This fertility problem has been found to be significantly inversely related to serum electrolytes such as serum inorganic phosphorus, serum potassium, serum total protein and serum urea - nitrogen (Hewett, 1974). Measuring serum electrolyte levels of ...

  2. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  3. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  4. Experimental Germ Tube Induction in Candida albicans: An Evaluation of the Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Morphogenesis and Comparison with Pooled Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Matare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The potential of NaHCO3 versus human serum to induce germ tube formation in Candida albicans was investigated. Specimens. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from oral swabs of patients presenting with thrush. Approval for the study was granted by the Joint Research Ethics Committee (JREC/23/08. Method. Confirmed C. albicans isolates by routine methods were tested for germ tube induction using 5 different concentrations of Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 and Tris-maleate buffer control. Standard control strains included were C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and C. krusei (ATCC 6258. Microculture was done in 20 μL inoculums on microscope slides for 3 hours at 37°C. The rate of germ tube formation at 10-minute intervals was determined on 100 isolates using the optimum 20 mM Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 concentration. Parallel germ tube formation using human serum was done in test tubes. Results. The optimum concentration of NaHCO3 in Tris-maleate buffer for germ tube induction was 20 mM for 67% of isolates. Only 21% of isolates formed germ tubes in Tris-maleate buffer control. There was no significant difference in induction between human serum and Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3. Conclusion. Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 induced germ tube formation in C. albicans isolates at rates similar to human serum.

  5. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  6. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P < 0.05). Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  7. The influence of protein fractions and electrolyte imbalance on refractive index of serum in patients with multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L.; Polyanichko, A.; Kobeleva, M.; Uspenskaya, M.; Garifullin, A.; Voloshin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Refractometric analysis is very rapid, accurate and simple method of analysis measuring refractive index of biological liquids such as serum, plasma, spinal fluid, urine. This method can be used for definition total protein and solids concentrations in serum. The value of refractive index depends on all substances in serum including proteins, lipids as well as low molecular weight compounds, for example ions of different metals. Refractometric analysis shows strong correlations between protein concentrations in serum of patients with multiple myeloma and its(serum) refractive index which depends on protein concentration and doesn’t depends on electrolyte disbalance.

  8. Quantification of a cardiac biomarker in human serum using extraordinary optical transmission (EOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL is a manufacturing process that can produce macroscale surface areas with nanoscale features. In this paper, this technique is used to solve three fundamental issues for the application of localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR in practical clinical measurements: assay sensitivity, chip-to-chip variance, and the ability to perform assays in human serum. Using NIL, arrays of 140 nm square features were fabricated on a sensing area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm with low cost. The high reproducibility of NIL allowed for the use of a one-chip, one-measurement approach with 12 individually manufactured surfaces with minimal chip-to-chip variations. To better approximate a real world setting, all chips were modified with a biocompatible, multi-component monolayer and inter-chip variability was assessed by measuring a bioanalyte standard (2.5-75 ng/ml in the presence of a complex biofluid, human serum. In this setting, nanoimprinted LSPR chips were able to provide sufficient characteristics for a 'low-tech' approach to laboratory-based bioanalyte measurement, including: 1 sufficient size to interface with a common laboratory light source and detector without the need for a microscope, 2 high sensitivity in serum with a cardiac troponin limit of detection of 0.55 ng/ml, and 3 very low variability in chip manufacturing to produce a figure of merit (FOM of 10.5. These findings drive LSPR closer to technical comparability with ELISA-based assays while preserving the unique particularities of a LSPR based sensor, suitability for multiplexing and miniaturization, and point-of-care detections.

  9. A high throughput serum bactericidal assay for antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, JiHye; Nahm, Moon H

    2016-09-05

    The protective capacities of antibodies induced with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines can be directly assessed in vitro with a Hib-specific serum bactericidal assay (SBA). However, the conventional SBA requires several tedious steps including manual counting of bacterial colonies, and therefore, it is seldom used. To overcome these limitations, we have improved the conventional SBA by using frozen target bacteria and by developing an automated colony counting method based on agar plates with the chromogenic dye 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). These changes enabled us to analyze about 100 serum samples per day per person by SBA. When the intra- and inter-assay precisions were studied, this assay showed a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 1 to 38 %. To monitor the long term assay stability for assays involving different bacteria lots, complement lots, and operators, we analyzed bactericidal indices of quality control samples obtained over a 6 year period and found the CV to be about 35-50 %. Lastly, our SBA results were compared with the ELISA results obtained using 90 serum samples from children. We showed that the bactericidal index correlated with IgG anti-Hib antibody levels (r = 0.84), with a bactericidal index of 10 corresponding approximately to 0.15 μg/mL IgG, the widely accepted protective level of antibody. We describe a simple high throughput SBA for anti-Hib antibodies that would be useful for evaluating various Hib vaccines. While additional work will be needed to standardize the assay, this SBA should greatly facilitate studies of Hib vaccines.

  10. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad S Rahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  11. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahma, Muayad S; Mustafa, Bassma Ezzat; Razali, Ailin; Shamsuddin, Niza; Althunibat, Osama Y

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic) and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  12. Thyroid iodine uptake and serum triiodothyronine level in eldery subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradowski, L.; Dolinska, G.; Knapik, Z.; Rynowiecka, M. (Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Iodine uptake by the thyroid and serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) level in subjects aged from 65 to 93 years were determined. Low T/sub 3/ level and normal uptake of inorganic iodine by the thyroid were found. In the light of these results it is suggested that normal accumulation of inorganic iodine and low production of T/sub 3/ are characteristic features of euthyroidism in elderly subjects. It is believed that the function of the thyroid is expressed better by determination of the serum levels of thyroid hormones than determination of the uptake of radioactive iodine. Elaboration of standard normal values which would take into account abnormalities encountered in old age is postulated.

  13. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  14. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabudak, Efsun; Türközü, Duygu; Köksal, Eda

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels.

  15. Diagnostic evaluation of serum FSH and LH in primary amenorrhea by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I.S.; Kim, G.E.; Yoo, H.S.; Lee, J.T.; Park, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of single, random measurements of serum FSH and LH in the diagnosis of primary amenorrhea by radioimmunoassay was investigated. The 16 patients were divided into 3 groups by the level of serum FSH and LH. The first group with increased level of serum FSH and LH is five patients, all of these are related to the acquired or congenital abnormality of the ovary. Further studies indicated include buccal smear, chromosome analysis, gynecography and laparoscopy. The second group with normal serum FSH and LH is nine patients, four patients of these are related to the developmental anomaly of the Mullerian duct and five patients are undetermined origin. Further studies indicated include laparoscopy and gynecography. The third group with decreased serum FSH and normal or decreased serum LH is two patients, one of these is related to the pituitary function, isolated FSH deficiency, the other is undetermined origin. Further studies indicated include the pituitary function test, LH-RH stimulation test, skull radiography. Determination of serum FSH and LH levels does not permit a specific etiologic diagnosis of promary amenorrhea. However the serum levels of FSH and LH can be used to differentiate the principal area of the investigation and can be of assistance in choosing more specific testing procedures. (Author)

  16. The Serum Pepsinogen Level of Dairy Cows with Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HAJIMOHAMMADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of abomasal mucosal diseases in dairy cows suffering from gastrointestinal disorders is becoming more frequent in modern intensive production. Clinical signs are often non-specific. In this study, 67 dairy cows with gastrointestinal disorders and 9 healthy dairy cows as the control group were used. In order to make a tentative diagnosis, a complete physical examination was performed, and the fecal samples were taken from each cow for the fecal occult blood (FOB and the fecal egg count (FEC. Blood samples were taken from the coccygeal vein for WBC, Hematocrit (PCV evaluations, and serum biochemical analysis. Serum pepsinogen activity and total protein; albumin and globulin were measured using validated standard methods. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. A significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in all the cases of abomasal displacements compared to the control group. Among the abomasal displacement groups a significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in abomasal displacements with suspected abomasal ulcer in comparison with those without any signs of abomasal ulcer (positive FOB and melena. No considerable differences were observed between WBC, PCV, and total protein and globulin in different gastrointestinal disorders and the control group. In this study, the serum pepsinogen activity in all dairy cows with signs of abomasal ulcer (melena and positive fecal occult blood test was higher than the control group, since all of the cases had negative abomasal parasites; these increases in the signs of abomasal ulcer could predict abomasal ulcer complication in the cases of displacements.

  17. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  18. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  19. [Human serum alcaline phosphatase and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, M R; Martins, M J; Ramos, E; Barros, H; Hipólito-Reis, C; Azevedo, I

    2003-01-01

    In experimental ageing models an inverse relationship between age and alkaline phosphatase activity has been observed. To characterize serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in humans according to age and gender. Serum alkaline phosphatase was determined in a random sample of 203 community dwellers aged 40 or more years. In men (n=87) total serum alkaline phosphatase markedly increased from the 5th to the 6th decade and then stabilized. For women (n=116) there was a slight increase in total serum alkaline phosphatase from the 5th to the 6th decade, followed by a bend upward after 69 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between total serum alkaline phosphatase and age for the whole population. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity appears as a biomarker of age in humans, similarly to what has been described for experimental animal models.

  20. The Stability of Complement-Mediated Bactericidal Activity in Human Serum against Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2012-01-01

    The complement cascade includes heat-labile proteins and care is required when handling serum in order to preserve its functional integrity. We have previously used a whole human serum bactericidal assay to show that antibody and an intact complement system are required in blood for killing of invasive isolates of Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conditions under which human serum can be stored and manipulated while maintaining complement integrity. Serum bactericidal activity against Salmonella was maintained for a minimum of 35 days when stored at 4°C, eight days at 22°C and 54 hours at 37°C. Up to three freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on the persistence of bactericidal activity and hemolytic complement assays confirmed no effect on complement function. Delay in the separation of serum for up to four days from clotted blood stored at 22°C did not affect bactericidal activity. Dilution of serum resulted in an increased rate of loss of bactericidal activity and so serum should be stored undiluted. These findings indicate that the current guidelines concerning manipulation and storage of human serum to preserve complement integrity and function leave a large margin for safety with regards to bactericidal activity against Salmonella. The study provides a scheme for determining the requirements for serum handling in relation to functional activity of complement in other systems. PMID:23145102

  1. A comparison of definitions of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Nikravan, Nasrin; Salari-Far, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Safieh; Pahlavan-Sabbagh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of CIN is reported to range from 0% to 50%, depending not only on patient condition and the procedure used but also the definition of CIN applied. We aimed to determine the best diagnostic indicator of CIN in patients with normal serum creatinine. This study included 206 patients with normal serum creatinine who underwent coronary angiography/angioplasty. Serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured before and on the second and fifth days after contrast administration. The incidence of CIN based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine was calculated and compared with the incidence based on a 25% decrease in GFR or an increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine. Of 206 patients, 127 were male (61.7%) and 79 were female (38.3%); the mean age was 59.56±10.3 years. The prevalence of CIN was 30% based on a 25% increase in serum creatinine, 23% based on a 25% decrease in GFR (Pserum creatinine increase of at least 0.5 mg/dL (Pserum creatinine levels remained within the normal range in the majority of patients with CIN based on the different definitions. In patients with normal serum creatinine, the absolute increase in serum creatinine may describe the prevalence of CIN more accurately than the relative increase in serum creatinine or relative decrease in GFR.

  2. An exploratory study of serum creatinine levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yongping; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, but existing data argue for a role of creatinine in ALS pathophysiology. Our aim is to clarify the correlation between serum creatinine and ALS in Chinese population. A total of 512 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and 501 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS-R) was used to assess the motor functional status of SALS patients. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SALS patients than in controls (p creatinine levels had a significantly lower presence of ALS compared to those with the lowest quartile (p for trend serum creatinine levels, but underweight patients presented lower levels of serum creatinine. Patients with low serum creatinine levels are more likely to have severe motor impairment and low body mass index (BMI) values. This study demonstrates that SALS patients have lower serum creatinine levels than well-matched controls. Higher levels of serum creatinine are less likely to be associated with the presence of ALS in Chinese populations. Low serum creatinine levels may be related to severe motor impairment in SALS patients, after adjusting the confounding factor-BMI. However, serum creatinine has no deleterious impact on survival in ALS.

  3. Human blood serum analysis using TRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkadas, C.; Karydas, A.G.; Paradellis, T.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence was applied in the analysis of a pool human blood serum sample, which was collected out of 100 healthy individuals during an ordinary day at a hospital in Athens. Direct measurements of 4 1 quantities were performed in a standard TRXRF module, but with the addition of a Mo filter after the cut-off reflector. In this way the exciting beam was further monochromatized leading to an improved peak to background ratio. The elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb were detected, with detection limits in the low ppb region for the elements of interest. The determined trace elements concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with values already reported in literature. For intercomparison a quantity of the same sample was freeze dried and measured in a secondary target assembly, in the form of pellets, giving almost identical results. The trace elements concentrations obtained can be considered as representative values for healthy population of Athens and therefore can be used as a monitor in order to associate the lack or excess of certain trace elements with pathological cases. (author)

  4. Precise determination of sodium in serum by simulated isotope dilution method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ying; Zhang Chuanbao; Zhao Haijian; Chen Wenxiang; Shen Ziyu; Wang Xiaoru; Chen Dengyun

    2007-01-01

    A new precise and accurate method for the determination of sodium in serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. Since 23 Na is the single isotope element, 27 Al is selected as simulated isotope of Na. Al is spiked into serum samples and Na standard solution. 23 Na/ 27 Al ratio in the Na standard solution is determined to assume the natural Na isotope ratio. The serums samples are digested by purified HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 and diluted to get about 0.6 μg·g -1 Al solutions, and the 23 Na/ 27 Al ratios of the serum samples are obtained to calculate the accurate Na concentrations basing on the isotope dilution method. When the simulated isotope dilution method of ICP-MS is applied and Al is selected as the simulated isotope of Na, the precise and accurate Na concentrations in the serums are determined. The inter-day precision of CV<0.13% for one same serum sample is obtained during 3 days 4 measurements. The spike recoveries are between 99.69% and 100.60% for 4 different serum samples and 3 days multi-measurements. The results of measuring standard reference materials of serum sodium are agree with the certified value. The relative difference between 3 days is 0.22%-0.65%, and the relative difference in one bottle is 0.15%-0.44%. The ICP-MS and Al simulated isotope dilution method is proved to be not only precise and accurate, but also quick and convenient for measuring Na in serum. It is promising to be a reference method for precise determination of Na in serum. Since Al is a low cost isotope dilution reagent, the method is possible to be widely applied for serum Na determination. (authors)

  5. The clinical utility of serum ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okazaki, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Nakano, Takashi; Yamanaka, Mikio

    1983-01-01

    The serum levels of ferritin in 394 patients, including 339 patients with various malignant tumors and 23 with various non-malignant diseases, and 32 healthy subjects were determined. The normal levels of ferritin were 82.7 +- 42.3 ng/ml for males and 42.0 +- 36.9 ng/ml for females. The positive ratio of serum ferritin level was 28% in patients with malignant tumors and 22% in patients with non-malignant diseases. The usefulness of serum ferritin assay in screening for malignant tumors appeared to be limited. High serum levels of ferritin were found in patients with malignant lymphoma (positive ratio: 42%), pulmonary cancer (38%) and esophageal cancer (37%). According to the histological types, epidermoid cancer appeared to produce a higher serum level of ferritin than adenocarcinoma in patients with pulmonary cancer. It was interesting that malignant lymphoma had a high serum level of ferritin in spite of its low serum level of CEA. Carcinoma of the digestive tracts except for esophagus was considered to have a normal serum ferritin level in spite of the advanced stage. There was no close relationship between serum ferritin levels and CEA levels in patients with pulmonary cancer and breast cancer. Serum CEA assay was more useful for detection of tumors than serum ferritin assay in patients with breast cancer. Serum ferritin levels in patients with good prognosis decreased following radiation therapy, but those in patients with poor prognosis elevated or unchanged in spite of therapy. Therefore, serial ferritin determinations may be useful for evaluation of radiotherapy and assessment of prognosis. (J.P.N.)

  6. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  7. Effects of two different post-surgical protocols including either 0.05 % chlorhexidine herbal extract or 0.1 % chlorhexidine on post-surgical plaque control, early wound healing and patient acceptance following standard periodontal surgery and implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugisch, Oliver; Ramseier, Christoph A; Salvi, Giovanni E; Hägi, Tobias T; Bürgin, Walter; Eick, Sigrun; Sculean, Anton

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early wound healing, tooth staining and patient acceptance with two different post-surgical maintenance protocols. Forty patients scheduled for flap surgery to treat periodontal pockets or accommodate dental implants were randomly assigned to receive the following two different post-surgical maintenance protocols: (a) 2 weeks rinsing with a 0.05 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)/herbal extract combination (test) or (b) a 0.1 % CHX solution (control). Early wound healing was evaluated clinically and immunologically. Tooth staining and patient acceptance were assessed by means of visual analogue scale (VAS). Both groups presented with comparable wound healing profiles. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two protocols regarding early wound healing and plaque index (p > 0.05). However, in the control group, statistically significantly more patients felt discomfort due to tooth staining (p = 0.0467). Compared with patients from the test group, patients in the control group reported statistically significant more irritation of taste at week 1 (p = 0.0359) and at week 2 (p = 0.0042). The present findings indicate that the two CHX protocols resulted in comparable healing and inhibition of plaque formation. Tooth staining and subjective discomfort related to irritation of taste were more frequent in the control group. A post-operative protocol including 0.05 % CHX/herbal extract may have the potential to improve patient compliance during post-operative maintenance.

  8. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilsoy, Suna; Bekem, Ozlem; Karaman, Ozkan; Uzuner, Nevin; Kavukçu, Salih

    2009-02-01

    Serum carnitine is decreased in recurrent pulmonary infections. We aimed to evaluate serum carnitine levels in asthmatic children. Study group consisted of children with stable asthma and those with acute asthma attacks, while control group included healthy children. Attack severity was determined by the pulmonary score system. Total and free carnitine levels were studied in one blood sample from the control group and stable asthmatics and in two samples from children with acute asthma exacerbation during and after the attack. All the 40 patients in the study group had moderate asthma including 30 with acute attack (13 mild and 17 moderate) and 10 with stable asthma. Carnitine levels were significantly lower in acute attack asthmatics than in the stable asthmatics and controls, while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups. Carnitine levels were not different between asthmatics with mild and moderate attack, and were similar during and after an acute attack. Serum carnitine levels decrease in children with moderate asthma during exacerbation of asthma and shortly thereafter. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of carnitine treatment on serum carnitine level.

  9. Interstitial fluid contains higher in vitro IGF bioactivity than serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bjerring, Peter

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are bound in complexes which affect their tissue-accessibility. Interstitial fluid is in close proximity to target cells, but the IGF-system is not well-described herein. OBJECTIVE: To perform a thorough comparison of the IGF-system in sucti...... relate to an increased enzymatic IGFBP-degradation and an altered IGFBP-composition in SBF, making more IGF-I and -II accessible to the IGF-IR. The impact of food intake on the IGF system differs between serum and interstitial fluid....... blister fluid (SBF) vs. in serum, with emphasis on bioactive IGF levels. DESIGN: Eight hour study including samples collected in the fasting state (20h) and after a meal. SETTING: Clinical research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Six healthy males (age 37.0±8.8years, BMI 22.5±1.4kg/m(2)) (mean±SD). MAIN OUTCOME...... was observed, including 3-fold elevated amounts of IGFBP-3 fragments in SBF (Pfood intake differed between serum and SBF (all P≤0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite lower concentrations, the in vitro IGF bioactivity was higher in SBF than in serum. This may...

  10. Efficacy of Vitamin C in Lowering Serum Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M R; Haq, S M; Saleh, A A; Hakim, F; Azad, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of vitamin C in reducing serum uric acid (UA). This study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in the Department of Rheumatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2007 and August 2008. Study participants were included from out patient department (OPD) of Rheumatology of BSMMU suffering from various Rheumatological problems other than gouty arthritis. All of the participants were non-smokers, non-alcoholics, and randomized to take either placebo or vitamin C (500 mg/day) for 12 weeks. A total of 98 subjects were enrolled in the study; 71 completed the trial, with 34 in the placebo group and 37 receiving vitamin C. Serum uric acid levels were not significantly reduced in the experimental group and they increased in the placebo group. In the vitamin C group, the mean change was -0.32mg/dl [95% confidence interval -0.73, 0.77], whereas in the placebo group, the mean change was +0.12mg/dl [95% confidence interval was -0.22, 0.47]. Subgroups were defined by sex, body mass index, and quartiles of baseline serum uric acid levels. In a subgroup analysis, vitamin C lowered serum uric acid significantly in those who had comparatively higher baseline uric acid levels. Although vitamin C did not lower serum uric acid significantly, participants with higher baseline serum uric acid levels experienced a significant uric acid lowering effect, but as the sample size was very small, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusion.

  11. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  12. The Associations of Serum Lipids with Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Wang, Zongye; Jia, Haiying; Feng, Kai; Sun, Lili; Song, Shu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults. The study was carried out using 1475 participants from the Center for Physical Examination, 306 Hospital of PLA in Beijing, China. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. AIP was calculated based on the formula: log [TG/HDL-C]. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between serum 25(OH)D and lipids. The association between the occurrences of dyslipidemias and vitamin D levels was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Confounding factors, age and BMI, were used for the adjustment. The median of serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47 (27-92.25) nmol/L in all subjects. The overall percentage of 25(OH)D ≦ 50 nmol/L was 58.5% (males 54.4%, females 63.7%). The serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with TG (β coefficient = -0.24, p lipids and AIP. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the increased risk of dyslipidemias, especially in men. The association between vitamin D status and serum lipids may differ by genders.

  13. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

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    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  14. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model. Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  15. Assessment of xenoestrogenic exposure by a biomarker approach: application of the E-Screen bioassay to determine estrogenic response of serum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihe Pal

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological documentation of endocrine disruption is complicated by imprecise exposure assessment, especially when exposures are mixed. Even if the estrogenic activity of all compounds were known, the combined effect of possible additive and/or inhibiting interaction of xenoestrogens in a biological sample may be difficult to predict from chemical analysis of single compounds alone. Thus, analysis of mixtures allows evaluation of combined effects of chemicals each present at low concentrations. Methods We have developed an optimized in vitro E-Screen test to assess the combined functional estrogenic response of human serum. The xenoestrogens in serum were separated from endogenous steroids and pharmaceuticals by solid-phase extraction followed by fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography. After dissolution of the isolated fraction in ethanol-DMSO, the reconstituted extract was added with estrogen-depleted fetal calf serum to MCF-7 cells, the growth of which is stimulated by estrogen. After a 6-day incubation on a microwell plate, cell proliferation was assessed and compared with the effect of a 17-beta-estradiol standard. Results and conclusions To determine the applicability of this approach, we assessed the estrogenicity of serum samples from 30 pregnant and 60 non-pregnant Danish women thought to be exposed only to low levels of endocrine disruptors. We also studied 211 serum samples from pregnant Faroese women, whose marine diet included whale blubber that contain a high concentration of persistent halogenated pollutants. The estrogenicity of the serum from Danish controls exceeded the background in 22.7 % of the cases, while the same was true for 68.1 % of the Faroese samples. The increased estrogenicity response did not correlate with the lipid-based concentrations of individual suspected endocrine disruptors in the Faroese samples. When added along with the estradiol standard, an indication of an

  16. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data; Comparacao da concentracao de selenio em soro sanguineo da populacao de idosos da cidade de Sao Paulo com os dados da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-07-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -}'2 s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of {sup 75}Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92{+-}0.07) {mu}mol L{sup -1} was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 {mu}mol L-1. (author)

  18. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs.

  19. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs

  20. Serum ferritin. Its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochna Viola, E.M. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1981-08-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis.

  1. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  2. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  3. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  4. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  5. Is serum lactate necessary in patients with normal anion gap and serum bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Daniel; Trotter, Maykel; Rivera, Cynthia; Dalley, Michael; Farcy, David; Betancourt, Michel; Howard, Lydia; Licciardi, Sharon; Cubeddu, Luigi; Goldszer, Robert

    2015-05-01

    There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L), 45 (68%) patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB) (greater than 21 mmol/L). Normal anion gap (AG) (normal range anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values.

  6. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  7. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin is negatively associated with hemoglobin A1c independently of confounding factors among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb (HbA1c is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum total bilirubin (T-B may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between various confounding factors including serum T-B and HbA1c in each gender. Multiple linear regression analysis pertaining to HbA1c showed that in men, serum T-B ( β = −0.139 as well as waist circumference ( β = 0.099, exercise habit ( β = 0.137, systolic blood pressure (SBP ( β = 0.076, triglycerides ( β = 0.087, and uric acid ( β = −0.123 were significantly and independently associated with HbA1c, and in women, serum T-B ( β = −0.084 as well as body mass index ( β = 0.090, smoking status ( β = −0.077, SBP ( β = 0.117, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( β = −0.155, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( β = 0.074, prevalence of antidyslipidemic medication ( β = 0.174, and uric acid ( β = 0.090 were also significantly and independently associated with HbA1c. Multivariate-adjusted serum HbA1c levels were significantly high in subjects with the lowest serum T-B levels in both genders. Serum T-B is an independent confounding factor for HbA1c among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

  8. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [-0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF.

  9. Performance characteristics of SCC radioimmunoassay and clinical significance serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Youn

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of SCC RIV and the clinical significance of serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy, serum SCC Ag levels were measured by SCC RIV kit in 40 normal controls and 35 percents with various untreated malignancy, who visited Chonju Presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows; 1. The SCC RIA was simple to perform and can be completed in two workday. And the standard curve and reproducibility were both good. 2. The mean serum SCC Ag level in normal controls was 1.64 ± 0.93 ng/mL and normal upper limit of serum SCC Ag was defined as 2.6 ng/mL. 3 out of 40 (7.5%) normal controls showed elevated SCC Ag levels above the normal upper limit. 3. In 35 patients with various untreated malignancy, 18 patients (51.4%) showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels, 59.1% of 22 patients with cervical cancer, 80% of 5 patients with lung cancer, 33% of 3 patients with esophageal cancer, 0% of 2 patients with rectal cancer and 0% of 3 patients with breast cancer showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels. Above results represent that SCC RIV is simple method to perform followed by good standard curve and reproducibility, and may be a useful indicator reflecting diagnostic data of patients with cervical cancer and lung cancer

  10. Peranan Kadar Feritin Serum terhadap Kejadian Preeklampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Ulfah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Preeklampsia merupakan penyebab utama kematian maternal dan perinatal diseluruh dunia. Peningkatan kadar serum besi dan feritin memiliki potensi untuk digunakan secara diagnostik untuk memperingatkan preeklampsia tahap awal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan peranan kadar serum feritin terhadap kejadianpreeklampsia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain case-control. Penelitian dilakukan dari Agustus 2013 hingga Juli 2014, bertempat di RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo dan Laboratorium Biomedik UNAND Padang.  Jumlah sampel yang diteliti adalah 40 responden dimana sampel terdiri dari 2 kelompok,masing-masing terdiri dari 20 sampel. Pemeriksaan serum feritin dilakukan dengan metode ELISA. Perbedaan rerata kadar feritin serum antara kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal dianalisa dengan mengunakan independen ttest. Hasil penelitian diperoleh rerata kadar serum feritin pada kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal adalah50,46+4,37 ng/ml dan 17,64+1,6 ng/ml, dengan nilai p=0,004. Kadar feritin pada kedua kelompok masih dalam batas normal dan tidak ditemukan indikasi adanya kelebihan besi sebagai faktor resiko preeklampsia. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu kadar serum feritin tidak memiliki peranan terhadap kejadian preeklampsia. Kata kunci: preeklampsia, hipertensi dalam kehamilan, serum feritin Abstract Preeclampsia is a major cause of worldwide maternal and prenatal mortality. The increase in iron serum and ferritin can be used as a diagnosis to warn of the early stage of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ferritin serum levels on preeclampsia. This study was an observational analytic study withcase-control design. It has been done from August 2013 to Juli 2014, in RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo and Biomedical Laboratory of Andalas University Padang. Total sample evaluated was 40 samples. The sample consist of two groups, each group

  11. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  12. Characterization of feline serum-cobalt binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2)  = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2)  = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Detecting alterations of glucose and lipid components in human serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Fernandes Borges

    Full Text Available Introduction Raman spectroscopy may become a tool for the analysis of glucose and triglycerides in human serum in real time. This study aimed to detect spectral differences in lipid and glucose components of human serum, thus evaluating the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for diagnostic purposes. Methods A total of 44 samples of blood serum were collected from volunteers and submitted for clinical blood biochemical analysis. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL were obtained using standard biochemical assays. Serum samples were placed in Eppendorf tubes (200 µL, kept cooled (5 °C and analyzed with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (830 nm, 250 mW, 50 s accumulation. The mean spectra of serum with normal or altered concentrations of each parameter were compared to determine which Raman bands were related to the differences between these two groups. Results Differences in peak intensities of altered sera compared to normal ones depended on the parameter under analysis: for glucose, peaks were related to glucose; for lipid compounds the main changes occurred in the peaks related to cholesterol, lipids (mainly triolein and proteins. Principal Components Analysis discriminated altered glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides from the normal serum based on the differences in the concentration of these compounds. Conclusion Differences in the peak intensities of selected Raman bands could be seen in normal and altered blood serum samples, and may be employed as a means of diagnosis in clinical analysis.

  15. Metadata Standards and Workflow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.

    2012-12-01

    All modern workflow systems include mechanisms for recording inputs, outputs and processes. These descriptions can include details required to reproduce the workflows exactly and, in some cases, can include virtual images of the hardware and operating system. There are several on-going and emerging standards for representing these detailed workflows including the Open Provenance Model (OPM) and the W3C PROV. At the same time, ISO metadata standards include a simple provenance or lineage model that includes many important elements of workflows. The ISO model could play a critical role in sharing and discovering workflow information for collections and perhaps in recording some details in granules. In order for this goal to be reached, connections between the detailed standards and ISO must be understood and conventions for using them must be developed.

  16. Identification of New Serum Biomarkers for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis Using Lipid Microarrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Guangwei

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Compared with other serum polypeptides, autoantibodies have many appealing features as biomarkers including sensitivity, stability, and easy detection...

  17. Influence of Malaria on Serum Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tocopherol levels in children with malaria is significantly reduced. Further studies, possibly including clinical trials, are recommended to further evaluate these observations of ours. (Key Words: Serum alpha-tocopherol, malaria, children. Sahel Medical ...

  18. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  19. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  20. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  1. Inhibition of serum naphthylamidases by atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    Human serum hydrolyses the 2-naphthylamides of -lysine and -arginine. The enzymatic activity of the serum naphthylamidases is inhibited by atopic allergens and by protein-sugar conjugates carrying 1-deoxy-2-ketose residues attached to the -amino groups of lysine residues in their peptide moieties.

  2. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  3. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  4. Correlation between serum esterase polymorphism and production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymorphism of serum esterase (Es) of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep was detected through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the correlation between serum esterase and productivity was analyzed. The research result indicated that there are two alleles on the Es loci of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep: Es+ ...

  5. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  6. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  7. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  8. Serum selenium level in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Ali Kelani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study supports a significant association between deficient serum Se concentration with cut-off value of up to 84 ng/ml and MI. Strikingly, the most predictor of MI is serum Se, followed by total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein, and hypertension.

  9. Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A J; Langlois, D K; Refsal, K R

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies that included limited numbers of affected dogs have suggested basal cortisol concentrations ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are sensitive, but nonspecific, for a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. A detailed assessment of the diagnostic utility of basal cortisol concentrations is warranted. To evaluate the utility of basal cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in a large number of dogs, including those with and without serum electrolyte abnormalities. Five hundred and twenty-two dogs, including 163 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism, 351 dogs with nonadrenal gland illness, and 8 dogs with equivocal results. Retrospective study. Basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations and sodium and potassium concentrations were collected from medical records. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for basal cortisol concentrations by standard methodologies. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined for various cut-points. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 and was similarly excellent regardless of serum electrolyte concentrations. At the most discriminatory cut-point of 22 nmol/L (0.8 μg/dL), sensitivity and specificity were 96.9 and 95.7%, respectively. A basal cortisol concentration of ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) resulted in a sensitivity of 99.4%. Conversely, a basal cortisol concentration of ≤5.5 nmol/L (0.19 μg/dL) resulted in a specificity of 99.1%. Similar to findings in previous studies, basal cortisol concentrations >55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are useful in excluding a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. Interestingly, excellent specificities and positive predictive values were observed at lower cut-point cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Blood, Serum, and Ascites Parameters in Patients with Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma or Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-Shan; Zheng, Guo-Qi; Yin, Wen-Jie; Liang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Ying-Ying; Song, Hui; Sun, Ning-Ning; Yang, Yu-Xin

    2018-01-01

    To determine effects of the biochemical and cytological properties of blood, serum, and ascites on survival of patients with malignant peritoneal effusion (MPeE), including malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) and peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), we conducted a retrospective study of patients with MPeE and healthy controls. Potential prognostic factors were identified as follows: age, sex, blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum parameters, ascites parameters, serum-ascites albumin gradient, and the ascites-serum LDH ratio. Compared to those of the control group, serum albumin levels were significantly lower, and the NLR and serum LDH levels were significantly higher in the MPeE group. Overall survival (OS) was longer in patients with MPeM compared to that in patients with PC. Compared with patients in the MPeM, patients with PC had higher NLRs, ascites glucose levels, serum-ascites albumin gradients, and serum LDH levels. In contrast, their ascites albumin levels and ascites-serum LDH ratios were lower. Univariate analyses indicated that the NLR, serum LDH levels, ascites LDH levels, ascites coenocyte levels, and the ascites coenocyte-to-monocyte ratios affected the OS. Multivariate analyses identified only serum and ascites LDH levels as independent prognostic factors.

  11. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  12. Relationship between CT scans and serum tests for diagnosing tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Pina, Diana R.; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pavan, Ana Luiza M.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases in the world and still affects humanity today. Since 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) considers TB as a global emergency. The clinical history of the individual, the serum exams and particularly, the imaging examination of the thorax, are used for diagnostic confirmation and monitoring of disease. TB is a chronic disease that usually evolves with pulmonary sequelae that must be monitored. The exam of the image more precise to assess the radiological patterns found in these patients is high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), which aids in medical diagnosis and permit the determination of the area affected by radiological abnormalities of pulmonary tuberculosis. The best known of such modifications by means of exams or more accurate techniques is of extreme importance. Therefore, this study aimed to show the quantification, performed by algorithms, of the areas affected by the radiological abnormalities of TB through the HRCT, and compared with serum exams. We studied 16 patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB. The serum exams evaluated included: hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, speed hemo sedimentation and C-reactive protein. With the values of serum exams we observed that patients have anemia, low albumin levels and inflammatory activity, corroborating imaging exams, which show severe impairment of lung area due to the inflammation caused by disease activity. (author)

  13. Serum sphingomyelin has potential to reflect hepatic injury in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jun Zheng; Feng Qu; Jun-Feng Li; Jing Zhao; Jing-Yun Zhang; Mei Liu; Feng Ren; Yu Chen; Jin-Lan Zhang; Zhong-Ping Duan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation between serum sphingolipids and hepatic injury in chronic HBV infection. Methods: A cohort of participants including 48 healthy persons, 103 chronic HBV-infected patients containing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and HBV-related cirrhosis were included. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed to detect serum sphingolipids. The serological indicators were detected and quantified. The valid liver biop...

  14. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  15. Modeling dynamic procurement auctions of standardized supply contracts in electricity markets including bidders adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Camilo Torres-Valderrama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las subastas de reloj descendent e han incrementado su uso en lo s mercados de energía eléctrica. Las aproximaciones tradicional es a estas subastas se han enfocado en encontrar la mejor respuesta de los postores pero desconociendo la adaptación de ellos a lo largo de la subasta. Este artículo presenta un algor itmo basado en la teoría de deci sión para estimar el comportamiento de los postores a lo largo de la subasta. El modelo propuesto usa concepto s de portafolios financieros y datos históricos sobre el mercad o spot de energía eléctrica par a estimar una curva de oferta de contrato de los generadores. El modelo f ue utilizado para evaluar el Mercado Organizado (MOR en Colomb ia. Los parámetros de la curva de demand a y el tamaño de la cada ronda, fueron variados para evaluar el impacto sobre la salida de la subasta. Los resultados muestran que la curva de demanda tiene un pequeña im pacto sobre la adaptación de los pujadores y que el tamaño de r onda es útil para evitar los c omportamientos no comp etitivos. Adicional mente se muestra que los precios de inicio de la subasta tienen una gran influencia sobre los precios de cierre. Los resultados aquí pre sentados son útiles para el dise ño de estructuras de mercado en el sector eléctrico.

  16. Pfirsch-Tasso versus standard approaches in the plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to theoretical description of plasma stability in toroidal fusion systems with a resistive wall. Its aim is elimination of contradictions between the models recently developed for the resistive wall mode analysis and the Pfirsch-Tasso approach originated from the paper published in 1971 [D. Pfirsch and H. Tasso, Nucl. Fusion 11, 259 (1971)]. The main relations have been given there without detailed proofs. Here, a missing chain of derivations is restored and earlier unknown limitations that restrict the applicability of the Pfirsch-Tasso energy principle are established. Its replacement valid in a wider area is proposed. The new result is free from the constraints implicitly imposed in the Pfirsch-Tasso procedure and can be used with any plasma model (not necessarily ideal) and for arbitrary perturbations. The proposed extensions allow applications for analysis of the rotational stabilization and optimization of the ITER scenarios.

  17. Voluntary Consensus Organization Standards for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aerospace Materials (including Additive Manufactured Parts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA-industry effort accomplishes the following:1) Lead collaboration between NASA Centers, other government agencies, industry, academia, and voluntary census...

  18. Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Maria José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J.; Prados, Jose; Aránega, Antonia; Delgado, Juan R.; Irigoyen, Antonio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Ortuño, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients' outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease. PMID:26346854

  19. Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients’ outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease.

  20. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen is positively associated with leukocyte count in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2017-06-27

    Emerging evidence shows that serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels may modestly be increased in non-neoplastic conditions such as cardiometabolic diseases, which are increasingly being seen as inflammatory diseases. Leukocyte count is widely evaluated marker of inflammation in clinical practice and a useful predictor of cardiometabolic disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum CEA levels and leukocyte counts in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included a total of 19 834 individuals enrolled from a health promotion center between November 2006 and July 2010. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between serum CEA levels and leukocyte counts after adjusting for confounding variables. According to both stepwise-method and enter-method multiple linear regression analyses, serum CEA levels were positively and independently associated with leukocyte counts (Pleukocyte counts in Korean adults. Our results suggested that an elevated serum CEA level may reflect chronic inflammation state. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Serum zinc response in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; McCall, J T; Ahrenholz, D H; McClain, C J

    1988-02-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element required for RNA and DNA synthesis and the function of over 200 zinc metalloenzymes. After surgery or trauma, the serum zinc concentration usually decreases. The magnitude and duration of this hypozincemia after thermal injury are unclear, as are mechanisms for this hypozincemia. In this study we evaluated, over the duration of their hospital course, serum zinc concentrations in 23 thermal injury patients. The initial mean serum zinc concentration was significantly depressed (42 +/- micrograms/dl; normal 66-110 micrograms/dl). By the second week of hospitalization, serum zinc concentrations gradually increased into the normal range in the majority of patients. Mechanisms for this hypozincemia were evaluated. Decreases in the serum zinc concentration did not correlate with increased urinary zinc excretion; thus increased urinary zinc excretion was an unlikely mechanism for the observed hypozincemia. Values for albumin, the major zinc binding protein in serum, generally were inversely correlated with the serum zinc concentration. Thus, hypoalbuminemia could not explain the decreased serum zinc concentration. Certain cytokines such as interleukin-1 are known to cause a decrease in the serum zinc concentration as part of the acute phase response. Therefore, we measured serum C reactive protein concentrations as an indicator of the acute phase response. Thermally injured patients initially had markedly elevated C-reactive protein levels which gradually decreased during hospitalization. We suggest that the initial hypozincemia observed in thermally injured patients may be a reflection of interleukin-1 mediated acute phase response. Whether one should vigorously attempt to correct this initial marked hypozincemia requires further investigation.

  2. Development of an electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry procedure for direct measurements of arsenic in diluted serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, D J; Simeonsson, J B

    1999-11-01

    A procedure for the direct determination of arsenic in diluted serum by electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ETA-LEAFS) is reported. Laser radiation needed to excite As at 193.696 and 197.197 nm is generated as the second anti-Stokes stimulated Raman scattering output of a frequency-doubled dye laser operating near 230.5 and 235.5 nm, respectively. Two different LEAFS schemes have been utilized and provide limits of detection of 200-300 fg for As in aqueous standards. When measurements of serum samples diluted 1:10 with deionized water are performed, a stable background signal is observed that can be accounted for by taking measurements with the laser tuned off-wavelength. No As is detected in any of the bovine or human serum samples analyzed. Measurements of 100 pg/mL standard additions of As to a diluted bovine serum sample utilizing either inorganic or organic As species demonstrate a linear relationship of the fluorescence signal to As spike concentration, but exhibit a sensitivity of approximately half that observed in pure aqueous standards. The limit of detection for As in 1:10 diluted serum samples is 65 pg/mL or 650 fg absolute mass, which corresponds to 0.65 ng/mL As in undiluted serum. To our knowledge, the ETA-LEAFS procedure is currently the only one capable of directly measuring As in diluted serum at these levels.

  3. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    -labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without...... In all patients, a close correlation was present between PV determined by the two indicators (r = 0·89, P...−1) in liver patients as compared to 260 ml (3·5 ml kg−1) in patients without liver disease (Pvalues were found in patients with and without liver disease...

  4. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  5. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Baseline Assessment of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Reference Material and Proficiency Testing/External Quality Assurance Material Commutability: A Vitamin D Standardization Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Karen W; Sempos, Christopher T; Tai, Susan S-C; Camara, Johanna E; Wise, Stephen A; Eckfeldt, John H; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Carter, Graham D; Jones, Julia; Myers, Gary L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Miller, W Greg; Bachmann, Lorin M; Young, Ian S; Pettit, Juanita; Caldwell, Grahame; Liu, Andrew; Brooks, Stephen P J; Sarafin, Kurtis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert B M; Busch, Markus; Rabenberg, Martina; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Galvin, Karen; Zhang, Joy Y; Kinsella, Michael; Oh, Kyungwon; Lee, Sun-Wha; Jung, Chae L; Cox, Lorna; Goldberg, Gail; Guberg, Kate; Meadows, Sarah; Prentice, Ann; Tian, Lu; Brannon, Patsy M; Lucas, Robyn M; Crump, Peter M; Cavalier, Etienne; Merkel, Joyce; Betz, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) coordinated a study in 2012 to assess the commutability of reference materials and proficiency testing/external quality assurance materials for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human serum, the primary indicator of vitamin D status. A set of 50 single-donor serum samples as well as 17 reference and proficiency testing/external quality assessment materials were analyzed by participating laboratories that used either immunoassay or LC-MS methods for total 25(OH)D. The commutability test materials included National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum as well as materials from the College of American Pathologists and the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme. Study protocols and data analysis procedures were in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The majority of the test materials were found to be commutable with the methods used in this commutability study. These results provide guidance for laboratories needing to choose appropriate reference materials and select proficiency or external quality assessment programs and will serve as a foundation for additional VDSP studies.

  7. Tumor signatures of PTHLH overexpression, high serum calcium, and poor prognosis were observed exclusively in clear cell but not non clear cell renal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Shioi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Ito, Hiroki; Kondo, Keiichi; Hasumi, Hisashi; Sano, Futoshi; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Kishida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    High serum calcium (Ca) due to aberrant secretion of tumor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is a well-known paraneoplastic sign and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the status of serum Ca and tumor PTHLH expression have not been verified using the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) renal tumor classification. We retrospectively reviewed corrected serum Ca levels at initial onset (n = 683) and/or as of recurrence (n = 71) in patients with RCC. We also examined a total of 623 renal parenchymal tumor samples for PTHLH mRNA expressions by quantitative real-time PCR. High serum Ca concomitant with PTHLH overexpression in tumors was observed exclusively in clear cell RCC but not in other non clear cell subtype tumors, including papillary, chromophobe, collecting-duct, unclassified, and other rare subtype RCCs or in benign oncocytomas and angiomyolipomas. In clear cell RCC, PTHLH expression was significantly high in male patients, and was associated with a symptomatic presentation, higher grade, and higher stage cases, whereas it was not associated with VHL gene status. Univariate analyses demonstrated that high PTHLH expression was strongly associated with poor outcome both in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients who underwent standard nephrectomy. Further multivariate Cox analyses revealed that the PTHLH expressions remained as independent prognostic parameters for OS but not for DFS. These data suggest that the previously characterized tumor signatures of high serum Ca due to high PTHLH expression and poor prognosis are clear cell RCC-specific features, whereas these characteristics are rare in non clear cell RCCs

  8. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p magnesium levels. We

  9. [Standards used in the regulation of medical device in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Gu, Hanqing

    2007-11-01

    To study the USA government's administrative system about medical device standards as well as the standard making. The relevant documents, regulations, website that USA Food and Drug Administration announced were extensively reviewed, knowing the USA medical device standards synthetically. The USA standards system of medical device included regulatory requirements and voluntary consensus standards. This article simply introduced the laws, regulations, performance standards and consensus standards. The USA's administrative system about medical device standards as well as many standards can be referenced.

  10. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  11. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  12. Serum Adipocytokine Levels as Surrogate Markers for Disease Activity of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hwan; Jang, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Determining inflammatory activity is crucial for assessing disease activity and for tailoring therapy in patients with Crohn׳s disease (CD). This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokine levels in patients with CD and to determine whether they can serve as surrogate markers for disease activity. Serum samples and information regarding the clinical features of patients in the CD Network Project registry were collected from March 2009 to February 2012. Patients with CD and disease duration of at least 2 years were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum leptin, adiponectin, obestatin and ghrelin levels were measured, and their correlation with clinical features of the patients was analyzed. Serum adipocytokine levels were evaluated according to disease activity as determined by CD activity index score. A total of 153 patients with CD were included. Serum ghrelin levels negatively correlated with patient age (P = 0.041) and age at diagnosis (P = 0.017), and positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.017). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ghrelin levels were related only to CRP levels (P = 0.032). Like ghrelin, serum leptin levels were also related to CRP levels (P disease locations or behaviors. Serum ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with CD with a history of surgery than in those without (P = 0.007). Serum ghrelin and leptin levels may be useful as surrogate markers for disease activity in patients with CD. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8

  14. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9±3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3±88.9 ng/ml, 62.1±99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7±106.7 ng/ml, 69±84.8 ng/ml, 15.7±9.1 ng/ml, 7.5±10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8±11.4 ng

  15. Relationship between serum phosphorus and the progression of advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, F; Villa, J; García de Vinuesa, E; Martínez del Viejo, C; Martínez Gallardo, R; Macías, R; Ferreira, F; Cerezo, I; Hernández-Gallego, R

    2011-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) has been shown to be associated with a more rapid decline of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine whether time-averaged serum P levels are associated with the progression of renal failure adjusted for other potential confounders. A prospective observational study of 184 patients with pre-dialysis CKD, stages 3, 4 and 5 (mean GFR=15.2±5.6 ml/min/1.73 m2). The rate of decline in renal function was calculated as the slope of GFR. Median follow-up time was 303 days. Biochemical parameters were analysed as time-averaged concentrations. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the best determinants of serum P levels, and the relationship between the rate of decline of renal function and the study covariates. The best determinants of serum P levels were: GFR (beta = 0.477), female sex (beta = 0.106), serum calcium (beta = -0.274), serum albumin (beta = -0.112), serum bicarbonate (beta = -0.182), protein catabolic rate (beta = 0.144), and use of diuretics (beta = 0.180). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) slope of GFR was -0.198±0.376 ml/min/month. The best determinants of the slope of GFR were: proteinuria (beta = -0.462), serum P (beta = -0.440), and basal GFR (beta = -0.404). Total urinary P excretion was not significantly associated with the rate of decline of renal function. High serum P levels are strongly and independently associated with a more rapid decline of renal function in patients with advanced CKD.

  16. Levels of some trace elements in serum of esophageal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, D. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of six trace elements (Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb, Hg) in the serum of patients with esophageal cancer who were newly diagnosed before undergoing any type of treatment. Biopsy was taken from diseased esophagus and examined histologically. A total of 43 samples of patients and 36 samples from healthy control group was collected, which were then dried by freeze drying. Then analyzed by neutron activation analysis technology, using research reactor in Syria (the miniature neutron source, MNSR) with neutron flux of 1x10''1''2 n.cm ''-''2 s''-''1 was performed. Certified reference sample from the International Agency were obtained for quality control analysis to ensure the reliability of the device. All six elements were statistically analyzed, the study proved statistical significant difference concentration of following five elements, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb in the serum of patients compared to the serum samples of healthy people. The concentration of Zn and Se in patients serum were less compared to serum of healthy individuals, and the concentrations of Fe, Co, Rb in serum of patients were higher than its that the serum of healthy individuals. While the concentrations of Hg was found to be higher in serum of healthy individuals compared to patients serum, but without statistical significant. The concentration presented by means with standard deviation. The findings were compared to results obtained from literature. All five elements compatible with literature. Hg has not been investigated in such studies before. Selenium and zinc supplementation are need by cancer patient in order to enhance and increase the chances for natural immunological of cancer.(Author)

  17. Association between serum osteocalcin level and blood pressure in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiting; Ma, Xiaojing; Xiong, Qin; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Xueli; Yuan, Yeqing; Bao, Yuqian

    2018-04-01

    This observational study investigated the association between serum osteocalcin level and blood pressure in a Chinese population. A total of 2241 subjects (909 men and 1,332 women; age, 24-78 years) from Shanghai communities were recruited. Subjects were divided into non-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to diagnosis of hypertension based on the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Serum osteocalcin levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Men in the hypertensive group showed lower serum osteocalcin level compared with those in the non-hypertensive group, [16.37 (13.34-20.11) ng/mL versus 17.01 (14.23-20.79) ng/mL, p = .039]. No difference in serum osteocalcin level was found between the two groups of women (p = .675). An inverse association was observed between serum osteocalcin level and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in men (p = .004), but serum osteocalcin level was not associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in men (p = .472). No associations were detected between serum osteocalcin level and SBP or DBP in women (SBP: p = .108; DBP: p = .575). A multiple stepwise regression analysis showed an inverse association between serum osteocalcin level and SBP in men after adjusting for age, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and lipid and C-reactive protein levels (standardized β = -0.074, p = .023), but the association disappeared after adjustment for body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p = .327). Serum osteocalcin level was not independently associated with blood pressure in a Chinese population.

  18. Serum electrolyte shifts following administration of sodium phosphates enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Peery, Jessica; Thompson, William O; Kanapka, Joseph A; Caswell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The misuse of sodium phosphates enemas has resulted in reports of potentially severe metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances. Despite their long availability, these products have not been fully characterized pharmacokinetically. This trial sought to evaluate changes in the metabolic and hemodynamic parameters following the administration of one of two standard sodium phosphates enemas. Enema Casen (250 ml) is available only in Spain, and Fleet Enema (133 ml) is available in 66 countries in six continents of the world. These changes were correlated with scientific literature reports of hyperphosphatemia following phosphate enema use. Forty-five adult participants aged 50 years or older enrolled in the trial. Twenty-five participants were given one Enema Casen, whereas 20 participants received one Fleet Enema. Blood pressure, pulse, and serum chemistries were evaluated at screening; baseline; and 10, 60, and 120 minutes after receiving the enema. Each participant had a bowel movement within 10 minutes of receiving his enema. Asymptomatic, transient hyperphosphatemia was associated with increase in retention time but not with increase in volume of sodium phosphates enemas. Increased serum phosphate concentration and increased area under the curve of serum phosphate were associated with increased enema retention time. The Enema Casen induced a greater mean AUC of serum sodium concentration than did the Fleet Enema. There were no drug-related adverse events. Transient hyperphosphatemia following the use of sodium phosphates enemas correlates with retention time but not with dose. A scientific literature review of serious adverse events revealed that overdose, concomitant use of oral and rectal sodium phosphates products, and use in a contraindicated patient were associated with sodium phosphates enema and hyperphosphatemia.

  19. Biomarkers of Exposure to Triclocarban in Urine and Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Furr, Johnathan; Ahn, Ki Chang; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gray, Earl L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2012-01-01

    3, 4, 4’- Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0–24 hours before dosing, and 0–24 hours and 24–48 hours after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48 h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3’-hydroxy-TCC and 2’-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic standards. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidation of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC. PMID:21635932

  20. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanbacher, B.

    1988-01-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain [Tyr30] (1-30) NH2 [pI alpha(1-30)], radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid

  1. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanbacher, B.

    1988-11-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain (Tyr30) (1-30) NH2 (pI alpha(1-30)), radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid.

  2. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  3. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  4. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  5. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  6. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Smertka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status.

  7. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  8. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  9. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  10. Energy labels and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency at the end-use level is increasingly important as Climate Change commitments force policy makers to look for areas where greenhouse gas emissions reduction can be achieved rapidly. Indeed, although much improvement has been mode over the past 25 years, significant potential for improving energy efficiency still exists. Labelling and minimum efficiency standards for appliances and equipment have proven to be one of the most promising policy instruments. Used for many years in some IEA Member countries, they delivered tangible results. They are among the cheapest and least intrusive of policies. Policy makers cannot afford to neglect them. This book examines current and post experiences of countries using labels and standards to improve energy end-use efficiency. It identifies successful policy approaches, focusing on what works best. It also provides insight into the opportunities ahead, including the widespread use of computer chips in appliances, cars and equipment. This book should be of great help not only to administrations planning to introduce labelling schemes, but also to those in the process of strengthening their current programmes. Policy makers in developing countries will also find here all necessary justification for implementing labelling and standards in their economy. 74 refs

  11. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  12. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  13. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased Serum 25-Hydroxycalciferol Levels in Pre-diabetic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Q. A.; Khan, D. A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F. A.; Latif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels [25(OH)D] in adults with pre-diabetes and normoglycaemia to examine a possible association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from November 2012 to July 2013. Methodology: A total of 272 adults including 136 pre-diabetics and 136 normoglycaemics of either gender aged 20 years and above were consecutively inducted. Patients with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, rickets and osteomalacia, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease were excluded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) was estimated with hexokinase method on Modular p800 Roche chemistry analyzer while serum 25(OH)D was measured on Diasorin Liaison immunoassay analyzer using the chemiluminescent technique. Mean 25(OH)D levels in pre-diabetic and normoglycaemic groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's correlation coefficient 'rs' was determined between serum 25(OH)D and FPG. Odds ratio for vitamin D deficiency was also calculated. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D level was low in pre-diabetics (23.2 nmol/L) as compared to normoglycaemics (29 nmol/L; p=0.001). Serum 25(OH)D level had inverse correlation with FPG (rs = -0.448, p=0.000). There was also significant association of vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes compared with normoglycaemia (OR: 2.21, p= 0.016; 95 percentage CI: 1.15-4.27). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency with pre-diabetes suggested that vitamin D may have an important role in pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. (author)

  15. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  16. Interleukin-10 serum level in acute coronary syndrome patients

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    Idrus Alwi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare plasma IL-10 concentrations in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS with those in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD.Methods ACS patients hospitalized in intensive coronary care unit (ICCU of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital/Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia (CMH/FMUI, Persahabatan Hospital, MMC Hospital, and Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, between May 2005 and May 2006, were included in this study. The ambulatory CAD patients were taken as comparator. The serum IL-10 level was measured by immunoassay method, and compared by using Independent Student’s t-test. To investigate whether IL-10 serum level could predict ACS, the sensitivity and specificity of this parameter towards ACS in various IL-10 serum levels were calculated as well.Results In this observational study, as many as 146 subjects were analyzed, consisting of 84 ACS patients, and 62 coronary artery disease (CAD. The IL-10 level was higher in the group of ACS patients (7.37 pg/mL + 7.81, CI 95% 5.68-9.07 than that in CAD patients (1.59 pg/mL + 1.55, CI 95% 1.2-1.98. The optimal cut-off point for serum IL-10level is >1.95 pg/mL, with 79.76 % sensitivity and 77.42 % specificity.Conclusion The IL-10 level was higher in the ACS patients compared to that in CAD patients. Serum IL-10 measurement is a quite superior method to distinguish acute and stable condition, eventhough it is not as good as hsCRP for the same purpose. (Med J Indones 2009;18:165-9Key words: Interleukin-10, acute coronary syndrome

  17. Ochratoxin A in serum of swine from different Brazilian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, César D; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Glória M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; da Rocha Rosa, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the current study were to monitor the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the serum of slaughtered swine and to investigate its distribution in 4 major geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 400 samples of serum were collected from 4 major states of Brazil (100 samples each). Ochratoxin A concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In Santa Catarina State, 60% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 4.01 to 75.4 mg/l. In Mato Grosso State, 75% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 46.79 mg/l. Bahia State samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 2.72 to 4.13 mg/l in 36% of the samples, whereas 68% of the samples from Rio de Janeiro State had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 115 mg/l. Only Santa Catarina State and Rio de Janeiro State had serum samples that exceeded 75 mg/l OTA in 20% and 2% of the samples, respectively. A direct relationship between the higher concentrations of OTA in serum from the States of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro and the highest concentrations of OTA in food intended for animal consumption in the same 2 Brazilian states was found in the present study. Ochratoxin A distribution in foodstuffs is very heterogeneous, and an alternative method by which to monitor the presence of OTA in feed includes analyzing swine serum samples, which reflect the toxin content of the ingested feed. This strategy could prevent the occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animal production, reduce economic losses, and minimize hazards to human health.

  18. Use of containers with sterilizing filter in autologous serum eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the use of containers with an adapted sterilizing filter on the contamination of autologous serum eyedrops. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients with Sjögren syndrome. One hundred seventy-six autologous serum containers used in home therapy were studied; 48 of them included an adapted filter (Hyabak; Thea, Clermont-Ferrand, France), and the other 128 were conventional containers. Containers equipped with a filter were tested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of use, whereas conventional containers were studied after 7 days of use. In addition, testing for contamination was carried out in 14 conventional containers used during in-patient therapy every week for 4 weeks. In all cases, the preparation of the autologous serum was similar. Blood agar and chocolate agar were used as regular culture media for the microbiologic studies, whereas Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol was the medium for fungal studies. Microbiologic contamination of containers with autologous serum eyedrops. Only one of the containers with an adapted sterilizing filter (2.1%) became contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis after 1 month of treatment, whereas the contamination rate among conventional containers reached 28.9% after 7 days of treatment. The most frequent germs found in the samples were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (48.6%). With regard the containers used in the in-patient setting, 2 (14.3%) became contaminated after 2 weeks, 5 (35.7%) became contaminated after 3 weeks, and 5 (50%) became contaminated after 4 weeks, leaving 7 (50%) that did not become contaminated after 1 month of treatment. Using containers with an adapted filter significantly reduces the contamination rates in autologous serum eyedrops, thus extending the use of such container by the patients for up to 4 weeks with virtually no contamination risks. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  20. Serum electrolytes changes in malnourished children with diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Y.; Majeed, R.; Shaikh, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of electrolyte disturbances in malnourished children with and without diarrhea and whether these findings have therapeutic value or not. It is a descriptive study conducted at pediatric Unit-II LUH Hyderabad, from 1st August to 31st September 2004. One hundred children of protein-calorie-malnutrition between 6 months to 5 year of age of either sex who were admitted due to diarrhoea, failure to thrive, acute respiratory infection, malaria, anemia, cardiac failure and feeding problems were included in the study. On the basis of history, physical examination and anthropometrics measurement they were divided into Group A patients (n=64) who were malnourished but had diarrhoea and Group B patients (n=36) who were also malnourished and had no diarrhoea. Serum electrolytes were done in patients of both groups and the results were analyzed statistically. Analysis of serum electrolyte in both groups revealed that hypokalemia, hyponatremia and low serum bicarbonate were seen more frequently in patients of group A as compared to group B. In group A hypokalemia was seen in 40 patients(62.5%) while it was observed in 8 patients (22.22%) in group B (p<0.001), hyponatremia was seen in 17 patients (26.56%) in group A and in 5 patients (13.88%) in group B (p<0.001). In group A 41 patients (64%) had low serum bicarbonate while in group B only 15 patients (41.66%) had low serum bicarbonate value (p<0.001) Electrolyte changes were commonly seen in grade II and III malnourished patients particularly who presented with diarrhoeal episode of variable duration. If these changes are diagnosed in time and treated appropriately the morbidity and mortality could be decreased. (author)

  1. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  2. Serum Lipids In Pre Dialysis Chronic Renal Failure Patients In Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of serum lipids in pre dialysis chronic renal failure (CRF) patients in the Jos university teaching hospital over a twelve month period undertaken to determine the pattern of lipid abnormalities associated with this disease. Lipids were measured in the fasting state using standard methods in 67 patients with ...

  3. Serum antibody responses in Creole kids experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambou, Jean-Christophe; de la Chevrotière, Claudia; Varo, Hugues; Arquet, Remy; Kooyman, Frans N J; Mandonnet, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of parasite-specific serum antibodies with the resistance status of Creole kids. The average breeding values on egg output predicted in a context of natural infection at 11 months of age were distant of 1.07 genetic standard deviation

  4. Equine dendritic cells generated with horse serum have enhanced functionality in comparison to dendritic cells generated with fetal bovine serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Anja; Everett, Helen; Hamza, Eman; Garbani, Mattia; Gerber, Vinzenz; Marti, Eliane; Steinbach, Falko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in the initiation and modulation of T cell responses. They have been studied widely for their potential clinical applications, but for clinical use to be successful, alternatives to xenogeneic substances like fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture need to be found. Protocols for the generation of dendritic cells ex vivo from monocytes are well established for several species, including hor...

  5. Photoluminescent lateral flow based on non-radiative energy transfer for protein detection in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Gálvez, Alejandro; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Romero, Javier; Merkoçi, Arben

    2018-02-15

    A new paper-based lateral flow immunoassay configuration was engineered and investigated. The assay is intended for the detection of a model protein in human serum, that is, human immunoglobulin G, with the aim to demonstrate a virtually universal protein detection platform. Once the sample is added in the strip, the analyte is selectively captured by antibody-decorated silica beads (Ab-SiO 2 ) onto the conjugate pad and the sample flows by capillarity throughout the strip until reaching the test line, where a sandwich-like immunocomplex takes place due to the presence of antibody-functionalized QDs (Ab-QDs) onto the test line. Eventually, GO is added as a revealing agent and the photoluminescence of those sites protected by the complex Ab-SiO 2 /Antigen/Ab-QDs will not be quenched, whereas those photoluminescent sites directly exposed are expected to be quenched by GO, including the control line, made of bare QDs, reporting that the assay occurred successfully. Hence, the photoluminescence of the test line is modulated by the formation of sandwich-like immunocomplexes. The proposed device achieves a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.35ngmL -1 in standard buffer, which is lower when compared with conventional lateral flow technology reported by gold nanoparticles, including other amplification strategies. Moreover, the resulting device was proven useful in human serum analysis, achieving a LOD of 6.30ngmL -1 in this complex matrix. This low-cost disposable and easy-to-use device will prove valuable for portable and automated diagnostics applications, and can be easily transferred to other analytes such as clinically relevant protein biomarkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Anion Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-01-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that suppo...

  7. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  8. Serum uric acid is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy independent of serum parathyroid hormone in male cardiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Fujita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that serum uric acid (UA is associated with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, which has bbe shown to be correlated with UA, is also known to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy; however, whether the association between UA and cardiac hypertrophy is independent of PTH remains unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated whether the relationship between serum uric acid (UA and LV hypertrophy is independent of intact PTH and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors in cardiac patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective study, the association between UA and left ventricular mass index was assessed among 116 male cardiac patients (mean age 65 ± 12 years who were not taking UA lowering drugs. The median UA value was 5.9 mg/dL. Neither age nor body mass index differed significantly among the UA quartile groups. Patients with higher UA levels were more likely to be taking loop diuretics. UA showed a significant correlation with intact PTH (R = 0.34, P<0.001 but not with other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors. Linear regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA showed a significant association with left ventricular mass index, and this relationship was found to be significant exclusively in patients who were not taking loop and/or thiazide diuretics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA was independently associated with LV hypertrophy with an odds ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval 1.48-5.28, P = 0.002 per one standard deviation increase. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiac patients, serum UA was associated with LV hypertrophy, and this relationship was, at least in part, independent of intact PTH levels, which showed a significant correlation with UA in the same population.

  9. Effects of blood collection conditions on ovarian cancer serum markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Thorpe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating diagnostic and early detection biomarkers requires comparing serum protein concentrations among biosamples ascertained from subjects with and without cancer. Efforts are generally made to standardize blood processing and storage conditions for cases and controls, but blood sample collection conditions cannot be completely controlled. For example, blood samples from cases are often obtained from persons aware of their diagnoses, and collected after fasting or in surgery, whereas blood samples from some controls may be obtained in different conditions, such as a clinic visit. By measuring the effects of differences in collection conditions on three different markers, we investigated the potential of these effects to bias validation studies.We analyzed serum concentrations of three previously studied putative ovarian cancer serum biomarkers-CA 125, Prolactin and MIF-in healthy women, women with ovarian cancer undergoing gynecologic surgery, women undergoing surgery for benign ovary pathology, and women undergoing surgery with pathologically normal ovaries. For women undergoing surgery, a blood sample was collected either in the clinic 1 to 39 days prior to surgery, or on the day of surgery after anesthesia was administered but prior to the surgical procedure, or both. We found that one marker, prolactin, was dramatically affected by collection conditions, while CA 125 and MIF were unaffected. Prolactin levels were not different between case and control groups after accounting for the conditions of sample collection, suggesting that sample ascertainment could explain some or all of the previously reported results about its potential as a biomarker for ovarian cancer.Biomarker validation studies should use standardized collection conditions, use multiple control groups, and/or collect samples from cases prior to influence of diagnosis whenever feasible to detect and correct for potential biases associated with sample collection.

  10. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  11. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

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    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  12. Normal serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts exhibited during Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Parrott, Gretchen; Kinjo, Tetsu; Naka, Hidekatsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2017-02-01

    Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S. stercoralis at the Ryukyu University Hospital and the Nishizaki Hospital. Medical records were reviewed and blood samples were taken before treatment with the anthelminthic, ivermectin, 2weeks following the first dosage, and 2weeks following the second dosage. Commonly reported symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and general fatigue. Serum IgE levels were found to be normal in patients co-infected with HTLV-1. Additionally, females and patients younger than 70years old exhibited normal serum IgE levels when infected with S. stercoralis. No factor included in our analysis was found to affect eosinophil counts. Serum IgE levels can remain within the normal range for some patients infected with S. stercoralis. Therefore, physicians should not eliminate S. stercoralis infection from the differential diagnosis solely according to findings of normal or low IgE levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of imatinib in human serum: validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Vinicius Marcondes; Rivellis, Ariane; Novaes, Mafalda Megumi Yoshinaga; de Alencar Fisher Chamone, Dalton; Bendit, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate has been a breakthrough treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It has become the ideal tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the standard treatment for chronic-phase leukemia. Striking results have recently been reported, but intolerance to imatinib and noncompliance with treatment remain to be solved. Molecular monitoring by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard for monitoring patients, and imatinib blood levels have also become an important tool for monitoring. A fast and cheap method was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of imatinib in human serum and tamsulosin as the internal standard. Remarkable advantages of the method includes use of serum instead of plasma, less time spent on processing and analysis, simpler procedures, and requiring reduced amounts of biological material, solvents, and reagents. Stability of the analyte was also studied. This research also intended to drive the validation scheme in clinical centers. The method was validated according to the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency within the range of 0.500-10.0 μg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.155 μg/mL. Stability data for the analyte are also presented. Given that the validated method has proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and robust, it is suitable for pharmacokinetic assays, such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, and is being successfully applied in routine therapeutic drug monitoring in the hospital service.

  14. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  15. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations are negatively correlated with serum 25(OHD concentrations in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan Mary E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OHD, an accurate measure of vitamin D status, is markedly greater in individuals with increased exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB light via sunlight or the use of artificial UV light. Aside from the known relationship between vitamin D and bone, vitamin D has also been implicated in immune function and inflammation. Furthermore, a mass of evidence is accumulating that vitamin D deficiency could lead to immune malfunction. Our overall objective was to study the relationship between vitamin D status (as determined by serum 25(OH D concentrations and inflammatory markers in healthy women. Methods This observational study included 69 healthy women, age 25–82 years. Women with high UVB exposure and women with minimal UVB exposure were specifically recruited to obtain a wide-range of serum 25(OHD concentrations. Health, sun exposure and habitual dietary intake information were obtained from all subjects. Body composition was determined by dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. A fasting blood sample was collected in the morning and analyzed for serum 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (iPTH, estradiol (E2, cortisol, and inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 and -10 (IL-6, IL-10, and C-reactive protein (CRP]. Results Women with regular UVB exposure (Hi-D had serum 25(OHD concentrations that were significantly higher (p p Conclusion Serum 25(OHD status is inversely related to TNF-α concentrations in healthy women, which may in part explain this vitamin's role in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Results gleaned from this investigation also support the need to re-examine the biological basis for determining optimal vitamin D status.

  16. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was 7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  18. What is "Standard" About the Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Newberger, Florence; Safer, Alan M.; Watson, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    The choice of the formula for standard deviation is explained in elementary statistics textbooks in various ways. We give an explanation for this formula by representing the data as a vector in $\\mathbb R^n$ and considering its distance from a central tendency vector. In this setting the "standard" formula represents a shortest distance in the standard metric. We also show that different metrics lead to different measures of central tendency.

  19. Clinical implications of carcinoembryonic antigen distribution in serum exosomal fraction-Measurement by ELISA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Serum exosomal proteins have great potential as indicators of disease status in cancer, inflammatory or metabolic diseases. The association of a fraction of various serum proteins such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA with circulating exosomes has been debated. The establishment of a method to measure the exosomal fraction of such proteins might help resolve this controversy. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs to measure serum exosomal molecules, for example CEA, is rare in research laboratories and totally absent in clinical biology. In this study, we optimized a method for assessment of serum exosomal molecules combining a treatment by volume-excluding polymers to isolate the exosomes, their subsequent solubilization in an assay buffer and ELISA.One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled for this study between June 2015 and June 2016 at Wakayama Medical University Hospital (WMUH. Whole blood samples were collected from patients during surgery. Exosomes were isolated using the ExoQuick reagent, solubilized in an assay buffer and subjected to CEA detection by ELISA. The procedure of serum exosome isolation and the formulation of the assay buffer used for the ELISA were optimized in order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the assay.A five-fold increase in the concentration of the exosomes in the assay buffer (using initial serum volume as a reference and the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA resulted in more accurate measurements of the serum exosomal CEA. The thawing temperature of frozen serum samples before exosome extraction was also optimized. A validation study that included one hundred sixteen patients with colorectal cancer demonstrated that serum exosomal CEA from samples thawed at 25°C exhibited a better AUC value, sensitivity, and specificity as well as a more correct classification than serum CEA.We optimized an easy and rapid detection method for assessment of

  20. Massive naproxen overdose with serial serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Suad A; Anderson, Ilene B; Pedram, Fatehi; Colby, Jennifer M; Olson, Kent R

    2015-03-01

    Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal vital signs apart from sinus tachycardia. Serum naproxen level 90 min after ingestion was 1,580 mg/L (therapeutic range 25-75 mg/L). He developed metabolic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and had recurrent seizure activity requiring intubation within 4 h from ingestion. He recovered after 48 h. Massive naproxen overdose can present with serious toxicity including seizures, altered mental status, and metabolic acidosis. Hemodialysis and renal replacement therapy may correct the acid base disturbance and provide support in cases of renal impairment in context of naproxen overdose, but further studies are needed to determine the extraction of naproxen.

  1. Rising serum sodium levels are associated with a concurrent development of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gregor; Schwarz, Christoph; Grüssing, Heidelinde; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Fazekas, Andreas; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2013-03-01

    Changes in electrolyte homeostasis are important causes of acid-base disorders. While the effects of chloride are well studied, only little is known of the potential contributions of sodium to metabolic acid-base state. Thus, we investigated the effects of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia on acid-base state. We included critically ill patients who developed hypernatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration exceeding 149 mmol/L, after ICU admission in this retrospective study. Data on electrolyte and acid-base state in all included patients were gathered in order to analyze the effects of hypernatremia on metabolic acid-base state by use of the physical-chemical approach. A total of 51 patients were included in the study. The time of rising serum sodium and hypernatremia was accompanied by metabolic alkalosis. A transient increase in total base excess (standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L) paralleled by a transient increase in the base excess due to sodium (base excess sodium from 0.7 to 4.1 mmol/L) could be observed. The other determinants of metabolic acid-base state remained stable. The increase in base excess was accompanied by a slight increase in overall pH (from 7.392 to 7.429, standard base excess from 0.1 to 5.5 mmol/L). Hypernatremia is accompanied by metabolic alkalosis and an increase in pH. Given the high prevalence of hypernatremia, especially in critically ill patients, hypernatremic alkalosis should be part of the differential diagnosis of metabolic acid-base disorders.

  2. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  3. Contribution of the complement Membrane Attack Complex to the bactericidal activity of human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Evelien T M; Mohan, Sarbani; Miellet, Willem R; Ruyken, Maartje; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

    2015-06-01

    Direct killing of Gram-negative bacteria by serum is usually attributed to the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) that is assembled upon activation of the complement system. In serum bactericidal assays, the activity of the MAC is usually blocked by a relatively unspecific method in which certain heat-labile complement components are inactivated at 56°C. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate MAC-driven lysis towards various Gram-negative bacteria. Instead of using heat-treatment, we included the highly specific C5 cleavage inhibitor OmCI to specifically block the formation of the MAC. Using a C5 conversion analysis tool, we monitored the efficacy of the inhibitor during the incubations. Our findings indicate that 'serum-sensitive' bacteria are not necessarily killed by the MAC. Other heat-labile serum factors can contribute to serum bactericidal activity. These unidentified factors are most potent at serum concentrations of 10% and higher. Furthermore, we also find that some bacteria can be killed by the MAC at a slower rate. Our data demonstrate the requirement for the use of specific inhibitors in serum bactericidal assays and revealed that the classification of serum-sensitive and resistant strains needs re-evaluation. Moreover, it is important to determine bacterial viability at multiple time intervals to differentiate serum susceptibility between bacterial species. In conclusion, these data provide new insights into bacterial killing by the humoral immune system and may guide future vaccine development studies for the treatment of pathogenic serum-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The determination of serum and urinary endocan concentrations in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloglu, Esra; Aksoy, Hulya; Aksoy, Yılmaz; Ozkaya, Fatih; Akcay, Fatih

    2016-11-01

    Background Endocan (endothelial cell-specific molecule-1) is a proteoglycan and plays an important role in angiogenesis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate of serum and urinary concentrations of endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 in bladder cancer. Methods The study included 50 bladder cancer patients, 50 with urinary tract infection and 51 healthy volunteers. Serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results In bladder cancer group, serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were significantly higher than in the healthy subjects ( P = 0.003 and P bladder cancer and urinary tract infection groups in terms of serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations. Urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations were higher than those of corresponding serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations ( P bladder cancer and urinary tract infection groups, P = 0.002 for healthy subjects). In bladder cancer group, there was a positive correlation between serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations ( r = 0.32, P = 0.002). For serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1, sensitivity and specificity were 50%, and 77%, and for urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1, 62%, and 71%, respectively. Conclusion Serum and urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 concentrations increase in bladder cancer. This parameter also increases in serum and urine of cases with urinary tract infection. That urinary endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 values were higher than serum endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 values in all groups may be attributed to direct exfoliation of epithelial cells in bladder to urine.

  5. Physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1991-01-01

    We discuss some of the signatures associated with extensions of the Standard Model related to the neutrino and electroweak symmetry breaking sectors, with and without supersymmetry. The topics include a basic discussion of the theory of neutrino mass and the corresponding extensions of the Standard Model that incorporate massive neutrinos; an overview of the present observational status of neutrino mass searches, with emphasis on solar neutrinos, as well the as cosmological data on the amplitude of primordial density fluctuations; the implications of neutrino mass in cosmological nucleosynthesis, non-accelerator, as well as in high energy particle collider experiments. Turning to the electroweak breaking sector, we discuss the physics potential for Higgs boson searches at LEP200, including Majoron extensions of the Standard Model, and the physics of invisibly decaying Higgs bosons. We discuss the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model phenomenology, as well as some of the laboratory signatures that would be as...

  6. Crystals of Serum Albumin for Use in Genetic Engineering and Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Serum albumin crystal forms have been produced which exhibit superior x-ray diffraction quality. The crystals are produced from both recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, canine, and baboon serum albumin and allow the performance of drug-binding studies as well as genetic engineering studies. The crystals are grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulphate within prescribed limits during growth times from one to several weeks and include the following space groups: P2(sub 1), C2, P1.

  7. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  9. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Mi