WorldWideScience

Sample records for included sections covering

  1. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  2. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which...... of the intermediate rail. The fastening means of the outer rail may thus include one, two or more stop pins, and one or more resilient lock pins. Hereby may be achieved provision of a tool-free assembly method for the sectional rail system and that by screwing on plate covering close to the edge part...

  3. Soils, County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu symbol and ID, state symbol, name, category, percolation rate and passing percentage., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils dataset current as of 2008. County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu...

  4. Using Amniotic Membrane as Wound Covering After Cesarean Section Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjas, Menkher; Helmi, Helfial

    2002-01-01

    Early mobilization and good wound operation healing are the other aim of all treatment for cesarean section operation. Especially for wound healing we can use amniotic membrane which is soft, easy to shape wound surface, satisfactory adhesive properties, good elasticity and sufficient transparency which allows wound control without secondary redressing. From July 1999 until December 1999 total of 196 patients undergoing cesarean section with amnion as would covering were evaluated for injection of amnion, sign of wound injection, and duration of wound healing. Amniotic membrane gives best results in wound healing, no sing of rejection and there is no different results between emergency operation and elective operation, clean and dirty operation

  5. Structural analysis of TFTR vacuum vessel bellows and bellows cover sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driesen, G.

    1975-10-01

    A structural evaluation of the bellows and bellows cover sections was undertaken in order to confirm the structural integrity of these TFTR vacuum vessel components in the prescribed operating environment. The evaluations investigate component stability, stress, and deflection behavior. The products of this investigation appearing in this report include; (1) Structural verification of the vacuum bellows as currently defined in an operating environment of one atmosphere external pressure and 93 0 C (200 0 F) uniform temperature. (2) The establishment of a structurally adequate design configuration for the bellows cover section. (3) The presentation of a parametric study which indicates the effects of varying some bellows cover section parameters in order to obtain acceptable variations of this design configuration. (4) A verification of bellows and bellows cover section integrity to preclude a fatigue type failure for reactor startup and shutdown cyclic life in the design environment

  6. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  7. Annotated bibliography covering generation and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.W.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature references related to definition, generation, and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty (variance-covariance) files are listed with comments intended primarily to guide the reader toward materials of immediate interest. Papers are also cited that cover covariance information for individual experiments and that relate to production and use of multigroup covariance matrices. Titles are divided among several major categories

  8. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in ...

  9. 77 FR 57451 - Regulations Regarding the Application of Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... the treatment of corporate equity reduction transactions (CERTs), including the treatment of multiple.... Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C. 6103... of the loss. The corporate equity reduction transaction rules of section 172(b)(1)(E) and (h) were...

  10. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  12. Phylogeny of Pluteus section Celluloderma including eight new species from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolli, Nelson; Justo, Alfredo; Capelari, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A general phylogeny of Pluteus section Celluloderma based on nuc rITS1-5.8-ITS2 (ITS) barcode sequences is presented with description of eight new species from Brazil supported by morphological and molecular data: P. brunneocrinitus, P. cebolinhae, P. crinitus, P. halonatus, P. hispidulopsis, P. karstedtiae, P. necopinatus and P. paucicystidiatus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  14. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  15. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven a useful way of evaluating long-term trends in vegetation “greenness” through the use of vegetation indices like Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In particular, analyses of greenness trends have been performed for large areas (continents, for example) in an attempt to understand vegetation response to climate. These studies have been most often used coarse resolution sensors like Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, trends in greenness are also important at more local scales, particularly in and around cities as vegetation offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services ranging from minimizing air pollution to mitigating urban heat island effects. To explore the ability to monitor greenness trends in and around cities, this paper presents a new way for analyzing greenness trends based on all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and applies it to Guangzhou, China. This method is capable of including the effects of land cover change in the evaluation of greenness trends by separating the effects of abrupt and gradual changes, and providing information on the timing of greenness trends.

  16. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 55 - Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Pt. 55, App. Appendix to Part 55—Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f...)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended [Applicable language minority group(s... (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Vietnamese), Spanish heritage. Merced County Spanish heritage Monterey County...

  17. 76 FR 55256 - Section 6707A and the Failure To Include on Any Return or Statement Any Information Required To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... prepared the taxpayer's return were material advisors with respect to the reportable transaction. The... the 40-percent rate determined under section 6662(h) for a gross valuation misstatement, if the...

  18. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  19. The structure of Greater Caucasus in scales of sedimentary cover and crust, based on restored structural sections, which were obtained from study of fold-related strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Geological setting. Greater Caucasus (GC) belongs to a linear branch of the Alpine belt (Crimea, Caucasus, Kopet-Dag) which is not arc-like as the Alps. The main stripe of the Alpine deformations in GC occupies space about 1000 x 50 km between the Scythian plate and the Transcaucasian massif. Folded structure prevails and it is accompanied by almost total absence of thrust in a hinterland and by limited thrusts in forelands. The Paleozoic basement outcrops only in a northern half of this linear structure, occupying about 1/8 part of GC. Alpine sedimentary cover (J1 - Pg2) has 10-15 km thickness of flysch-like sequences of sands, argillites, limestones. These sediments formed numerous folds of 0.1 - 1.0 km width. Because each fold has information about strain, the existence of so rich material allows to restore geometry of a sedimentary cover from soil to its top. Method. Three regions were studied due based on 24 detailed structural sections of 510 km total actual length. Two kind of isometric objects of different scale were established: domains and structural cells. There were domains as associations of 2-5 folds; sections were split on 505 one. In these domains, three parameters of morphology were measured as elements of strain ellipsoid (ellipse): dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. It was possible to restore actual state of domain to its pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle) by sequence of three kinematic operations: by rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, by horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and by vertical flattening (pure shear). Pre-folded state of whole section is forming by aggregation of pre-folded states of domains. "Structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell for correct measuring of shortening value in scale of whole sedimentary cover; there were 78 for three regions. "Stratigraphic models" from bottom to top of cover for each cell

  20. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.

    2013-05-15

    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  1. 42 CFR 137.410 - For the purposes of section 110 of the Act [25 U.S.C. 450m-1] does the term contract include...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 450m-1] does the term contract include compacts, funding agreements, and construction project... the term contract include compacts, funding agreements, and construction project agreements entered into under Title V? Yes, for the purposes of section 110 of the Act [25 U.S.C. 450m-1] the term...

  2. Faults in Paleozoic basement and their participation in Alpine deformation of Greater Caucasus – evidences from materials of restored (balanced) sections in folded sedimentary cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Method. As each fold has information about strain, numerous folds (0.1-1 km width) inside of hinterland (stripe about 1000 x 50 km) of Greater Caucasus (GC) allow to restore structure for whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used for restoration of structure. These sections were split on 505 domains as associations of 2-5 folds. Three parameters of morphology were measured in these domains: dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. Because these parameters correlate with ellipsoid (ellipse) of strain for domain, sequence of three kinematic operations allow to restore actual state of domain to pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle): rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and vertical flattening (pure shear). Aggregation of chain of pre-folded domains is forming a pre-folded state of whole section, and it allows to calculate of shortening value. For correct detailing of strain study, 78 "structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell. Some additional observations and calculations allow to find initial and post-folded thickness of sedimentary cover, depth of cover bottom, virtual position of cover top (amplitude of erosion) for all tectonic cells. The received result for 78 cells allowed to understand the main features of GC structure, to see a distribution of basement top depth, to give behavior pattern of the basement and to find a role of faults in shortening of the basement and of sedimentary cover. Results. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan Zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for structural cells were found as 49% in average for ShZ (with deviations 37÷62%), 55% for TZ (36÷67%), 57% for ChZ (46÷67%) and

  3. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  4. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  5. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  6. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  7. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  8. Four new Penicillium species isolated from the fynbos biome in South Africa, including a multigene phylogeny of section Lanata-Divaricata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visagie, Cobus; Houbraken, J.; Seifert, K.A.; Samson, R.A.; Jacobs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of the fynbos biome of South Africa resulted in the isolation and characterization of 61 distinct Penicillium species. ITS barcodes place six of these in section Lanata-Divaricata. Based on morphology and multigene phylogenies, species were identified as P. oxalicum, P. skrjabinii, and four

  9. Diversity in secondary metabolites including mycotoxins from strains of aspergillus section nigri isolated from raw cashew nuts from benin, west africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yué Ksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Rob; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Hoof, Jakob Blñsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusin on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These sample showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence o aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity

  10. Inequalities in access and utilization of dental services: a cross-sectional study in an area covered by the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Baldani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of inequalities in the access and use of dental services for people living in the coverage area of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, and to assess individual determinants related to them. The sample consisted of 747 individuals who answered a pre-tested questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by chi-square test and Poisson regression analysis, obtaining explanatory models for recent use and, by limiting the analysis to those who sought dental care, for effective access. Results showed that 41% of the sample had recent dental visits. The lowest visit rates were observed among preschoolers and elderly people. The subjects who most identified the FHS as a regular source of dental care were children. Besides age, better socioeconomic conditions and the presence of a regular source of dental care were positively associated to recent dental visits. We identified inequalities in use and access to dental care, reinforcing the need to promote incentives to improve access for underserved populations.

  11. Police Stations, County Sheriff Office substation locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is derived from Emergency Facilities (scEfac) cover. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attributes include station number, address, mailing city, type, and name. Published, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Police Stations dataset current as of 2008. County Sheriff Office substation locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is derived from Emergency Facilities (scEfac)...

  12. 20 CFR 664.410 - Must local programs include each of the ten program elements listed in WIA section 129(c)(2) as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available to youth participants: (1) Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction leading to secondary... behaviors; (7) Supportive services, which may include the services listed in § 664.440; (8) Adult mentoring...

  13. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    . Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species...... of section Aspergillus were made using sequences of ITS, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Morphological observations were made from cultures grown under standardized conditions. Aspergillus mallochii does not grow at 37 degrees C and produces roughened ascospores...... with incomplete equatorial furrows. Aspergillus megasporus produces large conidia (up to 12 mu m diam) and roughened ascospores with equatorial furrows. Echinulin, quinolactacin A(1) & A(2), preechinulin and neoechinulin A & B were detected as major extrolites of A. megasporus, while neoechinulin A & B...

  14. 3D base: a geometrical data base system for the analysis and visualisation of 3D-shapes obtained from parallel serial sections including three different geometrical representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, F. J.; de Groot, M. M.; Huijsmans, D. P.; Lamers, W. H.; Young, I. T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a geometrical data base that includes three different geometrical representations of one and the same reconstructed 3D shape: the contour-pile, the voxel enumeration, and the triangulation of a surface. The data base is tailored for 3D shapes obtained from plan-parallel

  15. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  16. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot lines. These coverages are maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include Parcel IDS (Control, Key, and PIN), platted lot and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2008. Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot...

  19. Covering sections of mine mechanized timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.

    1978-04-26

    The purpose of the invention is to guarantee automatic advance of cantilevers after passage of the combine. This is achieved because the drive of the cantilevers is made in the form of elastic elements which are arranged between the ends of the cells and the cantilevers, while the upper part has fixing devices for the position of the cantilevers in the cells for interaction with the combine during its movement.

  20. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  1. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  2. The cover letter should include the corresponding author's full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uaf

    Integrated Pest Management Laboratory, University of Agriculture,. Faisalabad, Pakistan, during the same season. For this purpose, fully mature leaves of tested plant species were selected for the study of the thickness of leaf lamina (µm), trichome density from leaf lamina (per cm2), as well as length of hair (mm) from the ...

  3. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  4. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered commodity. 65.135 Section 65.135 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity...

  5. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Cover Your Cough Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... eat nutritious food. Printable formats of “Cover Your Cough” Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your ...

  6. Cover array string reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; P. Pissis, Solon; Tischler, German

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A proper factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y is within some occurrence of u in y. The concept generalises the notion of periods of a string. An integer array C is the minimal-cover (resp. maximal-cover) array of y if C[i] is the minimal (resp. maximal) length of covers of y[0.. i], or zero if no cover exists. In this paper, we present a constructive algorithm checking the validity of an array as a minimal-cover or maximal-cover array of some str...

  7. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  8. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  9. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  12. RCN-2.CP. Evaluated neutron cross-section library for 13 corrosion products, cover-gas nuclides and other nuclides in the primary cooling circuit of a fast power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the evaluated neutron cross-section library ''RCN-2.CP'' released in 1982 by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN. - Upon request, this library is available on magnetic tape, in KEDAK format, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree. (author)

  13. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  14. Developed land cover of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of developed land cover in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Developed land cover refers to urban, built-up and non-vegetated areas that result from human activity. These typically include built structures, concrete, asphalt, and other infrastructure. The developed land cover was estimated using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images pan...

  15. 7 CFR 353.4 - Products covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products covered. 353.4 Section 353.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT CERTIFICATION § 353.4 Products covered. Plants and plant products when offered for export or re-export...

  16. 49 CFR 633.11 - Covered projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered projects. 633.11 Section 633.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROJECT MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT Project Management Oversight Services § 633.11 Covered projects. The Administrator may contract for project management oversight services when the...

  17. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  18. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  19. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC) use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents. A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297) students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259) were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848) were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51), and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30), respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26). However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders. Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  20. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Cho

    Full Text Available Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents.A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study.For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297 students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259 were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848 were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30, respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26. However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders.Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  1. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a...

  2. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means of...

  3. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  4. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  5. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  6. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  7. Experimental study on hemocompatibility of domestic silicone-covered stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wentao; Wang Jianhua; Liu Qingxin; Qu Xudong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hemocompatibility of domestic silicone-covered stent in the iliac arteries of canine model. Methods: Eighteen domestic stents were placed in iliac arteries of 9 adult dogs after larger balloon PTA, which included 10 silicone-covered stents and 8 bare stents for control. DSA was performed at 1, 4, 12 weeks after stent implantation in the iliac arteries of two groups to observe the outcomes of patency or restenosis. Animals were then euthanized isolating and staining the stented arteries with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. Finally, the acute thrombosis, reendothelialization and the neointimal proliferation of both covered and bare stents were quantified on histological cross-section. Results: All bare stents were patent in 12 weeks, but two silicone-covered stents were occluded at 4, 12 week respectively (patent rate was 80%). Stented vascular stenosis rate was averaging 72.3% at 12 week in covered stents and 36.7% in bare stents. Conclusions: The hemocompatibility of silicone-covered stents is not better than that of bare stents. Silicone appears to be inert in this experimental application. (authors)

  8. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  9. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed...

  10. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  11. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  12. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  13. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  14. A section of a spiral coal chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.N.; Gorodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A section of a spiral coal chute includes a housing with support brackets. It differs in that to decrease the amount of work necessary for assembly, each support bracket is made with a guide slot and equipped with a pull-out cantilever in the shape of a fork which covers the slot from the lateral sides.

  15. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  16. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  17. Public Safety Transmitter Towers, Civil Service emergency siren locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include siren ID, class, range, model, description, ownership, control, address, city, and GPS verification status. Publi, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Public Safety Transmitter Towers dataset current as of 2008. Civil Service emergency siren locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is maintained interactively by GIS...

  18. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  19. Res Cover Oct 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tender parts of the plant are covered with rusty brown star-shaped hairs. Petals are hooded with bifurcated appendages. Stamens are ten of which five are fertile and the rest sterile. They are fused into a hollow cup-like structure. Fruit is dry, indehiscent and is hard and dark when ripe. Bark is used in treating skin diseases ...

  20. August Cover 09 Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The course will cover topics selected mostly from post-graduate curriculum in the broad areas of classical and quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, special relativity, mathematical methods, and statistical physics. The lectures will be supplemented by discussion and problem sessions. Teachers who wish to participate may ...

  1. A cross-sectional pilot study of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes strains in Indian acne patients using 16s-RNA polymerase chain reaction: A comparison among treatment modalities including antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, and isotretinoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem in acne patients due to regional prescription practices, patient compliance, and genomic variability in Propionibacterium acnes, though the effect of treatment on the resistance has not been comprehensively analyzed. Aims: Our primary objective was to assess the level of antibiotic resistance in the Indian patients and to assess whether there was a difference in the resistance across common treatment groups. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naοve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY, azithromycin (AZI, clindamycin (CL, tetracycline (TET, doxycycline (DOX, minocycline (MINO, and levofloxacin (LEVO. The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains. Results: Of the 52 P. acnes strains isolated (80 patients, high resistance was observed to AZI (100%, ERY (98%, CL (90.4%, DOX (44.2%, and TETs (30.8%. Low resistance was observed to MINO (1.9% and LEVO (9.6%. Statistical difference was seen in the resistance between CL and TETs; DOX/LEVO and DOX/MINO (P < 0.001. High MIC90 (≥256 μg/ml was seen with CL, macrolides, and TETs; moreover, low MIC90 was observed to DOX (16 μg/ml, MINO (8 μg/ml, and LEVO (4 μg/ml. Though the treatment group with isotretinoin/BPO had the least number of resistant strains there was no statistical difference in the antibiotic resistance among the various groups of patients. Conclusions: High resistance was seen among the P. acnes strains to macrolides-lincosamides (AZI and CL while MINO and LEVO resistance was low.

  2. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for the...

  3. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction or...

  4. 10 CFR 950.32 - Final determination on covered events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final determination on covered events. 950.32 Section 950... Process § 950.32 Final determination on covered events. (a) If the parties reach a Final Determination on Covered Events through mediation, or Summary Binding Decision as set forth in this subpart, the Final...

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. 42 CFR 6.6 - Covered acts and omissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and that it would therefore be covered by paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (3) A homeless health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered acts and omissions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS FEDERAL TORT...

  7. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate.

  8. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  10. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person. ...

  11. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travelers on official business; and (e) A Travel Management Reporting System that covers financial and other... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL...

  12. August Cover 09 Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  13. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  14. Reworked Middle Jurassic sandstones as a marker for Upper Cretaceous basin inversion in Central Europe—a case study for the U-Pb detrital zircon record of the Upper Cretaceous Schmilka section and their implication for the sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Voigt, Thomas; Bittner, Lucas; Gärtner, Andreas; Zieger, Johannes; Linnemann, Ulf

    2017-11-01

    The Saxonian-Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Elbsandsteingebirge, E Germany and Czech Republic, Elbtal Group) comprises Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from Upper Cenomanian to Santonian age. These sandstones were deposited in a narrow strait of the sea linking the northern Boreal shelf to the southern Tethyan areas. They were situated between the West Sudetic Island in the north and the Mid-European Island in the south. As known by former studies (e.g. Tröger, Geologie 6/7:717-730, 1964; Tröger, Geologie von Sachsen, Schweizerbart, 311-358, 2008; Voigt and Tröger, Proceedings of the 4th International Cretaceous Symposium, 275-290, 1996; Voigt, Dissertation, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 1-130, 1995; Voigt, Zeitschrift der geologischen Wissenschaften 37(1-2): 15-39, 2009; Wilmsen et al., Freiberger Forschungshefte C540: 27-45, 2011) the main sedimentary input came from the north (Lausitz Block, southern West-Sudetic Island). A section of Turonian to Coniacian sandstones was sampled in the Elbsandsteingebirge near Schmilka (Elbtal Group, Saxony, Germany). The samples were analysed for their U-Pb age record of detrital zircon using LA-ICP-MS techniques. The results show main age clusters typical for the Bohemian Massif (local material) and are interpreted to reflect the erosion of uniform quartz-dominated sediments and basement rocks. Surprisingly, these rocks lack an expected Upper Proterozoic to Lower Palaeozoic age peak, which would be typical for the basement of the adjacent Lausitz Block (c. 540-c. 560 Ma). Therefore, the Lausitz Block basement must have been covered by younger sediments that acted as source rocks during deposition of the Elbtal Group. The sandstones of the Elbe valley (Elbtal Group, Schmilka section) represent the re-deposited sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block in inverse order. This cover comprised Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits, which are eroded already today and cannot be investigated. Within the samples of the

  15. Reworked Middle Jurassic sandstones as a marker for Upper Cretaceous basin inversion in Central Europe—a case study for the U-Pb detrital zircon record of the Upper Cretaceous Schmilka section and their implication for the sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Voigt, Thomas; Bittner, Lucas; Gärtner, Andreas; Zieger, Johannes; Linnemann, Ulf

    2018-04-01

    The Saxonian-Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Elbsandsteingebirge, E Germany and Czech Republic, Elbtal Group) comprises Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from Upper Cenomanian to Santonian age. These sandstones were deposited in a narrow strait of the sea linking the northern Boreal shelf to the southern Tethyan areas. They were situated between the West Sudetic Island in the north and the Mid-European Island in the south. As known by former studies (e.g. Tröger, Geologie 6/7:717-730, 1964; Tröger, Geologie von Sachsen, Schweizerbart, 311-358, 2008; Voigt and Tröger, Proceedings of the 4th International Cretaceous Symposium, 275-290, 1996; Voigt, Dissertation, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 1-130, 1995; Voigt, Zeitschrift der geologischen Wissenschaften 37(1-2): 15-39, 2009; Wilmsen et al., Freiberger Forschungshefte C540: 27-45, 2011) the main sedimentary input came from the north (Lausitz Block, southern West-Sudetic Island). A section of Turonian to Coniacian sandstones was sampled in the Elbsandsteingebirge near Schmilka (Elbtal Group, Saxony, Germany). The samples were analysed for their U-Pb age record of detrital zircon using LA-ICP-MS techniques. The results show main age clusters typical for the Bohemian Massif (local material) and are interpreted to reflect the erosion of uniform quartz-dominated sediments and basement rocks. Surprisingly, these rocks lack an expected Upper Proterozoic to Lower Palaeozoic age peak, which would be typical for the basement of the adjacent Lausitz Block (c. 540-c. 560 Ma). Therefore, the Lausitz Block basement must have been covered by younger sediments that acted as source rocks during deposition of the Elbtal Group. The sandstones of the Elbe valley (Elbtal Group, Schmilka section) represent the re-deposited sedimentary cover of the Lausitz Block in inverse order. This cover comprised Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits, which are eroded already today and cannot be investigated. Within the samples of the

  16. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  17. Babes and boobs? analysis of JAMA cover art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J P

    To determine the representation of the sexes in JAMA cover art. Review of 50 consecutive issues. JAMA, March 1997-March 1998. Numbers and nature of covers portraying men and women. Of the 50 covers, 34 depicted humans. 15 depicted women, 13 men, and 6 were of mixed or indeterminate sex. 11 pictures of women included a child and five included nudity. One cover showed a man with a child (not as a father) and none depicted nudity. Men were depicted exclusively in authoritative roles. Much of the cover art gives strong messages about sexual stereotypes that are inappropriate in modern society. JAMA should consider reviewing its policy for choosing cover art.

  18. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  19. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  20. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  1. Election Districts and Precincts, Election districts within Sedgwick County, including voter precinct, BOE, BOCC, Council, Senate, and State Representative districts. This layer is maintained interactively by GIS staff. The cityhold cover is used as a source for features and attributes., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Election Districts and Precincts dataset current as of 2008. Election districts within Sedgwick County, including voter precinct, BOE, BOCC, Council, Senate, and...

  2. Determination of elastic bearing capacity limits for additional seismic events. Annex 2. Pt. 1 and 2. Compilation of design reference data covering all German site conditions, including elastic bearing capacity limit margins. Ermittlung elastischer Grenztragbereiche unter dem Zusatzlastfall Erdbeben. Anhang 2. T. 1 und 2. Zusammenstellung der Bemessungsquerschnittswerte einschliesslich elastischer Grenztragbereiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchhardt, F.; Matthees, W.; Magiera, G.; Mathiak, F.

    1986-12-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany KTA rule 2201 in the valid version 6/75 being the basis for the design of nuclear power plants against seismic events is now under discussion for revisions. One of the main demands to modify KTA rule 2201 consists in cancelling the existing design philosophy, i.e. design against an operating basis earthquake (AEB) as well as against a safe shutdown earthquake (SEB) in order to only design against the safe shutdown earthquake. It is the scope of this study to quantify by comprehensive, parametric analyses so-called 'elastic bearing capacity limit margins' for seismic events; hereby different seismic input criteria - conventional as well as recently proposed - are taken into account to investigate the influence of eventual modifications in seismic design philosophy. This way a relation between AEB and SEB has to be defined so that SEB is just still predominant for the design while AEB still will yield to elastic behaviour. The study covers all German site conditions.

  3. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  4. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    precursor which leads to the forma- tion of the FeVI complex containing a Fe N triple bond. The structural characterization of the FeVI complex has been achieved by a variety of spectroscopic techniques including. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experimentally it is found that the FeVI complex ...

  5. 31 CFR 363.9 - What does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover? 363.9 Section 363.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... cover? This subpart provides general rules governing securities held within the TreasuryDirect ® system...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1.1092(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...

  7. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.125 Commingled covered commodities. Commingled...

  8. Birth after cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Velem?nsk?, Milo?; Velem?nsk?, Milo?; Piskorzov?, Martina; Ba?kov?, Martina; T?thov?, Val?rie; Str?nsk?, Pravoslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women...

  9. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  10. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  11. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  12. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  13. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  14. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  15. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  16. Resonance June 2012 Cover Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Science Academies' Refresher Course on Action Zoology: Science Smiles 529. The Emerging Trends' Ayan Guha. Our Readers Write 620 Classroom 592. Simple Models for the 100 Meter Dash. Priyanka deSouza. Front Cover and Vijay A Singh. Microstructures of seashells. H. (see article on page 573). Inside Back Cover.

  17. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  18. Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mother's ... are able to have a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). NIH: National Institute of Child Health and ...

  19. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  20. Controls on sediment cover in bedrock-alluvial channels of the Henry Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, R. A.; Yager, E.; Johnson, J. P.; Tranmer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The location and extent of sediment cover in bedrock-alluvial channels influences sediment transport rates, channel incision and instream ecology. However, factors affecting sediment cover and how it responds to changes in relative sediment supply have rarely been quantitatively evaluated in field settings. Using field surveys and SFM analysis of channel reach topography, we quantified sediment cover and channel properties including slope, width, grain size distributions, and bedrock and alluvial roughness in North Wash and Chelada Creek in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Along reaches where upstream sediment supply does not appear to be restricted, we find that the fraction of local bedrock exposure increases as a function of local relative transport capacity . In a downstream section of Chelada Creek, decadal-scale sediment supply has been restricted by an upstream culvert that has caused a backwater effect and corresponding upstream deposition. In this section, alluvial cover is uncorrelated with local stream power. To test the impact of relative sediment supply on sediment cover, a 1D sediment transport model was used to predict the equilibrium sediment cover in Chelada Creek under varying flow and sediment supply conditions. Sediment transport in each model section was predicted using the partial cover model of Johnson (2015), which accounts for differences in bedrock and alluvial roughness on critical shear stress and flow resistance. Model runs in which sediment supply was approximately equal to mean transport capacity produced a pattern of sediment cover which best matched the field observations upstream of the culvert. However, runs where sediment supply was under-capacity produced the pattern most similar to field observations downstream of the culvert, consistent with our field-based interpretations. Model results were insensitive to initial sediment cover, and equilibrium was relatively quickly reached, suggesting that the channel is responsive to changes in

  1. Soil cover and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryrear, D.W.

    Wind erosion on agricultural lands can be reduced if the soil surface is protected with crop residues. In evaluating the influence of residues on wind erosion, previous research has expressed residues of various crops as an equivalent of flat, small grain. This becomes difficult as the density of the residue changes with weathering, or as crops other than the major cultivated crops are grown. Soil losses due to wind erosion were determined by covering various percentages of the soil surface with simulated flat residues (wood dowels 3.1 to 25.4 mm in diameter). Covering 20% of the soil surface reduced soil losses 57%, and a 50% cover reduced soil losses 95%. The expression SLR = 1.81 e/sup x/ where x = /sup -0.072% SC/ describes the relationship between soil loss ratio (SLR) and percent soil cover (% SC) with a correlation coefficient of -0.94 (soil cover limits 8 to 80%). The cover can be any nonerodible material such as large clods, gravel, cotton gin trash, or any diameter stick between 3.1 and 25.4 mm. Percent soil cover is easily measured in the field or can be estimated with a minimum of training and experience.

  2. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  3. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  4. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  5. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  6. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules. Published in the 20th century. Methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2004-10-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for methane (CH 4 ). About 1050 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1924 through 2000 for CH 4 . Finally, author's comments for CH 4 electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  7. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  9. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  10. Specification Section 01065S ES&H for Service Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Greg C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Section Includes: Requirements and guidelines in performance of work concerning protection of environment and property, and the safety and health of Contractors, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Department of Energy (DOE) employees, visitors to SNL, and members of the public. This Section is applicable only to Service Contracts that do not involve construction or construction-like activities. Construction and construction-like activities are covered by Section 01065, Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) for Construction Contracts. The entire ES&H program shall focus on safe-by-design intent, understanding the technical basis for the work, identifying and controlling energy sources, unacceptable consequences, risk assessments, and positive verification.

  11. The Regional Land Cover Monitoring System: Building regional capacity through innovative land cover mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Tenneson, K.; Hanh, Q. N.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Aung, K. S.; Goldstein, J.; Cutter, P. G.; Maus, P.; Markert, K. N.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Ate, P.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Vadrevu, K.; Potapov, P.; Phongsapan, K.; Chishtie, F.; Clinton, N.; Ganz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, products, and services are vital to support the environmental decision making by governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and the general public. At the heart of environmental decision making is the monitoring land cover and land use change (LCLUC) for land resource planning and for ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and resilience to climate change. A major challenge for monitoring LCLUC in developing regions, such as Southeast Asia, is inconsistent data products at inconsistent intervals that have different typologies across the region and are typically made in without stakeholder engagement or input. Here we present the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (RLCMS), a novel land cover mapping effort for Southeast Asia, implemented by SERVIR-Mekong, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries. The RLCMS focuses on mapping biophysical variables (e.g. canopy cover, tree height, or percent surface water) at an annual interval and in turn using those biophysical variables to develop land cover maps based on stakeholder definitions of land cover classes. This allows for flexible and consistent land cover classifications that can meet the needs of different institutions across the region. Another component of the RLCMS production is the stake-holder engagement through co-development. Institutions that directly benefit from this system have helped drive the development for regional needs leading to services for their specific uses. Examples of services for regional stakeholders include using the RLCMS to develop maps using the IPCC classification scheme for GHG emission reporting and developing custom annual maps as an input to hydrologic modeling/flood forecasting systems. In addition to the implementation of this system and the service stemming from the RLCMS in Southeast Asia, it is

  12. 77 FR 5631 - Reasonable Contract or Arrangement Under Section 408(b)(2)-Fee Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... statutory exemption from ERISA's prohibited transaction provisions. This regulation will affect pension plan... final rule describes a ``covered plan'' as a pension plan within the meaning of ERISA section 3(2)(A... include any plan, including a pension plan, under which no employees are participants in the plan...

  13. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  14. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  15. acadAR2012 cover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    behaviour changes due to energy contributions from different surfaces and interfaces, which are normally ...... plants are fascinating; integrated pest management; horizontal gene transfer; screening and production of ... Karnataka. Topics covered: Cities, climate change and green initiative; proteomics in health and disease;.

  16. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  17. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  18. 7 CFR 319.8-16 - Importation into United States of cotton and covers exported therefrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... covers exported therefrom. (a) Cotton and covers grown, produced, or handled in the United States and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation into United States of cotton and covers exported therefrom. 319.8-16 Section 319.8-16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  19. 36 CFR 1258.2 - What does the NARA reproduction fee schedule cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reproduction fee schedule cover? 1258.2 Section 1258.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.2 What does the NARA reproduction fee schedule cover? The NARA reproduction fee schedule in § 1258.12 covers reproduction of: (a) NARA...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4282 Section 63.4282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover...

  1. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  2. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time. They'll get smaller and become a natural skin color in the weeks and months after delivery. And because incisions are often made in the "bikini" area, many C-section scars aren't even noticeable. What If I Don't Feel Better? Call your health care provider if you have: a fever signs of ...

  3. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Although a comparison to the classical result of O(ε−d) for Lipschitz continuous functions on bounded subsets, which goes back to [17] (see for...Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu Abstract...Considering the metric space of extended real-valued lower semicontinuous functions under the epi-distance, the paper gives an upper bound on the

  4. Identifying vertex covers in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    An identifying vertex cover in a graph G is a subset T of vertices in G that has a nonempty intersection with every edge of G such that T distinguishes the edges, that is, e∩T ≠ 0 for every edge e in G and e∩T ≠ f∩T for every two distinct edges e and f in G. The identifying vertex cover number TD......(G) of G is the minimum size of an identifying vertex cover in G. We observe that TD(G)+ρ(G) = |V (G)|, where ρ(G) denotes the packing number of G. We conjecture that if G is a graph of order n and size m with maximum degree Δ, then TD(G) ≤(Δ(Δ-1)/ Δ2+1)n + (2/Δ2+1) m. If the conjecture is true......, then the bound is best possible for all Δ ≥ 1. We prove this conjecture when Δ ≥ 1 and G is a Δ-regular graph. The three known Moore graphs of diameter 2, namely the 5-cycle, the Petersen graph and the Hoffman-Singleton graph, are examples of regular graphs that achieves equality in the upper bound. We also...

  5. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  6. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to be covered under section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) are listed, together with the language minority... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were...

  7. Ultra-wideband tomography of land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana D.; Zapasnoy, Andrey S.; Klokov, Andrey V.; Shipilov, Sergey E.; Yakubov, Vladimir P.; Yurchenko, Alexey V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive approach which combines the application of OKO-2 ground penetrating radar, conventional method of cross sectioning accepted in edaphology, soil-testing parameters, mobile and laboratory research of dielectric permittivity for stratified soil cover research. Dielectric characteristics measurements of selected contact samples by the waveguide-coaxial technique showed a correlation between electrophysic characteristics of soil with soil moisture and density. Location of deep aquifers was detected and the real local topography was restored. Research was performed within the Timiryazevskoye forest district near Tomsk. Comparing the results of radar non-destructive sounding and contact measurements demonstrated high correlation of detected structural soil features. The suggested approach provides a solid basis for verifying the non-contact radiophysical methods of research in the interests of rational nature management and land utilization.

  8. 12 CFR 714.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does this part cover? 714.1 Section 714.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714... credit union, must follow when engaged in the leasing of personal property. ...

  9. 6 CFR 17.600 - Notice of covered programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of covered programs. 17.600 Section 17.600 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... that awards Federal financial assistance shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of the programs...

  10. 28 CFR 55.10 - Types of elections covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of elections covered. 55.10 Section 55.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF... elections of officers as well as elections regarding such matters as bond issues, constitutional amendments...

  11. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  12. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...

  13. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  14. Single top quark cross sections at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This presentation covers single top production in the t-channel, s-channel, tW, and tZq production modes. Differential cross-sections for t-channel and tW are covered, as well as the latest inclusive measurements in s-channel and tZq.

  15. Light Reduction Capabilities of Homemade and Commercial Incubator Covers in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Abouelfettoh, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of high-risk neonates' exposure to aversive light stimulation is an important component of developmentally supportive care. In neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually light is reduced by reducing the room's light level or by using incubator covers. Many types of incubator covers are in use, including homemade and commercial covers. A comparative study was used to determine the light reducing capabilities of 19 homemade incubator covers, 2 commercial covers, and 1 receiving blan...

  16. Regional characterization of land cover using multiple sources of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Howard, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organizations require accurate intermediate-scale land-cover information for many applications, including modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff, understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity, land-use planning, and policy development. While many techniques have been successfully used to classify land cover in relatively small regions, there are substantial obstacles in applying these methods to large, multiscene regions. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a large region land-cover classification product using a multiple-layer land-characteristics database approach. To derive land-cover information, mosaicked Landsat thematic mapper (TM) scenes were analyzed in conjunction with digital elevation data (and derived slope, aspect, and shaded relief), population census information, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program city lights data, prior land-use and land-cover data, digital line graph data, and National Wetlands Inventory data. Both leaf-on and leaf-off TM data sets were analyzed. The study area was U.S. Federal Region III, which includes the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. The general procedure involved (1) generating mosaics of multiple scenes of leaves-on TM data using histogram equalization methods; (2) clustering mosaics into 100 spectral classes using unsupervised classification; (3) interpreting and labeling spectral classes into approximately 15 land-cover categories (analogous to Anderson Level 1 and 2 classes) using aerial photographs; (4) developing decision-making rules and models using from one to several ancillary data layers to resolve confusion in spectral classes that represented two or more targeted land-cover categories; and (5) incorporating data from other sources (for example, leaf-off TM data and National Wetlands Inventory data) to yield a final land-cover product. Although standard accuracy assessments were not done, a series of consistency checks using available

  17. Influence of cover defects on the attenuation of radon with earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical evaluations of radon flux through laboratory-scale defective soil columns are presented together with a survey of literature on the formation and prevention of defects in soil covers. This report focuses on air-filled, centimeter-scale defects that are most probable in earthen covers for attenuating radon emission from uranium-mill tailings. Examples include shirnkage and erosion cracks, erosion piping, animal burrows and air channels formed by the biodegradation of vegetation roots. Calculations based on mathematical models indicate that collections of defects which could increase the radon flux from an earthen cover by a factor of two would be easily detected by visual inspection. However, these models ignore air-turbulence in the defect and drying of the soil around the defect. Laboratory measurements showed that turbulent diffusion of radon occurred through defects as narrow as 0.3 cm when subjected to a transverse air velocity of 1 to 6 miles per hour at the surface. Both turbulence and more-rapid drying of soil can accelerate radon flux to the cover surface. Consequently, recommended methods to inhibit defect formation should be applied. 29 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  18. Field performance of alternative landfill covers vegetated with cottonwood and eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Tarek; Musagasa, Jubily; Yuan, Lei; Chanton, Jeff; Tawfiq, Kamal; Rockwood, Donald; Licht, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid Waste management facility in Tallahassee, Florida. Additional unlined test sections were also constructed and monitored in order to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, and tree growth inside lysimeters and in unlined test sections. The unlined test sections were in direct contact with landfill gas. Surface runoff on the ET covers was a small proportion of the water balance (1% of precipitation) as compared to 13% in the conventional cover. Percolation in the ET covers averaged 17% and 24% of precipitation as compared to 33% in the conventional cover. On average, soil water storage was higher in the lined lysimeters (429 mm) compared to unlined test sections (408 mm). The average soil temperature in the lysimeters was lower than in the unlined test sections. The average tree height inside the lysimeters was not significantly lower (8.04 mfor eucalyptus and 7.11 mfor cottonwood) than outside (8.82 m for eucalyptus and 8.01 m for cottonwood). ET tree covers vegetated with cottonwood or eucalyptus are feasible for North Florida climate as an alternative to GCL covers.

  19. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  20. Effectiveness of Shoe Covers for Bioexclusion within an Animal Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Petty, Joann M; Harrison, Dianne M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2012-01-01

    The personal protective equipment (PPE) required for entry into rodent barrier rooms often includes a hair bonnet, face mask, disposable gown, gloves, and shoe covers. Traditionally, shoe covers have been considered essential PPE for maintaining a ‘clean’ animal room. The introduction of microisolation caging and ventilated rack housing prompted us to reevaluate the contribution of shoe covers to bioexclusion. Contamination powder that fluoresces under black light was to track particle dispersal on the floor and personnel. The test mouse room contained a ventilated microisolation rack and biosafety cabinet. Powder was applied directly inside or outside the animal room doorway. PPE with or without shoe covers was donned outside of the animal room doorway and discarded on exiting. Participants either were scanned on entry into the room for the presence of florescence or asked to complete a simulated standard animal room activity while wearing full PPE. Animal rooms were scanned for florescence after exit of participants. All participants donning shoe covers fluoresced in multiple areas, primarily on gloves and gowns. Shoe covers had no effect on the spread of powder in normal traffic patterns, with no powder detected within caging. Powder also was used to determine the distance substances could be carried on the floor from building entry points. Results indicate that shoe covers do not improve (and actually may compromise) bioexclusion. Donning of shoe covers offers a potential for contamination of personnel from contact with shoe bottoms. PMID:22776118

  1. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  2. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  3. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  4. LAND COVER INFORMATION EXTRACTION USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data. The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic is investigated to implement the LiDAR intensity data in land-cover classification. The goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluates the use of LiDAR data only (range and intensity data to extract land cover information. Different bands generated from the LiDAR data (Normal Heights, Intensity Texture, Surfaces Slopes, and PCA are combined with the original data to study the influence of including these layers on the classification accuracy. The Maximum likelihood classifier is used to conduct the classification process for the LiDAR Data as one of the best classification techniques from literature. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to test the different band combinations to extract four information classes: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, and low vegetation (grass areas. The results show that an overall accuracy of more than 70% can be achieved using the intensity data, and other auxiliary data generated from the range and intensity data. Bands of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA are also created from the LiDAR original and auxiliary data. Similar overall accuracy of the results can be achieved using the four bands extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA.

  5. Land Cover Information Extraction Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A.; El-Ashmawy, N.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data) with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data). The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic is investigated to implement the LiDAR intensity data in land-cover classification. The goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluates the use of LiDAR data only (range and intensity data) to extract land cover information. Different bands generated from the LiDAR data (Normal Heights, Intensity Texture, Surfaces Slopes, and PCA) are combined with the original data to study the influence of including these layers on the classification accuracy. The Maximum likelihood classifier is used to conduct the classification process for the LiDAR Data as one of the best classification techniques from literature. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to test the different band combinations to extract four information classes: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, and low vegetation (grass) areas. The results show that an overall accuracy of more than 70% can be achieved using the intensity data, and other auxiliary data generated from the range and intensity data. Bands of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) are also created from the LiDAR original and auxiliary data. Similar overall accuracy of the results can be achieved using the four bands extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  6. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-11-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 years, BMI: 30.0±7.1 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA-PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0.008), and have less physical

  7. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report

  8. Enhanced Cover Assessment Project:Soil Manipulation and Revegetation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W. Joseph [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Albright, Dr. Bill [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Benson, Dr. Craig [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating methods to enhance natural changes that are essentially converting conventional disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings into water balance covers. Conventional covers rely on a layer of compacted clayey soil to limit exhalation of radon gas and percolation of rainwater. Water balance covers rely on a less compacted soil “sponge” to store rainwater, and on soil evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration) to remove stored water and thereby limit percolation. Over time, natural soil-forming and ecological processes are changing conventional covers by increasing hydraulic conductivity, loosening compaction, and increasing evapotranspiration. The rock armor on conventional covers creates a favorable habitat for vegetation by slowing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping dust and organic matter, thereby providing the water and nutrients needed for plant germination, survival, and sustainable transpiration. Goals and Objectives Our overall goal is to determine if allowing or enhancing these natural changes could improve cover performance and reduce maintenance costs over the long term. This test pad study focuses on cover soil hydrology and ecology. Companion studies are evaluating effects of natural and enhanced changes in covers on radon attenuation, erosion, and biointrusion. We constructed a test cover at the Grand Junction disposal site to evaluate soil manipulation and revegetation methods. The engineering design, construction, and properties of the test cover match the upper three layers of the nearby disposal cell cover: a 1-foot armoring of rock riprap, a 6-inch bedding layer of coarse sand and gravel, and a 2-foot protection layer of compacted fine soil. The test cover does not have a radon barrier—cover enhancement tests leave the radon barrier intact. We tested furrowing and ripping as means for creating depressions parallel to the slope

  9. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  10. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  11. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  12. Cancer section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of the program at ORNL which is concerned with the study of cancer. The studies range from those at the molecular level and the control of gene expression to those concerning cell interactions and the role of immune responses. Since the agents capable of inducing cancer are multiple, the approaches must encompass the specific characteristics of chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and viruses. The approach of the molecular biological studies is centered on the role of activation of transposable gene elements. One investigation is concerned with the study of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. The other radiation carcinogenesis studies fall into two major groups. First, there are investigations of various facets of the mechanisms of cancer induction. The molecular and chromosomal studies fall into this category. The second group of studies includes those that are concerned with risk estimates

  13. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  14. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  15. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  16. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  17. MODIS land cover uncertainty in regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Messina, Joseph P.; Moore, Nathan J.; Fan, Peilei; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2017-12-01

    MODIS land cover datasets are used extensively across the climate modeling community, but inherent uncertainties and associated propagating impacts are rarely discussed. This paper modeled uncertainties embedded within the annual MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) products and propagated these uncertainties through the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, land cover uncertainties were modeled using pixel-based trajectory analyses from a time series of MCD12Q1 for Urumqi, China. Second, alternative land cover maps were produced based on these categorical uncertainties and passed into RAMS. Finally, simulations from RAMS were analyzed temporally and spatially to reveal impacts. Our study found that MCD12Q1 struggles to discriminate between grasslands and croplands or grasslands and barren in this study area. Such categorical uncertainties have significant impacts on regional climate model outputs. All climate variables examined demonstrated impact across the various regions, with latent heat flux affected most with a magnitude of 4.32 W/m2 in domain average. Impacted areas were spatially connected to locations of greater land cover uncertainty. Both biophysical characteristics and soil moisture settings in regard to land cover types contribute to the variations among simulations. These results indicate that formal land cover uncertainty analysis should be included in MCD12Q1-fed climate modeling as a routine procedure.

  18. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  19. CASA Forest Cover Change Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation and forest fires are global land cover changes that can be caused by both natural and human factors. Although monitoring forest fires in near-real time is critical for operational wildfire management, mapping historical wildfires in a spatially explicit fashion is also important for a number of reasons, including climate change studies (e.g., examining the relationship between rising temperatures and frequency of fires), fuel load management (e.g., deciding when and where to conduct controlled burns), and carbon cycle studies (e.g., quantifying how much CO2 is emitted by fires and for emissions reduction efforts under the United Nations programs for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation -- REDD).

  20. Fish Assemblage Responses to Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, Chris L.; McTammany, Matthew E.; Benfield, E. Fred; Helfman, Gene S.

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd-4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e ., reforesting watersheds). We sampled fish in 50 m reaches during August 2001 and calculated catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) by taxonomic, distributional, trophic, reproductive, and thermal metrics. We assigned streams to reforestation categories based on cluster analysis of years 1950 and 1993 near-stream forest cover. The relationship between forest cover and assemblage structure was assessed using analysis of variance to identify differences in fish CPUE in five forest cover categories. Streams contained 23 fish species representing six families, and taxa richness ranged from 1 to 13 at 30 stream sites. Streams with relatively low near-stream forest cover were different from streams having moderate to high near-stream forest cover in 1950 and 1993. Fish assemblages in streams having the lowest amount of forest cover (53-75%) were characterized by higher cosmopolitan, brood hider, detritivore/herbivore, intermediate habitat breadths, run-pool dweller, and warm water tolerant fish CPUE compared to streams with higher riparian forest cover. Our results suggest that fish assemblage’s structural and functional diversity and/or richness may be lower in streams having lower recent or past riparian forest cover compared to assemblages in streams having a high degree of near-stream forest cover.

  1. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  2. Activation analysis by TC-Pn and Cd cover irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Rokuji

    1994-01-01

    In this lecture, the activation analysis by the irradiation using TC-Pn facility and Cd cover which are not much utilized for activation analysis is reported. As compared with the activation analysis using often utilized pneumatic tubes, the irradiated neutron spectra are remarkably different. In the TC-Pn irradiation, the neutrons on high energy side are little, and in the Cd cover irradiation, on the contrary the thermal neutrons on low energy side are little. According to the kinds of samples, by utilizing these features, the information that cannot be obtained by ordinary irradiation can be easily obtained. The features of neutron spectra in the TC-Pn activation analysis, the utilization of the characteristics of little fast neutron component and little epithermal neutron component, and the demerit of the activation analysis by the TC-Pn are explained. In the KUR, the activation analysis by Cd cover irradiation method is rarely used. But if the amount of Cd metal is less than 20 g, and the time of irradiation is shorter than 30 min, it can be utilized. In Cd cover irradiation, samples are covered with the Cd metal which has the large cross section of reaction in thermal neutron region. Its comparison with ordinary irradiation is discussed. (K.I.)

  3. 34 CFR 86.2 - What Federal programs are covered by this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Federal programs are covered by this part? 86.2 Section 86.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.2 What Federal programs are covered by this part? The Federal programs covered by this part include— (a) All programs administered b...

  4. 20 CFR 1010.300 - What processes are to be implemented to identify covered persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What processes are to be implemented to identify covered persons? 1010.300 Section 1010.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... processes to identify covered persons who physically access service delivery points or who access virtual...

  5. 26 CFR 301.7507-1 - Banks and trust companies covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Banks and trust companies covered. 301.7507-1... States § 301.7507-1 Banks and trust companies covered. (a) Section 7507 applies to any national bank, or bank or trust company organized under State law, a substantial portion of the business of which...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401-11 - General rules relating to plans covering self-employed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section. (b) General rules. (1) If the amount of employer contributions for common-law employees covered... but no more than $2,500, and that the employer contribution on behalf of common-law employees shall be... for common-law employees covered under the plan is related to the earned income of a self-employed...

  7. 47 CFR 73.9005 - Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products: Audio. 73.9005 Section 73.9005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED....9005 Compliance requirements for covered demodulator products: Audio. Except as otherwise provided in §§ 73.9003(a) or 73.9004(a), covered demodulator products shall not output the audio portions of...

  8. 76 FR 29183 - Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for Certain Covered Entities Under 340B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... utilization of drugs with orphan designations by the affected covered entities, the elasticity of demand by... Prices of Drugs Purchased by Covered Entities.'' Section 340B implemented a drug pricing program by which... entities listed in the statute and must agree to charge a price that will not exceed the amount determined...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1004 - What work is covered as employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What work is covered as employment? 404.1004 Section 404.1004 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1004 What work is covered as employment?...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section...-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an evaluation to an...

  11. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for argon (Ar). About 1,960 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1921 through 2000 for Ar. Finally, author's recommended Ar electron collision cross section set is given in numerical tables. (author)

  12. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Sulphur hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Makoto [Gaseous Electronics Institute, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). About 920 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1934 through 2000 for SF{sub 6}. Finally, author's comments for SF{sub 6} electron collision cross section are given. (author)

  13. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Makoto [Gaseous Electronics Institute, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). About 1,240 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1901 through 2000 for CO{sub 2}. Finally, author's comments for CO{sub 2} electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  14. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Nitrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-06-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for nitrogen molecule (N 2 ). About 2240 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is include. The bibliography covers the period 1906 through 2000 for N 2 . Finally, author's comments for N 2 electron collision cross section are given. (author)

  15. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Sulphur hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-05-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). About 920 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1934 through 2000 for SF 6 . Finally, author's comments for SF 6 electron collision cross section are given. (author)

  16. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). About 1,240 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1901 through 2000 for CO 2 . Finally, author's comments for CO 2 electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  17. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Makoto [Gaseous Electronics Institute, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for argon (Ar). About 1,960 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1921 through 2000 for Ar. Finally, author's recommended Ar electron collision cross section set is given in numerical tables. (author)

  18. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Halogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    A bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for halogen molecules (F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 ). About 190(F 2 ), 360(Cl 2 ), 140(Br 2 ) and 240(I 2 ) papers were compiled respectively. A comprehensive author indexes for each molecule are included. The bibliography covers the period 1901 through 2000 for F 2 -I 2 . Finally, author's comments for F 2 -I 2 electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  19. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2004-02-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for hydrogen molecules (H 2 , HD, HT, D 2 , DT, T 2 ). About 2200 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1901 through 2000 for H 2 . Finally, author's comments for H 2 electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  20. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Ammonia and phosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for ammonia (NH 3 ) and phosphine (PH 3 ). About 820 (NH 3 ) and 190 (PH 3 ) papers were compiled respectively. Comprehensive author indexes for each molecule are included. The bibliography covers the period 1922 through 2000 for NH 3 and 1928 through 2000 for PH 3 . Finally, author's comments for NH 3 electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  1. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Hydrogen halide molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2004-03-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for hydrogen halide molecules (HF, HCL, HBr, HI). About 330 (HF), 420 (HCl) 220 (HBr) and 150 (HI) papers were compiled respectively. Comprehensive author indexes for each molecule are included. The bibliography covers the period 1903 through 2000 for HF-HI. Finally, author's comments for HBr electron collision cross sections are given. (author)

  2. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for water vapour (H 2 O, D 2 O and HDO). About 1200 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1915 through 2000 for H 2 O. Finally, author's comments for electron collision cross sections and photodissociation processes of H 2 O are given. (author)

  3. Water Chemistry Section: progress report (1981-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharwadkar, S.R.; Ramshesh, V.

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Water Chemistry Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, during the years 1981 and 1982 are reported in the form of individual summaries. The research activities of the Section cover the following areas: (1) chemistry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials, (2) crystal structure of organo-metallic complexes using X-ray diffraction, (3) thermophysical and phase transition studies, (4) solid state chemistry and thermochemical studies, (5) water and steam chemistry of heavy water plants and phwr type reactors, and (6) uranium isotope exchange studies. A survey is also given of: (i) the Section's participation in advisory and consultancy services in nuclear and thermal power stations, (ii) training activities, and (iii) assistance in chemical analysis by various techniques to other units of BARC and outside agencies. A list of publications and lectures by the staff during the report period is included. (M.G.B.)

  4. Mekong Regional Land Cover Monitoring System Reference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Towashiraporn, P.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Anderson, E.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Ate, P.; Markert, K. N.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The assessment revealed that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems and accuracy assessment do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible. Many of the Lower Mekong countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. During this assessment, regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. This system is dependent on a sustainable source of field data that insures data quality and improves potential impact. Based on this need a collaborative workshop was held to create a robust regional reference data system that integrates results from field data, national inventories and high resolution imagery. The results presented here highlights the value of collaboratively developed systems that use data convergence to improve land cover mapping results for multiple end users.

  5. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  6. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  7. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Dynesius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log, and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation. The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover, potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover. Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many

  8. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The test sequence was to measure electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case when a simulated lightning discharge strikes an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was conducted between 21 June and 17 July 1990. Thirty-six high rate-of-rise Marx generator discharges and eight high current bank discharges were injected onto three different test article configurations. Attach points included three locations on the top hat cover simulator and two locations on the mounting bolts. Top hat cover simulator and mounting bolt damage and grain cover damage was observed. Overall electric field levels were well below 30 kilowatts/meter. Electric field levels ranged from 184.7 to 345.9 volts/meter and magnetic field levels were calculated from 6.921 to 39.73 amperes/meter. It is recommended that the redesigned solid rocket motor top hat cover be used in Configuration 1 or Configuration 2 as an interim lightning protection device until a lightweight cover can be designed.

  9. Factors influencing observed and self-reported functional ability in women with chronic widespread pain: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -sectional with systematic data collection in a clinical setting. Subjects: A total of 257 consecutively enrolled women with chronic widespread pain. Methods: Multidimensional assessment using self-report and observation-based assessment tools identified to cover ICF categories included in the brief ICF Core Set for chronic...

  10. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  11. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Pengra, Bruce; Long, J.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m–1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (∼30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  12. Monitoring of covering model of the National radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezikova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this rigorous report is justification of cover model building at radioactive waste repository in Mochovce as a very important engineering barrier preventing significant release of radioactive substances into the environment and providing protection against ionizing radiation. This rigorous report includes a theoretical part, which describes radioactive waste characterization, radioactive waste management and summary of the preliminary activities prior to the building cover model, particularly involving the selection of appropriate variables and parameters and creation of monitoring plan during the long term monitoring for evaluation of this barrier in order to ensure minimization of any leak of radioactive substances from RAW. The next part includes evaluation of the values of parameters and variables to build cover model of RAW in Mochovce during 2006-2008 (author)

  13. Biocompatibility of a new device of self-expandable covered and non-covered tracheal stent: comparative study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the compatibility of a new model of self-expandable tracheal stent in rats. METHODS: A new device of polyurethane covered and non - covered stent was placed in the trachea of Wistar rats. Animals were distributed in two groups: the polyurethane covered and non-covered group. Macroscopic parameters included position within the tracheal lumen, adherence to the mucosa, degree of dilatation, permeability and internal diameter. Microscopic findings evaluated were: incorporation, inflammatory activity, granulation tissue and epithelial revetment injuries. The observation follow-up was six weeks. All parameters were quantified based on determined score values. Incorporation of the stents was evaluated based on the observation if the stent was fixed into the trachea or if it could be removed. Degree of dilatation was performed by external diameter measurements. Granulation tissue was evaluated by measurements of height of the tissue growing into the tracheal lumen. RESULTS: 100% of non-covered stents had total attachment to mucosa and 100% of polyurethane covered type had adherence only. Regarding dilatation, granulation tissue, inflammatory activity and internal diameter measurements, there were no significant differences between the groups. Pathological tracheal wall injuries were present in both groups. CONCLUSION: Both models of stent demonstrated biocompatibility with the trachea. Rats are suitable for an experimental model of tracheal stent study.

  14. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  15. Introduction to special section on future light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winick, Herman

    2003-07-09

    This special section of NIM is devoted to an overview of progress in the development of powerful new sources of X-radiation for use in advanced studies in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Included here are four articles on future light sources that were originally published in 2002 in the SLAC Beam Line quarterly magazine. We are grateful to SLAC and the authors of these articles for their agreement to reprint them in volume 500 of NIM. As is common for the Beam Line, these articles contain no references to reports in the literature and do not attempt to be comprehensive overviews of the field. Therefore, we offer this expanded overview and introduction in which we attempt to briefly cover recent developments and topics not covered in the four articles.

  16. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  17. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  18. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  19. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  20. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be installed... soil Consolidated rock Inches (Millimeters) Class 1 locations 30 (762) 18 (457) Class 2, 3, and 4...

  1. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  2. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has...... a perfect [1,2]-factor F_G, i.e. a spanning subgraph such that each component is 1-regular og 2-regular. Here, we characterize all well-covered graphs G satisfying α(G)=α(F_G) for some perfect [1,2]-factor F_G. This class contains all well-covered graphs G without isolated vertices of order n with α ≥ (n...... - 1)/2, and in particular all very well-covered graphs....

  3. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  4. Geometry of manifolds with non-negative sectional curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Dearricott, Owen; Kennard, Lee; Searle, Catherine; Weingart, Gregor; Ziller, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Providing an up-to-date overview of the geometry of manifolds with non-negative sectional curvature, this volume gives a detailed account of the most recent research in the area. The lectures cover a wide range of topics such as general isometric group actions, circle actions on positively curved four manifolds, cohomogeneity one actions on Alexandrov spaces, isometric torus actions on Riemannian manifolds of maximal symmetry rank, n-Sasakian manifolds, isoparametric hypersurfaces in spheres, contact CR and CR submanifolds, Riemannian submersions and the Hopf conjecture with symmetry. Also included is an introduction to the theory of exterior differential systems.

  5. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, George

    2001-01-01

    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  6. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Policy makers, managers, scientists and the public can view the changing environment using satellite images.  More than 60 Earth observing satellites are collecting images of the Earth's surface. Remote sensing satellite systems for land cover assessment are operated by a growing number of countries including India, the United States, Japan, France, Canada and Russia.

  7. Evaluating fire-damaged components of historic covered bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kukay; Charles Todd; Tyler Jahn; Jenson Sannon; Logan Dunlap; Robert White; Mark Dietenberger

    2016-01-01

    Arson continues to claim many historic covered bridges. Site-specific, post-fire evaluations of the structural integrity of a bridge are often necessary in a fire’s aftermath. Decisions on whether individual wood components can be rehabilitated, reconstructed, or replaced must be made. This report includes coverage of existing approaches and exploratory approaches that...

  8. Effect of plant cover on presence of Black Francolin (Francolinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species, percentage of species presence and dominant plant cover height on francolin presence. Sampling was.

  9. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping......, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn...

  10. Vegetated land cover near residence is associated with ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: Greater exposure to urban green spaces has been linked to reduced risks of depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and premature death. Alleviation of chronic stress is a hypothesized pathway to improved health. Previous studies linked chronic stress with biomarker-based measures of physiological dysregulation known as allostatic load. This study aimed to assess the relationship between vegetated land cover near residences and allostatic load. Methods: This cross-sectional population-based study involved 204 adult residents of the Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina metropolitan area. Exposure was quantified using high-resolution metrics of trees and herbaceous vegetation within 500 m of each residence derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EnviroAtlas land cover dataset. Eighteen biomarkers of immune, neuroendocrine, and metabolic functions were measured in serum or saliva samples. Allostatic load was defined as a sum of biomarker values dichotomized at specific percentiles of sample distribution. Regression analysis was conducted using generalized additive models with two-dimensional spline smoothing function of geographic coordinates, weighted measures of vegetated land cover allowing decay of effects with distance, and geographic and demographic covariates. Results: An inter-quartile range increase in distance-weighted vegetated land cover was associated with 37% (46%; 27%) reduced allostatic load; significantly

  11. PREDICTED SEDIMENTARY SECTION OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Leychenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In early February 2012, the drill hole at the Vostok Station encountered theLakeVostokwater. This step is important to study the lake composition including possible microbial life and to model subglacial environments however, the next ambitious target of the Vostok Drilling Project is sampling of bottom sediments, which contain the unique record of ice sheet evolution and environmental changes in centralAntarcticafor millions of years. In this connection, the forecast of sedimentary succession based on existing geophysical data, study of mineral inclusions in the accretion ice cores and tectonic models is important task. Interpretation of Airborne geophysical data suggests thatLakeVostokis the part of spacious rift system, which exists at least from Cretaceous. Reflection and refraction seismic experiments conducted in the southern part ofLakeVostokshow very thin (200–300 m stratified sedimentary cover overlying crystalline basement with velocity of 6.0–6.2 km/s. At present, deposition in southernLakeVostokis absent and similar conditions occurred likely at least last3 m.y. when ice sheet aboveLakeVostokchanged insignificantly. It can be also inferred that from the Late Miocene the rate of deposition inLakeVostokwas extremely low and so the most of sedimentary section is older being possibly of Oligocene to early to middle Miocene age when ice sheet oscillated and deposition was more vigorous. If so, the sampling of upper few meters of this condensed section is very informative in terms of history of Antarctic glaciation. Small thickness of sedimentary cover raises a question about existence of lake (rift depression during preglacial and early glacial times.

  12. Is cost-covering remuneration fully booked? - Teething problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this interview with Michael Kaufmann, director of the SwissEnergy programme, possible strategies for the correct pricing of electricity and measures for the correction of the dissatisfactory situation now prevailing concerning the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable sources are discussed. The pricing of electricity from various sources and the indirect costs that are at present not met by non-renewable resources are commented on. Further topics covered include suggestions for strategies for relieving the presently blocked financial promotion of renewables, the goals set for the role to be played by renewable energy in Swiss electricity production in 2030 and suggestions for future political action

  13. Equivelar and d-Covered Triangulations of Surfaces. I

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Frank H.; Sulanke, Thom; Tiwari, Anand K.; Upadhyay, Ashish K.

    2010-01-01

    We survey basic properties and bounds for $q$-equivelar and $d$-covered triangulations of closed surfaces. Included in the survey is a list of the known sources for $q$-equivelar and $d$-covered triangulations. We identify all orientable and non-orientable surfaces $M$ of Euler characteristic $0>\\chi(M)\\geq -230$ which admit non-neighborly $q$-equivelar triangulations with equality in the upper bound $q\\leq\\Bigl\\lfloor\\tfrac{1}{2}(5+\\sqrt{49-24\\chi (M)})\\Bigl\\rfloor$. These examples give rise...

  14. Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: a nonparametric classification tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yen

    2014-01-01

    A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole to allow traffic to pass over the manhole and to prevent people from falling in. Because most manhole covers are placed in roadway traffic lanes, if these manhole covers are not appropriately installed or maintained, they can represent unexpected hazards on the road, especially for motorcycle drivers. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of manhole cover characteristics as well as driver factors and traffic and roadway conditions on motorcycle driver maneuvers. A video camera was used to record motorcycle drivers' maneuvers when they encountered an inappropriately installed or maintained manhole cover. Information on 3059 drivers' maneuver decisions was recorded. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were applied to explore factors that can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers when passing a manhole cover. Nearly 50 percent of the motorcycle drivers decelerated or changed their driving path to reduce the effects of the manhole cover. The manhole cover characteristics including the level difference between manhole cover and pavement, the pavement condition over the manhole cover, and the size of the manhole cover can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers. Other factors, including traffic conditions, lane width, motorcycle speed, and loading conditions, also have significant effects on motorcycle driver maneuvers. To reduce the effects and potential risks from the manhole covers, highway authorities not only need to make sure that any newly installed manhole covers are as level as possible but also need to regularly maintain all the manhole covers to ensure that they are in good condition. In the long run, the size of manhole covers should be kept as small as possible so that the impact of manhole covers on motorcycle drivers can be effectively reduced. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher

  15. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Lima, Tania Andrade [Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: talima@montreal.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (located at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil). The tangas were used by Marajoara girls probably as part of puberty rites and were anatomically adjustable to the body, containing holes on its corners for string attachment. The samples included two tangas and four fragments from the National Museum collection. One fragment (sample 22245) presented a different design pattern that seemed to indicate a different provenance. EDXRF was performed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), using a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV and a mini x-ray tube with Mo anode. The angle of the incident x-ray beam was 16 deg and the detector was placed at 90 deg to the sample surface. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the provenance of the samples. (author)

  16. Coastal regime shifts: rapid responses of coastal wetlands to changes in mangrove cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Weaver, Carolyn; Charles, Sean P; Whitt, Ashley; Dastidar, Sayantani; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fuentes, Jose D; Kominoski, John S; Armitage, Anna R; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    Global changes are causing broad-scale shifts in vegetation communities worldwide, including coastal habitats where the borders between mangroves and salt marsh are in flux. Coastal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services of high economic value, but the consequences of variation in mangrove cover are poorly known. We experimentally manipulated mangrove cover in large plots to test a set of linked hypotheses regarding the effects of changes in mangrove cover. We found that changes in mangrove cover had strong effects on microclimate, plant community, sediment accretion, soil organic content, and bird abundance within 2 yr. At higher mangrove cover, wind speed declined and light interception by vegetation increased. Air and soil temperatures had hump-shaped relationships with mangrove cover. The cover of salt marsh plants decreased at higher mangrove cover. Wrack cover, the distance that wrack was distributed from the water's edge, and sediment accretion decreased at higher mangrove cover. Soil organic content increased with mangrove cover. Wading bird abundance decreased at higher mangrove cover. Many of these relationships were non-linear, with the greatest effects when mangrove cover varied from zero to intermediate values, and lesser effects when mangrove cover varied from intermediate to high values. Temporal and spatial variation in measured variables often peaked at intermediate mangrove cover, with ecological consequences that are largely unexplored. Because different processes varied in different ways with mangrove cover, the "optimum" cover of mangroves from a societal point of view will depend on which ecosystem services are most desired. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  18. 2010 ANNUAL MEETING ON NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY. Pt. 4. Section reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlepsch, Thilo v.; Hering, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Summary report on 2 Sessions of Section: - New Build and Innovations (Section 12) of the ANNUAL MEETING On NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY held in Berlin on May 4 to 6, 2010. The other Sections 'Reactor Physics and Methods of Calculation (Section 1)', 'Thermodynamics and Fluid Dynamics (Section 2)', 'Safety of Nuclear Installations - Methods, Analysis, Results (Section 3)', 'Front End and Back End of the Fuel Cycle, Radioactive Waste, Storage (Section 4)', 'Front End of the Fuel Cycle, Fuel Elements and Core Components (Section 5)', 'Operation of Nuclear Installations (Section 6)', 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations (Section 7)', 'Fusion Technology (Section 8)', 'Energy Industry and Economics (Section 10)', 'Radiation Protection (Section 11)', 'New Build and Innovations (Session New Build and Innovations, Section 12)', and 'Education, Expert Knowledge, Know-how-Transfer (Section 13)' have been covered in atw issues 10, 11 and 12 (2010). (orig.)

  19. Investigations of Section Speed on Rural Roads in Podlaskie Voivodeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Excessive speed is one of the most important factors considered in road safety and not only affects the severity of a crash but is also related to the risk of being involved in a crash. In Poland the problem of speeding drivers is widely common. Properly recognized and defined drivers behaviour is the base for any effective activities taken towards road safety improvements. Effective enforcement of speed limits especially on rural road plays an important role but conducted speed investigations basically focus on spot speed omitting travel speed on longer sections of roads which can better reflect driver’s behaviour. Possible solutions for rural roads are limited to administrative means of speed limitations, installations of speed cameras and police enforcement. However due to their limited proved effectiveness new solutions are still being sought. High expectations are associated with the sectional speed system that has recently been introduced in Poland and covered a number of national road sections. The aim of this paper is to investigate section speed on chosen regional and district roads located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Test sections included 19 road segments varied in terms of functional and geometric characteristics. Speed measurements on regional and district roads were performed with the use of a set of two ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) cameras. Conducted research allowed to compare driver’s behaviour in terms of travel speed depending on roads’ functional classification as well as to evaluate the influence of chosen geometric parameters on average section speed.

  20. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  1. Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed calibrating snow models using remotely sensed snow cover information Hongyi Li1, Tao Che1, Xin Li1, Jian Wang11. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China For improving the simulation accuracy of snow model, remotely sensed snow cover data are used to calibrate spatial parameters of snow model. A physically based snow model is developed and snow parameters including snow surface roughness, new snow density and critical threshold temperature distinguishing snowfall from precipitation, are spatially calibrated in this study. The study region, Babaohe basin, located in northwestern China, have seasonal snow cover and with complex terrain. The results indicates that the spatially calibration of snow model parameters make the simulation results more reasonable, and the simulated snow accumulation days, plot-scale snow depth are more better than lumped calibration.

  2. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  3. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5...

  4. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM...) Exception. If a covered person has more than one affiliate, division, or other business unit, then section 490.302 of this part only applies to light duty motor vehicles newly acquired by an affiliate...

  5. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  6. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  7. Concrete cover to reinforcement according to Eurocode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goleš Danica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the scientific and professional literature emphasizes the importance of proper design and construction of concrete cover to reinforcement, which should ensure the safe transmission of bond forces, the protection of the steel against corrosion and an adequate fire resistance. Nevertheless, in engineering practice in the region often is insufficient attention paid to this subject. Eurocode 2, in comparison to the Code on technical standards for concrete and reinforced concrete from the 1987th (Regulations, sets more stringent criteria for the nominal cover and therefore, their instant application in our country is recommended. In order to make the adoption of concrete cover during design easier and faster, in the paper is this procedure shown through tables and diagrams and numerical examples, with comparison of values obtained according to Eurocode and current Regulations. The review is given to the relationship between Structural Class, Exposure Class, type of element, concrete Strength Class and the concrete cover thickness.

  8. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  9. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans. It forms a...

  10. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  11. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  12. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  13. 45 CFR 152.19 - Covered benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offered by a PCIP shall not cover the following services: (1) Cosmetic surgery or other treatment for cosmetic purposes except to restore bodily function or correct deformity resulting from disease. (2...

  14. Protection cover against passive missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brepson, R.

    1984-01-01

    This cover comprises a reinforced or prestressed concrete wall covering the surface to protect. This concrete wall is covered by a shock absorbing layer. The shock absorbing layer has a lower floor bearing on the concrete wall, a parallel top plate providing a space between the two floors; metallic braces extend in this space between the two plates with ends are a foot fixed to the lower floor and a head fixed to the top plate. Some braces are oblique and extend in diverse planes, perpendicular to the panels so that top flooring movement causes variation in brace length, and some braces are soft steel dampening tubes, capable of 50% compression by wall folding without axial bending. The present invention aims also at a construction process of such a cover. This invention can be applied to the construction of buildings sheltering dangerous installations such as gas reserves or nuclear reactors [fr

  15. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  16. Nuclear Data Section status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.; Pronyaev, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) related activity of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) for the period October 1998 to September 2000. It covers both online NSDD user service either Telnet or Web services, and offline NSDD service. The NSDD development programs and projects are related to NDS contribution to the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services program, Coordinated Research Project on nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation, Coordinated Research Project on updating of x-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration, and Coordinated Research Project on development of database for prompt gamma-neutron activation analysis

  17. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  18. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Scenarios of land cover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian Xiang; Fan, Ze Meng; Liu, Ji Yuan

    2007-02-01

    A method for surface modeling of land cover change (SMLC) is developed on the basis of establishing transition probability matrixes between land cover types and HLZ types. SMLC is used to simulate land cover scenarios of China for the years 2039, 2069 and 2099, for which HLZ scenarios are first simulated in terms of HadCM3 climatic scenarios that are downscaled in zonal model of spatial climate change in China. This paper also analyzes spatial distribution of land cover types, area change and mean center shift of each land cover type, ecotope diversity, and patch connectivity under the land cover scenarios. The results show that cultivated land would decrease and woodland would expand greatly with climatic change, which coincides with consequences expected by implementation of Grain-for-Green policy. Nival area would shrink, and desertification area would expand at a comparatively slow rate in future 100 years. Climate change would generally cause less ecotope diversity and more patch connectivity. Ecosystems in China would have a pattern of beneficial cycle after efficient ecological conservation and restoration. However, if human activities would exceed regulation capacity of ecosystems themselves, the ecosystems in China might deteriorate more seriously.

  20. Section of Atomic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenyi, D.; Biri, S.; Gulyas, L.; Juhasz, Z.; Kover, A.; Orban, A.; Palinkas, J.; Papp, T.; Racz, R.; Ricz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Section of Atomic Collisions is a research unit with extended activity in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Starting from the study of atomic processes at the beamlines of nuclear physics accelerators in the seventies, our research community became one of the centers of fundamental research in Atomki. We also have a strong connection to materials sciences especially along the line of electron and ion spectroscopy methods. Our present activity covers a wide range of topics from atomic collision mechanisms of fundamental interest, to the complex interactions of electrons, ions, photons and antiparticles with atoms, molecules, surfaces, and specific nanostructures. In the last few years, an increasing fraction of our present topics has become relevant for applications, e.g., molecular collision studies for the radiation therapy methods of tumors, or ion-nanostructure interactions for the future construction of small ion-focusing elements. Our section belongs to the Division of Atomic Physics. The other unit of the Division is the Section of Electron Spectroscopy and Materials Sciences. There are traditionally good connections and a strong collaboration between the groups of the two sections in many fields. From the very beginning of our research work in atomic collisions, external collaborations were of vital importance for us. We regularly organize international workshops in the field of fast ion-atom collisions and related small conferences in Debrecen from 1981. Recently, we organized the Conference on Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems (RADAM 2008, Debrecen), and coorganized the Conference on Elementary Processes in Atomic Systems (CEPAS 2008, Cluj). We have access to several large scale facilities in Europe within the framework of formal and informal collaborations. The next themes are in this article: Forward electron emission from energetic atomic collisions; Positron-atom collisions; Photon-atom interactions; Interference effects in electron

  1. Modelling Deforestation and Land Cover Transitions of Tropical Peatlands in Sumatra, Indonesia Using Remote Sensed Land Cover Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Elz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia land use change associated with forest loss and degradation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This is of particular concern where deforestation occurs on peat soils. A business-as-usual (BAU land change model was developed using Dinamica EGO© for a REDD+ Demonstration Activity area in south-east Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia containing Berbak National Park (NP. The model output will be used as baseline land change predictions for comparison with alternative land cover management scenarios as part of a REDD+ feasibility study. The study area is approximately 376,000 ha with approximately 50% on peat soils. The model uses published 2000 and 2010 land cover maps as input and projects land cover change for thirty years until 2040. The model predicted that under a BAU scenario the forest area, 185,000 ha in 2010, will decline by 37% by 2040. In protected forest areas, approximately 50% of the study area, forest cover will reduce by 25%. Peat swamp forest will reduce by almost 37%. The greatest land cover category increases are plantation/regrowth areas (which includes oil palm and open areas which each increase by 30,000 ha. These results indicate that the site has great potential as an Indonesian REDD+ Demonstration Activity.

  2. Characteristics of snow cover duration across the northeast United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Luff, Barbara L.

    1997-11-01

    The presence or absence of a snow cover affects a myriad of environmental and societal systems through its modification of the surface radiation balance and its ultimate impact on near-surface air temperatures. Daily snow cover data were collected for a network of 91 stations covering the northeast USA from Maine, south through to West Virginia. The snow cover data along with ancillary temperature, snowfall and precipitation data were used to investigate the characteristics of snow cover duration in this region and the effects of the snow cover on boundary layer climate variables for the snow cover seasons 1948-1949 through to 1987-1988.Results indicate that snow cover duration is variable in both space and time. The duration of a snow cover of 2.5 cm or greater varies from greater than 100 days in northern New England to less than 20 days across areas of Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. Temporally, snow cover duration for the region as a whole was very short from the late 1940s through to the mid-1950s. From the late 1950s to the end of the period snow cover duration has varied around a consistent mean value. No long-term trends in snow cover duration are apparent in the record for the northeast USA.Principal components analysis and clustering techniques were utilized to isolate spatially coherent regions in which snow cover duration has varied similarly over the period of record. This analysis resulted in the identification of four snow-cover-duration regions across the northeast USA: including (i) the West Virginia area, (ii) the mid-Atlantic from southern New England through to western Pennsylvania, (iii) western and central New York and (iv) northern New England. Snow cover duration is shown to be highly associated with snowfall and temperature but not strongly related to total liquid precipitation. The intra-annual variability of snow cover duration is also investigated for each region.

  3. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    , penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...... benefit of using a combination of cover crops and direct drilling to produce a better soil friability. The usefulness of the VESS method for soil structural evaluation was supported by the high positive correlation of MWD with VESS scores.......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  4. Thin section casting program. Volume 2: Horizontal TSC (Thin-Section Casting) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In horizontal thin-section casting (HTSC), 1-inch-thick steel sections are produced at speeds up to 600 ipm or about 60 tons per hour per foot of width (tphf). Liquid steel is fed from the ladle, and flows through a specially designed tundish, then flows through a refractory feeding tube and nozzle, with approximately the same external dimensions as the cast section, into a near-horizontal rectangular mold whose all four sides are traveling in the same direction and speed as the steel casting. This report is the second of a six volume set on thin section casting. This volume covers the research on horizontal thin section casting (TSC).

  5. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  6. Epidemio-Clinical Factors Associated with Caesarean Section in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Caesarean section incurs significant cost and poses a hindrance to healthcare. The aim of the study was to determine maternal, foetal outcomes and cost. This was a cross sectional study conducted at the two health facilities. The study covered an eight month period. The rate of caesarean section was 5.69% and ...

  7. Section of LHC beampipe

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A short section of the LHC beampipe including beam screen. Particle beams circulate for around 10 hours in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions of the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system. The beams must travel in a pipe which is emptied of air, to avoid collisions between the particles and air molecules (which are considerably bigger than protons). The beam pipes are pumped down to an air pressure similar to that on the surface of the moon. Emptying the air from the two 27 km long Large Hadron Collider beam-pipes is equivalent in volume to emptying the nave of the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. Initially, the air pressure is reduced by pumping. Then, cold sections of the beam-pipe are further emptied using the temperature gradient across special beam-screens inside the tube where particles travel. The warm sections are emptied using a coating called a getter that works like molecular fly-paper. This va...

  8. The Rapidly Shrinking Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the most dramatic changes in the Arctic in recent years was the precipitous decline in the perennial ice cover. In 2007, the perennial ice area was 37% lower than climatological average and 28% lower than the previous low established in 2005. In 2008, the perennial ice recovered somewhat because of colder global temperatures but by only about 6% of average value. The trend in the ice area covered by perennial ice is now -12.5% per decade using data from 1979 to 2009 which compared to a previous report of -9% per decade derived from 1979 to 2000 data indicates an accelerated decline. To gain insight into the phenomenon, we studied the mUltiyear ice cover as detected by satellite sensor in winter. The multiyear ice as detected in winter represents ice that has generally survived two summers and therefore the thicker component of the perennial ice cover. Analysis of the thicker multiyear ice types indicates an even more rapid decline of 17% per decade. Such decline in the thick component of the Arctic ice cover that normally survives the summer means an even more vulnerable perennial ice cover. Much of the decline occurred in the western region of the Arctic Basin (Le., Chukchi and Beaufort Seas) where the open water area has been increasing by about 35% per decade. Such increase in low albedo ice free region causes the absorption of considerably more solar heat in the Arctic basin. This causes further decline in the ice cover in a process called ice-albedo feedback. A manifestation of such process is the observed trend in SST in the basin of about 0.5 + 0.2 degrees Celsius per decade as derived from satellite data

  9. Research on clay covering experiment in a abandoned uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Zhang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The clay covering experiment was designed in a abandoned uranium mining area, including experiment principle, determining size of experimental site, experiment method, choosing cover materials and determining cover thickness. According to the experiment results, the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness, the diffusion coefficient of radon in clay were fully discussed. Also, the corresponding function expressions were established. The linear correlation coefficient test results showed that the relationship between the radon exhalation rate and cover thickness was significantly correlated. According to the correlation function expression between the radon exhalation rate and the cover thickness, the cover thickness of the decommissioning sites can be determined, in order to provide a scientific basis for the design and environmental impact assessment on decommissioning disposal project of a uranium mine. (authors)

  10. Predicting land cover using GIS, Bayesian and evolutionary algorithm methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead, M J; Aalders, I H

    2009-01-01

    Modelling land cover change from existing land cover maps is a vital requirement for anyone wishing to understand how the landscape may change in the future. In order to test any land cover change model, existing data must be used. However, often it is not known which data should be applied to the problem, or whether relationships exist within and between complex datasets. Here we have developed and tested a model that applied evolutionary processes to Bayesian networks. The model was developed and tested on a dataset containing land cover information and environmental data, in order to show that decisions about which datasets should be used could be made automatically. Bayesian networks are amenable to evolutionary methods as they can be easily described using a binary string to which crossover and mutation operations can be applied. The method, developed to allow comparison with standard Bayesian network development software, was proved capable of carrying out a rapid and effective search of the space of possible networks in order to find an optimal or near-optimal solution for the selection of datasets that have causal links with one another. Comparison of land cover mapping in the North-East of Scotland was made with a commercial Bayesian software package, with the evolutionary method being shown to provide greater flexibility in its ability to adapt to incorporate/utilise available evidence/knowledge and develop effective and accurate network structures, at the cost of requiring additional computer programming skills. The dataset used to develop the models included GIS-based data taken from the Land Cover for Scotland 1988 (LCS88), Land Capability for Forestry (LCF), Land Capability for Agriculture (LCA), the soil map of Scotland and additional climatic variables.

  11. 76 FR 49698 - Covered Securities Pursuant to Section 18 of the Securities Act of 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    .... ADDRESSES: Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission... with other exchanges. Therefore, an important economic effect of the rule could be to engender greater...

  12. Land cover and air pollution are associated with asthma hospitalisations: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew; Cherrie, Mark; Wheeler, Benedict; Taylor, Jonathon; McInnes, Rachel; Otte Im Kampe, Eveline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Sarran, Christophe; Soyiri, Ireneous; Fleming, Lora

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing policy interest in the potential for vegetation in urban areas to mitigate harmful effects of air pollution on respiratory health. We aimed to quantify relationships between tree and green space density and asthma-related hospitalisations, and explore how these varied with exposure to background air pollution concentrations. Population standardised asthma hospitalisation rates (1997-2012) for 26,455 urban residential areas of England were merged with area-level data on vegetation and background air pollutant concentrations. We fitted negative binomial regression models using maximum likelihood estimation to obtain estimates of asthma-vegetation relationships at different levels of pollutant exposure. Green space and gardens were associated with reductions in asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were lower but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were higher. In contrast, tree density was associated with reduced asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were higher but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were lower. We found differential effects of natural environments at high and low background pollutant concentrations. These findings can provide evidence for urban planning decisions which aim to leverage health co-benefits from environmental improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1999-01-01

    This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

  14. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  15. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, Robert J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Le, Roux X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bucini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) are thought to be important in regulating woody cover1,2,4,5, but perceptions differ on which of these are the primary drivers of savanna structure. Here we show, using data from 854 sites across Africa, that maximum woody cover in savannas receiving a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of less than ???650 mm is constrained by, and increases linearly with, MAP. These arid and semi-arid savannas may be considered 'stable' systems in which water constrains woody cover and permits grasses to coexist, while fire, herbivory and soil properties interact to reduce woody cover below the MAP-controlled upper bound. Above a MAP of ???650 mm, savannas are 'unstable' systems in which MAP is sufficient for woody canopy closure, and disturbances (fire, herbivory) are required for the coexistence of trees and grass. These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation 6 may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2008-01-01

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  17. Smart cover glass for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang Kug

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a smart cover glass based on electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation for automotive applications. It can remove water droplets in a wide range of sizes to allow the camera's lens to get clean at any time. The proposed cover glass offers a simple design structure to be easily installed on any device but provides a fast and energy efficient droplet cleaning operation. As proof of concept, a real imaging test is carried out using a mobile smartphone camera and landscape photography. When water droplets with different volumes are on the camera cover glass, the image of landscape photography is distorted with blurred spots. However, the distorted image is restored by removing the droplets through EWOD actuation.

  18. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  19. Random template banks and relaxed lattice coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, C.; Prix, R.; Papa, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Template-based searches for gravitational waves are often limited by the computational cost associated with searching large parameter spaces. The study of efficient template banks, in the sense of using the smallest number of templates, is therefore of great practical interest. The traditional approach to template-bank construction requires every point in parameter space to be covered by at least one template, which rapidly becomes inefficient at higher dimensions. Here we study an alternative approach, where any point in parameter space is covered only with a given probability η n and A n * lattices), which similarly cover any signal location only with probability η. The relaxed A n * lattice is found to yield the most efficient template banks at low dimensions (n < or approx. 10), while random template banks increasingly outperform any other method at higher dimensions.

  20. Comprehensive monitoring of Bangladesh tree cover inside and outside of forests, 2000–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, P.; Siddiqui, B. N.; Iqbal, Z.; Aziz, T.; Zzaman, B.; Islam, A.; Pickens, A.; Talero, Y.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    A novel approach for satellite-based comprehensive national tree cover change assessment was developed and applied in Bangladesh, a country where trees outside of forests play an important role in the national economy and carbon sequestration. Tree cover change area was quantified using the integration of wall-to-wall Landsat-based mapping with a higher spatial resolution sample-based assessment. The total national tree canopy cover area was estimated as 3165 500 ± 186 600 ha in the year 2000, with trees outside forests making up 54% of total canopy cover. Total tree canopy cover increased by 135 700 (± 116 600) ha (4.3%) during the 2000–2014 time interval. Bangladesh exhibits a national tree cover dynamic where net change is rather small, but gross dynamics significant and variable by forest type. Despite the overall gain in tree cover, results revealed the ongoing clearing of natural forests, especially within the Chittagong hill tracts. While forests decreased their tree cover area by 83 600 ha, the trees outside forests (including tree plantations, village woodlots, and agroforestry) increased their canopy area by 219 300 ha. Our results demonstrated method capability to quantify tree canopy cover dynamics within a fine-scale agricultural landscape. Our approach for comprehensive monitoring of tree canopy cover may be recommended for operational implementation in Bangladesh and other countries with significant tree cover outside of forests.

  1. A plan for research by the atmospheric research section in support of Ontario Hydro's nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.; Melo, O.T.

    1984-01-01

    A plan for nuclear studies by the Atmospheric Research Section is presented. The need for research is discussed and research objectives are established. Recommended research activities include the study of fundamental processes governing the fate of emissions released to the atmosphere by Hydro's nuclear facilities and the development of improved transport models describing the fate of these emissions. A Sectional goal of providing technical expertise in the atmospheric sciences in support of Ontario Hydro's present and future nuclear activities is proposed. The plan covers a five-year time frame (1984-1988)

  2. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  3. Minimum Opaque Covers for Polygonal Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Provan, J. Scott; Brazil, Marcus; Thomas, Doreen; Weng, Jia F.

    2012-01-01

    The Opaque Cover Problem (OCP), also known as the Beam Detector Problem, is the problem of finding, for a set S in Euclidean space, the minimum-length set F which intersects every straight line passing through S. In spite of its simplicity, the problem remains remarkably intractable. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework and fundamental results for minimum opaque covers where S is a polygonal region in two-dimensional space. We begin by giving some general results about opaque cov...

  4. MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON GROUND COVER CLUMPINESS: SCALING FROM FIELD TO SENTINEL-2 COVER ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the development of cover data and derived products based on remotely sensed fractional cover information and field data across Australia, and these cover data sets are now used for quantifying and monitoring grazing land condition. The availability of a dense time-series of nearly 30 years of cover data to describe the spatial and temporal patterns in landscape changes over time can help with monitoring the effectiveness of grazing land management practice change. With the advent of higher spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the Copernicus Sentinel 2 series of satellites, we can look beyond reporting purely on cover amount and more closely at the operational monitoring and reporting on spatial arrangement of cover and its links with land condition. We collected high spatial resolution cover transects at 20 cm intervals over the Wambiana grazing trials in the Burdekin catchment in Queensland, Australia. Spatial variance analysis was used to determine the cover autocorrelation at various support intervals. Coincident Sentinel-2 imagery was collected and processed over all the sites providing imagery to link with the field data. We show that the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of cover are important indicators of grazing land condition for both productivity and water quality outcomes. The metrics and products derived from this research will assist land managers to prioritize investment and practice change strategies for long term sustainability and improved water quality, particularly in the Great Barrier Reef catchments.

  5. Quantum optics including noise reduction, trapped ions, quantum trajectories, and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Orszag, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This new edition gives a unique and broad coverage of basic laser-related phenomena that allow graduate students, scientists and engineers to carry out research in quantum optics and laser physics. It covers quantization of the electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, atom-field interaction models, resonance fluorescence, quantum theory of damping, laser theory using both the master equation and the Langevin theory, the correlated emission laser, input-output theory with applications to non-linear optics, quantum trajectories, quantum non-demolition measurements and generation of non-classical vibrational states of ions in a Paul trap. In this third edition, there is an enlarged chapter on trapped ions, as well as new sections on quantum computing and quantum bits with applications. There is also additional material included for quantum processing and entanglement. These topics are presented in a unified and didactic manner, each chapter is accompanied by specific problems and hints to solutions to...

  6. Case study of a full-scale evapotranspiration cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick E.; Andraski, Brian J.; Archibald, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance analyses of a 6.1ha evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover at the semiarid U.S. Army Fort Carson site, near Colorado Springs, Colo. are presented. Initial water-balance model simulations, using literature reported soil hydraulic data, aided selection of borrow-source soil type(s) that resulted in predictions of negligible annual drainage (⩽1mm∕year). Final construction design was based on refined water-balance simulations using laboratory determined soil hydraulic values from borrow area natural soil horizons that were described with USDA soil classification methods. Cover design components included a 122cmthick clay loam (USDA), compaction ⩽80% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density (dry bulk density ∼1.3Mg∕m3), erosion control measures, top soil amended with biosolids, and seeding with native grasses. Favorable hydrologic performance for a 5year period was documented by lysimeter-measured and Richards’-based calculations of annual drainage that were all <0.4mm∕year. Water potential data suggest that ET removed water that infiltrated the cover and contributed to a persistent driving force for upward flow and removal of water from below the base of the cover.

  7. Effects of cover crops and weed management on corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Yeganehpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important replacement methods used instead of chemical herbicide and conventional tillage is cover and companion crops’ application which is a major factor in sustainable agriculture. In order to determine the best cover crop in controlling weeds of corn field and its further effects on corn yield, an experiment was carried out in a factorial arrangement based on RCB design with three replicates. The treatments of this experiment included companion crops (clover, hairy vetch, basil and dill as first factor and time of sowing cover and medicinal plant (synchronic sowing with corn and sowing 15 days after corn sowing as second factor. The results showed that ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were significantly influenced by companion crops and sowing date. Whereas, weed biomass was influenced by cover crop type × sowing date interaction. Also, the results indicated that increasing biomass weed resulted in linear reduction of grain yield. The highest ear weight, ear length, leaf weight, grain length and yield were obtained for cultivation of clover with corn. Synchronic cultivation of companion crops with corn had higher grain length and yield compared with cultivation 15 days after corn. The lowest weed biomass was recorded for concurrent cultivation of corn with clover due to rapid growth and high competitive power of clover in the early stage of growth.

  8. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  9. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Piscivory by birds can be significant, particularly on fish in small streams and during seasonal low flow when available cover from predators can be limited. Yet, how varying amounts of cover may change the extent of predation mortality from avian predators on fish is not clear. We evaluated size-selective survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) in replicated semi-natural stream sections. These sections provided high (0.01 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) or low (0.002 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) levels of instream cover available to trout and were closed to emigration. Each fish was individually tagged, allowing us to track retention of individuals during the course of the 36-day experiment, which we attributed to survival from predators, because fish had no other way to leave the streams. Although other avian predators may have been active in our system and not detected, the only predator observed was the belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, which is known to prey heavily on fish. In both treatments, trout >20.4 cm were not preyed upon indicating an increased ability to prey upon on smaller individuals. Increased availability of cover improved survival of trout by 12% in high relative to low cover stream sections. Trout also survived better in stream sections with greater shade, a factor we could not control in our system. Collectively, these findings indicate that instream cover and shade from avian predators can play an important role in driving survival of fish in small streams or during periods of low flow.

  10. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    of these in driving forest cover change after the collapse of socialism. Using a combination of cross-section and panel regression methods, we find that privatization of forest lands increased forest cover loss due to logging, as did increases in agricultural land between 1850 and 1900. Land quality has no power......The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role......, but that the majority of forest cover change over the period results from shocks, both political and economic, shared by all countries in the sample. This highlights the importance of broad-scale shocks as drivers of forest change, relative to geographic and policy variability across individual countries....

  11. Overlaid Alice: a statistical model computer code including fission and preequilibrium models. [FORTRAN, cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    The most recent edition of an evaporation code originally written previously with frequent updating and improvement. This version replaces the version Alice described previously. A brief summary is given of the types of calculations which can be done. A listing of the code and the results of several sample calculations are presented. (JFP)

  12. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.31 Hatch coverings. (a) No cargo... adequate landing area suitable for the prevailing conditions exists. In no event shall such work be done...

  13. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Roux, Le X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bicini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance

  14. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both Medicare...

  15. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in... begin operation of a [franchise system name] franchise is [the total amount of Item 7 (§ 436.5(g... affiliate. (2) This disclosure document summarizes certain provisions of your franchise agreement and other...

  16. Python for Education: The Exact Cover Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Python implementation of Algorithm X by Knuth is presented.
    Algorithm X finds all solutions to the exact cover problem.
    The exemplary results for pentominoes, Latin squares and Sudoku
    are given.

  17. Kings Covered Bridge rehabilitation, Somerset County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Collins; David C. Fischetti; Arnold M. Jr. Graton; Len Lichvar; Branden Diehl; James P. Wacker; Ed Cesa; Ed Stoltz; Emory L. Kemp; Samer H. Petro; Leon Buckwalter; John McNamara

    2005-01-01

    Kings Covered Bridge over Laurel Creek in Somerset County, Pennsylvania is approximately 114-foot clear span multiple Kingpost Truss with nail-laminated arches. This timber bridge is historically significant because it retains its original features of the 1860’s since the 1930s when it was spared from modernization by the construction of an adjacent steel highway...

  18. 29 CFR 16.104 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... future rate or is primarily rule-making is not covered. Proceedings to grant or renew licenses are also... Administration: (i) Proceedings under the Workforce Investment Act at 29 U.S.C. 2936, where the Department... implementing regulations. (ii) Conformity and compliance under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act at 26 U.S.C...

  19. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    2005-01-01

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478)....

  20. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  1. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  2. State financial cover for nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Some States have introduced systems of compensation out of public funds in case the compensation under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention is insufficient to cover the damage caused by a nuclear incident. The systems are described in this paper as well as that in Switzerland, which is not Party to these Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  3. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDING AND REPORTING OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND ILLNESSES Other OSHA Injury and Illness Recordkeeping Requirements § 1904.31 Covered employees. (a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the... efforts to make sure that each injury and illness is recorded only once: either on your OSHA 300 Log (if...

  4. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  5. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  6. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2016-12-01

    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  7. Repeatability in photo-interpretation of tree canopy cover and its effect on predictive mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Jackson; Gretchen G. Moisen; Paul L. Patterson; John Tipton

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explore repeatability in photo-interpreted imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program that was sampled as part of the National Land Cover Database 2011 Tree Canopy Cover pilot project. Data were collected in 5 diverse pilot areas in the US, including one each in Oregon, Utah, Kansas, Michigan and Georgia. Repeatability metrics. The intra-...

  8. An evaluation of the effect of land use/cover change on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS) to identified land use/cover types in Lokoja, including their temporal ... Lokoja may witness continuous increase in its radiant surface temperature as the cooling effect of vegetation cover is lost to impervious surfaces that litter the urban ...

  9. Guide for In-Place Treatment of Covered and Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Grant Kirker; Robert White; Terry Amburgey; H. Michael Barnes; Michael Sanders; Jeff Morrell

    2012-01-01

    Historic covered bridges and current timber bridges can be vulnerable to damage from biodeterioration or fire. This guide describes procedures for selecting and applying in-place treatments to prevent or arrest these forms of degradation. Vulnerable areas for biodeterioration in covered bridges include members contacting abutments, members near the ends of bridges...

  10. Cover layer technology and a new hard coat for cartridge-free Blu-ray disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Sik; Han, Mi Young; Lee, Seong-Keun; Jang, Sung Hoon; Hong, Young Jun; Seo, Hun; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2004-09-01

    Spin coating method for cover layer of Blu-ray Disc (BD) has been studied and a new hard coat resin including antifouling property has been developed. A vacuum chuck was newly designed to minimize the ski-jump effect. 3 mm hard coat layer was stacked onto the 97 mm cover layer by spin coating method.

  11. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  12. Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering Technical Bulletin covering center programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Wells, J. F.

    1984-06-01

    A quarterly abstract journal covering the work of the National Bureau of Standards Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering is presented. The issue covers the third quarter of calendar year 1983. Abstracts are provided by technical area for both published papers and papers approved by NBS for publication. Topics include semiconductor technology, fast signal metrology and electrical power systems metrology.

  13. Alternative method to validate the seasonal land cover regions of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; Donald O. Ohlen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Robert E. Burgan

    1996-01-01

    An accuracy assessment method involving double sampling and the multivariate composite estimator has been used to validate the prototype seasonal land cover characteristics database of the conterminous United States. The database consists of 159 land cover classes, classified using time series of 1990 1-km satellite data and augmented with ancillary data including...

  14. Radiation and photochemistry section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane + ·, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H·atom reactions yielding e aq - provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in aq - reactions

  15. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  16. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the U.S. Munitions List is an...

  17. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  18. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public...

  19. Inventory and change detection of urban land cover in Illinois using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.A.; Iverson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide information about urban forests and other vegetative land cover in Illinois cities, Landsat TM data from June 17, 1988, were classified for the Chicago metropolitan region and five urban areas of central Illinois. Ten land cover classes were identified, including three types of forestland, cropland, two grassland categories, two urban classes, water, and miscellaneous vegetation. The cities inventoried have a significantly higher proportion of forests and forested residential areas than the surrounding rural areas because of preservation measures and accruement of tree cover from landscaping. Short-term change in land cover for the Chicago region was also assessed by postclassification comparison of the 1988 data with similarly derived data from a June 3, 1985, TM scene. The largest single category of change in the six-county area was cropland to urban land use. A majority of cover loss was conversion of forested tracts to residential areas, and forest cover increase was negligible. 16 refs

  20. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Gaillard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this paper are: (1 to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC developed during the last ten years, (2 to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites, to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3 to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4 to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data

  1. Providing Diurnal Sky Cover Data at ARM Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebe, Dimitri I. [Solmirus Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-03-06

    The Solmirus Corporation was awarded two-year funding to perform a comprehensive data analysis of observations made during Solmirus’ 2009 field campaign (conducted from May 21 to July 27, 2009 at the ARM SGP site) using their All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA) instrument. The objective was to develop a suite of cloud property data products for the ASIVA instrument that could be implemented in real time and tailored for cloud modelers. This final report describes Solmirus’ research and findings enabled by this grant. The primary objective of this award was to develop a diurnal sky cover (SC) data product utilizing the ASIVA’s infrared (IR) radiometrically-calibrated data and is described in detail. Other data products discussed in this report include the sky cover derived from ASIVA’s visible channel and precipitable water vapor, cloud temperature (both brightness and color), and cloud height inferred from ASIVA’s IR channels.

  2. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  3. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  4. 170 years of debris covered glacier surface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Nico; Bolch, Tobias; Vieli, Andreas; Bauder, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The local effect of debris layer thickness on ice melt can be studied considering short time periods and is quite well known to date. How the reduced melt, the additional weight of the debris, and the formation of ice cliffs and lakes are linked with the flow behaviour of the glacier is less well understood and much longer time periods are required for such investigations, typically in the order of the response time of the respective glacier, if possible even longer. For this reason we selected to study Zmuttgletscher in the Western Swiss Alps, which today is a heavily debris covered valley glacier. We produced a time series of glacier area, debris cover and surface elevation changes on the basis of 14 old maps and aerial images, 11 orthoimages and additional terrestrial photographs starting at the end of the little ice age (LIA) in 1859. During these 170 years the glacier lost a volume of 52.9*106 m3 (mean thickness change of -89 m) at its tongue while its debris covered area increased from about 14 to 20%. Several periods of variable retreat rates can be discerned and spatially varying change patterns become visible. Commonly the glacier has been retreating, but we can discern locally different elevation change, and also stable to positive periods in the 1980s become visible on different dynamical section of the glacier. Surface features that are commonly linked to debris cover and ice flow have emerged after the end of the LIA. For example, supraglacial thermokarst features become visible in 1880 and are widespread in the lower area of the glacier tongue in 1946. Considering big ice cliffs that are typically related to a realtively high, steep elevation difference and a large surface area, their number has increased somewhat from zero in 1859 to about 15 today. However, its the small ice cliffs, lakes and surface water channels that have emerged and also contribute to stronger melt through either exposed clean ice or ice in contact with water. Elevation

  5. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  6. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover...

  7. [Comparison of molluscicidal effects of two snail control methods with plastic film covering in hilly regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Jia-Huei; Mao, Shu; Xie, De-Bing; Mei, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jun; Hong, Qing-Biao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the molluscicidal effects of colorless and black plastic film covering methods against Oncomelania hupensis snails in hilly regions. A hilly setting with high snail density was selected as the study area, and three groups including the colorless plastic film covering method, black plastic film covering method and control were designed. The snail surveys were conducted 1, 3, 7, 15 days and 30 days in each group following plastic film covering, and the mortality of snails and reduction of snail density were investigated. The air temperature, soil surface temperature in the control group, as well as the soil surface temperature and the temperatures 5 cm and 15 cm under the soil within the film were recorded. The mortality rates of snails were 36.84%, 78.94%, 95.92%, 100.00% and 99.45% 1, 3, 7, 15 days and 30 days following colorless plastic film covering, respectively, and the snail density after 30 days of covering reduced by 99.36% as compared to that before covering, while the mortality rates of snails were 10.08%, 8.94%, 6.11%, 26.15% and 49.32% 1, 3, 7, 15 days and 30 days following black plastic film covering, respectively, and the snail density after 30 days of covering reduced by 58.10% as compared to that before covering. There were significant differences in the 1-, 3-, 7-, 15-day and 30-day snail mortality rates between the colorless and black film covering groups (all P values plastic film covering method is significantly superior to that of the black plastic film covering method in summer in hilly regions.

  8. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, Ivan L.; Noble, Lawrence; Geiss, Donna; Wozniak, Laura; Hall, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Ca...

  10. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  11. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Concrete quantum logics with covering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Vladimir; Pták, Pavel; Tkadlec, Josef

    1992-05-01

    Let L be a concrete (=set-representable) quantum logic. Let n be a natural number (or, more generally, a cardinal). We say that L admits intrinsic coverings of the order n, and write L∈ C n , if for any pair A, B∈L we can find a collection { C i ∶ i∈ I}, where card IJauch-Piron states). We then consider conditions on which a class of concrete logics reduce to Boolean algebras. We conclude with some open questions.

  13. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. New Ultrathermic Films for Greenhouse Covers

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Thermic greenhouse covers are plastic films that block infrared (7?14 mm) radiation to reduce the risk of frost when the greenhouse is not heated and to reduce the energy consumption when a heating system is used. The standard mineral fillers (calcined kaolin), which have been normally used to increase the IR opacity of LDPE and other greenhouse films, accelerate the photodegradation of the film as...

  15. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  16. Improving snow cover mapping in forests through the use of a canopy reflectance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Hall, D.K.; Riggs, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    MODIS, the moderate resolution imaging spectro radiometer, will be launched in 1998 as part of the first earth observing system (EOS) platform. Global maps of land surface properties, including snow cover, will be created from MODIS imagery. The MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm that will be used to produce daily maps of global snow cover extent at 500 m resolution is currently under development. With the exception of cloud cover, the largest limitation to producing a global daily snow cover product using MODIS is the presence of a forest canopy. A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) time-series of the southern Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study area in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, was used to evaluate the performance of the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm in varying forest types. A snow reflectance model was used in conjunction with a canopy reflectance model (GeoSAIL) to model the reflectance of a snow-covered forest stand. Using these coupled models, the effects of varying forest type, canopy density, snow grain size and solar illumination geometry on the performance of the MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. Using both the TM images and the reflectance models, two changes to the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm are proposed that will improve the algorithm's classification accuracy in forested areas. The improvements include using the normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index in combination to discriminate better between snow-covered and snow-free forests. A minimum albedo threshold of 10% in the visible wavelengths is also proposed. This will prevent dense forests with very low visible albedos from being classified incorrectly as snow. These two changes increase the amount of snow mapped in forests on snow-covered TM scenes, and decrease the area incorrectly identified as snow on non-snow-covered TM scenes. (author)

  17. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  20. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  2. Land Cover Changes between 1974 and 2008 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Yamagata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the past 35 years, a combination of human actions and natural causes has led to a significant decline in land quality in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. Human causes include changes in conventional livestock husbandry, overgrazing, and exploitation for traditional uses. Natural causes include a harsh, dry climate, short growing seasons, and thin soils. Since 1995, many herders left the countryside to come to the city in search of new opportunities, the Ger areas (wooden houses and Ger) have expended, resulting in urban sprawl. Since urbanization usually advance in an uncontrolled or unorganized way in Mongolia, they have destructive effects on the environment, particularly on basic ecosystems, wildlife habitat, and pollution of natural resources (e.g. air and water). Land use and land cover changes occurred in the region are investigated using satellite images acquired in 1974 (Landsat MSS), 1990 (Landsat TM), 2000 (ASTER), 2006 (IKONOS), and 2008 (ALOS). Pre-processing of all data included orthorectification and registration to precisely geolocated imagery. In the detection of changes, classification approaches were employed using a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network classifier (Fig. 1a) and new developed subspace classification method (Fig. 1b). From the time-series classified remote sensing images, we extract the land cover and land cover temporal changes from 1974 to 2008. The results show some important findings regarding the size and nature of the change occurred in the study area. A significant amount of steppe and forest lands have been destroyed or replaced by residential areas; as a result, the total area of urban region doubled in the 35-year period with a higher urbanization rate between 2000 and 2008. Key words: Environment; Land Cover; Urban; Change detection; Classification. References Chinbat,B., Bayantur,M., & Amarsaikhan.D. (2006). Investigation of the internal structure changes of ulaanbaatar city using RS and GIS. ISPRS

  3. Long-term monitoring of stream bank stability under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Skaalsveen, Kamilla; Kerkhof, Tjibbe

    2017-04-01

    Vegetated buffer zones are common environmental measures in many countries, including Norway. The presence of riparian vegetation on stream banks not only provides ecological benefits but also influence bank slope stability, through several complex interactions between riparian vegetation and hydro - mechanical processes. The hydrological processes associated with slope stability are complex and yet difficult to quantify, especially because their transient effects (e.g. changes throughout the vegetation life cycle). Additionally, there is very limited amount of field scale research focusing on investigation of coupled hydrological and mechanical influence of vegetation on stream bank behavior, accounting for both seasonal time scale and different vegetation type, and none dedicated to marine clay soils (typically soil for Norway). In order to fill this gap we established continues, long term hydrogeological monitoring o selected cross - section within stream bank, covered with different types of vegetation, typical for Norwegian agriculture areas (grass, shrubs, and trees). The monitoring involves methods such as spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture conditions, ground water level and fluctuation of water level in the stream. Herein we will present first 10 months of monitoring data: observed hydrological trends and differences between three cross - sections. Moreover, we will present first modelling exercises that aims to estimate stream banks stability with accounting on presence of different vegetation types using BSTEM and HYDRUS models. With this presentation, we would like to stimulate the discussion and get feedback that could help us to improve both, our experimental set up and analysis approach.

  4. 27 CFR 53.91 - Charges to be included in sale price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fair market value of such materials must be included in the tax base when computing tax liability on... value of the covering or container. See § 53.173(b)(4) for provisions relating to the claiming of a credit or refund in the case of a price readjustment due to the return or repossession of a covering or...

  5. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  6. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Silver Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  7. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  8. Carbon Assessment of Hawaii Land Cover Map (CAH_LandCover)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — While there have been many maps produced that depict vegetation for the state of Hawai‘i only a few of these display land cover for all of the main Hawaiian Islands,...

  9. Time series change detection: Algorithms for land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam

    The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data-poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, climate and ecosystem related observations from remote sensors on satellites, as well as outputs of climate or earth system models from large-scale computational platforms, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal data. These massive and information-rich datasets offer huge potential for advancing the science of land cover change, climate change and anthropogenic impacts. One important area where remote sensing data can play a key role is in the study of land cover change. Specifically, the conversion of natural land cover into humandominated cover types continues to be a change of global proportions with many unknown environmental consequences. In addition, being able to assess the carbon risk of changes in forest cover is of critical importance for both economic and scientific reasons. In fact, changes in forests account for as much as 20% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, an amount second only to fossil fuel emissions. Thus, there is a need in the earth science domain to systematically study land cover change in order to understand its impact on local climate, radiation balance, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and the diversity and abundance of terrestrial species. Land cover conversions include tree harvests in forested regions, urbanization, and agricultural intensification in former woodland and natural grassland areas. These types of conversions also have significant public policy implications due to issues such as water supply management and atmospheric CO2 output. In spite of the importance of this problem and the considerable advances made over the last few years in high-resolution satellite data, data mining, and online mapping tools and services, end users still lack practical tools to help them manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge of changes in forest ecosystems that

  10. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  11. Report of the Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee. September 1978 - February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1980-03-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period September 1978 to February 1980. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services

  12. Report of the nuclear data section to the international nuclear data committee September 1981 - February 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1983-02-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period September 1981 to February 1983. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services. (author)

  13. Report of the Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee March 1980 - August 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1981-07-01

    This progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section covers the 18-months period March 1980 to August 1981. It describes past, current and planned activities of the Section and presents the status of its nuclear data centre services. (author)

  14. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  15. The Entropy of Co-Compact Open Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bourquin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-compact entropy is introduced as an invariant of topological conjugation for perfect mappings defined on any Hausdorff space (compactness and metrizability are not necessarily required. This is achieved through the consideration of co-compact covers of the space. The advantages of co-compact entropy include: (1 it does not require the space to be compact and, thus, generalizes Adler, Konheim and McAndrew’s topological entropy of continuous mappings on compact dynamical systems; and (2 it is an invariant of topological conjugation, compared to Bowen’s entropy, which is metric-dependent. Other properties of co-compact entropy are investigated, e.g., the co-compact entropy of a subsystem does not exceed that of the whole system. For the linear system, (R; f, defined by f(x = 2x, the co-compact entropy is zero, while Bowen’s entropy for this system is at least log 2. More generally, it is found that co-compact entropy is a lower bound of Bowen’s entropies, and the proof of this result also generates the Lebesgue Covering Theorem to co-compact open covers of non-compact metric spaces.

  16. Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Song

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1 land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within a short time frame; and (2 spatially discrete land cover disturbances are continuous processes over time. Applying statistically rigorous algorithms, we first detect disturbance pixels as outliers of an underlying chi-square distribution. Then, we fit nonlinear, logistic curves for each identified change pixel to simultaneously characterize the magnitude and timing of the disturbance. Our method is applied using the yearly Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF tree cover product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and the resulting disturbance-year estimates are evaluated using a large sample of Landsat-based forest disturbance data. Temporal accuracy is ~65% at 250-m, annual resolution and increases to >85% when temporal resolution is relaxed to ±1 yr. The r2 of MODIS VCF-based disturbance rates against Landsat ranges from 0.7 to 0.9 at 5-km spatial resolution. The general approach developed in this study can be potentially applied at a global scale and to other land cover types characterized as continuous variables from satellite data.

  17. Neutron cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Donald J; Dunworth, J V

    1957-01-01

    Neutron Cross Sections presents the principles of cross-section measurement and use, as well as sufficient theory so that the general behavior of cross sections is made understandable. This compilation is a direct result of experiences connected with the collection and evaluation of cross-section data during the past eight years at """"Sigma Centre"""", Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, experimental results received from laboratories throughout the world are carefully evaluated and compiled in the curves and tables of the large volume Neutron Cross Sections, The most recent version of the

  18. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Portland, OR Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset includes data for the Portland metropolitan area plus the city of Vancouver, Washington and...

  19. ZZ ELAST2, Database of Cross Sections for the Elastic Scattering of Electrons and Positrons by Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Historical background and information: This database is an extension of the earlier database, 'Elastic Scattering of Electrons and Positrons by Atoms: Database ELAST', Report NISTIR 5188, 1993. Cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms were calculated at energies from 1 KeV to 100 MeV. Up to 10 MeV the RELEL code of Riley was used. Above 10 MeV the ELSCAT code was used, which calculated the factored cross sections and evaluates the screening factor Kscr in WKB approximation. 2 - Application of the data: This database was developed to provide input for the transport codes, such as ETRAN, and includes differential cross sections, the total cross section, and the transport cross sections. In addition, a code TRANSX is provided that generates transport cross section of arbitrary order needed as input for the calculation of Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple-scattering angular distribution 3 - Source and scope of data: The database includes cross sections at 61 energies for electrons and 41 energies from positrons, covering the energy region from 1 KeV to 100 MeV. The number of deflection angles included in the database is 314 angles. Total and transport cross sections are also included in this package. The data files have an extension (jjj) that represents the atomic number of the target atom. The database includes auxiliary data files that enable the ELASTIC code to include the following optional modifications: (i) the inclusion of the exchange correction for electrons scattering; (ii) the conversion of the cross sections for scattering by free atoms to cross sections for scattering by atoms in solids; (iii) ti reduction of the cross sections at large angles and at high energies when the nucleus is treated as an extended rather than a point charge

  20. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahenbuhl Daniel Scott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson’s product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  1. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.; Nash, M.S.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-×-30 m) land cover change data and moderate resolution (~ 500 m-×-500 m) albedo data. The land cover change data spanned 10 years (2001 − 2011) and the albedo data included observations every eight days for 13 years (2001 − 2013). Empirical testing was based on autoregressive time series analysis of snow free albedo for verified locations of land cover change. Approximately one-third of the autoregressive analyses for woody to herbaceous or forest to shrub change classes were not significant, indicating that albedo did not change significantly as a result of land cover change at these locations. In addition, ~ 80% of mean differences in albedo arising from land cover change were less than ± 0.02, a nominal benchmark for precision of albedo measurements that is related to significant changes in radiative forcing. Under snow free conditions, we found that land cover change does not guarantee a significant albedo response, and that the differences in mean albedo response for the majority of land cover change locations were small.

  2. NEW ENDF/B-VII.0 EVALUATIONS OF NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR 32 FISSION PRODUCTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIM,H.; LEE, Y.-O.; HERMAN, M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.

    2007-04-22

    Neutron cross sections for fission products play important role not only in the design of extended burnup core and fast reactors, but also in the study of the backend fuel cycle and the criticality analysis of spent fuel. New evaluations in both the resonance and fast neutron regions were performed by the KAERI-BNL collaboration for 32 fission products. These were {sup 95}Mo, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, and complete isotope chains of {sup 142-148,150}Nd, {sup 144,147,148-154}Sm, and {sup 156,158,160-164}Dy. The evaluations cover a large amount of reaction channels, including all those needed for neutronics calculations. Also, they cover the entire energy range, from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV, including the thermal, resolved, and unresolved resonance regions, and the fast neutron region.

  3. Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Manies, K.L.; Warren, R.W.; Bostick, K.V.; Trujillo, G.; Kent, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE's radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate

  4. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  5. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, C. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bueno, M.I.M.S. [Chemistry Institute, Unicamp, Campinas (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [National Museum, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil) using EDXRF technique. The XRF system used in this work consists in a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC, with resolution of 180 eV, at 5.9 keV, and a mini X-ray tube with Mo anode. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to evaluated the provenance of the samples.

  6. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; Bueno, M. I. M. S.; Lima, T. A.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-10-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajó Island (at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil) using EDXRF technique. The XRF system used in this work consists in a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC, with resolution of 180 eV, at 5.9 keV, and a mini X-ray tube with Mo anode. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to evaluated the provenance of the samples.

  7. Focusing on Concepts by Covering Them Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2017-05-01

    "Parallel" pedagogy covers the four mechanics concepts of momentum, energy, forces, and kinematics simultaneously instead of building each concept on an understanding of the previous one. Course content is delivered through interactive videos, allowing class time for group work and student-centered activities. We start with simple examples, building complexity throughout the course with the introduction of springs, two dimensions, vectors, energy diagrams, universal gravitation, and rotation. Success means that students ponder underlying physics concepts rather than hunt for formulas. Surveys indicate that students accept this learning model well and have considerable improvement in applied conceptual understanding.

  8. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage areas for mercury-containing wastes. (2) The mercury recovery facility designates an affected... recovery facility, as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (1) The mercury cell chlor-alkali.... This subpart covers mercury emissions from by-product hydrogen streams, end box ventilation system...

  9. 20 CFR 416.586 - Tax refund insufficient to cover amount of overpayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax refund insufficient to cover amount of overpayment. 416.586 Section 416.586 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payment of Benefits, Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.586...

  10. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... regulations. B. What is the effect of voluntary registration under section 4205? Unlike chain retail food... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0371] Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and Vending Machine...

  11. 31 CFR 363.134 - What regulations cover a certificate of indebtedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of indebtedness? 363.134 Section 363.134 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Certificate of Indebtedness § 363.134 What regulations cover a certificate of indebtedness? The regulations in part 363 apply to a certificate of indebtedness...

  12. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently or...

  13. 42 CFR 50.404 - What disputes are covered by these procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What disputes are covered by these procedures? 50.404 Section 50.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Public Health Service Grant Appeals Procedure § 50.404 What disputes are...

  14. 30 CFR 253.10 - What facilities does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What facilities does this part cover? 253.10 Section 253.10 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.10 What...

  15. 22 CFR 208.215 - Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions? 208.215 Section 208.215 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... to regulate public health, safety, or the environment, unless the U.S. Agency for International...

  16. 37 CFR 201.11 - Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satellite carrier statements... PROVISIONS § 201.11 Satellite carrier statements of account covering statutory licenses for secondary... royalty fees in the Copyright Office as required by the satellite carrier license of section 119(b)(1) of...

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.5 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this part cover? 102-192.5 Section 102-192.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT...

  18. 19 CFR 173.5 - Review of entry covering household or personal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review of entry covering household or personal effects. 173.5 Section 173.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... authority to grant. Where the port director has no authority to grant the waiver, the application shall be...

  19. 41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.180 Section 102-3.180 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL 3-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT How Does This...

  20. 20 CFR 1002.260 - What pension benefit plans are covered under USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What pension benefit plans are covered under USERRA? 1002.260 Section 1002.260 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994...

  1. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. On the Structure of Covers of Sofic Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rune

    2011-01-01

    A canonical cover generalizing the left Fischer cover to arbitrary sofic shifts is introduced and used to prove that the left Krieger cover and the past set cover of a sofic shift can be divided into natural layers. These results are used to find the range of a flow-invariant and to investigate t...

  3. 37 CFR 3.31 - Cover sheet content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the cover sheet must either: (i) Place a symbol comprised of letters, numbers, and/or punctuation... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cover sheet content. 3.31... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Cover Sheet Requirements § 3.31 Cover sheet...

  4. Lock-in thermography of OLEDs through cover glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lovera, T.; Van der Tempel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many photovoltaic cells and OLEDs are covered by cover glass or foil to protect the device against oxygen and moisture. The cover glassor foil is semitransparent for infrared radiation and conducts the heat and blurs lock-in thermograms. In lock-in thermograms of OLEDs with cover glass short

  5. Glass microspheres covering film: first field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, G.; Filippi, F.

    2006-01-01

    A trial was carried out to evaluate, in the North-Centre of Italy, the behaviour in field of a new plastic covering film, prepared with the inclusion of empty glass microspheres (Solex). The trial was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The new film was compared to a covering film with the same optical (diffuse light) and constitutional (co-extruded three layers EVA-WPE) characteristics. Since the first results, the innovative film showed a better behaviour than the control one. It presented light and thermal conditions (lower temperature during the day and slightly higher temperature in the night, compared to the control film) that allowed a better growth and yield than the control film. The growth analysis of tomato showed that plants grown under glass microsphere film had an higher growth rate (dry weight/days) and thickness of leaves compared to the control one. The yield of tomato and eggplant presented an increase in plants cultivated under the innovative film, especially for number and weight of fruits. The commercial quality did not show any differences between the films, except for the flesh hardness of tomato: this could be explained with the fact that the glass microspheres film provides environmental conditions avoiding plant stress during some stages of its cycle [it

  6. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  7. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  8. Hydrological impacts of global land cover change and human water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Bosmans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts on global terrestrial hydrology have been accelerating during the 20th century. These human impacts include the effects of reservoir building and human water use, as well as land cover change. To date, many global studies have focussed on human water use, but only a few focus on or include the impact of land cover change. Here we use PCR-GLOBWB, a combined global hydrological and water resources model, to assess the impacts of land cover change as well as human water use globally in different climatic zones. Our results show that land cover change has a strong effect on the global hydrological cycle, on the same order of magnitude as the effect of human water use (applying irrigation, abstracting water, for industrial use for example, including reservoirs, etc.. When globally averaged, changing the land cover from that of 1850 to that of 2000 increases discharge through reduced evapotranspiration. The effect of land cover change shows large spatial variability in magnitude and sign of change depending on, for example, the specific land cover change and climate zone. Overall, land cover effects on evapotranspiration are largest for the transition of tall natural vegetation to crops in energy-limited equatorial and warm temperate regions. In contrast, the inclusion of irrigation, water abstraction and reservoirs reduces global discharge through enhanced evaporation over irrigated areas and reservoirs as well as through water consumption. Hence, in some areas land cover change and water distribution both reduce discharge, while in other areas the effects may partly cancel out. The relative importance of both types of impacts varies spatially across climatic zones. From this study we conclude that land cover change needs to be considered when studying anthropogenic impacts on water resources.

  9. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  10. Ethics in the Accounting Curriculum: What Is Really Being Covered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William F.; Becker, D'Arcy A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of ethics integration across the accounting curriculum, analyzing the quantity, methods and topics included in coverage. Results of a survey of U.S. accounting faculty from 44 states and 97 different institutions on these issues are presented. The study is broken into two sections: the actual level of ethics…

  11. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  12. Fully covered stents versus partially covered stents for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Lárraga, J O; Flores Carmona, D Y; Hernández Guerrero, A; Ramírez Solís, M E; de la Mora Levy, J G; Sánchez Del Monte, J C

    2018-02-26

    Malignant dysphagia is difficulty swallowing resulting from esophageal obstruction due to cancer. The goal of palliative treatment is to reduce the dysphagia and improve oral dietary intake. Self-expandable metallic stents are the current treatment of choice, given that they enable the immediate restoration of oral intake. The aim of the present study was to describe the results of using totally covered and partially covered esophageal stents for palliating esophageal cancer. A retrospective study was conducted on patients with inoperable esophageal cancer treated with self-expandable metallic stents. The 2 groups formed were: group A, which consisted of patients with a fully covered self-expandable stent (SX-ELLA ® ), and group B, which was made up of patients with a partially covered self-expandable stent (Ultraflex ® ). Of the 69-patient total, 50 were included in the study. Group A had 19 men and 2 women and their mean age was 63.6 years (range 41-84). Technical success was achieved in 100% (n=21) of the cases and clinical success in 90.4% (n=19). Group B had 24 men and 5 women and their mean age was 67.5 years (range 43-92). Technical success was achieved in 100% (n=29) of the cases and clinical success in 89.6% (n=26). Complications were similar in both groups (33.3 vs. 51.7%). There was no difference between the 2 types of stent for the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer with respect to technical success, clinical success, or complications. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. LHC beampipe section

    CERN Multimedia

    A short section of the LHC beam-pipe including beam screen. In the LHC, particles circulate under vacuum. The vacuum chamber can be at room temperature (for example, in the experimental areas), or at cryogenic temperature, in the superconductive magnets. This piece is located in the superconductive magnets. The outer pipe is the vacuum chamber, which is in contact with the magnets, at cryogenic temperature (1.9K). It is called the “cold bore”. The inner tube is the beam screen. Its main goal is to protect the magnets from the heat load coming from the synchrotron radiation. Indeed, when high energy protons’ trajectory is bent, photons are emitted by the beam. They are intercepted by the beam screen. The temperature of the beam screen is kept between 5 and 20K by a circulation of gaseous helium in the small pipes on both sides of the beam screen. As those surfaces are at cryogenic temperature. The residual gas present in the accelerator is sticking on the surfaces. This phenomenon called “adsorption”...

  14. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  15. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  16. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wenzhong; Zhang, Xiaokang; Hao, Ming; Shao, Pan; Cai, Liping; Lyu, Xuzhe

    2015-01-01

    Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. ...

  17. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... act; (ii) Sabotage, or international terrorism; or (iii) Clandestine intelligence activities..., only when the releasing official is satisfied that an emergency situation exists. (f)(1) Exceptions. A... conclusive and not subject to further administrative review. (k) Military postal system. Section 233.3 does...

  18. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  19. Image based book cover recognition and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhadan, Kalyani; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, A.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this we are developing a graphical user interface using MATLAB for the users to check the information related to books in real time. We are taking the photos of the book cover using GUI, then by using MSER algorithm it will automatically detect all the features from the input image, after this it will filter bifurcate non-text features which will be based on morphological difference between text and non-text regions. We implemented a text character alignment algorithm which will improve the accuracy of the original text detection. We will also have a look upon the built in MATLAB OCR recognition algorithm and an open source OCR which is commonly used to perform better detection results, post detection algorithm is implemented and natural language processing to perform word correction and false detection inhibition. Finally, the detection result will be linked to internet to perform online matching. More than 86% accuracy can be obtained by this algorithm.

  20. Dimer Coverings on Random Polyomino Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuanqi; Chen, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    A polyomino chain is a planar square lattice that can be constructed by successively attaching squares to the previous one in two possible ways. A random polyomino chain is then generated by incorporating the Bernoulli distribution to the two types of attachment, which describes a zeroth-order Markov process. Let (ℜn, p) be the ensemble of random polyomino chains with n squares, where p∈[0,1] is a constant. Then, in this paper, we determine the explicit expression for the expectation of the number of dimer coverings over (ℜn, p). Our result shows that, with only one exception, i.e., p = 0, the average of the logarithm of this expectation is asymptotically nonzero when n → ∞.

  1. PROTECTIVELY COVERED ARTICLE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plott, R.F.

    1958-10-28

    A method of casting a protective jacket about a ura nium fuel element that will bond completely to the uranium without the use of stringers or supports that would ordinarily produce gaps in the cast metal coating and bond is presented. Preformed endcaps of alumlnum alloyed with 13% silicon are placed on the ends of the uranium fuel element. These caps will support the fuel element when placed in a mold. The mold is kept at a ing alloy but below that of uranium so the cast metal jacket will fuse with the endcaps forming a complete covering and bond to the fuel element, which would otherwise oxidize at the gaps or discontinuities lefi in the coating by previous casting methods.

  2. Selective covers for natural cooling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addeo, A.; Monza, E.; Peraldo, M.; Bartoli, B.; Coluzzi, B.; Silvestrini, V.; Troise, G.

    1978-01-01

    Extra-atmospheric space is practically a pure sink of radiation, and can be used as a nonconventional energy source. In previous papers it has been shown that surfaces with an emissivity matched with the atmospheric (8/13)μm ''transparency window'' (natural emitters) interact with cold space when exposed to clear sky at night, and undergo a sizable cooling effect. In this paper, starting from experimental results concerning the diurnal performances of natural emitters, the problem of their interaction with solar radiation is discussed, and the use is proposed of selective covers which shade the emitter from solar radiation, without preventing the interaction with cold space via emission of infra-red radiation. (author)

  3. SOIL COVER IN TUTOVA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a monographic presentation of the soils from the Tutova drainage basin. The analysis of the pedogeographic assemblage was performed based on the soil surveys of the territories corresponding to Tutova’s drainage basin, and completed with field research. The taxonomic classification was done in accordance with the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (2003 and the soil map was created at a 1:25.000 scale. The zonal soils dominate the region; the Chernisols are on the first rank with a share of 39.95%, followed by Luvisols with a percent of 27.62%. Among the soils with an azonal and intrazonal character, the entic soils are dominant (21.90%, followed by Anthrosols (8.89% and by Hydrisols (1.64%.

  4. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  5. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  7. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  8. Pollen of Hawaiian Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) including notes on Southeast Asian taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luegmayr, Eva

    1993-01-01

    Pollen of 30 species and 12 hybrids (88 samples in total) of Hawaiian Cyrtandra, covering all 6 sections recognized on the Hawaiian archipelago, was examined using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Hawaiian Cyrtandra is stenopalynous. The pollen grains are binucleate, isopolar,

  9. 78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... attachments, on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or section 210.8(b) filing. Comments should...'') in a prominent place on the cover page and/or the first page. (See Handbook for Electronic Filing... Secretary (202-205-2000). \\4\\ Handbook for Electronic Filing Procedures: http://www.usitc.gov/secretary/fed...

  10. MODIS Snow Cover Recovery Using Variational Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud obscuration is one of the major problems that limit the usages of satellite images in general and in NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global Snow-Covered Area (SCA) products in particular. Among the approaches to resolve the problem, the Variational Interpolation (VI) algorithm method, proposed by Xia et al., 2012, obtains cloud-free dynamic SCA images from MODIS. This method is automatic and robust. However, computational deficiency is a main drawback that degrades applying the method for larger scales (i.e., spatial and temporal scales). To overcome this difficulty, this study introduces an improved version of the original VI. The modified VI algorithm integrates the MINimum RESidual (MINRES) iteration (Paige and Saunders., 1975) to prevent the system from breaking up when applied to much broader scales. An experiment was done to demonstrate the crash-proof ability of the new algorithm in comparison with the original VI method, an ability that is obtained when maintaining the distribution of the weights set after solving the linear system. After that, the new VI algorithm was applied to the whole Contiguous United States (CONUS) over four winter months of 2016 and 2017, and validated using the snow station network (SNOTEL). The resulting cloud free images have high accuracy in capturing the dynamical changes of snow in contrast with the MODIS snow cover maps. Lastly, the algorithm was applied to create a Cloud free images dataset from March 10, 2000 to February 28, 2017, which is able to provide an overview of snow trends over CONUS for nearly two decades. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to acknowledge NASA, NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) National Weather Service (NWS), Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS), Army Research Office (ARO), ICIWaRM, and UNESCO for supporting this research.

  11. Covering materials used in protected agriculture; Nogyoyo hifuku shizai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Y.

    1998-03-01

    Forty and a few years have passed away since the start of facilities agriculture using plastic covering materials. The facilities have been divided into heavily equipped type and simplified type. The former includes heating, ventilation, irrigation water, and nutritious solution culture facilities. The latter includes pipe house, tunnel, and rain shelter facilities. For the heavily equipped type, all season, long life-time and large-scale facilities have been diffused. Hard plates and hard films with durability equivalent to glass are used. Especially, utilization of hard films has been increased, recently. Soft films are also widely used for heavily equipped type facilities in spite of their disadvantage of taking large labor for renewal. However, enhancement of durability is also required for the soft films. Their life-time has become five years from the former one or two years. The significant problem of covering materials is the treatment of used plastics. Measures for enhancing the reproduction have been promoted. Furthermore, the development of naturally decomposed materials with biological and optical degradation properties has been also promoted. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B.; McElroy, D.

    1998-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data

  13. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

  14. Land Cover Differences in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-02-09

    Land cover characterization might help land managers assess the impacts of management practices and land cover change on attributes linked to the maintenance and/or recovery of soil quality. However, connections between land cover and measures of soil quality are not well established. The objective of this limited investigation was to examine differences in soil carbon and nitrogen among various land cover types at Fort Benning, Georgia. Forty-one sampling sites were classified into five major land cover types: deciduous forest, mixed forest, evergreen forest or plantation, transitional herbaceous vegetation, and barren land. Key measures of soil quality (including mineral soil density, nitrogen availability, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, as well as properties and chemistry of the O-horizon) were significantly different among the five land covers. In general, barren land had the poorest soil quality. Barren land, created through disturbance by tracked vehicles and/or erosion, had significantly greater soil density and a substantial loss of carbon and nitrogen relative to soils at less disturbed sites. We estimate that recovery of soil carbon under barren land at Fort Benning to current day levels under transitional vegetation or forests would require about 60 years following reestablishment of vegetation. Maps of soil carbon and nitrogen were produced for Fort Benning based on a 1999 land cover map and field measurements of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under different land cover categories.

  15. Evaluation of Cross-Section Sensitivities in Computing Burnup Credit Fission Product Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interim Staff Guidance 8 (ISG-8) for burnup credit covers actinides only, a position based primarily on the lack of definitive critical experiments and adequate radiochemical assay data that can be used to quantify the uncertainty associated with fission product credit. The accuracy of fission product neutron cross sections is paramount to the accuracy of criticality analyses that credit fission products in two respects: (1) the microscopic cross sections determine the reactivity worth of the fission products in spent fuel and (2) the cross sections determine the reaction rates during irradiation and thus influence the accuracy of predicted final concentrations of the fission products in the spent fuel. This report evaluates and quantifies the importance of the fission product cross sections in predicting concentrations of fission products proposed for use in burnup credit. The study includes an assessment of the major fission products in burnup credit and their production precursors. Finally, the cross-section importances, or sensitivities, are combined with the importance of each major fission product to the system eigenvalue (k eff ) to determine the net importance of cross sections to k eff . The importances established the following fission products, listed in descending order of priority, that are most likely to benefit burnup credit when their cross-section uncertainties are reduced: 151 Sm, 103 Rh, 155 Eu, 150 Sm, 152 Sm, 153 Eu, 154 Eu, and 143 Nd

  16. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  17. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  18. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...

  19. 34 CFR 661.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 661.20 Section 661.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM How Does One Apply for a...

  20. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES PROGRAM...

  1. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  2. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  3. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  4. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas

  5. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines satellite data used to construct mean snow cover caps for the Northern Hemisphere. The zonally averaged snow cover from these maps is used to calculate the seasonal cycle of zonally averaged surface albedo. The effects of meltwater on the surface, solar zenith angle, and cloudiness are parameterized and included in the calculations of snow and ice albedo. The data allows a calculation of surface albedo for any land or ocean 10 deg latitude band as a function of surface temperature ice and snow cover; the correct determination of the ice boundary is more important than the snow boundary for accurately simulating the ice and snow albedo feedback.

  6. Decree 2177/1967 of 22 June approving the Regulations on cover for nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of Section 45 of the 1964 Act on nuclear energy. It contains provisions on third party liability for nuclear damage, the type of security to cover such liability and State intervention in compensating nuclear damage. The Decree was amended by two Decrees of 28 March 1968 and 7 November 1968 respectively. In particular, the latter Decree implements the provisions of the Paris Convention, ratified by Spain and fixes cover for nuclear risks at 350 million pesetas. (NEA) [fr

  7. In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided

  8. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  9. Comparison of two Classification methods (MLC and SVM) to extract land use and land cover in Johor Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deilmai, B Rokni; Ahmad, B Bin; Zabihi, H

    2014-01-01

    Mapping is essential for the analysis of the land use and land cover, which influence many environmental processes and properties. For the purpose of the creation of land cover maps, it is important to minimize error. These errors will propagate into later analyses based on these land cover maps. The reliability of land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data depends on an accurate classification. In this study, we have analyzed multispectral data using two different classifiers including Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). To pursue this aim, Landsat Thematic Mapper data and identical field-based training sample datasets in Johor Malaysia used for each classification method, which results indicate in five land cover classes forest, oil palm, urban area, water, rubber. Classification results indicate that SVM was more accurate than MLC. With demonstrated capability to produce reliable cover results, the SVM methods should be especially useful for land cover classification

  10. Scientific computations section monthly report, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1993-12-30

    This progress report from the Savannah River Technology Center contains abstracts from papers from the computational modeling, applied statistics, applied physics, experimental thermal hydraulics, and packaging and transportation groups. Specific topics covered include: engineering modeling and process simulation, criticality methods and analysis, plutonium disposition.

  11. READING MATERIAL IN KANNADA, SECTION I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRISHNAMURTHI, M. G.; MCCORMACK, W.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS THE FIRST OF A THREE-VOLUME SERIES (ED 010 343 TO ED 010 345) COVERING A VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS IN KANNADA, A PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE OF THE MYSORE STATE IN INDIA. INCLUDED IN VOLUME 1 ARE (1) AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CULTURE AND LITERARY TRADITION OF MYSORE (IN ENGLISH) AND (2) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE POLITICAL LEADERS,…

  12. READING MATERIAL IN KANNADA, SECTION III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, W.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS THE THIRD OF A THREE-VOLUME SERIES (ED 010 343 TO ED 010 345) COVERING A VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS IN KANNADA, A PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE OF THE MYSORE STATE IN INDIA. INCLUDED IN VOLUME 3 ARE (1) BIOGRAPHIES OF MODERN KANNADA WRITERS AND LITERATURE SELECTIONS, (2) CLASSICAL POETRY IN MODERN KANNADA TRANSLATION, (3) SOME KANNADA…

  13. READING MATERIAL IN KANNADA, SECTION II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G.; MCCORMACK, W.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS THE SECOND OF A THREE-VOLUME SERIES (ED 010 343 TO ED 010 345) COVERING A VARIETY OF READING MATERIALS IN KANNADA, A PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE OF THE MYSORE STATE IN INDIA. INCLUDED IN VOLUME 2 ARE (1) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS IN MYSORE (CONTINUED FROM VOLUME 1), (2) SELECTIONS FROM MODERN KANNADA WRITINGS AND…

  14. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  15. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  16. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  17. Delivery by Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Delivery by Cesarean Section Page Content Article Body More ... mother has had a previous baby by Cesarean delivery The obstetrician feels that the baby’s health might ...

  18. Dynamics of contracting surfactant-covered filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pritish; Thete, Sumeet; Xu, Qi; Basaran, Osman

    2013-11-01

    When drops are produced from a nozzle, a thin liquid thread connects the primary drop that is about to form to the rest of the liquid in the nozzle. Often, the thread becomes disconnected from both the primary drop and the remnant liquid mass hanging from the nozzle and thereby gives rise to a free filament. Due to surface tension, the free filament then contracts or recoils. During recoil, the filament can either contract into a single satellite droplet or break up into several small satellites. Such satellite droplets are undesirable in applications where they can, for example, cause misting in a manufacturing environment and mar product quality in ink-jet printing. In many applications, the filaments are coated with a monolayer of surfactant. In this work, we study the dynamics of contraction of slender filaments of a Newtonian fluid that are covered with a monolayer of surfactant when the surrounding fluid is a passive gas. Taking advantage of the fact that the filaments are long and slender, we use a 1D-slender-jet approximation of the governing system of equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes system and the convection-diffusion equation for surfactant transport. We solve the 1D system of equations by a finite element based numerical method.

  19. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased

  20. Principles and practices of using cover crops in weed management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Teasdale, J.

    2003-01-01

    Metadata only record Cover crops are plant species that are introduced into crop rotations to provide beneficial services to the agro-ecosystem. Some of the most important environmental services provided by cover crops include soil protection from erosion, capture and prevention of soil nutrient losses, fixation of nitrogen by legumes, increase in soil carbon and associated improvements in soil physical and chemical characteristics, decrease in soil temperature, increase in biological dive...

  1. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile

  2. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,

    1998-01-01

    As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

  3. Land cover change using an energy transition paradigm in a statistical mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Daniel S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper explores a statistical mechanics approach as a means to better understand specific land cover changes on a continental scale. Integrated assessment models are used to calculate the impact of anthropogenic emissions via the coupling of technoeconomic and earth/atmospheric system models and they have often overlooked or oversimplified the evolution of land cover change. Different time scales and the uncertainties inherent in long term projections of land cover make their coupling to integrated assessment models difficult. The mainstream approach to land cover modelling is rule-based methodology and this necessarily implies that decision mechanisms are often removed from the physical geospatial realities, therefore a number of questions remain: How much of the predictive power of land cover change can be linked to the physical situation as opposed to social and policy realities? Can land cover change be understood using a statistical approach that includes only economic drivers and the availability of resources? In this paper, we use an energy transition paradigm as a means to predict this change. A cost function is applied to developed land covers for urban and agricultural areas. The counting of area is addressed using specific examples of a Pólya process involving Maxwell-Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein statistics. We apply an iterative counting method and compare the simulated statistics with fractional land cover data with a multi-national database. An energy level paradigm is used as a basis in a flow model for land cover change. The model is compared with tabulated land cover change in Europe for the period 1990-2000. The model post-predicts changes for each nation. When strong extraneous factors are absent, the model shows promise in reproducing data and can provide a means to test hypothesis for the standard rules-based algorithms.

  4. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for a carrier's day-to-day interstate operations. Class A carriers may calculate a cash working capital... study or using the formula in paragraph (e) of this section, may calculate the cash working capital...

  5. IRSeL-An approach to enhance continuity and accuracy of remotely sensed land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathjens, H.; Dörnhöfer, K.; Oppelt, N.

    2014-09-01

    Land cover data gives the opportunity to study interactions between land cover status and environmental issues such as hydrologic processes, soil properties, or biodiversity. Land cover data often are based on classification of remote sensing data that seldom provides the requisite accuracy, spatial availability and temporal observational frequency for environmental studies. Thus, there is a high demand for accurate and spatio-temporal complete time series of land cover. In the past considerable research was undertaken to increase land cover classification accuracy, while less effort was spent on interpolation techniques. The purpose of this article is to present a space-time interpolation and revision approach for remotely sensed land cover data. The approach leverages special properties known for agricultural areas such as crop rotations or temporally static land cover classes. The newly developed IRSeL-tool (Interpolation and improvement of Remotely Sensed Land cover) corrects classification errors and interpolates missing land cover pixels. The easy-to-use tool solely requires an initial land cover data set. The IRSeL specific interpolation and revision technique, the data input requirements and data output structure are described in detail. A case study in an area around the city of Neumünster in Northern Germany from 2006 to 2012 was performed for IRSeL validation with initial land cover data sets (Landsat TM image classifications) for the years 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results of the case study showed that IRSeL performs well; including years with no classification data overall accuracy values for IRSeL interpolated pixels range from 0.63 to 0.81. IRSeL application significantly increases the accuracy of the land cover data; overall accuracy values rise 0.08 in average resulting in overall accuracy values of at least 0.86. Considering estimated reliabilities, the IRSeL tool provides a temporally and spatially completed and revised land cover

  6. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods and...

  7. Assessment of the cover effect in trawl codend selectivity experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René

    2002-01-01

    rig in the Baltic cod fishery. Kites were attached to the cover to maintain a,good clearance from the codend meshes. The analysis of the data followed the general SELECT approach adapted to fit the particular conditions of the experiment. Selection curves for the two codends were fitted simultaneously......The covered codend technique is widely used to estimate codend selectivity Curves. The codend cover may, however, influence the codend selectivity. In this experiment, a codend fitted with a square mesh window and surrounded by a cover was tested against a similar uncovered codend in a twin trawl...... to the catch data and compared. The selectivity of the codend with cover was determined by the covered codend method and that of the uncovered codend effectively determined by the twin trawl method. It was estimated that 21% fewer cod entered the codend with cover than the codend without cover. The estimated...

  8. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of...

  9. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  10. Land cover change and soil fertility decline in tropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Veldkamp, A.; Bai, Zhanguo

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes influence the biogeochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the earth. Studies that assessed land cover changes at the global scale mostly focused on: deforestation, cropland expansion, dry land degradation, urbanisation, pasture expansion, and agricultural intensification. For the

  11. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Climate and Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Climate and Land Cover provides data and information on global gridded climatological variables, global land cover maps, and...

  12. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of which 20 are...

  13. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional...

  14. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods...

  15. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  17. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  18. OSMOSE: An experimental program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudelot, J. P.; Klann, R.; Fougeras, P.; Jorion, F.; Drin, N.; Donnet, L.

    2004-01-01

    The accurate integral cross sectional reaction rates in representative spectra for the actinides are discussed at OSMOSE program. The first step in obtaining better nuclear data consists of measuring accurate integral data and comparing it to integrated energy dependent data: this comparison provides a direct assessment of the effect of deficiencies in the differential data. The OSMOSE program includes a complete analytical program associated with experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving discrepancies between calculated and measured values. The measurement covers a wide range of neutron spectra, from over-moderate thermal spectra to fast spectra. (authors)

  19. Electron-Impact Excitation Cross Sections for Modeling Non-Equilibrium Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Munafo, Alessandro; Wray, Alan; Carbon, Duane F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a database for modeling hypersonic entry in a partially ionized gas under non-equilibrium, the electron-impact excitation cross sections of atoms have been calculated using perturbation theory. The energy levels covered in the calculation are retrieved from the level list in the HyperRad code. The downstream flow-field is determined by solving a set of continuity equations for each component. The individual structure of each energy level is included. These equations are then complemented by the Euler system of equations. Finally, the radiation field is modeled by solving the radiative transfer equation.

  20. Air plasma treatment of liquid covered tissue: long timescale chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietz, Amanda M; Kushner, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for the treatment of wounds and cancerous tumors. In these applications, the sample is usually covered by a thin layer of a biological liquid. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by the plasma activate and are processed by the liquid before the plasma produced activation reaches the tissue. The synergy between the plasma and the liquid, including evaporation and the solvation of ions and neutrals, is critical to understanding the outcome of plasma treatment. The atmospheric pressure plasma sources used in these procedures are typically repetitively pulsed. The processes activated by the plasma sources have multiple timescales—from a few ns during the discharge pulse to many minutes for reactions in the liquid. In this paper we discuss results from a computational investigation of plasma–liquid interactions and liquid phase chemistry using a global model with the goal of addressing this large dynamic range in timescales. In modeling air plasmas produced by a dielectric barrier discharge over liquid covered tissue, 5000 voltage pulses were simulated, followed by 5 min of afterglow. Due to the accumulation of long-lived species such as ozone and N x O y , the gas phase dynamics of the 5000th discharge pulse are different from those of the first pulse, particularly with regards to the negative ions. The consequences of applied voltage, gas flow, pulse repetition frequency, and the presence of organic molecules in the liquid on the gas and liquid reactive species are discussed. (paper)

  1. Air plasma treatment of liquid covered tissue: long timescale chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for the treatment of wounds and cancerous tumors. In these applications, the sample is usually covered by a thin layer of a biological liquid. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by the plasma activate and are processed by the liquid before the plasma produced activation reaches the tissue. The synergy between the plasma and the liquid, including evaporation and the solvation of ions and neutrals, is critical to understanding the outcome of plasma treatment. The atmospheric pressure plasma sources used in these procedures are typically repetitively pulsed. The processes activated by the plasma sources have multiple timescales—from a few ns during the discharge pulse to many minutes for reactions in the liquid. In this paper we discuss results from a computational investigation of plasma-liquid interactions and liquid phase chemistry using a global model with the goal of addressing this large dynamic range in timescales. In modeling air plasmas produced by a dielectric barrier discharge over liquid covered tissue, 5000 voltage pulses were simulated, followed by 5 min of afterglow. Due to the accumulation of long-lived species such as ozone and N x O y , the gas phase dynamics of the 5000th discharge pulse are different from those of the first pulse, particularly with regards to the negative ions. The consequences of applied voltage, gas flow, pulse repetition frequency, and the presence of organic molecules in the liquid on the gas and liquid reactive species are discussed.

  2. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  3. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  4. Concrete Cover Influence on Inelastic Buckling of Longitudinal Reinforcing Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korentz, Jacek; Kucharczyk, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical analyses of post yielding behaviour of compressed reinforcing bars, taking into account the impact of concrete cover on static equilibrium path. Concrete cover was modelled as a transverse ties with characteristics like for the tensioned concrete. The calculations were performed for various parameters of concrete cover and bar slenderness, with the use commercial system Abaqus/CAE. The results of analysis showed that the concrete cover has a significant impact on inelastic buckling of reinforcing bars.

  5. 16 CFR 460.3 - Who is covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.3 Who is covered. You are covered by this regulation if you are a member of the home.... Advertisers and advertising agencies are also covered. So are labs doing tests for industry members. If you...

  6. A suggestion for planning cover crop mixtures: zones of occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers may be able to improve the competitiveness of cover crop mixtures by selecting species to occupy zones in the cover crop canopy. This suggestion is based on a study where we compared four cover crop treatments, 1, 3, 6, and 9 species mixtures, for biomass production. Treatments were est...

  7. Resonance September 2012 Cover Revised 07.09.12 Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. At Right Angles. 920. Shailesh A Shirali. Inside Back Cover. Science Academies' Refresher Course on 'Traditional 921 and Modern Approaches in Plant Taxonomy. Flowering Trees. Credit: Navendu Page, llSc. Front Cover. ROM a'E. Graeco-Latin Square. See p.820 for description. Back Cover.

  8. 16 CFR 501.5 - Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.5 Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases. Table covers, bedsheets, and pillowcases, fabricated from paper, are exempt from the requirements of § 500.12 of this...

  9. Examination of the relationship between vegetation cover indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods adopted for data collection are field observation and measurement of variables along twelve transects, using the following indices; size of surface cover, tree crown fullness, area covered by litters, tree density and leaf cover index. The physical measurements were carried out on each transect of 50m by 500m.

  10. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Interaction effects of planting date and cover crop species on cover crop dry weight at termination in Eastern Cape. Province, South Africa. Cover crop dry weight (kg ha. -1. ) 0. 1000. 2000. 3000. 4000. 5000. 6000. 7000. 8000. Barley. Oats. Radish. Rye. Triticale. Vetch. February planted. March planted. April planted. LSD.

  11. Scalability and Total Recall with Fast CoveringLSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Ninh Dang; Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the applicability of LSH in settings requiring precise performance guarantees. Building on the recent theoretical "CoveringLSH" construction that eliminates false negatives, we propose a fast and practical covering LSH scheme for Hamming space called Fast CoveringLSH (fcLSH). Inheriting the design benefits...

  12. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  13. Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnaugh, Linda S.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use geometric figures, rep-tiles, to design a tile floor. Rep-tiles are geometric figures of which copies can fit together to form a larger similar figure. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  14. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction problems; (ii) Labor-management disputes; (iii) The sponsor's failure to perform inspections... of the advanced nuclear facility. (3) Normal business risks, including but not limited to the...) Supplier or subcontractor delays in performance; (vi) Litigation, whether initiated by the sponsor or...

  15. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  18. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  19. SCaMF–RM: A Fused High-Resolution Land Cover Product of the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rodríguez-Jeangros

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover (LC products, derived primarily from satellite spectral imagery, are essential inputs for environmental studies because LC is a critical driver of processes involved in hydrology, ecology, and climatology, among others. However, existing LC products each have different temporal and spatial resolutions and different LC classes that rarely provide the detail required by these studies. Using multiple existing LC products, we implement our Spatiotemporal Categorical Map Fusion (SCaMF methodology over a large region of the Rocky Mountains (RM, encompassing sections of six states, to create a new LC product, SCaMF–RM. To do this, we must adapt SCaMF to address the prediction of LC in large space–time regions that present nonstationarities, and we add more flexibility in the LC classifications of the predicted product. SCaMF–RM is produced at two high spatial resolutions, 30 and 50 m, and a yearly frequency for the 30-year period 1983–2012. When multiple products are available in time, we illustrate how SCaMF–RM captures relevant information from the different LC products and improves upon flaws observed in other products. Future work needed includes an exhaustive validation not only of SCaMF–RM but also of all input LC products.

  20. SCaMF–RM: A Fused High-Resolution Land Cover Product of the Rocky Mountains

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Jeangros, Nicolás

    2017-10-02

    Land cover (LC) products, derived primarily from satellite spectral imagery, are essential inputs for environmental studies because LC is a critical driver of processes involved in hydrology, ecology, and climatology, among others. However, existing LC products each have different temporal and spatial resolutions and different LC classes that rarely provide the detail required by these studies. Using multiple existing LC products, we implement our Spatiotemporal Categorical Map Fusion (SCaMF) methodology over a large region of the Rocky Mountains (RM), encompassing sections of six states, to create a new LC product, SCaMF–RM. To do this, we must adapt SCaMF to address the prediction of LC in large space–time regions that present nonstationarities, and we add more flexibility in the LC classifications of the predicted product. SCaMF–RM is produced at two high spatial resolutions, 30 and 50 m, and a yearly frequency for the 30-year period 1983–2012. When multiple products are available in time, we illustrate how SCaMF–RM captures relevant information from the different LC products and improves upon flaws observed in other products. Future work needed includes an exhaustive validation not only of SCaMF–RM but also of all input LC products.

  1. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  2. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  3. Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Koch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols (AAs such as black carbon (BC or dust absorb incoming solar radiation, perturb the temperature structure of the atmosphere, and influence cloud cover. Previous studies have described conditions under which AAs either increase or decrease cloud cover. The effect depends on several factors, including the altitude of the AA relative to the cloud and the cloud type. We attempt to categorize the effects into several likely regimes. Cloud cover is decreased if the AAs are embedded in the cloud layer. AAs below cloud may enhance convection and cloud cover. AAs above cloud top stabilize the underlying layer and tend to enhance stratocumulus clouds but may reduce cumulus clouds. AAs can also promote cloud cover in convergent regions as they enhance deep convection and low level convergence as it draws in moisture from ocean to land regions. Most global model studies indicate a regional variation in the cloud response but generally increased cloud cover over oceans and some land regions, with net increased low-level and/or reduced upper level cloud cover. The result is a net negative semi-direct effect feedback from the cloud response to AAs. In some of these climate model studies, the cooling effect of BC due to cloud changes is strong enough to essentially cancel the warming direct effects.

  4. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    . clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A......Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  5. A wide-range model of two-group gross sections in the dynamics code HEXTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloinen, E.; Peltonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    In dynamic analyses the thermal hydraulic conditions within the reactor core may have a large variation, which sets a special requirement on the modeling of cross sections. The standard model in the dynamics code HEXTRAN is the same as in the static design code HEXBU-3D/MODS. It is based on a linear and second order fitting of two-group cross sections on fuel and moderator temperature, moderator density and boron density. A new, wide-range model of cross sections developed in Fortum Nuclear Services for HEXBU-3D/MOD6 has been included as an option into HEXTRAN. In this model the nodal cross sections are constructed from seven state variables in a polynomial of more than 40 terms. Coefficients of the polynomial are created by a least squares fitting to the results of a large number of fuel assembly calculations. Depending on the choice of state variables for the spectrum calculations, the new cross section model is capable to cover local conditions from cold zero power to boiling at full power. The 5. dynamic benchmark problem of AER is analyzed with the new option and results are compared to calculations with the standard model of cross sections in HEXTRAN (Authors)

  6. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    purity of the final preparation. Using mini-gels (BioRad Mini-Protean II apparatus), each group can pour, run, and stain their own 8 7.3-cm gel within the lab period; destaining can be carried out at any time afterward. The main contaminating band observed is ovalbumin, at a molecular weight of 46,000. Computer Modeling Using the program Quanta (MSI, Burlington, MA) on Indigo workstations (Silicon Graphics, Hudson, MA), the students retrieve coordinates from an MSI version of the Protein Data Bank, display the structure, and rationalize what changes would occur with a mutated form of the protein. Even for those who do not have Quanta or analogous programs, structural coordinates are available through the Internet. Students are prepared for their independent use of the molecular modeling workstations through a series of tutorials during the course of the semester. These exercises require that the students become familiar with specific applications of Quanta, including setting secondary conformation and hydrogen bonds, energy calculations, selectively displaying parts of molecules, measuring interatomic distances, and editing existing proteins. This introduction to macromolecular modeling is comparable to that suggested by Harvey and Tan (17) as a brief introduction to the field. Peer Review For each writing assignment (short paper and grant proposal), one week of lab is devoted to the peer review process. Students are to come to lab with a draft of their paper and a cover letter to their reviewers, which states how far they believe they are in the writing process; what they like and don't like about their work at this stage; and in what specific areas they need help (e.g., audience level, organization, use of references). They exchange papers, reading two or three during the course of the lab period. For each paper, they fill out a peer review form, which requires that they summarize the paper; look for clarity of presentation, appropriate citations, and use of others

  7. THz TDS of substance covered by disordered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, V. A.; Zagursky, D. Y.; Zakharova, I. G.

    2016-04-01

    Computer simulation of a few-cycle pulse interaction with a substance covered by disordered structure is performed in order to study the effects imposed on spectra of transmitted and reflected pulses by presence of the cover. The substance is described by semi-classic approach and the cover is described by classic electrodynamics equations for linear isotropic medium. The cover consists of a number of layers with different properties which is considered to be the cause of the distortions. The influence of relation between pulse wavelength and cover layer thickness is illustrated. Computer simulation results are compared with those of physical experiments conducted for paper and other common materials.

  8. Tree cover changes in- and ouside protected areas in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, J.-C.

    the PAs, but they did not differ significantly from the tree cover change in the buffer zones. The average mean tree cover change for the PAs was 2.69 % and for the buffer zones was it 2.73 %. In addition, we link tree cover changes to the Human Influence Index and tested if there were a correlation......) Does the efficiency of the PAs depend on general human pressures in the region? We used a paired t-test to investigate if there was a significant change in tree cover between the protected areas and the 10-km zones surrounding them. There were both negative and positive tree cover changes inside...

  9. Metaheuristic algorithms for building Covering Arrays: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Adriana Timaná-Peña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Covering Arrays (CA are mathematical objects used in the functional testing of software components. They enable the testing of all interactions of a given size of input parameters in a procedure, function, or logical unit in general, using the minimum number of test cases. Building CA is a complex task (NP-complete problem that involves lengthy execution times and high computational loads. The most effective methods for building CAs are algebraic, Greedy, and metaheuristic-based. The latter have reported the best results to date. This paper presents a description of the major contributions made by a selection of different metaheuristics, including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, particle swarm algorithms, and harmony search algorithms. It is worth noting that simulated annealing-based algorithms have evolved as the most competitive, and currently form the state of the art.

  10. ITIL Based Service Level Management if SLAs Cover Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Feglar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Current level of information technology creates new perspectives for more IT service oriented market. Quality of these services requires slightly different approach then was applied for products including software. No IT services are delivered and supported in risk free environment. Risks would be considered consistently with IT services quality gaps from Service Level Management (SLM perspective. SLM is one of ITIL modules that are widely used within the IT service industry. We identified some weaknesses in how SLM is developed in ITIL environment if service level agreement (SLA has cover Security. We argue that in such cases Architecture modeling and risk assessment approach let us effectively control analytical effort that relates to risks identification and understanding. Risk driven countermeasures designed in a next step (Risk treatment have significant impact to the SLM especially from responsibility perspective. To demonstrate SLM's importance in real practice we analyze SLA synthesize process in CCI (Cyber Critical Infrastructure environment.

  11. The 'glass earth' - geochemical frontiers in exploration through cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.; Denton, G.; Giblin, A.; Korsch, M.; Andrew, A.; Whitford, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Glass Earth' represents a number of current and planned projects within CSIRO aimed at making 'transparent' the top 1000 m of the Earth's crust It builds upon current technologies developed within a number of CSIRO divisions as well as the Australian Mineral Exploration Technologies CRC (AMET CRC), the Australian Geodynamics CRC (AG CRC) and the CRC for Landscape Evolution and Mineral Exploration (CRC LEME). New geophysical and geochemical technologies will be developed to complement these, together with new capabilities in modelling, data integration and visualisation, including hydrogeochemistry, hydrogeology, surface geochemistry and isotope geochemistry, modelling of chemical, fluid and heat flows in rock and regolith, advanced visualisation and data fusion. This paper describes some recent work in the field of isotope geochemistry, with the principal aim of 'seeing through' cover to understand basement geology and detect hidden ore systems

  12. An assessment of support vector machines for land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Davis, L.S.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a group of theoretically superior machine learning algorithms. It was found competitive with the best available machine learning algorithms in classifying high-dimensional data sets. This paper gives an introduction to the theoretical development of the SVM and an experimental evaluation of its accuracy, stability and training speed in deriving land cover classifications from satellite images. The SVM was compared to three other popular classifiers, including the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), neural network classifiers (NNC) and decision tree classifiers (DTC). The impacts of kernel configuration on the performance of the SVM and of the selection of training data and input variables on the four classifiers were also evaluated in this experiment.

  13. Device for covering a string of pump-compressor pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Prokopov, O.I.; Rastorgyev, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invention refers to oil field equipment, and more specifically to devices for automatic coverage of the flow of gusher oil and gas wells during the development of a fire near the well. A device is described for covering the string of pump-compressor pipes which includes a housing with piston connected to the string of pump-compressor pipes, shoe, seat and assembly for fixing the piston in the upper position with heat-sensitive substance. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve reliability of its triggering when a fire develops, the assembly for fixing the piston is equipped with hydraulic cylinders whose rods are connected to the piston, and the heat sensitive substance is placed in the vessels whose cavities are connected to the above-piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinders and are connected by a common collector.

  14. Methods for converting continuous shrubland ecosystem component values to thematic National Land Cover Database classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew B.; Gass, Leila; Homer, Collin G.; Xian, George Z.

    2017-10-26

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides thematic land cover and land cover change data at 30-meter spatial resolution for the United States. Although the NLCD is considered to be the leading thematic land cover/land use product and overall classification accuracy across the NLCD is high, performance and consistency in the vast shrub and grasslands of the Western United States is lower than desired. To address these issues and fulfill the needs of stakeholders requiring more accurate rangeland data, the USGS has developed a method to quantify these areas in terms of the continuous cover of several cover components. These components include the cover of shrub, sagebrush (Artemisia spp), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.), herbaceous, annual herbaceous, litter, and bare ground, and shrub and sagebrush height. To produce maps of component cover, we collected field data that were then associated with spectral values in WorldView-2 and Landsat imagery using regression tree models. The current report outlines the procedures and results of converting these continuous cover components to three thematic NLCD classes: barren, shrubland, and grassland. To accomplish this, we developed a series of indices and conditional models using continuous cover of shrub, bare ground, herbaceous, and litter as inputs. The continuous cover data are currently available for two large regions in the Western United States. Accuracy of the “cross-walked” product was assessed relative to that of NLCD 2011 at independent validation points (n=787) across these two regions. Overall thematic accuracy of the “cross-walked” product was 0.70, compared to 0.63 for NLCD 2011. The kappa value was considerably higher for the “cross-walked” product at 0.41 compared to 0.28 for NLCD 2011. Accuracy was also evaluated relative to the values of training points (n=75,000) used in the development of the continuous cover components. Again, the “cross-walked” product outperformed NLCD

  15. Sensitivity of selected landscape pattern metrics to land-cover misclassification and differences in land-cover composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    1997-01-01

    Calculation of landscape metrics from land-cover data is becoming increasingly common. Some studies have shown that these measurements are sensitive to differences in land-cover composition, but none are known to have tested also their a sensitivity to land-cover misclassification. An error simulation model was written to test the sensitivity of selected land-scape...

  16. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  17. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  18. Non-commutative covering spaces and their symmetries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canlubo, Clarisson

    how these areclosely tied up. Coupled Hopf algebras will be presented to give a general description of coveringsof a point. We will give a complete description of the geometry of the central coverings ofcommutative spaces using the coverings of a point. A topologized version of Hopf categories willbe......The main goal of this thesis is to propose a notion analogous to covering spaces in classicalgeometry. This is motivated by the author's long term goal of dening the (etale) fundamentalgroup of a non-commutative space and put forth a good notion of monodromy.We will present a notion of a non......-commutative covering space using Galois theory of Hopfalgebroids. We will look at basic properties of classical covering spaces that generalize to thenon-commutative framework. Afterwards, we will explore a series of examples. We will startwith coverings of a point and central coverings of commutative spaces and see...

  19. Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices.

  20. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Global land cover maps are a vital source for mapping our globe into a set of thematic types. They have been extensively used as a basis layer for a large number of applications including ecosystem services, environmental planning, climate change, hydrological processes and policy making. While...... regional land cover maps for some areas such as Europe and North America has been greatly developed and very few temporal datasets exist, lack of such data for some regions specifically developing countries is evident. Although it seems global land cover maps such as MODIS could be a solution for mapping...... these regions, their coarse spatial resolution e.g., 500 m as well as their accuracy are very challenging. Recently, GlobeLand30 a global land cover with a relatively fine resolution at 30 m extracted from Landsat images has been released, which seems to be a potential dataset for mapping areas with limited...