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  1. Detailed NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and anticancer studies of compounds from the echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony D; Nielson, Jonathan L; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Ovenden, Simon P B; Kearns, Philip S; Liptrot, Catherine H

    2009-11-12

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent (13)C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  2. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  3. Quem são as crianças que se sentem gordas apesar de terem peso adequado? Who are the children with adequate weight who feel fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de crianças com peso adequado que se sentem gordas e os fatores associados a essa percepção. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal com 901 escolares, entre 8 e 11 anos, selecionados por conglomerados. As crianças tiveram peso e altura aferidos e responderam um questionário com escala de auto-estima, autopercepção do peso e percepção da expectativa dos pais e amigos em relação a seu peso. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de escolares com percentil do índice de massa corporal (IMC OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of children with adequate weight who feel fat and to examine the factors associated with this perception. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 901 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years selected by cluster sampling. The children had their weight and height measured, and answered a questionnaire that included a self-esteem scale and questions on self-perception of weight, and perception of parents' and friends' expectations regarding the child's weight. RESULTS: The prevalence of children with BMI percentile < 85 who considered themselves fat was 13%, and the variables significantly associated with this perception were: female gender (OR = 2.45; 95%CI 1.42-4.24, 11 years of age (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.13-4.89, lowest quartile of self-esteem (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.17-3.68, the perception that parents expect them to be thinner (OR = 3.00; 95%IC 1.52-5.91, and body mass index percentile (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 1.03-1.06. CONCLUSION: The perception of being fat when having adequate weight afflicts children before preadolescence, particularly girls aged 11 years, with higher body mass index, lower self-esteem, and who think their parents expect them to be thinner. Future studies should examine in depth the causes and consequences of this attitude.

  4. Comparison of MRI (including SS SE-EPI and SPIO-enhanced MRI) and FDG-PET/CT for the detection of colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenegrachts, Kenneth; de Geeter, Frank; ter Beek, Leon; Walgraeve, Natascha; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap; Rigauts, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Fluoro-18-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including unenhanced single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SS SE-EPI) and small paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhancement, were compared prospectively for detecting

  5. Adequate doctor - patient communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication process gives to physician necessary information for establishing diagnosis and prescribing therapy, and helps to a patient to gain confidence in his doctor and the prescribed treatment. The communication between doctor and his patient is enhanced by the following: openness and conscientiousness of the physician, serious approach to the patient, participation of the patient in decision-making, advanced age and higher education of the patient. On the other hand, communication is less efficient if the doctor has longer employment status, if he/her avoids disclosure of all relevant information to the patient, if he/her is emotionally separated from the patient, if the time for an encounter is limited, if the patient is passive and with unrealistic expectations, and if the doctor is expressing himself/herself unclearly. In order to improve communication with patients, doctors should follow these recommendations: keeping eye contact with a patient, releasing tension from his/her body language, taking detailed patient history with active listening and without interrupting of a patient, speaking clearly and slowly, using language understandable to a patient, treating patients with equality, disclosing all relevant information to the patient and sharing decisionmaking with the patient. Adequate communication between doctor and patient always brings better treatment outcomes.

  6. Topological insulator homojunctions including magnetic layers: the example of n-p type (n-QLs Bi.sub.2./sub.Se.sub.3./sub./Mn-Bi.sub.2./sub.Se.sub.3./sub.) heterostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vališka, M.; Warmuth, J.; Michiardi, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Ngankeu, A.S.; Holý, V.; Sechovský, V.; Springholz, G.; Bianchi, M.; Wiebe, J.; Hofmann, P.; Honolka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 26 (2016), 1-4, č. článku 262402. ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30062S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : topological insulator * Mn-Bi2Se 3 * homojunction * ARPES Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  7. Making ecological models adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David

    2018-01-01

    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  8. Update of the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Se-75 to include recent activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 75}Se by the LNE-LNHB (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    In 2006, to update their previous result of 1992, the LNE-LNHB submitted a new sample of {sup 75}Se with an activity of about 2.2 MBq to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). This comparison has the identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Se-75. The degree of equivalence between the equivalent activity measured in the SIR for the new LNE-LNHB sample and the updated key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been calculated, as have the degrees of equivalence with each of the other participants. The results are given in the form of a matrix and a graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  9. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  10. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to be included in the union's constitution and bylaws, but they must be observed. A labor... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  11. Lands adequation in Antioquia Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango T, Julio Cesar; Bacanumenth

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian government programs concerning land management and adequation began since the fifties. When basic frameworks for irrigating, flood control and drainage were initially developed. Several entities have made huge investments in land adequation, that lead to the improvement of national agriculture in plain regions such as Tolima, Boyaca, Magdalena and Valle del Cauca. During the same period the region of Antioquia did not benefit from the projects, mainly due to the lack of government policies concerning land adequation. Finally, in 1983 the Himat launched the small irrigation national program, which gave solutions for water management in several countryside regions of Antioquia. Twenty-nine small water districts are now operating accounting for 3.759 ha which cover 1.510 households. Now days, thanks to the presence of more accurate policies, is the right time to improve irrigation, flood control and drainage towards to a substantial improvement in the Antioquia agricultural sector, that allows it to overcome the challenges of the next millennium. A project called Antioquia nos une 1998-2000 addresses the importance of promoting the right agricultural structure that ensures agricultural mechanization for sustainability and irrigation. On the other hand, it determines the main resources needed to promote the initiative and points out the importance of distributing them in the basis of the needs and problems of the communities

  12. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain? ¿Se debe incluir la ecografía rectoanal como prueba diagnóstica del dolor anal crónico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Montes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP. Material and method: this is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months' duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids of any degree, perianal suppurative processes, and pelvic surgery were excluded from the study. An ALOKA ProSound SSD-4000 ultrasound console attached to a multifrequency radial transductor ASU-67 (7.5 and 10 MHz was used. Results: one patient could not tolerate the examination. In 8 patients (20% of cases alterations were detected during ultrasonography: in 4 patients (10% of the cases; 1 man and 3 women internal anal sphincter (IAS hypertrophy, and in 5 patients (4 women and 1 man a torn sphincter complex. A tear in the upper IAS canal and hypertrophy of the middle anal canal were observed in one patient (1 woman. Conclusions: ERUS is a simple, economic and useful test to study anorectal pathologies. Although in most studied cases no damage to the anal canal or rectal wall was detected, in a considerable number of patients we observed a thickening of the IAS, a probable cause of anal pain. Therefore, we understand that ERUS should be included in the study of CIAP.Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento de la ecografía rectoanal (ERA en el estudio del dolor anal crónico idiopático (DACI. Material y método: se trata de un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo en el que se han incluido 40 pacientes, 18 hombres y 22 mujeres, con edad media de 47 años, con clínica de dolor anal crónico de al menos 3 meses de evolución. A todos los pacientes se les había realizado una colonoscopia completa, en la que no se encontró anomalía que justificara la clínica. Se

  14. SE PREVENINDO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Débora Assis Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar el comportamiento de las prostitutas en relación a la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida-SIDA, así como investigar cómo se previenen de esas enfermedades. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, con enfoque cualitativo, llevada a cabo en la Asociación de las Prostitutas en Ceará, Brazil, en septiembre de 2008, a través de una encuesta con 25 prostitutas. El análisis de los datos se hizo según el análisis de contenido, después de ser agrupados en cuatro categorías: conocimiento sobre las enfermedades de transmisión sexual/SIDA; convivencia con la(s enfermedad(es; prevención de la enfermedad de transmisión sexual/SIDA; y el uso de drogas. Se concluyó que las prostitutas no usan preservativos en todas las relaciones sexuales, por lo tanto, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual representan una realidad; la desinformación sobre la(s enfermedad(es es notable; el consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas es frecuente entre ellas, factor que las expone a situaciones más vulnerables con relación al VIH/SIDA.

  15. Maternal titers after adequate syphilotherapy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; Bryant, Stefanie N; Cantey, Joseph B; McIntire, Donald D; Wendel, George D; Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to construct a timeline for nontreponemal titer decline specific to pregnancy and evaluate factors associated with inadequate decline by delivery. This was a retrospective medical records review from September 1984 to June 2011 of women diagnosed with syphilis after 18 weeks of gestation. Women were treated according to stage of syphilis per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Patients with both pretreatment and delivery titers were included for data analysis. Demographics, stage of syphilis, maternal titers, delivery, and infant outcomes were recorded. Standard statistical analyses were performed for categorical and continuous data. The titer decline was analyzed using mixed-effects regression modeling. A total of 166 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean gestational age at treatment was 29.1 ± 5 weeks, and 93 (56%) women were diagnosed with early-stage syphilis. For all stages of syphilis, maternal titers declined after syphilotherapy. Pretreatment titers were higher and declined more rapidly in primary and secondary disease than in latent-stage disease and syphilis of unknown duration. Sixty-three (38%) patients achieved a 4-fold decline by delivery. Patients without a 4-fold decline by delivery were older (24.6 vs 21.5 years; P syphilis or syphilis of unknown duration, and had less time from treatment to delivery (7.8 vs 11.1 weeks; P < .001). Maternal serologic response during pregnancy after adequate syphilotherapy varied by stage of disease. Failure to achieve a 4-fold decline in titers by delivery is more a reflection of treatment timing than of treatment failure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Infrared spectroscopic study of SO42- ions included in M‧2M‧‧(SeO4)2ṡ6H2O (Me‧ = K, NH4+; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and NH4+ ions included in K2M(XO4)2ṡ6H2O (X = S, Se; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, D.; Karadjova, V.; Stoilova, D.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Tutton compounds, M‧2M‧‧(XO4)2ṡ6H2O (M‧ = K, NH4+; M‧‧ = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; X = S, Se), as well as those of SO42- guest ions included in selenate host lattices and of NH4+ guest ions included in potassium host lattices are presented and discussed in the regions of ν3 and ν1 of SO42- guest ions, ν4 of NH4+ guest ions and water librations. The SO42- guest ions matrix-isolated in selenate matrices (approximately 2 mol%) exhibit three bands corresponding to ν3 and one band corresponding to ν1 in good agreement with the low site symmetry C1 of the host selenate ions. When the larger SeO42- ions are replaced by the smaller SO42- ions the mean values of the asymmetric stretching modes νbar3 of the included SO42- ions are slightly shifted to lower frequencies as compared to those of the same ions in the neat sulfate compounds due to the smaller repulsion potential of the selenate matrices (larger unit-cell volumes of the selenates). It has been established that the extent of energetic distortion of the sulfate ions matrix-isolated in the ammonium selenates as deduced from the values of Δν3 and Δν3/νc is stronger than that of the same ions matrix-isolated in the potassium selenates due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the SO42- guest ions with both the water molecules in the host compounds and the NH4+ host ions (for example, Δν3 of the sulfate guest ions have values of 30 and 51 cm-1 in the nickel potassium and ammonium compounds, and 33 and 49 cm-1 in the zinc potassium and ammonium compounds, respectively). The infrared spectra of ammonium doped potassium sulfate matrices show three bands corresponding to Δν4 of the included ammonium ions in agreement with the low site symmetry C1 of the host potassium ions. However, the inclusion of ammonium ions in selenate matrices (with exception of the magnesium compound) leads to the appearance of four bands in the region of ν4. At that stage of our knowledge we assume

  17. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  18. Adequate Social Science, Curriculum Investigations, and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Two studies of curriculum are used as examples of trends in social science research. Criteria are developed for the "ideal" social science and then applied to the two studies. Curriculum theorizing is discussed as related to social science theory. Suggestions are made for the content of an adequate curriculum theory. (JN)

  19. Innovating for Sustainable, Reliable and Adequate Electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research sought to determine the most readily available modes of innovation in South Africa and Nigeria to exploit both conventional and renewable energy sources, in order to generate adequate and reliable electricity as part of meeting sustainable development objectives. The research analysed a variety of ...

  20. Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Accepting that a concentration of >200 ng/mL blood indicates an adequate Se intake, the recorded concentrations suggest that the cows were deficient to marginally deficient in Se.

  1. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  2. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  3. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  4. SE-VYZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    On this CD compact disc 6 video-films (A-1 NPP; Bituminization; Cementation; Pressing; The Interim spent fuel storage facility; Transport into the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce; Ignition; and Vitrification). In these films process of radioactive waste treatment in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (SE-VYZ) is presented. 2 presentations about radioactive wastes treatment in the SE-VYZ are included

  5. Should anorectal ultrasonography be included as a diagnostic tool for chronic anal pain? ¿Se debe incluir la ecografía rectoanal como prueba diagnóstica del dolor anal crónico?

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. García-Montes; F. Argüelles-Arias; S. Jiménez-Contreras; S. Sánchez-Gey; F. Pellicer-Bautista; J. M. Herrerías-Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to assess the efficiency of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in the study of chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP). Material and method: this is a prospective and descriptive study in which 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women with an average of 47 years, were included. They had chronic anal pain of at least 3 months' duration. A complete colonoscopy was performed in all patients, which found no abnormalities to explain clinical symptoms. Patients with anal fissure and internal hemorrhoids o...

  6. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  7. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V 20 . Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage

  8. Adequate sizing and motor exploitation: Motor energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor energy management includes adequate sizing, control and improvement of electric energy quality, i.e. voltage quality (reducing voltage unbalance and harmonics distortion, and the proper maintenance. The specific motor price per kW is approximately constant for motors rated from 5 kW to 20 kW. By adequate sizing, or by proper replacement of the old motor with the new one, with rated output power reduced by 20% to 50% the smaller motor will be also cheaper by 20% to 50%. When the 22 kW motor is replaced with the new 15 kW that costs 64% of the price of a new 22 kW motor, the efficiency is increased by 3.6% (Example in paper. On the basis of our investigation results, it is confirmed that there are significant possibilities for energy savings by setting voltage values within the ±5% voltage band (Un±5%, since more than 80% induction motors are under loaded (£70%, especially small and medium rated power (1-30 kW motors.

  9. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.

    2013-01-01

    effects of IAQ into different components: exposures to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, association with different morbidities and the way ventilation based approaches could minimise their impact. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a common metric to allow comparability of impacts on various types...... and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health-based ventilation rate should...... be a multiple of the minimum rate. Conclusions: Optimal strategy for ensuring adequate IAQ to ensure health conditions must include cleaning of ambient air (if necessary) and source control; only then health-based ventilation rate can be defined. Such approach is expected to half the BOD caused by indoor...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  11. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the required...

  13. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  14. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E

    2016-06-01

    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    audit of the FY 1991 Army financial statements.6 The Army indicated in its FY 2008 Statement of Assurance on Internal Controls7 that this material...Accounting Service Indianapolis (DFAS Indianapolis) did not adequately support $2.8 trillion in third quarter journal voucher (JV) adjustments and...statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting

  16. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  17. Contenha-se, se for capaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Feitoza Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Em O Instinto da Linguagem, Steven Pinker discorre sobre sua célebre tese: a linguagem não é a mais prodigiosa invenção cultural humana. Ela é uma peça da constituição biológica do cérebro. A linguagem é uma habilidade complexa e especializada, que se desenvolve espontaneamente na criança, sem qualquer esforço consciente ou instrução formal, que se manifesta sem que se perceba sua lógica subjacente, que é qualitativamente a mesma em todo indiví­duo, e que difere de capacidades mais gerais de processamento de informações ou de comportamento inteligente. Para Pinker, a concepção de linguagem como um tipo de instinto transmite a idéia de que as pessoas sabem falar mais ou menos da mesma maneira que as aranhas sabem tecer suas teias. Ele apóia suas idéias em Darwin e Chomsky. Palavras-chave linguagem, gramática universal, evolução Abstract In Language Instinct, Steven Pinker argues about his famous thesis: language is not the most prodigious human cultural invention. It is a distinct piece of the biological constitution of the brain. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops spontaneously in the child, without conscious effort or formal instruction. It reveals itself without awareness of its underlying logic, which is qualitatively the same in every individual, and which is distinct from more general abilities of information processing of intelligent behavior. According to Pinker, the conception of language as a kind of instinct conveys the idea that people know how to talk in more or less the same way as spiders know how to spin webs. His thesis is founded in Darwin and Chomsky-s theories. Keywords language, universal grammar, evolution

  18. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to...

  19. need for adequate funding in the administration of secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  20. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  1. Region 8: Colorado Springs Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 3, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Colorado Springs, CO second 10 year Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) adequate for transportation

  2. Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process Adequate? A Monograph by Kenneth W. Davis Department of State School of...REPORT TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process...

  3. 116 Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Abstract. In this paper, efforts were made to critically investigate and analyze appraisal as a determinant for adequate compensation in private sector organizations in Nigeria. Thus, the paper sets out by reviewing a body of existing literature on concept of management theories and how the subject of.

  4. Constraints to adequate provision of physical resources for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints to adequate provision of physical resources for the universal basic education programme in delta state, Nigeria. ... The researcher used a questionnaire to collect primary data from a sample of 376 primary schools and 141 junior secondary schools head teachers across the state. Data collected were analyzed ...

  5. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the Adequate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to insufficient, and/or illegible clinical information provided on laboratory request forms which may result in comments. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the. Adequate Completion of Laboratory Test Request. Forms at a Tertiary Hospital. Osegbe ID, Afolabi O1, Onyenekwu CP1. Department of Chemical Pathology, ...

  6. Need for Adequate Funding in the Administration of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE59 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, the behavior of flavonoids during drough...t stress is still not well documented. Herein we investigated the time-series alternation of flavonoids in t...vonoids, a class of specialized metabolites, including flavonols and anthocyanins w...SE59 Alternation of flavonoid accumulation under drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana We reported that fla

  8. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... firefighters are adequate. (a) You are responsible for determining the adequacy of the resource providers you intend to include in your plan. (b) When determining adequacy of the resource provider, you must select a resource provider that meets the following selection criteria to the maximum extent possible: (1) Resource...

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... microscopic element, including, but not limited to, viruses. (4) All living plants intended for use as...

  10. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  11. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  12. SE-FIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  13. A literatura se ensina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Cerdeira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Não sei se, na verdade, se ensina literatura. Mas qualquer coisa que se parecer com isto – ensinar literatura – tem que nascer de uma vibração conjunta de quem mostra e de quem vê pela primeira vez. Caminhar junto e descobrir sempre que as malhas do texto são infinitas. Venho portanto falar de sala de aula e de seminário, de circulação de saberes e de desejos, de uma atenção ao corpo sensível do texto que deve impactar, comprometer a linearidade da percepção, desalojar os sentidos prévios, encantar, seduzir, entendida a palavra em seu sentido primeiro de desviar do caminho. Venho falar de uma fala sem autoritarismo que, para lembrar Barthes no seu belíssimo ensaio – “Au séminaire” (no Seminário ou para o Seminário, como se quiser, nessa deliciosa anfibologia da preposição francesa – é basicamente maternal. A maternagem, segundo Barthes, é essa forma generosa de ensinar em que a mãe não se põe a explicar ao filho como se anda; também não anda na frente para que ele a imite, simplesmente se afasta, abre os braços e espera. Será talvez esta uma possível forma de ensinar literatura. 

  14. SE debt restructuring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) plans to restructure one's own debts in 2003-2005. Debt restructuring plan is following: 2003: Collection of pre-payment on electricity - 60 million Euro (2.5 billion Slovak crowns), consumer unknown. Own promissory notes in total value of 100 million US$ (3.5 billion Slovak crowns) - in process. Sale of claims worth 2.4 billion Slovak crowns (57.21 million Euro) - negotiations in process. 2003/2004: Restructuring of loans payable IV. quarter 2003 and at the beginning of 2004 in value of 200 million Euro (8.3 billion Slovak crowns). Aim of SE is a new credit payable within 7 years, with instalments payable in the last two to three without any state subsidies. 2005: Loans worth 460 million Euro (189 billion Slovak crowns) will still remain. SE want to negotiate them with banks without state support

  15. A student's perspective: are medical students adequately trained in BLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Oyewole,1 Folashade Oyewole2 1University of Liverpool – The School of Medicine, Liverpool, 2Imperial College London, London, UK We read with great interest the article by Lami et al regarding improving basic life support (BLS training for medical students.1 We agree that BLS skills are vital for junior doctors. The days of trial by fire have long gone away, and junior doctors and medical students need to feel that they are adequately trained to handle emergency situations they may face in hospital.  Read the original article

  16. Autismos que se 'curan'

    OpenAIRE

    Artigas, Josep, 1948-; Paula Pérez, Isabel, 1970-

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La investigación sobre el autismo, basada principalmente en el modelo categórico del Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales, se ha centrado de forma preferente en la epidemiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, los mecanismos cognitivos y los determinantes biológicos y ambientales; sin embargo, se ha prestado escaso interés a las trayectorias evolutivas, las cuales son decisivas de cara al pronóstico a medio y largo plazo. Objetivo. Revisar el curso evolutiv...

  17. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  18. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  19. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  20. The effects of selenate and sulphate supply on the accumulation and volatilization of Se by cabbage, kohlrabi and alfalfa plants grown hydroponically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAJIBOLAND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Selenium (Se supplementation at five levels of 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, 20 ìM in plants supplied with one of four concentrations of sulphur (S including 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM was investigated in two varieties of Brassica oleracea (cabbage and kohlrabi and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in a hydroponic experiment. In severely S deficient plants (0.05 mM, Se acted as a toxic element, alfalfa was the most susceptible plant that died at this treatment. However, in plants supplied with near adequate (0.5 mM or adequate (1.0 mM S, Se acted as a growth promoting element. The most pronounced stimulation of growth was observed in cabbage and the lowest in alfalfa. Increasing S concentration in the medium, reduced Se uptake and transport. In contrast, S uptake and transport increased in response to Se addition. Se volatilization was higher in alfalfa than cabbage and kohlrabi when expressed on unit shoot dry weight or leaf area basis, but not when expressed per plant. Results suggested that Se supplementation of plants supplied with adequate S, not only had beneficial effects on plants growth but also can have application in enrichment of livestock fodder and human food.;

  1. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  3. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  4. Se min kjole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen Se min kjole udkom i anledning af 50-året for de første ordinationer af kvindelige præster i den danske folkekirke i 1948. Bogen giver analyser af, hvad kvindelige præster har betydet for præsterollen og for prædikengenren; den fortæller om de første kvindelige præsters liv og syn på forkyn...

  5. Sm2Se3-PbSe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafagatova, G.G.; Nasibov, I.O.; Sultanov, T.I.; Rustamov, A.G.; Rustamov, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The method of differential, X-ray phase microstructure analyses, and also microhardness and density measurements are used to study the system Sm 2 Se 3 -PbSe, and its state diagram has been constructed for the first time. It represents a quasi-binary cross section of the ternary system Sm-Pb-Se. It has been found that two new compounds, Sm 2 PbSe 4 and Sm 2 Pb 4 Se 7 , are formed in the system Sm 2 Se 3 -PbSe, of which the latter is peritectic. The region of PbSe-base α-solid solutions goes up to 6 mole%

  6. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  7. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics in patients with adequate versus inadequate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055

  8. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1 97 Hg and 203 Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of 198 Au and 75 Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g -1 . (author)

  9. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Are minidisc recorders adequate for the study of respiratory sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraman, Steve S; Wodicka, George R; Kiyokawa, Hiroshi; Pasterkamp, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Digital audio tape (DAT) recorders have become the de facto gold standard recording devices for lung sounds. Sound recorded on DAT is compact-disk (CD) quality with adequate sensitivity from below 20 Hz to above 20 KHz. However, DAT recorders have drawbacks. Although small, they are relatively heavy, the recording mechanism is complex and delicate, and finding one desired track out of many is inconvenient. A more recent development in portable recording devices is the minidisc (MD) recorder. These recorders are widely available, inexpensive, small and light, rugged, mechanically simple, and record digital data in tracks that may be named and accessed directly. Minidiscs hold as much recorded sound as a compact disk but in about 1/5 of the recordable area. The data compression is achieved by use of a technique known as adaptive transform acoustic coding for minidisc (ATRAC). This coding technique makes decisions about what components of the sound would not be heard by a human listener and discards the digital information that represents these sounds. Most of this compression takes place on sounds above 5.5 KHz. As the intended use of these recorders is the storage and reproduction of music, it is unknown whether ATRAC will discard or distort significant portions of typical lung sound signals. We determined the suitability of MD recorders for respiratory sound research by comparing a variety of normal and pathologic lung sounds that were digitized directly into a computer and also after recording by a DAT recorder and 2 different MD recorders (Sharp and Sony). We found that the frequency spectra and waveforms of respiratory sounds were not distorted in any important way by recording on the two MD recorders tested.

  11. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  12. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  13. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  14. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  15. A one-item question with a Likert or Visual Analog Scale adequately measured current anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather M; Barratt, Alexandra L; Butow, Phyllis N; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether a single question with a Likert Scale or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) response adequately measures current anxiety. Consecutive English-speaking adult women attending a dedicated breast clinic in a major Australian city were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a single question with a five-point Likert Scale response and a VAS in random order. Only women who completed the STAI were included in analyses. Four hundred of 497 (80%) eligible women agreed to participate. Both measures were adequate predictors of the STAI score; correlation with STAI was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.82) for the VAS and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.79) for the Likert Scale. However, 11% of women incorrectly completed the VAS limiting its usefulness. A single question with either a Likert Scale or VAS response may be an adequate replacement for the STAI. Both measures quickly and easily assess anxiety and may be useful for research purposes when researchers have very limited time or questionnaire space or need to reduce the burden on participants of completing many measures.

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and retained, to be used to finance program oversight, management, and capital expenditures... will be met. (1) The SIP shall include a detailed budget plan which describes the source of funds for...

  17. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth, airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000, terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE, and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes. As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul existem quatro fazendas produtoras de camarões (Litopenaeus vannamei marinhos nos municípios de São José do Norte e Rio Grande, e outras quatro fazendas já possuem licença prévia. Assim, o presente estudo propôs identificar e caracterizar as áreas destinadas a cultivos de camarões marinhos localizadas na porção sul do estuário da lagoa dos Patos (32º00'S 52º00'W, empregando análises de sensoriamento remoto orbital (ETM+/Landsat, Google Earth, aéreo (35mm/sistema ADAR 1000, terrestre (RICOH 500SE e de saídas de campo, integrando os dados num Sistema de Informação Geográfica (IDRISI Andes. Resultados apontaram que os empreendimentos foram construídos sobre

  18. Illa se iactet in aula!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertomeu, María Julia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available More than a few of Kant’s contemporaries, including some of his disciples, were sharply critical of the systematic character of his philosophy, and, markedly, of the philosophical prose in which this character was expressed. Others, on the contrary, found solace in the prospect of seeing the philosopher either isolated or trapped in the purely speculative realm of the academic room, in the good —or bad— company of all the metaphysical politicians of the time: «illa se iactet in aula!» However, fearful that the walls or the metaphorical bars of the room were not enough to contain the «popular» propagation of Kant’s ideas, they completed —in line with Burke— Virgilio’s poem, distinctly alluding to surely less symbolic bars: «Illa se iactet in aula Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet». Kant replied in time, writing both to each group separately and to everyone at once. But he did it always from his fiercely held conviction about the importance of both a philosophical theory and a methodological discipline, which, even when «unpopular» in the beginning, he considered essential elements of a moral and political practice that was so hostile toward moral paternalism as it was to its counterpart, a (paternalistic political despotism.

    No pocos contemporáneos de Kant, incluidos algunos de sus discípulos, fueron pródigos en la crítica mordaz del carácter sistemático de su filosofía, y señaladamente, de la prosa filosófica en que ese carácter se expresaba. Otros, en cambio, no se privaron de manifestar el deseo de ver al filósofo aislado o acorralado en el recinto puramente especulativo del aula académica, en la buena —o en la mala— compañía de todos los políticos metafísicos de la época: «illa se iactet in aula!» Pero, temerosos de que los muros o los barrotes metafóricos del aula no bastaran a contener la propagación «popular» de las ideas del filósofo, completaron

  19. Abiy Chelkeba Worku The supply of accessible, adequate, clean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concluded under the theme 'Climate Resilient and Inclusive One Wash Program' in Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa. (March 30-31 .... equitable access to water and water management systems, including sustainable rain harvest and ...... and it states that water resources are the common property of the nations, nationalities, and.

  20. Meconium Ileus–Is a Single Surgical Procedure Adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagith Nagar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Meconium ileus is one of the gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF, and affects 15% of neonates. The condition results from the accumulation of sticky inspissated meconium. Both nonoperative and operative therapies may be effective in relieving obstruction. The treatment of choice for uncomplicated meconium ileus is the use of enteral N-acetylcysteine or Gastrografin enemata. Once such therapy fails, surgery is indicated. A number of operative procedures are in use, including Bishop-Koop enterostomy, T-tube irrigation, resection and primary anastomosis, and enterotomy with irrigation and primary closure. During the period 1991-2003, five newborns required surgical intervention for uncomplicated meconium ileus. None responded to conservative management. All were males, including one set of twins. All underwent laparotomy, enterotomy, appendectomy, irrigation and closure of enterotomy. None required a second surgical procedure. CF was confirmed in all, and in each case, both parents were found to be genetic carriers of a mutational form of CF. A single surgical intervention is preferable in these patients, in view of the high rate of pulmonary involvement in CF patients. Enterotomy, irrigation and primary closure are the treatment of choice for uncomplicated meconium ileus.

  1. [Dietary fiber--adequate intake and effects on metabolism health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaud, Fernanda Sarmento Rolla; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2013-08-01

    The positive effects of dietary fiber are related, in part, to the fact that a portion of the fermentation of components takes place in the large intestine, which has an impact on the speed of digestion, pH of the colon, and production of by-products with important physiological functions. Individuals with high fiber intake seem to have lower risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. The increase in fiber intake reduces serum cholesterol, improves blood glucose in patients with diabetes, reduces body weight, and is associated with lower serum ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. Increased fiber intake and intake of more fiber than the currently recommended level (14 g/1,000 kcal) may provide greater health benefits, including reducing low-grade inflammation.

  2. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1...

  3. Frequency of Adequate Endometrial Biopsy in Evaluation of Postmenopausal Women With Benign Endometrial Cells on Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jeffrey W; Alston, Meredith J; Mazzoni, Sara E; Stickrath, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency that endometrial biopsies (EMBs) performed on postmenopausal (PMP) women with benign endometrial cells (BECs) on Pap test are adequate for assessing malignancy or hyperplasia. This is a case series including all PMP women older than 55 years at a single academic institution between January 2008 and September 2015 with a Pap test result including BEC. Patients were identified via an internal cytology database. Patient data, the ability to obtain an EMB, and the result of the EMB were collected. An adequate EMB was defined as the presence of glands and stroma sufficient to assess for endometrial hyperplasia and/or malignancy. Descriptive statistics were performed, and then univariable and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations of patient factors and adequacy of EMB. One hundred sixteen women met inclusion criteria. One hundred seven had an EMB scheduled (92%) and of those 91 EMBs were obtained (85%). Of the obtained biopsies, 63 were inadequate to rule out the diagnosis of hyperplasia and/or malignancy (69%). Of these, 19 patients underwent pelvic ultrasound (30%), 12 followed up with repeat Pap test (19%), and 4 underwent dilation and curettage (6%). Of the adequate biopsies, 5 had a diagnosis of hyperplasia (18%) and 5 with malignancy (18%). In PMP women with BEC on Pap test, adequate EMB was only obtained in 31% of patients. Most patients without an adequate biopsy had no further workup of their abnormal Pap test.

  4. Is mental heal care in women's prisons adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Joyce

    Some individuals and groups, find it difficult to seek healthcare, including prisoners. This group is recognised as needing input but are often difficult to engage, yet failure to meet their needs can be devastating for the health of individuals and have wider implications on society. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of female prisoners who had not yet consulted the mental health team. I aimed to find out what support these women seek out while in prison, what difficulties they encountered in getting psychological help and whether they avoided statutory mental health services. Participants revealed during semistructured interviews that continuing to have a caring role for their families encouraged them to feel more positive and supported. Support from family members, specialist prison officers and the multi-faith centre staff team was also highly regarded. Some of the participants reported experiencing problems self-referring to prison mental health services, for example when transferred to a new prison. They identified the prison application system and inreach administrative failings as weaknesses, alongside other variables. I found that prisoners did not avoid mental health services and often once settled in the prison, they reconsidered their need for statutory support.

  5. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and...

  7. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 system. → Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 glasses. → Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. → Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As 2 Se 3 system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T g ), crystallisation (T x ), and melting (T m ) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their ΔT = T x - T g and their Hruby, H r = (T x - T g )/(T m - T x ), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity σ and the room temperature conductivity σ 298 was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm -1 region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  8. Não se sabe...

    OpenAIRE

    Corazza,Sandra Mara

    2005-01-01

    Não se sabe se a sua vida consiste numa existência individual; se a sua natureza consiste num fato biológico; ou se a sua cultura consiste num modo de ser social. Não há indicações a respeito, a não ser que, de jeito algum, trata-se de um animal rationale ou de uma imago Dei. Até que um outro - mundo possível? - chegasse, foi identificado à existência primordial. Em função de tal proveniência, através dos tempos, foi considerado como o humano em geral. E, só muito recentemente, viu-se que a s...

  9. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  10. Are we failing to document adequate smoking histories? A brief review 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Timothy H; Wallace, Jessica L; Gray, Lori Arnold; Usery, Justin B; Finch, Christopher K; Deaton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Documenting a detailed smoking history is of obvious importance. Failure to adequately document the smoking history may result in the misdiagnosis and management of asthma, and may be associated with a deficiency of care in patients with cardiovascular disease and several other common diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence over the past decade that demonstrates inadequate documentation of smoking history. A literature search of English language journals from 1999 to 2009 was completed using several databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS. Fourteen studies demonstrated inadequate documentation of smoking histories by primary care clinicians, specialists, residents, and medical students. Failure to document smoking histories was observed in patients with conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, and asthma. Electronic decision support systems and simple medical record reminders were effective in improving the documentation of smoking histories. Failure to adequately document the smoking history appears to be common. Strategies such as electronic decision support systems are needed to correct this problem in order for patients to receive optimal therapy for their appropriate diagnoses.

  11. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  12. SE-590 Landscape Reflectances (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bidirectional spectal reflectance factors of landscape elements (litter, soil, bark, scrubs & grasses, leaves) measured by Spectron SE590 spectroradiometer

  13. PHEIFFER SE TAALPOLITIEK JC Steyn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sigself maak tog nie Chomsky se teorie oor n aangebore taalaanleg en die konsekwensie daarvan nl. dat elke taal opgebou moet wees volgens dieselfde grondprinsipes, ongeldig nie? Taalpolitieke oortuigingskrag het hierdie argument nog minder. Sal jy in alle erns vir mense kan se: "Ons moet aanhou om die taal te praat ...

  14. Can the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Product Adequately Capture Spatial Soil Moisture Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, I.; Lakshmi, V.; Walker, J.; Panciera, R.; Wagner, W.; Doubkova, M.

    2008-12-01

    Global soil moisture (SM) monitoring in the past several decades has been undertaken mainly at coarse spatial resolution, which is not adequate for addressing small-scale phenomena and processes. The currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (NASA) and future planned missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA) and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA) will remain resolution limited. Finer scale soil moisture estimates can be achieved either by down-scaling the available coarse resolution radiometer and scatterometer (i.e. ERS1/2, ASCAT) observations or by using high resolution active microwave SAR type systems (typical resolution is in the order of meters). Considering the complex land surface - backscatter signal interaction, soil moisture inversion utilizing active microwave observations is difficult and generally needs supplementary data. Algorithms based on temporal change detection offer an alternative less complex approach for deriving (and disaggregating coarse) soil moisture estimates. Frequent monitoring and low frequency range along with a high pixel resolution are essential preconditions when characterizing spatial and temporal soil moisture variability. An alternative active system that meets these requirements is the Advance Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on ENVISAT [C-band, global, 1 km in Global Monitoring (GM) Mode]. The Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed a 1 km soil moisture product using the temporal change detection approach and the ASAR GM. The TU Wien SM product sensitivity was evaluated at two scales: point (using in situ data from permanent soil moisture stations) and regional [using ground measured data and aircraft estimates derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR)] over the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'05) area located in the Goulburn catchment, SE Australia. The month long (November 2005) campaign was undertaken in a region predominantly covered

  15. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  16. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassi...ca oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutriti

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE12 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metab...olites. 2 cultivars (Nihon and Wasesaradaakari), 2 growth conditions (normal film a

  18. Sample Set (SE): SE30 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties Investigation of Glycine max. green seed metabol...ites. 3 varieties (Kamogawashichiri, Koitozairai, Tanbakuro) data are examined. Tak

  19. Sample Set (SE): SE13 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13 Comparison of leaf metabolites among spinach varieties Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metaboli...tes. 4 cultivers (Nihon, Kanaji, Kurohaminstarland and Wasesaradaakari) and 3 repli

  20. Sample Set (SE): SE31 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE31 Comparison of seed metabolites among eggplant fruit tissues Investigation of S...olanum melongena Senryounigou metabolites. 3 tissues (flesh, fruit, peel) data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1,

  1. Sample Set (SE): SE28 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE28 Comparison of leaf metabolites among developmental stages of Hevea brasiliensi...s Investigation of Hevea brasiliensis leaf metabolites. 4 developmental stages and 6 replicates data are exa

  2. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea v...ar. capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE14 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14 Effect of agricultural films for tomato fruit metabolites Investigation of Sol...anum lycopersicum fruit metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  4. Sample Set (SE): SE16 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites 2 Investigation of S...pinacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE51 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemicals: A plant-spec...o be narrowed down to candidate structures. Therefore, a web-based database of MS/MS data pertaining to phytochemicals

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE20 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE20 Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolite analysis for a software test Investigatio...es that were investigated to optimize the parameters of PowerGet software for better metabolite annotation i

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE18 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search A comprehensive and precise identification of pho...SE18 Global identification of phospholipid molecular species in mouse liver and bra

  8. Differential diagnosis of scintigraphic brain centres by 75Se selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestagno, M.; Garraffa, V.; Rembado, R.; Guerra, U.

    1975-01-01

    Since standard brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc is not always adequate for a satisfactory differential diagnosis of the radioactive foci detected, the possibilities of 75 Se sodium selenite were investigated. It was observed that in centres due to a vascular lesion the selenite concentration is always low, rising steeply in neoplasmic foci. The 75 Se-selenite scintigraphic method is considered highly valid, complementing that of sup(99m)Tc when this latter is unsuitable for diagnosis of the nature of cerebral foci [fr

  9. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  10. The human right to adequate housing: a tool for promoting and protecting individual and community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-05-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health.

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Señas Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. García Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra un sistema que permite el estudio y práctica del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LMS, el cual es el método de comunicación de las personas que padecen un trastorno de procesamiento auditivo. El sistema propuesto en este artículo consta de un guante de tela instrumentado con sensores de flexión, una etapa de acondicionamiento de señales y una tarjeta de adquisición de datos; que en su conjunto constituyen el Hardware. El software esta formado por un programa de adquisición de datos y una interfaz de usuario, ambos codificados en Visual Basic Net. El sistema propuesto se modela por medio del lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML, ya que Visual Basic es un lenguaje orientado a eventos.

  13. Vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are key items mediating adequate dietary intake for Japanese adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, N; Inayama, T; Hata, K; Oka, J

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The objective of this study was to ascertain the essential items mediating adequate dietary intake based on the Japanese Food Guide in common among the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectancy (OE). Members of the organization Spinal Injuries Japan. We posted a questionnaire survey to 2731 community-dwelling Japanese adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), and responses from 841 individuals were analyzed. Food intake was assessed as the frequency scores of 10 food items eaten in a daily diet in Japan. The correlations between the frequency scores of food intake and TTM, SE and OE were determined by binominal logistic regression analysis. The frequency scores of food intake were significantly associated with 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat green/yellow vegetables not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' in TTM. 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' were significantly associated with the frequency scores of food intake in SE. In OE, no differences were shown. This study finds that vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are the key items mediating adequate dietary intake. Dietary guidelines promoting the intake of these dishes for SCI individuals are needed.

  14. Hablando... se entiende la gente

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Citlalli Mora Zepeda

    2011-01-01

    Habiendo observado que muchos cursos centrados en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral se limitan a ofrecer actividades inconexas que suponen un gran esfuerzo por parte de los participantes para situarse ante cada actividad y dificultan el establecimiento de relaciones profundas entre los exponentes nociofuncionales, los objetivos comunicativos y los recursos lingüísticos necesarios para realizarlas por contar con un tiempo limitado en el aula para ello, se presentó, bajo el mism...

  15. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  16. La prensa gratuita se reivindica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernández Beltrán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La prensa gratuita que, irrumpió en 1995, con la aparición del diario METRO en Estocolmo. Hoy en España se afirma que fomenta el hábito lector, crea nuevos lectores e incrementa el consumo del resto de diarios. Su independencia es sensiblemente mayor al de la prensa de pago, que es "claramente sectaria". Quizá lo gratuito es el estigma pues se asocia a la falta de calidad.

  17. Are oral and maxillofacial surgery residents being adequately trained to care for pediatric patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Shelly; Kaban, Leonard B; Wurtzel, Andrew S; Roser, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents are receiving adequate training and experience to perform specific surgical procedures and anesthesia for pediatric patients. A 17-question survey was sent electronically to fellows of the American Academy of Craniomaxillofacial Surgeons. Descriptive data for individual surgeons, their associated residency programs, and the quantity of specific pediatric procedures they performed were collected. Resident case load for inpatient and outpatient procedures and overall experience in medical, surgical, and anesthetic management of pediatric OMS patients were explored. Surveys were sent to 110 active fellows; 64 completed the questionnaire (58%). There were 59 male fellows and 5 female fellows, with a mean age of 50.4 years. Of those, 68.8% practice in an academic setting. Specifically, 93.8% take after-hours emergency calls covering adult and pediatric patients and 98.4% have admitting privileges at a children's hospital or a pediatric unit in an adult hospital. Their affiliated residency programs include required rotations in pediatrics or pediatric subspecialties. In their opinion, >90% of graduating OMS residents have the appropriate skill set to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic procedures, and alveolar bone grafts. However, residents have limited ability to reconstruct pediatric ramus-condyle unit with a costochondral graft. Results of this study indicate that, in the opinion of the respondents, graduates of OMS residency programs have adequate training to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic surgery, and alveolar bone grafts in pediatric procedures, but have limited experience with reconstruction of pediatric ramus-condyle unit via costochondral graft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Study Concerning Exercising an Adequate Professional Reasoning in Developing the Evaluation and Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vârteiu Daniel Petru

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are regulations which clearly specify the way in which an evaluation process, respectively an adequate audit process must take place, for a good management of encountered situations and difficulties, the evaluator, respectively the auditor must exercise an adequate professional reasoning.

  20. The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mr.dr. Bart F.W. Wernaart

    2013-01-01

    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide...

  2. Variational approach to 68 Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, A.; Schmid, K.W.; Faessler, A.; Baktash, C.; Shashi, P.

    1999-01-01

    For a unified description of the structure of medium mass proton-rich nuclei at low as well as high angular momenta we used the complex version of the Excited Vampir approach. We employed chains of variational calculations based on symmetry-projected essentially complex Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) vacua which include neutron-proton pairing and unnatural-parity correlations. Since the Vampir approaches allow the use of rather large model spaces and of general two-body interactions, large-scale nuclear structure studies going far beyond the abilities of the conventional shell-model configuration-mixing approach are possible. Furthermore, since these approaches provide detailed spectroscopic information for the lowest few states for each spin and parity, they also have considerable advantages with respect to the shell-model Monte Carlo method in which only expectation values of operators in the thermodynamic ensembles or the ground state can be calculated. Our previous investigations on microscopic aspects of shape coexistence in N∼Z nuclei in the A∼70 mass region indicated the presence of a strong competition between particular configurations based on large and small oblate and prolate quadrupole deformations. Furthermore, since in N = Z nuclei neutrons and protons fill the same single particle orbits, the isovector neutron-proton and the like-nucleon pairing correlations were found to be strongly competitive in even-even systems. In addition, the neutron and proton alignments with increasing angular momentum occur simultaneously in these nuclei. On the other hand the theoretical results suggest that certain properties of these nuclei are extremely sensitive to small variations of particular parts of the effective Hamiltonian. Thus, our results indicate that the oblate-prolate coexistence and mixing at low spins depend on the strengths of the neutron-proton T = 0 matrix elements involving nucleons occupying f 5/2 (f 7/2 ) and g 9/2 single particle orbits

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE50 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oids We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against ox...ress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance...SE50 Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavon

  4. Sample Set (SE): SE27 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27 Effect of agricultural films for cabbage leaf metabolites Investigation of Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultura...l film or no agricultural film), 3 replicates data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1, Naoki Yamamoto 1,

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE52 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE52 Mass spectra-based framework for automated structural elucidation of metabolom...e data to explore phytochemical diversity A novel framework for automated elucidation of metabolite structur...te ontology system was also introduced to attain putative characterization of the metabolite signals.The automate

  6. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles Dr; Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England's NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. English NHS Trusts. We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation.

  7. Ud at se med Erasmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Få lidt luft under vingerne, kom ud at møde udenlandske kolleger og se, hvordan man også kan lave uddannelsesbibliotek. Med begejstring fortæller tre bibliotekarer om deres oplevelser i det store udland – alt sammen finansieret af Erasmus.......Få lidt luft under vingerne, kom ud at møde udenlandske kolleger og se, hvordan man også kan lave uddannelsesbibliotek. Med begejstring fortæller tre bibliotekarer om deres oplevelser i det store udland – alt sammen finansieret af Erasmus....

  8. Impact of rabies vaccination history on attainment of an adequate antibody titre among dogs tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Yakobson, B.; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, N.; Rotblat, S.; Spero, Ż.; Lankau, E. W.; Maki, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs se...

  9. Daan Dreyer se blou geranium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    betaal word, word gou vergeet, of blyk nie so hoog te gewees het nie. Daan Dreyer se blou geranium is egter 'n meer volwasse roman as. Mieke rock uit. In eersgenoemde is daar 'n gro- ter bewustheid van pyn en hartseer en word daardie gevoelens nie so maklik uitgewis so- dra daar weer goeie dinge gebeur nie.

  10. Shape coexistence in 74Se

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiamová, Gabriela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2001), s. 553-556 ISSN 0011-4626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : shape coexistence * 74Se Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.345, year: 2001

  11. Ud & se - med Claude Monet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Udstillingen 'Claude Monet - Lost in Translation - på ARoS stiller ind på Claud Monet og hans samtidige malerkolleger. Udstillingen forsøger at "genlæse" Monet fra et samtidskunstnerisk perspektiv - og vurderer hans indsats, inden hans værker er blevet reproduceret ihjel....

  12. Sample Set (SE): SE37 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37 Medicago truncatula shoot metabolite analysis using stable isotopes Metabolite...s in the Medicago truncatula shoot are investigated by using stable isotope labelings. This analysis was per...formed to estimate the elemental composition with high reliability using the number of stable isotopes incor...nces by comparing the mass spectra of isotope-labeled and unlabeled data sets. Plant Biotechnology (2014) 3: 269-274 ...

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE58 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available calibration curves over a biologically defined concentration range for all detected compounds. By performing... metabolomics on a stepwise gradient between two biological specimens, we obtain ...rference. Analysis of artificial biological gradients is a general and inexpensive tool for calibration that...SE58 Exploring matrix effects and quantification performance in metabolomics experi...ments using artificial biological gradients We introduce a powerful approach that provides semiquantitative

  14. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  15. Adequate Funding for Primary Education in the Artibonite Department of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Clayton Carl

    Since its formation following a slave revolution in 1804, the Republic of Haiti has a long history of political instability, civil unrest and poverty. As of 2015, Haiti's gross domestic product (GDP) was US1,732, per capita, making it the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti's education sector was no exception to this sparsity, receiving only 2.5 percent of the nation's overall GDP. The purpose of this study was to determine adequate funding for Haitian primary schools based upon mathematical achievement levels and the professional judgment of site-based administrators. A Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), originally administered to Florida's third-grade students in 2006, was utilized to determine mathematical achievement. In 2015, the translated FCAT was administered to 207 students, enrolled in four schools, located in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti. The results indicated that the sample answered sixteen of the forty mathematics questions correctly, on average. Based on these results, the four site-based administrators recommended the funding amounts necessary to increase mathematical achievement by 15 percent. The average annual amounts, in US dollars, included 461 per teacher salary, a 540 administrative salary, 40 per student for instructional materials, 367 per student for meals, and 37 per student for uniforms.

  16. Improvement of adequate use of warfarin for the elderly using decision tree-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K E; Lo, C-L; Hu, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    Due to the narrow therapeutic range and high drug-to-drug interactions (DDIs), improving the adequate use of warfarin for the elderly is crucial in clinical practice. This study examines whether the effectiveness of using warfarin among elderly inpatients can be improved when machine learning techniques and data from the laboratory information system are incorporated. Having employed 288 validated clinical cases in the DDI group and 89 cases in the non-DDI group, we evaluate the prediction performance of seven classification techniques, with and without an Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm. Measures including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve are used to evaluate model performance. Decision tree-based classifiers outperform other investigated classifiers in all evaluation measures. The classifiers supplemented with AdaBoost can generally improve the performance. In addition, weight, congestive heart failure, and gender are among the top three critical variables affecting prediction accuracy for the non-DDI group, while age, ALT, and warfarin doses are the most influential factors for the DDI group. Medical decision support systems incorporating decision tree-based approaches improve predicting performance and thus may serve as a supplementary tool in clinical practice. Information from laboratory tests and inpatients' history should not be ignored because related variables are shown to be decisive in our prediction models, especially when the DDIs exist.

  17. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  18. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  19. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  20. Region 8: Colorado Denver 2008 8-hour ozone Adequate Letter (4/2/2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Metro-Denver/North Front Range ozone attainment plan and 2017 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity and will be announced in Federal Register.

  1. Optimization Methods to Minimize Emergence Time While Maintaining Adequate Post-Operative Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tams, Carl; Syroid, Noah; Johnson, Ken B.; Egan, Talmage D.; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    A rapid emergence from anesthesia combined with an extended duration of adequate analgesia is desired. Difficulties arise when trying to achieve a rapid emergence and provide adequate analgesia for procedures associated with moderate post operative pain. We propose to use pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models with optimization techniques to determine anesthetic drugs ratios to improve post-anesthetic outcomes of emergence and analgesia. We hypothesize that optimized propofol, r...

  2. Hablando se entiende la gente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Crespo Picó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo observado que muchos cursos centrados en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral se limitan a ofrecer actividades inconexas que suponen un gran esfuerzo por parte de los participantes para situarse ante cada actividad y dificultan el establecimiento de relaciones profundas entre los exponentes nociofuncionales, los objetivos comunicativos y los recursos lingüísticos necesarios para realizarlas por contar con un tiempo limitado en el aula para ello, se presentó, bajo el mismo título que esta comunicación, una propuesta didáctica para un curso de conversación que pretende paliar estos aspectos en el I Foro de Profesores de E/LE en la Universitat de València.

  3. Hombre que no se rinde

    OpenAIRE

    de Jované, Minerva de Jované

    2011-01-01

    Era el mes de junio de 1959. Jorge, un joven activista, líder estudiantil, que defendía con vehemencia sus posiciones, inflexible en cuestiones de principios, regresaba de Guatemala y fue arrestado en el aeropuerto por policías uniformados bajo el mando del entonces capitán Torrentes. —¡Quítate el uniforme y pelea como hombre! –le dijo Jorge a Torrentes–. Allí se inició el reto.

  4. Die verpleegster se terapeutiese funksie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Harrington

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Ons sou hierdie praatjie graag wou inlei met Virginia Henderson se definisie van verpleging: “ The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary will, strength or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.”

  5. Garçonnizando-se: o fazer-se melindrosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Larissa Brum Leite Gusmão

    2015-01-01

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo abordar questões de gênero relacionadas às melindrosas, elaboradas pelo artista J. Carlos na revista ilustrada Para Todos.... no período de 1920. Durante as primeiras décadas do século XX o Rio de Janeiro passou por uma série de transformações, sociais e culturais, entre elas, destacam-se aqui, as relações de gênero. As mulheres, assim como os homens, puderam ter novas experiências sobre seus corpos e relações sociais. No entanto, não vivenciaram da mesma m...

  6. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  7. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  8. Importance of adequately performed Valsalva maneuver to detect patent foramen ovale during transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara; Picard, Michael H; Carbone, Aime; Arruda, Ana Lúcia; Flores, Thaís; Klohn, Juliana; Furtado, Meive; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Cerri, Giovanni G; Andrade, José L

    2013-11-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) plays an important role in evaluating cardioembolic sources of emboli. The identification of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is reportedly improved with TEE compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), but the Valsalva maneuver during TEE may be difficult or suboptimal. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Valsalva maneuver for PFO diagnosis using TEE compared with TTE by evaluating patients with ischemic stroke referred for echocardiography. Only patients able to perform the Valsalva maneuver during TTE were included; efficacy was defined by a 20 cm/sec decrease in transmitral E velocity. A PFO was judged present when microbubbles of agitated intravenous saline were seen in the left chambers within three cycles after right atrial opacification. Of 108 patients (mean age, 55 ± 15 years; 61 men), 48 (44%) were judged to have PFOs by TEE and/or TTE. In 36 patients (33% of the total, 75% of those with PFOs), microbubbles were observed both by TEE and TTE, in seven patients only during TTE, and in five patients only during TEE. In patients able to satisfactorily perform the Valsalva maneuver during TEE, 22 PFOs were found, and two shunts (9%) were missed, whereas in patients unable to perform this maneuver, 26 PFOs were observed, with five shunts missed (19%) (P TTE, either the echocardiographic window was suboptimal or the shunt was small. An adequate Valsalva maneuver is crucial for diagnosis of PFO; most patients with stroke may be screened using TTE with contrast and the Valsalva maneuver, with TEE indicated in case of suboptimal transthoracic images. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress

  10. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang-shi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  11. Banks offer SE more than it asked for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    About a year ago, when new management took over the financial department of Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s. the company was in crisis. It faced an acute cash-flow deficit and due loans of over 20 bill. Sk (501.21 mil. Eur). SE could not provide adequate guarantees for the required loans and without state guarantees it was virtually impossible or too expensive to obtain additional loans. But last week the situation changed for the better. Despite the fact that due to the restructuring of SE's loan portfolio, the company will pay the banks 3 bill. Sk (75.18 mil. Eur) less interest over the next three years than under the original arrangements, even the bakers seemed satisfied. A loan portfolio full of non-standard agreements signed with about 30 banks had previously prevented decisions regarding the structure of the company's assets and liabilities.The cabinet refused to admit that SE was in crisis and offered SE for sale, although it could not be privatised due to its debt structure and the fact that it was close to default. Despite this unfavourable situation, company economists decided to make an offensive move -in cooperation with a small group of banks they converted the tens of company loan agreements into a new loan package that will be simpler, cheaper, and with longer maturity periods, which will not require state guarantees. SE managed to restructure debts with a total value of 550 mil. Eur and until these transactions are completed the banks offered SE a bridge loan of 110 mil. Eur. The transaction related to a syndicated loan of 350 mil. Eur which was concluded in April. Eurobonds with a total value of 200 mil. Eur were issued two months later. The banks offered the company more than it requested. Demand for the Eurobond issue exceeded the 200 mil. Eur of bonds on offer. (author)

  12. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  13. Are parents in the UK equipped to provide adequate burns first aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hamish E; Bache, Sarah E; Muthayya, Preetha; Baker, Julie; Ralston, David R

    2012-05-01

    Simple first aid following a burn injury has been shown to improve outcome. With this in mind, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of burns first aid amongst parents in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This information was used to identify which aspects of burn first aid need to be highlighted in an education campaign and who the target audience should be. A simple mnemonic is suggested to assist parental education on the topic. Parents attending outpatient clinics at Sheffield Children's Hospital were interviewed and asked about the first aid they would provide for a child with a large scald. Removal of hot clothes and jewellery; application of cold water for 10-20 min; obtaining medical advice; and covering the burn with a plastic film or clean cloth were all considered to be ideal responses. Variations in responses in relation to the age and ethnicity of the parent were noted. One hundred and eighty eight parents were included in the questionnaire. Of these, 81% (n=152) were white British and 20% (n=36) were from other ethnic groups. Only 10% (n=18) of all respondent would give all the ideal first aid steps. Less than 40% (n=73) of parents questioned would remove hot clothes and jewellery. There was no significant difference in responses between ethnic groups when assessing knowledge of the need to remove hot soaked clothing. Although 73% (n=137) of parents would run the burn under cool water, only 35% (n=66) would cool the burn for an adequate length of time. White British parents were significantly more likely to run cool water over the burn, and to continue this for the recommended 10-20 min. Whilst 88% (n=165) of parents would seek medical attention, this was significantly less in parents under 20 years old. Finally, 92% (n=173) of parents would protect the wound with appropriate dressings, but of note, 26% (n=9) of parents from minority ethnic groups would potentially impair burn healing by using inappropriate dressings and topical

  14. Sample Set (SE): SE48 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onoids and eight rare flavonolignan isomers, were isolat... elucidated the structures of specialized metabolites from rice by using MS/MS and NMR. Thirty-six compounds, including five new flav

  15. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of thin films of As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2 exhibit a wide variety of photo-induced phenomena that enable them to be used as optical imaging or storage medium and various electronic devices, including electro-optic information storage devices and optical mass memories. Therefore, accurate measurement of thermal properties of ...

  16. Trends and determinants of adequate gastroprotection in patients chronically using NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Charles W; Smeets, Hugo M; Numans, Mattijs E; Knol, Mirjam J; Hoes, Arno W; de Wit, Niek J

    2009-09-01

    To identify determinants and trends of gastroprotection in patients chronically using NSAIDs. retrospective cohort study. Agis Health Database (AHD) containing annual prescription records of approximately 1.5 million patients. All patients using more than 180 daily defined doses (DDD) annually, of any NSAID from 2001 to 2007. prevalence of NSAID use, adequate prescription of gastroprotective drugs (PPI, misoprostol or COX-2 inhibitor use), determinants of adequate gastroprotection. The percentage of patients chronically using NSAIDs rose from 7.3% of the total NSAIDs users in 2001 to 7.5% in 2007. The percentage of patients on NSAIDs receiving adequate gastroprotective medication in line with actual guidelines increased from 39.6% in 2001 to 69.9% in 2007. Age over 70, co-prescription of SSRI, coumarine and steroids and arthritis are the main clinical factors predicting adequate prescription. The prevalence of NSAID prescription and the risk of gastric complications is increasing steadily. Although the number of patients receiving gastroprotective medication is also increasing, over 30% of the patients at risk for GI complications were left unprotected in 2007. In order to improve protection rates in patients using NSAIDs and to decrease NSAID related hospital admissions in the future, the implementation of gastroprotection guidelines needs to be improved.

  17. Long-Term Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Adequate Coiling Versus Clipping of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Sprengers, Marieke E.; van Rooij, Willem Jan; Sluzewski, Menno; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    Background and Purpose-Coiling is increasingly used as treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Despite its favorable short-term outcome, concerns exist about long-term reopening and inherent risk of recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized a higher risk for recurrent SAH after adequate

  18. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  19. Towards 31Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stachura, M.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Chatzichristos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional 25Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field 31Mg- β-NMR measurements of 31Mg+ ions implanted...

  20. 12 CFR 702.303 - Prompt corrective action for “adequately capitalized” new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalizedâ new credit unions. 702.303 Section 702.303 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.303 Prompt corrective action for “adequately capitalized” new credit unions...

  1. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  2. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reports § 413.24 Adequate cost data and cost finding. (a) Principle. Providers receiving payment on the... will be acceptable, subject to appropriate treatment of capital expenditures. (b) Definitions—(1) Cost... provider to ascertain costs of the various types of services furnished. It is the determination of these...

  3. Adequate Education: Issues in Its Definition and Implementation. School Finance Project, Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther, Ed.

    Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…

  4. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate

  5. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013

  6. Soil Phosphorus Level Adequate for Growth of Ocala Sand Pine Seedlings, A Greenhouse Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; R. H. Brendemuehl

    1972-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the level of soil P adequate for satisfactory growth of Ocala sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey) seedlings. Various quantities of Lakeland sand with low and high P contents were blended to provide soil mixtures with a range of available P. Ocala sand pine seedlings were grown in these mixtures for 10...

  7. Maintaining adequate nutrient supply - Principles, decision-support tools, and best management practices [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...

  8. Duty beares and their right to adequate food obligations: roles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Milton Rukundo

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus ... capacity of duty bearers in the realization of the right to adequate food in Uganda. Structured interviews were ... Secretariat in the year 2000 to fast-track agricultural transformation and food security through ...

  9. Alabama's Foundation Program: An Adequate and Equitable School Funding Mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dennis Randal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the foundation program was an adequate and equitable funding mechanism for public schools in the state of Alabama. This study analyzed funding and academic data and evaluated adequacy and equity through the lenses of poverty, geographic location, local tax effort, and type of school…

  10. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S.; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; van Huis, Marijn A.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe

  11. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  12. ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe and ZnMgSe/ZnSeTe distributed Bragg reflectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, F. C.; Lee, S.; Bindley, U.; Furdyna, J. K.

    1999-07-01

    This article investigates distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) based on two wide-gap II-VI semiconductor alloy combinations: ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe and ZnMgSe/ZnSeTe. Prior to fabrication of the DBRs, a prism coupler technique was used to determine the indices of refraction n of the above ternary alloys of various compositions prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Using these values of n, two DBR systems, Zn0.66Mg0.34Se/Zn0.74Cd0.20Se and Zn0.62Mg0.38Se/ZnSe0.56Te0.44, were fabricated, each with a relatively large difference in the indices of refraction between its layer materials. It was found that although a higher reflectivity could be achieved using the ZnMgSe/ZnSeTe combination (since it manifests a larger difference in their indices of refraction Δn=0.35), the number of periods which can be deposited in this DBR system is limited due to growth difficulties that arise when combining ZnMgSe and ZnSeTe. Therefore the ZnMgSe/ZnSeTe DBR system, which was restricted to just 10 periods, yielded a modest reflectivity of 85%. On the other hand, although Δn in the ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe DBR system is smaller (Δn=0.20), it poses fewer growth difficulties, making it possible to grow DBR stacks consisting of a large number of layers without compromising the crystal quality of the structure. By growing 20 periods of the ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe DBR system, we obtained a DBR with a reflectivity as high as 98%.

  13. Are new registered nursing graduates adequately prepared to be competent practitioners? a Victorian study

    OpenAIRE

    Missen, Karen Lee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Each year, thousands of new nursing graduates join the health workforce in Australia. Evidence from the literature suggests that undergraduate nursing programs do not adequately prepare these graduates to be practice-ready and competent on graduation. Technological advances in healthcare, increased acuity of care, and increased numbers of hospital admissions due to an ageing population and higher prevalence of chronic disease means that the issue of nurse graduates...

  14. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  15. Transthoracic echocardiography is adequate for intraprocedural guidance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Renuka; O'Hair, Daniel P; Bajwa, Tanvir K; Ignatowski, Denise; Harland, Daniel; Kirby, Amanda M; Hammonds, Tracy; Allaqaband, Suhail Q; Kay, Jonathan; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2017-12-01

    While transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has traditionally been supported intraprocedurally by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is increasingly being used. We evaluated echocardiographic imaging characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent TTE during TAVI (TTE-TAVI). A select team of dedicated sonographers and interventional echocardiographers performed TTE-TAVI in 278 patients, all of whom underwent TAVI through transfemoral access. We implanted the Medtronic EVOLUT R valve in 258 patients (92.8%). TTE images were acquired immediately pre-procedure by a dedicated sonographer in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with the patient in the supine position. TTE was then performed post deployment of TAVI. In the procedure, TTE image quality was fair or better in 249 (89.6%) cases. Color-flow Doppler was adequate or better in 275 (98.9%) cases. In 2 cases, paravalvular regurgitation (PVL) could not be assessed confidently by echocardiography due to poor image quality; in those cases, PVL was assessed by fluoroscopy, aortic root injection and invasive hemodynamics. Both TTE and invasive hemodynamics were used in the assessment of need for post-deployment stent ballooning ( n  = 23, 8.3%). TTE adequately recognized new pericardial effusion in 3 cases. No case required TOE conversion for image quality. There was only 1 case of intraprocedural TTE failing to recognize moderate PVL, without clinical implication. In 99% of patients, TTE-TAVI adequately assessed PVL compared with 24-h and 1-month follow-up TTE. With the current generation of TAVI, TTE-TAVI is adequate intraprocedurally when performed by specialized sonographers and dedicated cardiologists in a highly experienced TAVI center. © 2017 The authors.

  16. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  17. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  18. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  19. Surface Modification of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruqobah, Essam H.

    Nearly all of the world’s energy demand today is being met by the use of non-renewable energy sources. With the worldwide energy demand projected to increase in the coming years, it is vital to find alternative and renewable energy sources. Among the available renewable energy sources, solar energy is the most promising in meeting the worldwide energy demand. Recently, thin film solar cells have garnered attention due to their thinner architecture and relatively high optical absorption coefficients, as opposed to the conventional crytslline silicon solar cells. One of the most promising thin-film solar cell absorber materials is Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe), achieving power conversion efficiencies approaching those of crystalline Si. The highest efficiency CIGSe devices were made via costly vacuum-based co-evaporation process. CIGSe devices made from solution-processed methods have also garnered attention due to their lower costs, and their efficiencies have increased considerably in recent years. In this thesis, CIGSe absorber layers are fabricated via the solution-processed from nanoparticle-based sulfide CIGS. The most important step in fabrication of a CIGSe solar cell absorber layer is the selenization step, which is the thermal sintering of a CIGSe precursor layer in the presence of selenium vapor to achieve large, dense selenide grains that are required for adequate PV performance. It is determined that maintaining adequate selenium vapor pressure on the substrate during the selenization and subsequent cooldown is crucial in producing high efficiency solar cell devices. Furthermore, exposing the CIGSe grains to a Se-deficient atmosphere causes Se to evaporate from the grains, and subsequently modifying the CIGSe grain surface. The modified grain surface adversely impacts the PV performance of the final solar cell device by forming defects due to the decrease in selenium concentration. These defects are manifested in increased current shunting, and decrease the

  20. Routine supplementation does not warrant the nutritional status of vitamin d adequate after gastric bypass Roux-en-Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Cintia Leticia; Dames Olivieri Saubermann, Ana Paula; Jacqueline, Jacqueline; Pereira, Silvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies, including those related to bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D and PTH in obese adults before and six months after gastric bypass surgery in Roux-en-Y (RYGB) and evaluate the doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery. Retrospective longitudinal study of adult patients of both sexes undergoing RYGB. We obtained data on weight, height, BMI and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium and PTH. Following surgery, patients received dietary supplementation daily 500 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D. We studied 56 women and 27 men. Preoperative serum concentrations of vitamin D were inadequate in 45% of women and 37% of men, while in the postoperative period 91% of women and 85% of men had deficiency of this vitamin. No change in serum calcium was found before and after surgery. Serum PTH preoperatively remained adequate in 89% of individuals of both sexes. After surgery serum concentrations remained adequate and 89% women and 83% men evaluated. Obesity appears to be a risk factor for the development of vitamin D. The results show that supplementation routine postoperative was unable to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency in obese adults undergoing RYGB. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Shell-Controlled Photoluminescence in CdSe/CNT Nanohybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hua-Yan; Liu, Cai-Hong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Tian-Ming; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2009-10-01

    A new type of nanohybrids containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) was prepared using an electrostatic self-assembly method. The CdSe QDs were capped by various mercaptocarboxylic acids, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), which provide shell thicknesses of ~5.2, 10.6 and 15.2 Å, respectively. The surface-modified CdSe QDs are then self-assembled onto aridine orange-modified CNTs via electrostatic interaction to give CdSe/CNT nanohybrids. The photoluminescence (PL) efficiencies of the obtained nanohybrids increase significantly with the increase of the shell thickness, which is attributed to a distance-dependent photo-induced charge-transfer mechanism. This work demonstrates a simple mean for fine tuning the PL properties of the CdSe/CNT nanohybrids and gains new insights to the photo-induced charge transfer in such nanostructures.

  2. Shell-Controlled Photoluminescence in CdSe/CNT Nanohybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hua-Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new type of nanohybrids containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs and CdSe quantum dots (QDs was prepared using an electrostatic self-assembly method. The CdSe QDs were capped by various mercaptocarboxylic acids, including thioglycolic acid (TGA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA, which provide shell thicknesses of ~5.2, 10.6 and 15.2 Å, respectively. The surface-modified CdSe QDs are then self-assembled onto aridine orange-modified CNTs via electrostatic interaction to give CdSe/CNT nanohybrids. The photoluminescence (PL efficiencies of the obtained nanohybrids increase significantly with the increase of the shell thickness, which is attributed to a distance-dependent photo-induced charge-transfer mechanism. This work demonstrates a simple mean for fine tuning the PL properties of the CdSe/CNT nanohybrids and gains new insights to the photo-induced charge transfer in such nanostructures.

  3. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  4. Thermally induced atomic reconstruction of PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots into PbSe/CdSe bi-hemisphere hetero-nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grodzinska, D.; Pietra, F; van Huis, M.A.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; de Mello Donega, C.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of hetero-nanocrystals (HNCs) depend strongly on the mutual arrangement of the nanoscale components. In this work we have investigated the structural and morphological evolution of colloidal PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots upon annealing under vacuum. Prior to annealing the PbSe

  5. The Ag2Se-HgSe-GeSe2 system and crystal structures of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parasyuk, O.V.; Gulay, L.D.; Romanyuk, Ya.E.; Olekseyuk, I.D.; Piskach, L.V.

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the quasi-ternary Ag 2 Se-HgSe-GeSe 2 system at 298 K was investigated using X-ray phase analysis and metallography. The formation of five intermediate quaternary phases β (Ag ∼7.12-∼6.32 Hg ∼0.44-∼0.82 GeSe 6 ), γ (Ag ∼6.08-∼4.00 Hg ∼0.96-∼2.00 GeSe 6 ), δ (Ag 3.4 Hg 2.3 GeSe 6 ), ε (Ag ∼2.24-∼2.00 Hg ∼2.88-∼3.00 GeSe 6 ) and ∼Ag 1.4 Hg 1.3 GeSe 6 was established. The crystal structure of the β-phase (for the Ag 6.504 Hg 0.912 GeSe 6 composition) was determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction. It crystallizes in a cubic structure (space group F4-bar 3m) with the lattice parameter a=1.09026(4) nm. The crystal structure of the δ-phase (Ag 3.4 Hg 2.3 GeSe 6 ) was determined using X-ray powder diffraction (space group F4-bar 3m, a=1.07767(8) nm). The crystal structure determination of the γ-phase (space group Pmn2 1 ) was performed for the compositions Ag 5.6 Hg 1.2 GeSe 6 , Ag 4.8 Hg 1.6 GeSe 6 and Ag 4 Hg 2 GeSe 6 using X-ray powder diffraction. The crystal structure of the LT-Hg 2 GeSe 4 compound (space group I4-bar , a=0.56786(2), c=1.12579(5) nm) was confirmed by powder diffraction also.

  6. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for

  7. Towards a sustainable architecture: Adequate to the environment and of maximum energy efficiency; Hacia una arquitectura sustentable: adecuada al ambiente y de maxima eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillon Galvez, David [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    An analysis of the elements and factors that the architecture of buildings must have to be sustainable, such as: a design adequate to the environment, saving and efficient use of alternate energies, and the auto-supply is presented. In addition a methodology for the natural air conditioning (bioclimatic architecture) of buildings, as well as ideas for the saving and efficient use of energy, with the objective of contributing to the adequate use of components of the building (walls, ceilings, floors etc.), is presented, that when interacting with the environment it takes advantage of it, without deterioration of the same, obtaining energy efficient designs. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis de los elementos y factores que debe tener la arquitectura de edificios para ser sustentable, como; un diseno adecuado al ambiente, ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia, el uso de energias alternas y el autoabastecimiento. Ademas se propone una metodologia para la climatizacion natural (arquitectura bioclimatica) de edificios, asi como ideas para el ahorro y uso eficiente de energia, con el objetivo de aportar al uso adecuado de componentes del edificio (muros, techos, pisos etc.) que al interactuar con el ambiente tome ventaja de el, sin deterioro del mismo, logrando disenos energeticamente eficientes.

  8. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards {sup 31}Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachura, M., E-mail: mstachura@triumf.ca [TRIUMF (Canada); McFadden, R. M. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Chatzichristos, A.; Dehn, M. H. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gottberg, A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Hemmingsen, L. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Jancso, A. [University of Szeged, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Karner, V. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Kiefl, R. F. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Larsen, F. H. [Københavns Universitet Rolighedsvej 26, Institut for Fødevarevidenskab (Denmark); Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); MacFarlane, W. A. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Morris, G. D. [TRIUMF (Canada); Pallada, S. [CERN (Switzerland); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Szunyogh, D.; Thulstrup, P. W. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Voss, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional {sup 25}Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field {sup 31}Mg- β-NMR measurements of {sup 31}Mg{sup +} ions implanted into a MgO single crystal carried out at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF. The resonances recorded at 2.5 T and 3.5 T show strong linewidth dependency on the applied RF power, ranging from ~ 419 ppm for the highest RF power down to ~ 48 ppm for the lowest one.

  10. Prochaotic tourism development pressure on coastal habitats adequate evaluation case study in Sulina, Romnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOROFTEI Mihai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the coastal areas, the pressure of touristic development upon natural areas is increasing and interfering with main purposes of Natura 2000 sites designation. Therefore the habitats tendency, adequate for species development, is in regression as far as areas size and homogeneity are concerned. In this respect, a case study is presented for the Black Sea’s north-western littoral, in Sulina locality, Romania. The present paper was elaborated in conformity with Ministry Order 19/2010 for the Methodological Guide with regard to the adequate evaluation (A.E. of the effect of potential plans or projects on protected natural areas of community importance. The case study is an investment project called lina eac arrangeen. Its objective was to develop a plot for the beach area’s tourist infrastructure in order to provide services to the public. The cumulative impact of the existing project may affect the coastal habitats (1210, 1310, 1410, 2110 and 2160 and Natura 2000 site integrity (ROSCI0065 Danube Delta. Regarding these habitats types, conservation value, criterion of representativeness and functions in concern with possibilities for restoration are analyzed. At present, the studied emplacement is mainly affected by the anthropic interventions, having the aspect of a degraded natural area. In addition, conservation measures are described, which were elaborated in accordance with both the national legislation and by consulting the management plans of certain protected natural areas from abroad, which contain habitats characteristic to the marine coast and sandpits within their perimeter.

  11. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Le Coq, D., E-mail: david.lecoq@univ-littoral.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque (France)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. {yields} Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. {yields} Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. {yields} Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallisation (T{sub x}), and melting (T{sub m}) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} and their Hruby, H{sub r} = (T{sub x} - T{sub g})/(T{sub m} - T{sub x}), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity {sigma} and the room temperature conductivity {sigma}{sub 298} was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm{sup -1} region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  12. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the

  13. Colloidal PbSe/CdSe Heteronanocrystals. Atomic configuration, electronic structure and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grodzinska, D.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural characterization and the opto-electronic properties of PbSe/CdSe core/shell QDs and on the structural and morphological evolution of PbSe/CdSe core/shell QDs upon thermal annealing under vacuum.

  14. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods......Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...

  15. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods...

  16. The classification of explosion-proof protected induction motor into adequate temperature and efficiency class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinovar, Iztok; Srpčič, Gregor; Seme, Sebastijan; Štumberger, Bojan; Hadžiselimović, Miralem

    2017-07-01

    This article deals with the classification of explosion-proof protected induction motors, which are used in hazardous areas, into adequate temperature and efficiency class. Hazardous areas are defined as locations with a potentially explosive atmosphere where explosion may occur due to present of flammable gasses, liquids or combustible dusts (industrial plants, mines, etc.). Electric motors and electrical equipment used in such locations must be specially designed and tested to prevent electrical initiation of explosion due to high surface temperature and arcing contacts. This article presents the basic tests of three-phase explosion-proof protected induction motor with special emphasis on the measuring system and temperature rise test. All the measurements were performed with high-accuracy instrumentation and accessory equipment and carried out at the Institute of energy technology in the Electric machines and drives laboratory and Applied electrical engineering laboratory.

  17. Are individual transferable quotas an adequate solution to overfishing and overcapacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Eugenia; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hoff, Ayoe

    2018-01-01

    Individual Transferable Quotas stand in large parts of the fisheries economic literature as the panacea that solves all problems of overfishing and overcapacity of world´s fisheries. However, they are also criticized by a number of authors based on their negative social effects. Individual...... Transferable Quotas have been increasingly used during the past decades and are the main management system in a number of countries today. This paper provides evidence of the economic, social and environmental effects of one such system ten years after its introduction in Danish fisheries starting in 2003...... in local fishing communities compared to the national average was found. The Danish experience proves that Individual Transferable Quotas can be an adequate solution with regards to overfishing and overcapacity with also positive effects on the environment due to reduced fuel consumption and fishing...

  18. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation, it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose. Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  19. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Todor; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry. (paper)

  20. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  2. Interferential oscillation of longitudinal photoconductivity in InSe-GaSe heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyazymzade, A.G.; Salmanov, V.M.; Dadashova, V.V.; Agayeva, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated the interferential oscillation of longitudinal photoconductivity along a layers of InSe in InSe-GaSe heterojunctions, manufactured by the method of planting to optical contact. It is established that the presice oscillation of photocurrent depending on the light wavelength are observed in spectrum of longitudinal photoconductivity, which are correlated with oscillation of absorption of thin wide bandgap top layers of GaSe, through which illuminates the heterojunction. Thus there is an additional strengthening of photosensitivity of InSe layers, owing to transition of nonequilibrium photoholes from InSe to GaSe under influence of a field of heterojunction

  3. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Parlesak

    Full Text Available Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost.Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA, or dietary guidelines (DG, or nutrient recommendations (N, or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN, or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN. The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods.The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6. The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8. The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN to 134 (DGN foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN. Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN tripled it.Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  4. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  5. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  6. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  7. Study of Tb2Se3-GeSe2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, I.O.; Sultanov, T.I.; Dzhalil-zade, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of Tb 2 Se 3 and GeSe 2 interaction in the whole concentration range and a number of physical and chemical properties of the new phases prepared are studied. On t basis of results of physical and chemical analysis the state diagram of the Tb 2 Se 3 -GeSe 2 system is plotted. The existence of four compounds is established, three of which (Tb 4 GeSe 8 , Tb 2 GeSe 5 , Tb 2 Ge 2 Se 7 ) melt congruently, and Tb 2 Ge 3 Se 9 melts incongruently. Polymorphism is found for Tb 4 GeSe 8 and Tb 2 GeSe 5 . Lattice parameters of compounds obtained are determined [ru

  8. Synthesis, structure, and properties of Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26): a quaternary thorium selenophosphate containing the (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs Piccoli, P M; Abney, K D; Schoonover, J D; Dorhout, P K

    2001-09-10

    Orange crystals of Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26) were grown from the reaction of (232)Th and P in a Cs(2)Se(3)/Se molten salt flux at 750 degrees C. Cs(4)Th(4)P(4)Se(26) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with the unit cell parameters: a = 12.0130(6), b = 14.5747(7), c = 27.134(1) A; Z = 8. The compound exhibits a three-dimensional structure, consisting of dimeric [Th(2)Se(13)] polyhedral units. The two crystallographically independent, nine-coordinate, bicapped trigonal prismatic thorium atoms share a triangular face to form the dimer, and each dimer edge-shares two selenium atoms with two other dimers to form kinked chains along the [010] direction. While this structure shares features of the previously reported Rb(4)U(4)P(4)Se(26), including phosphorus in the 5+ oxidation state, careful inspection of the structure reveals that the selenophosphate anion that knits the structure together in three directions in both compounds is a unique (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion. The formula may be described best as [Cs(2)Th(2)(P(2)Se(9))(Se(2))(2)](2). The (P(2)Se(9))(6-) anion features a nearly linear Se-Se-Se backbone with an angle of 171 degrees and Se-Se distances that are approximately 0.2-0.3 A longer than the typical single Se-Se bond. Magnetic studies confirm that this phase contains Th(IV). Raman data for this compound is reported, and structural comparisons will be drawn to its uranium analogue, Rb(4)U(4)P(4)Se(26).

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been...

  10. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Crystal

    2016-02-18

    The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug's risks and side effects or of a "major statement" identifying the drug's major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of "fair balance," the FDA's requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug's risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug's risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and none displayed negative images when presenting risks

  11. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  12. The fractionation of selenium isotopic exchange between Se (0) and Se (IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, T. D.; Jianming, Z.; Qin, H.; Xu, W.

    2016-12-01

    Selenium (Se) has six naturally stable isotopes, 74Se, 76Se, 77Se, 78Se, 80Se, and 82Se; with the relative abundance of 0.89%, 9.37%, 7.64%, 23.77%, 49.61%, and 8.73%, respectively. According to the previous work, the variations in δ82/76Se suggested that biogeochemical cycling in earth surface can lead to significant Se isotopic fractionation [1]. It was now believed that the abiotic and biotic reduction for Se (IV) and Se (VI) oxyanion was the main processes for Se isotope fractionation in natural systems. However, recently, the theoretical calculation by first-principles shows that equilibrium Se isotope fractionation between SeO32-and SeO42- can reach Δ82/76Se =13.3‰ at the 25 °, and have a trend of heavy Se isotopes enrichment as SeO42- > SeO3 2- > HSeO3- > SeO2 > selenoamino acids > alkylselenides > Se (0) or H2Se >HSe-[2]. So we take a new idea that the significant isotopic fractionation of Se may be caused by the combined role of Se reduction and isotopic exchange. In the past years, the study of the mechanism of Se isotope fractionation was mainly focused on the reduction of Se oxyanion, but for the fractionation by the isotope exchange between different Se speciation is poorly studied. Therefore, we take the isotope exchange between Se (0) and Se (IV) as an example, to compare the isotope fractionation of Se under the different reaction conditions. Experiment was conducted using 10 mg Se (0) particles mixed with 2 mg/L Se (IV) solution in different medium (MQ-water, 0.1mol/L and 1mol / L NaOH), and the time lasted for 96 days. The value of δ82/76Se in Se (IV) solution from the initial -1.20 ‰ to 2.22‰, 4.20‰ and 6.69‰, respectively. From this experiment we can know, with the increasement of alkalinity in medium solution, the rate for oxidation of Se (0) oxidized by the dissolved oxygen is gradually to increase, and can gain more free electrons for the reaction of the isotopic exchange between Se (0) and Se (IV), and make the rate of isotopic

  13. Thermodynamic properties of SeS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.D.

    1977-12-01

    Mass-spectrometry and Knudsen effusion experiments were used to study the equilibrium partial pressure of SeS formed by reaction of S/sub 2/ and Se/sub 2/ which were produced by thermally decomposing a mixture of In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and In/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ in a Knudsen effusion cell. The heat of formation of SeS(g) was determined by the second law method to be -0.6 +- 3 kcal/mole. The entropy of formation of SeS(g) was calculated from spectrographic data in Ahmed and Barrow to be 1.5 cal/degree-mole at 298/sup 0/K.

  14. Cs2UPd3Se6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N. Oh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dicaesium uranium(IV tripalladium(II hexaselenide, Cs2UPd3Se6, crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba2NaCu3O6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2, Cs1 (222, Cs2 (m2m, Pd1 (.m., Pd2 (2mm, Se1 (m.., and Se2 (1. This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe4] units that form a hexagon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe6] trigonal–prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010. The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square antiprism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexagonal.

  15. Factors impacting upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Camilla; Sunde, Kjetil; Ramsdal, Helge; Hebbert, Susan R; Soilammi, Linda; Westmark, Fredrik; Nordum, Fredrik; Hansen, Andreas E; Steen-Hansen, Jon E; Olasveengen, Theresa M

    2016-12-01

    Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Mixed-methods design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews and non-participant observations. OA-, VT- and Ø-EMCC responded to 1095 OHCAs and 579 of these calls were included for further analysis (333, 143 and 103, respectively). There were significant site differences in their recognition of OHCA (89, 94 and 78%, respectively, pmisinterpretation of agonal breathing. Interviews and observations revealed individual differences in protocol use, interrogation strategy and assessment of breathing. Use of protocol was only part of decision making, dispatchers trusted their own clinical experience and intuition, and used assumptions about the patient and the situation as part of decision making. Agonal breathing continues to be the main barrier to recognition of cardiac arrest. Individual differences among dispatchers' strategies can directly impact on performance, mainly due to the wide definition of cardiac arrest and lack of uniform tools for assessment of breathing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Seishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  18. Does current cefazolin dosing achieve adequate tissue and blood concentrations in obese women undergoing cesarean section?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Jessica J F; Greer, Danielle M; Cabrera, Omar; Burlage, Robert; Forgie, Marie M; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2017-03-01

    Prophylactic administration of antibiotics preceding cesarean delivery is the most effective measure taken for preventing postpartum infection. While obese women are at greater risk for infection than non-obese women, evidence-based recommendations for modifying dosing in these women are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese women undergoing cesarean delivery similarly reach adequate cefazolin concentrations within tissue and blood when weighing tissue (following skin incision and before skin closure), myometrial tissue, fetal cord blood, and maternal blood were collected to assess whether cefazolin concentrations were adequate, i.e., at/above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Concentrations, based on inhibition zones for Streptococcus sanguinis, were calculated per gram of solid tissue and milliliter of blood. For all sample types, log-transformed concentrations were compared between dosage groups. Using a range of published MICs (1-8μg/mL or μg/g), odds ratios, describing differential odds of falling below the MIC between dosage groups, were also computed. Women who received 2g (n=65) versus 3g (n=19) of cefazolin did not significantly differ by maternal or gestational age, race/ethnicity, pre-operative hemoglobin, estimated blood loss, fluid administration, duration of surgery, or timing of sample collections relative to cefazolin administration (Ps>0.05). Dosage groups also did not differ in cefazolin concentration (median [interquartile range]) within adipose tissue following skin incision (5.30μg/g [3.00-9.60] vs. 6.35μg/g [3.90-8.40]; P=0.551), adipose tissue before skin closure (4.45μg/g [2.78-7.25] vs. 6.90μg/g [2.60-10.6]; P=0.342), myometrial tissue (13.1μg/g [8.60-19.6] vs. 15.7μg/g [10.8-21.7]; P=0.116), or maternal blood (41.6μg/mL [26.3-57.0] vs. 45.3μg/mL [36.7-68.3]; P=0.143). However, cord blood concentrations differed significantly (19.5μg/mL [13.7-28.5] vs. 27.9μg/mL [15.8-39.4]; P=0.032), and

  19. Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipos Emese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash® required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

  20. Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Emese; Oltean, Andrea Ramona; Szabó, Zoltán-István; Rédai, Emőke-Margit; Nagy, Gabriella Dónáth

    2017-06-27

    Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM) and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash®) required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

  1. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  2. Experiments of conditioning C-14 immobilized in a solid matrix adequate for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havris, A.; Havris, C.; Deneanu, N.

    2001-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP entails production and management of significant amounts of radioactive waste. 80% of the β - γ activity, except for the spent fuel contribution, originates in the ion exchange resin wastes. Long term storage of utilised ion exchangers in shielded pools implies large storing rooms, additional costs for technical surveillance and maintenance operations, and, besides, it rises the risk of contaminating the personnel and environment. The research works conducted in INR Pitesti aim at transferring the activity of ion exchange resin waste to an inorganic support by acid stripping or bacterial degrading. In both methods the C-14 released as CO 2 is embodied on an inorganic solid support which is subsequently conditioned into a matrix adequate to final disposal. The retaining efficiency of CO 2 by a Ca(OH) 2 or Ba(OH) 2 solid column was established as well as the optimal waste-cement proportion. It was done by carrying out compression tests on Portland cement samples with different inclusion of CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 . The resulting composition diagram is shown. Optimal cement : waste ratio was found to equal 1 and 0.9 for CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 , respectively. The chemical stability of the cement-CaCO 3 or cement-BaCO 3 samples was determined by investigating swelling, cracking or braking phenomena, following immersion in distilled water, and by conducting leaching tests, as well. The leaching rates for the two materials were found to be 96 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day decreasing down to 3.0 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day in 35 days and 62 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day decreasing down to 4 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day in 12 days of exposure to de-mineralized water, respectively. Long term (4,000 years) evaluations showed that only 0.25% of the C-14 immobilized in the conditions described is released in the environment. Tests on degradation of the two samples immersed for 90 days, as well as the water absorption rate showed that both cement-CaCO 3 and cement-BaCO 3 are adequate

  3. Inferences and metaphoric comprehension in unilaterally implanted children with adequate formal oral language performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Maria; Filipo, Roberto; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Viccaro, Marika; Dincer, Hilal; Guerzoni, Letizia; Cuda, Domenico; Bosco, Ersilia; Prosperini, Luca; Mancini, Patrizia

    2014-05-01

    To assess skills in inferences during conversations and in metaphors comprehension of unilaterally cochlear implanted children with adequate abilities at the formal language tests, comparing them with well-matched hearing peers; to verify the influence of age of implantation on overall skills. The study was designed as a matched case-control study. 31 deaf children, unilateral cochlear implant users, with normal linguistic competence at formal language tests were compared with 31 normal hearing matched peers. Inferences and metaphor comprehension skills were assessed through the Implicit Meaning Comprehension, Situations and Metaphors subtests of the Italian Standardized Battery of "Pragmatic Language Skills MEDEA". Differences between patient and control groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between age at implantation and time of implant use with each subtest were investigated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. No significant differences between the two groups were found in inferencing skills (p=0.24 and p=0.011 respectively for Situations and Implicit Meaning Comprehension). Regarding figurative language, unilaterally cochlear implanted children performed significantly below their normal hearing peers in Verbal Metaphor comprehension (p=0.001). Performances were related to age at implantation, but not with time of implant use. Unilaterally cochlear implanted children with normal language level showed responses similar to NH children in discourse inferences, but not in figurative language comprehension. Metaphors still remains a challenge for unilateral implant users and above all when they have not any reference, as demonstrated by the significant difference in verbal rather than figurative metaphors comprehension. Older age at implantation was related to worse performance for all items. These aspects, until now less investigated, had to receive more attention to deeply understand specific mechanisms involved and possible effects

  4. EPR of SeO2- and SeO3- radicals in alkaline borate glasses with 77Se isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galimov, D.G.; Tarzimanov, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    Alkaline borate glasses with 77 Se were investigated in order to establish the nature of selenium compounds and radicals in glasses. The relationship between alkali ions and the oxygen radical of selenium was determined by decoding the hyperfine structure of the alkaline borate glass EPR spectra obtained before and after γ-irradiation. The irradiated and non-irradiated glasses were characterized by hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines from the α- and β centres. Moreover, the irradiated samples were noted to have a line doublet (signal phi). With intenser reduction conditions of glass fusion, the intensities of α, β, and phi signals were noted to decline. This confirmes the suggestion that these centres were caused by oxygen compouds. The authors concluded that α and β signals were due to the paramagnetic centres of SeO 2 - and [SeO 2 - ]R + , and phi signal to the SeO 3 - radicals

  5. Brazilian industrial growth financing: are the sources adequate to the sectoral technological regimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyzing the relationship between the type of financing resources and growth of the manufacturing sectors, grouped according to technological regimes, and to relate this relationship to its degree of adequacy of the sources to the sectoral technological opportunities. Thus, panel data analysis was performed in order to asses the relationship between financial deepening and innovation. We gathered detailed data for each industrial sector, grouped according to its technological regimes, and ran a Granger causality test in panels. Results found report that more innovation-intense sectors, which boosted aggregated economic growth rather steeply, present inadequate financing dynamic to its own growth. Therefore, considering sectors with high technological opportunities and strong innovation persistence, it was observed a bank-based type of financing, whilst the ideal for its growth would be the market-based one. On the other hand, less innovative sectors are found in better situation of financing and better growth conditions. These (non-satisfactory requirements present themselves in (higher lower growth rates and industrial production share.O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a relação entre o tipo de financiamento e o crescimento dos diversos setores da indústria de transformação e ligá-la ao maior ou menor grau de adequação das fontes às oportunidades tecnológicas setoriais. Para tanto, faz-se uma avaliação em painel de dados da relação entre aprofundamento financeiro e inovação, utilizando dados desagregados para os setores industriais, agrupados de acordo com regimes tecnológicos, fazendo um exercício de Granger-causalidade em painéis. Os resultados encontrados mostram que os setores mais inovativos, que impulsionariam o crescimento da economia agregada de forma mais acentuada, apresentam dinâmicas de financiamento inadequadas ao seu crescimento. Assim, para setores com altas oportunidades tecnológicas e

  6. GENERIC APPROACH IN CHOICE OF ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kozina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments into information technology (IT, (hereinafter: IT investments havereached very high figures, which are still continually on the rise. IT potentials are being usedin an increasing number of ways. Various company managers have different approaches tothis issue. A large number of methods/models for the assessment of IT investments isavailable, so the question is posed of how to choose the adequate assessment category. Thesaid reasons have initiated a need for defining the generic approach in the choice ofadequate methodology for the assessment of IT investments, which was indeed the goal ofthis paper. General ideas to this approach stem from the fact that each IT investment has itspurpose and belongs to a certain type of IT investment (decision-making aspect whichdemands its relevant methodology for assessing IT investments. Two groups of demands(conditions have been defined in choosing relevant methodology. The first group pertains tomethodology analysis and determination of its compatibility with characteristics of thedefined decision-making aspect. The second group of conditions pertains to methodologyanalysis with respect to its possibilities (abilities of integrating quantity, quality and riskfactors of IT decision. Conducted field research shows that the assessment of IT investmentshas been done mainly using simpler methods/models and their combinations, and is focusedon quantity aspects of IT values.

  7. [Neonatal ABO incompatibility underlies a potentially severe hemolytic disease of the newborn and requires adequate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, T; Minon, J-M; Rigo, J

    2011-03-01

    ABO allo-immunization is the most frequent hemolytic disease of the newborn and ABO incompatibility is present in 15-25 % of pregnancies. True ABO alloimmunization occurs in approximately one out of 150 births. Intensity is generally lower than in RhD allo-immunization. We report on three cases showing that ABO allo-immunization can lead to severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with potentially threatening hyperbilirubinemia and complications. Early diagnosis and adequate care are necessary to prevent complications in ABO incompatibility. A direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of diagnosis and should be performed at birth on cord blood sampling in all group infants born to O mothers, especially if of African origin. Risk factor analysis and attentive clinical monitoring during the first days of life are essential. Vigilance is even more important for infants discharged before the age of 72 h. Every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia and should be examined by a qualified healthcare professional in the first days of life. Treatment depends on the total serum bilirubin level, which may increase very rapidly in the first 48 h of life in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Phototherapy and, in severe cases, exchange transfusion are used to prevent hyperbilirubinemia encephalopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to reduce exchange transfusion. Treatments of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn should be provided and performed by trained personnel in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrological functional unit identification - linking observables and concepts towards a minimal adequate catchment representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, C.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding catchment structures and properties as most probable result of past work during their evolution under the continuous depletion of gradients opens a connection of landscape properties to dominating processes. While a qualitative description from the expert's perspective can comprehend most of these; a distinct objective delineation into functional units, their topology and their connectivity appears far more problematic as a) spatio-temporal scale, b) degrees of freedom and c) aspects of self-organisation have to be brought in accordance. Our study highlights several conceptual approaches aiming to link hydrological landscape understanding, observation and modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based case study for the Attert basin is presented, which shows that from a multitude of possible class combinations, already very few cover the vast majority of the catchment. Consequently, dominating processes, prevailing topologies, most insightful data demands and possible non ad hoc model representations are outlined. The result is a step towards a minimal adequate catchment representation. To base this on physical descriptions with truly observable parameters, we further revise most insightful data for functional unit identification and observation and if and how it can be derived in the landscape and from products available.

  9. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  10. Toward Adequate Operation of Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors for Low-Concentration Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Jung, Sung Hyeon; Cho, Sung Woon; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2018-03-28

    We suggest the use of a thin-film transistor (TFT) composed of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) as a channel and a sensing layer for low-concentration NO 2 gas detection. Although amorphous oxide layers have a restricted surface area when reacting with NO 2 gas, such TFT sensors have incomparable advantages in the aspects of electrical stability, large-scale uniformity, and the possibility of miniaturization. The a-IGZO thin films do not possess typical reactive sites and grain boundaries, so that the variation in drain current of the TFTs strictly originates from oxidation reaction between channel surface and NO 2 gas. Especially, the sensing data obtained from the variation rate of drain current makes it possible to monitor efficiently and quickly the variation of the NO 2 concentration. Interestingly, we found that enhancement-mode TFT (EM-TFT) allows discrimination of the drain current variation rate at NO 2 concentrations ≤10 ppm, whereas a depletion-mode TFT is adequate for discriminating NO 2 concentrations ≥10 ppm. This discrepancy is attributed to the ratio of charge carriers contributing to gas capture with respect to total carriers. This capacity for the excellent detection of low-concentration NO 2 gas can be realized through (i) three-terminal TFT gas sensors using amorphous oxide, (ii) measurement of the drain current variation rate for high selectivity, and (iii) an EM mode driven by tuning the electrical conductivity of channel layers.

  11. Alcoholic pancreatitis in rats fed ethanol in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to develop a model of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a nutritionally adequate diet, 3 groups of 15 animals each were fed Wayne Rodent-Blox ad libitum, Lieber-DeCarli diet with 40% of carbohydrate calories replaced by ethanol ad libitum and isocaloric amounts of Lieber-DeCarli diet respectively for a period of 18 months. Rats were anesthetized and basal and secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice was obtained. Pancreatic glands were isolated and divided into portions for histology, biochemical analyses, and cell fractionation. The homogenate, zymogen granule fraction, mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction, microsomal fraction and postmicrosomal supernatant as well as aliquots of pancreatic juice were analyzed for cathepsin B, acid phosphatase, beta-D-glucoronidase, arylsulphatase and leucine naphthylamidase. All of the ethanol-fed animals developed morphological changes akin to human chronic pancreatitis. There were focal areas of parenchymal degeneration with fibrosis, protein plug formation and tubular complexes. In the pancreatic tissue of animals fed ethanol, total protein, trypsinogen (and free trypsin) were increased and amylase was decreased. While acid phosphatase was increased in all of the particulate fractions, cathepsin B was increased in the zymogen granule and mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions. Basal and post-secretin pancreatic juice did not show a significant increase in digestive or lysosomal enzymes. It is suggested that focal degenerative changes may be due to trypsin generated by intracellular activation of digestive enzymes by lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B.

  12. Fractal dimension does not adequately describe the complexity of leaf margin in seedlings of Quercus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the complexity of leaf margin in a set of Quercus tree species using fractal dimension estimated by the box-counting method (FDb. Leaves were sampled from seedlings in a set of 15 Quercus species with a wide range of leaf morphology (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q.faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber, and Q. velutina. To describe leaf-edge roughness, we used simple indices: P/L - the ratio of leaf perimeter (P to maximum leaf length (L along the main nerve; P/A - the ratio of leaf perimeter to leaf-blade area (A and its dimensionless version (P/A0'; and WM/Wm -the ratio of maximum distance from the lobe tip to the main nerve (WM to minimum distance from the lobe incision to the main nerve (Wm. There was a strong positive relationship between FDb and P/A. Clustering analysis revealed the existence of three groups of leaves, namely those with: smooth or spiny margins (e.g., Q. coccifera, Q. velutina, shallow lobes (e.g., Q. petraea, and deep lobes (e.g., Q. pyrenaica. In the studied Quercus species, the ratio WM/Wm is a simple and suitable leaflobation index. It is suggested that the flux rate along the leaf edge is related to the complexity of this boundary.Se ha cuantificado la complejidad del margen de las hojas de varias especies arboreas del genero Quercus utilizando la dimension fractal estimada mediante el modo del recuento de cajas (FDb. Se tomaron hojas procedentes de plantulas pertenecientes a 15 especies de Quercus con un amplio rango de morfologfa foliar (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber y Q. velutina. Se usaron varios Indices sencillos para describir la complejidad del borde de la hoja: P/L, la relation entre el perimetro foliar (P y la longitud

  13. Sample (S): SE37_S17 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37_S17 PSEUDO: Unlabeled Medicago truncatula samples and a blank sample for the d...etection of reproducible metabolite peaks Medicago truncatula NCBI taxonomy:3880 This is a pseudo metadata p...repared for integrated analyses of multiple datasets. The Medicago samples (S01, S02, and S03) and a blank sample (S16) are included. ...

  14. Structure of GeSe4-In and GeSe5-In glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, I.; Jóvári, P.; Petkova, T.; Petkov, P.; Stoilova, A.; Hoyer, W.; Beuneu, B.

    2010-10-01

    (Ge0.2Se0.8)100 - xInx and (Ge0.17Se0.83)100 - xInx (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 at.%) chalcogenide glasses have been studied with high-energy x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Ge, Se and In K-edges. The experimental data were modelled simultaneously with the reverse Monte Carlo simulation method. GeSe4/2 tetrahedra are shown to be the main structural units in the binary and ternary glasses investigated. Indium bonds to the excess Se atoms in the ternary Ge-Se-In glasses. While the majority of In atoms have three Se neighbours, some In atoms may be tetrahedrally coordinated by Se.

  15. Como Perseu se defendeu de Medusa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lumertz de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Na psicanálise francesa, principalmente com Lacan, o conceito de falta passou a ser de grande importância. Ao que, então, perguntamos: o que é a falta? E quando esta falta? O que acontece? O que acontece quando o não especularizável não está excluído, se fazendo, assim, especular? Quando Perseu vai ao encontro de Medusa, guiando-se por sua imagem refletida em um espelho de bronze polido, segurado por Atena, como pôde este herói defender-se de Medusa? Qual foi a forma encontrada por ele para se defender da presença do objeto que introduz a dimensão do real nu?

  16. Solving the shape conundrum in $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a multi-step Coulomb-excitation study of $^{70}$Se at HIE-ISOLDE using the $^{208}$Pb( $^{70}$Se, $^{70}$Se*)$^{208}$Pb* reaction at a safe energy of 5.0 MeV/u. We aim at a precise measurement of the $\\left \\langle 2^{+}_{1} \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}\\hat{E}2 \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}2^{+}_{ 1} \\right \\rangle$ diagonal matrix element as well as gaining information on additional matrix elements. Such information will shed light onto the shape conundrum of the 2$^{+}_{1}$ state in $^{70}$Se as well as foreseeing the opportunity for a more detailed understanding of the shape-coexistence phenomenon in this region.

  17. Lustre filesystem for CMS storage element (SE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y; Kim, B; Avery, P; Fu, Y; Bourilkov, D; Taylor, C; Prescott, C; Rodriguez, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to integrate the Lustre filesystem with BeStMan, GridFTP and Ganglia to make it a fully functional WLCG SE (Storage Element). We first describe the configuration of our Lustre filesystem at the University of Florida and our integration process. We then present benchmark performance figures and IO rates from the CMS analysis jobs and the WAN data transfer performance that are conducted on the Lustre SE.

  18. Los jóvenes se incomunican

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Ferro

    2015-01-01

    Hace años los jóvenes se comunicaban y relacionaban con sus amigos del barrio o de la escuela por lo que desde pequeños desarrollaban una comunicación interpersonal fluida. Hoy los video-juegos han sustituido la amistad y se han transformado en elementos de la comunicación. La autora analiza el mundo del nintendo y su influencia en las personas

  19. Los jóvenes se incomunican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ferro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hace años los jóvenes se comunicaban y relacionaban con sus amigos del barrio o de la escuela por lo que desde pequeños desarrollaban una comunicación interpersonal fluida. Hoy los video-juegos han sustituido la amistad y se han transformado en elementos de la comunicación. La autora analiza el mundo del nintendo y su influencia en las personas

  20. Excitons, biexcitons, and phonons in ultrathin CdSe/ZnSe quantum structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gindele, F.; Woggon, Ulrike; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    The optical properties of CdSe nanostructures grown by migration-enhanced epitaxy of CdSe on ZnSe are studied by time-, energy-, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy, as well as by polarization-dependent four-wave mixing and two-photon absorption experiments...

  1. Impact of a cost constraint on nutritionally adequate food choices for French women: an analysis by linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Ferguson, Elaine L; Briend, André

    2006-01-01

    To predict, for French women, the impact of a cost constraint on the food choices required to provide a nutritionally adequate diet. Isocaloric daily diets fulfilling both palatability and nutritional constraints were modeled in linear programming, using different cost constraint levels. For each modeled diet, total departure from an observed French population's average food group pattern ("mean observed diet") was minimized. To achieve the nutritional recommendations without a cost constraint, the modeled diet provided more energy from fish, fresh fruits and green vegetables and less energy from animal fats and cheese than the "mean observed diet." Introducing and strengthening a cost constraint decreased the energy provided by meat, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, vegetable fat, and yogurts and increased the energy from processed meat, eggs, offal, and milk. For the lowest cost diet (ie, 3.18 euros/d), marked changes from the "mean observed diet" were required, including a marked reduction in the amount of energy from fresh fruits (-85%) and green vegetables (-70%), and an increase in the amount of energy from nuts, dried fruits, roots, legumes, and fruit juices. Nutrition education for low-income French women must emphasize these affordable food choices.

  2. [Adequate prescription and application of topicals : How to calculate the right volume for the prescription of ointment needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayoon, D; Dahlhoff, P; Augustin, M

    2017-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding the suitable amount of prescribed ointment and its application by patients may cause insufficient or uneconomic health care provision. To address this issue, standardized methods and experts' knowledge on the suitable amount and coherent patient's elucidation for application of topicals are needed. Presented are current data in routine care and scientific evidence on the prescribed amount of topical agents as well as its application by patients in dermatological care. A literature review was conducted via PubMed using the keywords as individual and pooled search terms: "local therapy", "topical treatment", "prescription", "amount of ointment needed", "involved area", "BSA", "finger-tip-unit", "Rule of Hand", "calculated dosage" and "rule of nines". We included original studies by manually screening title and abstract according to the relevance of the topic. The search strategy identified 19 clinical trials. The fingertip unit (FTU) is the most frequently used measurement for accurate application of external agents. Appropriate prescribed amount is calculated by required topical agent per involved surface area. There is still a need for clarification to which extent the optimized amount of ointment is prescribed and advice for its application in routine care is given. The FTU combined with the "Rule of Hand" is an adequate measurement for patient's guidance on self-application.

  3. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  4. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Arbellay

    Full Text Available Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L. Moench and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  5. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McFarlane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.

  6. Nutrition intervention and adequate hygiene practices to improve iron status of vulnerable preschool Burkinabe children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Dia; Turgeon-O'Brien, Huguette; Desrosiers, Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    To determine the impact of an intervention that combined an increase in dietary and bioavailable iron intakes and an improvement in hygiene behaviors on the iron status of preschool children from Burkina Faso. Thirty-three orphans and vulnerable children from 11 families who were 1-6 y old, were non-anemic, or had mild to moderate anemia were enrolled in an 18-wk trial. Using the probability approach for planning diets in an assisted-living facility, bioavailable iron intake was increased from 0.4 to 0.9 mg/d by increasing the amounts of meat and citrus fruits and by adding iron-rich condiments to the diet, for an estimated cost of U.S. $0.59/mo. Hygiene behaviors were modified by implementing hand-washing before meals and by the use of individual plates for meals. Iron status indicators were measured twice and means at enrollment and after intervention were compared. After intervention, hemoglobin concentration increased from 98.7 to 103.8 g/L (P=0.006). There was a decrease in total iron binding capacity (107 to 91 micromol/L, P=0.05) and a marginal increase in transferrin saturation (13% to 17%, P=0.06). Significant improvement was not observed for serum ferritin concentration or prevalence of depleted iron stores, likely due to the confounding effect of infection. Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were decreased from 64% to 30% and from 61% to 30%, respectively. Dietary modification associated with adequate hygiene behaviors could be a relevant strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia in areas where infection is a major health problem.

  7. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  9. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A. [Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Choi, Woo S. [Radiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Weiss, Jeffrey P., E-mail: johnathan.khusid@downstate.edu [Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  10. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Thurling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT.There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation.The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training.A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation.The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted.The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  11. Adequate antigen availability: a key issue for novel approaches to tumor vaccination and tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2013-03-01

    A crucial parameter for activation of the anti-tumor immune response is an adequate antigen availability (AAA) defined here as the optimal tumor antigen dose and related antigen processing and MHC-II-restricted presentation necessary to efficiently trigger tumor-specific TH cells. We will discuss two distinct experimental systems: a) a preventive anti-tumor vaccination system; b) a therapy-induced anti-tumor vaccination approach. In the first case tumor cells are rendered constitutively MHC-II+ by transfecting them with the MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. Here AAA is generated by the function of tumor's newly expressed MHC-II molecules to present tumor-associated antigens to tumor-specific TH cells. In the second case, AAA is generated by treating established tumors with neovasculature-targeted TNFα. In conjuction with Melphalan, targeted TNFα delivery produces extensive areas of tumor necrosis that generate AAA capable of optimally activate tumor-specific TH cells which in turn activate CTL immune effectors. In both experimental systems tumor rejection and persistent and long-lived TH cell anti-tumor memory, responsible of defending the animals from subsequent challenges with tumor cells, are achieved. Based on these and other investigators' results we propose that AAA is a key element for triggering adaptive immune functions resulting in subversion from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor microenvironment, tumor rejection and acquisition of anti-tumor immune memory. Hypotheses of neuro-immune networks involved in these approaches are discussed. These considerations are important also for the comprehension of how chemotherapy and/or radiation therapies may help to block and/or to eradicate the tumor and for the construction of suitable anti-tumor vaccine strategies.

  12. Capillary PO2 does not adequately reflect arterial PO2 in hypoxemic COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, Friederike Sophie; Majorski, Daniel Sebastian; Callegari, Jens; Schwarz, Sarah Bettina; Schmoor, Claudia; Windisch, Wolfram; Storre, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    To compare arterial (P a O 2 ) with capillary (P c O 2 ) partial pressure of oxygen in hypoxemic COPD patients because capillary blood gas analysis (CBG) is increasingly being used as an alternative to arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) in a non-intensive care unit setting, although the agreement between P c O 2 and P a O 2 has not been evaluated in hypoxemic COPD patients. Bland-Altman comparison of P a O 2 and P c O 2 served as the primary outcome parameter if P c O 2 values were ≤60 mmHg and the secondary outcome parameter if P c O 2 values were ≤55 mmHg. Pain associated with the measurements was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale. One hundred and two P a O 2 /P c O 2 measurement pairs were obtained. For P c O 2 values ≤60 mmHg, the mean difference between P a O 2 and P c O 2 was 5.99±6.05 mmHg (limits of agreement: -5.88 to 17.85 mmHg). For P c O 2 values ≤55 mmHg (n=73), the mean difference was 5.33±5.52 mmHg (limits of agreement: -5.48 to 16.15 mmHg). If P a O 2 ≤55 (≤60) mmHg was set as the cut-off value, in 20.6% (30.4%) of all patients, long-term oxygen therapy have been unnecessarily prescribed if only P c O 2 would have been assessed. ABG was rated as more painful compared with CBG. P c O 2 does not adequately reflect P a O 2 in hypoxemic COPD patients, which can lead to a relevant number of unnecessary long-term oxygen therapy prescriptions.

  13. Does phenomenological kinetics provide an adequate description of heterogeneous catalytic reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Burcin; Meskine, Hakim; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias; Metiu, Horia

    2007-05-01

    Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in the study of the reaction rates in heterogeneous catalysis, and it is an important aid in reactor design. PK makes simplifying assumptions: It neglects the role of fluctuations, assumes that there is no correlation between the locations of the reactants on the surface, and considers the reacting mixture to be an ideal solution. In this article we test to what extent these assumptions damage the theory. In practice the PK rate equations are used by adjusting the rate constants to fit the results of the experiments. However, there are numerous examples where a mechanism fitted the data and was shown later to be erroneous or where two mutually exclusive mechanisms fitted well the same set of data. Because of this, we compare the PK equations to "computer experiments" that use kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations. Unlike in real experiments, in kMC the structure of the surface, the reaction mechanism, and the rate constants are known. Therefore, any discrepancy between PK and kMC must be attributed to an intrinsic failure of PK. We find that the results obtained by solving the PK equations and those obtained from kMC, while using the same rate constants and the same reactions, do not agree. Moreover, when we vary the rate constants in the PK model to fit the turnover frequencies produced by kMC, we find that the fit is not adequate and that the rate constants that give the best fit are very different from the rate constants used in kMC. The discrepancy between PK and kMC for the model of CO oxidation used here is surprising since the kMC model contains no lateral interactions that would make the coverage of the reactants spatially inhomogeneous. Nevertheless, such inhomogeneities are created by the interplay between the rate of adsorption, of desorption, and of vacancy creation by the chemical reactions.

  14. Residential Segregation and Adequate Housing among Migrants from Bolivia and Peru in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia MOLINATTI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En gran parte de América Latina la segregación residencial ha sido abordada casi exclusivamente desde una perspectiva socioeconómica, siendo mucho menos frecuente su abordaje étnico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la segregación de los migrantes bolivianos y peruanos que residen en la ciudad de Córdoba y su vinculación con el acceso a una vivienda adecuada, a partir de datos del Censo de 2010. Ambos grupos se encuentran segregados y en condiciones residenciales deficientes. Aunque el colectivo más segregado no presenta los peores indicadores habitacionales, es una paradoja que evidencia la compleja relación entre segregación y acceso a una vivienda adecuada.

  15. Rotational symmetry breaking in the topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3 probed by upper-critical field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Y.; Nikitin, A.M.; Araizi, G.K.; Huang, Y.K.; Matsushita, Y.; Naka, T.; de Visser, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity

  16. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  17. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  18. ¿ Como se hace una Telenovela ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gavaldón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora relata la historia de las Relaciones Públicas y dice que surgieron y se desarrollaron para legitimar ante el público los intereses económicos y políticos de quienes detentan el poder. Se cuestiona sobre el por qué no aplicar las relaciones públicas, en organizaciones populares, para que mejoren su publicación y orienten sus propósitos de desarrollo. El tema que aborda las Políticas culturales en América Latina acopia un extracto de lo más trascendente de los ensayos del libro editado por Néstor García Canclini. Sobre la telenovela se afirma que esta ha llegado a ser uno de los instrumentos más importantes de la comunicación popular: por ella desfilan las identidades de las más variadas culturas brasileñas. Y en cuanto a la caricatura se relata lo que ocurrió en el Seminario taller " Caricatura y Periodismo", realizado el(9-11 de Nov.- 1987 en el CIESPAL. El estudio sobre el mercado del vídeo se ve dificultado por la imprecisión de los datos obtenidos. Los datos oficiales no siempre se aproximan a la realidad, pues el mercado de vídeo se instauró en América Latina partiendo de una lógica totalmente diversa de los equipos de sonido e imagen.

  19. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  20. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, Michael R.; Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses

  1. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Se e Quando: Sinônimos?!!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Lins Gouveia

    Full Text Available As sentenças condicionais e temporais são idênticas, exceto pela conjunção: os eventos antecedentes cuja ocorrência é certa são introduzidos pelo quando e os de ocorrência incerta, pelo se. Em alguns contextos, essa diferença sutil de significados desaparece, sendo possível trocar uma conjunção pela outra sem alterar o significado da sentença (Dias & Vanderlei, 1999; Reilly, 1986. A presente pesquisa, realizada com estudantes universitários, teve como objetivos comparar a idéia de certeza transmitida pelas sentenças condicionais e temporais; bem como verificar se a idéia de certeza transmitida por cada tipo de sentença estudada se altera em função do tempo verbal no qual está expressa. Identificou-se que o tempo verbal é a variável que influencia mais fortemente para aproximar o significado desses dois tipos de sentença. A superposição semântica no presente decorre da alteração no significado do se que, nesse tempo verbal, transmite maior certeza do que no passado e no futuro.

  3. Adequate Prenatal Care Reduces the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with History of Infertility: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Methods Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Results Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Conclusions Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility. PMID:24358347

  4. Decreased thrombotic mortality and morbidity after valvular cardiac surgery as a consequence of adequate coumarin anticoagulation. A retrospective study in 516 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrassi, G M; Cardin, G; Schiavinato, M L; Russo, R; de Mozzi, P; Schivazappa, L; Girolami, A

    1978-01-01

    Two almost identical groups of 258 patients each who underwent surgery for the substitution of one or more than one cardiac valve were taken into consideration. After surgery all patients, with the exception of those who received a porcine allograph, were given coumarin drugs for 1 year for thrombosis prophylaxis. In the first group of patients operated in 1972 and 1973 the laboratory follow-up and the therapeutic range were neither constant nor uniform. In the case of the second group, which included patients operated in 1974 and 1975, adequate laboratory follow-up and constantly adequate therapeutic ranges were always kept. This retrospective study has shown a statistically significant decrease in mortality due to thromboembolism and to unknown causes in the second group of patients (x2 = 8,313, "p" less than 0,0025). A decrease of the non-lethal embolic complications was also noted in the second group of patients (x2 = 6,813, "p" less than 0,0025). On the other hand, bleeding complications were greater in the second group of patients (x2 = 3,485, "p" less than 0,05) and this was interpreted as secondary to the higher anticoagulation administered to the latter patients. The results indicate that an adequate coumarin anticoagulation seems able to decrease the incidence of lethal or non-lethal thromboembolic complications after cardiac valve replacement significantly.

  5. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. A retrospective cohort study. Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  6. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan Alibekova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. RESULTS: Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24, 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18, and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12 higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  7. Speciation of Se and DOC in soil solution and their relation to Se bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Supriatin, Supriatin; Bussink, Wim; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-01-01

    A 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction is often used to asses the bioavailability of plant nutrients in soils. However, almost no correlation was found between selenium (Se) in the soil extraction and Se content in grass. The recently developed anion Donnan membrane technique was used to analyze chemical speciation of Se in the 0.01 M CaCl(2) extractions of grassland soils and fractionation of DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The results show that most of Se (67-86%) in the extractions (15 samples) are colloidal-sized Se. Only 13-34% of extractable Se are selenate, selenite and small organic Se (organic matter. The dominant form of small Se compounds (selenate, selenite/small organic compounds) depends on soil. A total of 47-85% of DOC is colloidal-sized and 15-53% are small organic molecules (mineralization of organic Se is the most important factor that controls Se availability in soils. Competition with sulfate and phosphate needs to be taken into account. Further research is needed to verify if concentration of small DOC is a good indicator of mineralization of soil organic matter.

  8. Se num passado remoto uma mulher...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Matheus

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A mulher que escreveu a Bíblia, de Moacyr Scliar,é um romance de estrutura complexa e constitui-­se de duas narrativas diferenciadas, inclusive, na apresentação gráfica. A primeira narrativa, em itálico, é conduzida por um narrador-­personagem anônimo, um fracassado professor de História que se torna, de forma pouco confiável, em um “terapeuta” de vidas passadas.

  9. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  10. Predictors of Timely Prenatal Care Initiation and Adequate Utilization in a Sample of Late Adolescent Texas Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar; Kehoe, Priscilla; Heilemann, MarySue V

    2018-03-01

    Little is known of late adolescent Texas Latinas' prenatal care perceptions or how these perceptions predict timely prenatal care initiation or adequate utilization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to describe and compare these perceptions between participants with timely versus late prenatal care initiation and adequate, intermediate, and inadequate prenatal care utilization; and to determine predictors of timely prenatal care initiation and adequate utilization. Fifty-four postpartum Latinas were recruited through social media. Eligibility criteria were 18 to 21 years old, Texas-born, primiparous, uncomplicated pregnancy/delivery, and English literate. Prenatal care perceptions were measured with the Revised Better Babies Survey and Access Barriers to Care Index. Participants had favorable views of prenatal care benefits; however, not living with the baby's father predicted inadequate prenatal care, Wald χ 2 (1) = 4.93, p = .026. Perceived benefits of timely and adequate prenatal care predicted timely prenatal care initiation, χ 2 (1) = 7.47, p = .006. Self-reported depression during pregnancy predicted timely entry into prenatal care, χ 2 (1) = 4.73, p = .03. Participants' positive prenatal care perceptions did not predict adequate prenatal care utilization, indicating that barriers serve as powerful obstacles in late adolescent Texas Latinas.

  11. Synthesis of near-infrared-emitting CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated via organic synthesis strategies through constructing CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS multishell heterostructure. An effective shell-coating route was developed for multishell growth on CdTe cores. Core/shell growth was monitored by absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy observation. Yellow emitting CdTe cores were coated with a CdSe shell to generate type II structure. This yields core/shell QDs with red photoluminescence. The passivation by the ZnSe shell having a substantially wide bandgap confines the excitons within the CdTe/CdSe interface and isolates them from the solution environment and consequently improves the stability of the heterostructure. An additional ZnS shell was deposited around the outer layer of CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe QDs to form a heterostructure through the reaction between zinc oleate and trioctylphosphine sulfur in the crude CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe solution. By varying CdTe core size and each shell thickness, the PL wavelength of the obtained heterostructure can span from 580 to 770 nm. The PL efficiency is quenched in CdTe QDs in diluted solution but increases substantially up to 24% for CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs. The PL efficiency of CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS QDs with average diameter of 5.4 nm and a PL peak wavelength of 770 nm is 20%.

  12. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  13. No todo lo que cuenta se cuenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijckevorsel, J.

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo publicado en "Insurance Economics" Nº 58 (Julio 2008), Jan van Rijckevorsel hace un profundo análisis del uso práctico de las estadísticas de seguros aplicadas a aspectos reales del quehacer institucional del sector, y señala varios campos (como el valor y calificación de la

  14. Geprogrammeerde onderrig: Skinner en Crowder se bydraes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die beginsels van Sokrates, Comenius, Pesta- lozzi, sommige van Thorndike se wette, Kohn- ... voor 1700 toe Sokrates en Comenius van die belangrikste bydraers was. In die tydperk. 1700-1900 ..... tional Technology: Readings in Programmed Instruction,editor John P. de Cecco. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston 1964, ...

  15. Prolingua se bydrae tot terminologieontwikkeling in Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolingua se bydrae tot terminologieontwikkeling in Afrikaans. Mariëtta Alberts. Abstract. Prolingua's Contribution to Terminology Development in Afri-kaans. The research problem addressed in this article deals with the isolated development of Afrikaans terminology in a multilingual dispensation. The research problem ...

  16. Señales en el agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcías Martan Góngora

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available La lluvia fue siempre compañera de la soledad. En su ámbito de música se mueve el pensamiento con monótono ritmo y el alma encuentra su centro de gravedad, mientras dura el imperio de su amada caricia.

  17. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression Profile of Genes Potentially Associated with Adequate Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Cruz Tfaile Corbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing research in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D, there are few studies showing the impact of the poor glycemic control on biological processes occurring in T2D. In order to identify potential genes related to poorly/well-controlled patients with T2D, our strategy of investigation included a primary screen by microarray (Human Genome U133 in a small group of individuals followed by an independent validation in a greater group using RT-qPCR. Ninety patients were divided as follows: poorly controlled T2D (G1, well-controlled T2D (G2, and normoglycemic individuals (G3. After using affy package in R, differentially expressed genes (DEGs were prospected as candidate genes potentially relevant for the glycemic control in T2D patients. After validation by RT-qPCR, the obtained DEGs were as follows—G1 + G2 versus G3: HLA-DQA1, SOS1, and BRCA2; G2 versus G1: ENO2, VAMP2, CCND3, CEBPD, LGALS12, AGBL5, MAP2K5, and PPAP2B; G2 versus G3: HLA-DQB1, MCM4, and SEC13; and G1 versus G3: PPIC. This demonstrated a systemic exacerbation of the gene expression related to immune response in T2D patients. Moreover, genes related to lipid metabolisms and DNA replication/repair were influenced by the glycemic control. In conclusion, this study pointed out candidate genes potentially associated with adequate glycemic control in T2D patients, contributing to the knowledge of how the glycemic control could systemically influence gene expression.

  19. Dried duckweed and commercial feed promote adequate growth performance of tilapia fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de A. Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n3p91 Desempenho de alevinos de tilapia nilótica alimentados com uma  combinação de lemnas secas e ração comercial. O presente estudo  avaliou a utilização de ração comercial e lemna seca no cultivo de  alevinos de tilápias nilóticas com o objetivo de reduzir os custos de produção. Três dietas representadas por lemna seca, ração comercial  (40% proteína bruta e uma combinação de lemna seca e ração  comercial foram fornecidas a um grupo de 20 alevinos de tilápia  (Oreochromis niloticus em triplicata. Peixes com peso médio 3,2 ±  0,94g foram estocados em nove tanques-rede com volume de 1-m3 e  alimentados duas vezes ao dia durante um período de 50 dias. O peso  médio final dos alevinos alimentados com ração comercial (21,67 g e  50% ração +50% lemna seca (19,53 g não diferiram estatisticamente  (p<0,05. Paralelamente, os peixes pertencentes aos mesmos tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa no crescimento específico. O ganho em peso foi menor em temperaturas mais baixas ao longo do período experimental, causando um aumento significativo na conversão alimentar principalmente dos alevinos alimentados apenas com lemna seca. Além disso, a dieta composta apenas de lemna seca proporcionou o menor ganho em peso e taxa de crescimento específico. Através dos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a lemna seca pode substituir até 50% (matéria seca 1:1 da ração  comercial (40% proteína bruta utilizada na produção de alevinos de tilápia por um período de 50 dias, sem apresentar redução no crescimento.

  20. In Few Words: Linguistic Gap but Adequate Narrative Structure in Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Barbieri, Margherita; Tomassini, Marta; Roch, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare linguistic and narrative skills of monolingual and bilingual preschoolers and to estimate linguistic predictors of the macro-structural level of narratives. A battery of linguistic measures in Italian was administered to sixty-four Monolinguals and sixty-four Early Bilinguals; it included Vocabulary,…

  1. Characteristics of MoSe{sub 2} formation during rapid thermal processing of Mo-coated glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soobin; Koo, Jaseok; Kim, Sammi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Taehoon [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jong Seok; Kim, Suk Jin [AVACO Co., Ltd., Daegu 704-833 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Kyoung, E-mail: wkim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Multi-layered Mo, prepared using an in-line sputtering system, was selenized by reaction with Se vapor and thermal annealing of bilayer Mo/Se samples. In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase evolution of the glass/Mo/Se sample during heat treatment was similar to that of the selenization of glass/Mo with Se vapor, except for crystallization of Se in the glass/Mo/Se sample. However, the MoSe{sub 2} layer formed from the selenization of the Mo layer by Se vapor preferentially grew perpendicularly to the Mo surface, whereas MoSe{sub 2} formed from the reaction of Mo with Se liquid showed random orientation. The detailed reaction pathways of the double-layer random-MoSe{sub 2}/vertical-MoSe{sub 2} formation from the Mo/Se bilayer sample were suggested on the basis of the several characterization results including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected-area electron diffraction patterns. - Highlights: ► The selenization of glass/Mo and glass/Mo/Se samples was investigated. ► The reaction of the Mo layer with Se vapor produced vertically oriented MoSe{sub 2}. ► Randomly oriented MoSe{sub 2} layer was formed from the reaction of Mo with liquid Se.

  2. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  3. Thermoelectric prospects of chemically deposited PbSe and SnSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P. K.; Martínez, Ana Karen; Rosa García Angelmo, Ana; Barrios Salgado, Enue; Nair, M. T. S.

    2018-03-01

    Thin films of PbSe of 400–600 nm in thickness, were obtained via chemical deposition from a solution containing lead nitrate, thiourea and selenosufate. SnSe thin films of 90–180 nm in thickness, were also obtained by chemical deposition from a solution containing selenosulfate. Optical and electrical properties of these thin films were significantly altered by heating them in selenium vapor at 300 °C. Thin film PbSe has a bandgap (Eg) of 1.17 eV (direct gap, forbidden transitions), which decreases to 0.77 eV when it has been heated. Its electrical conductivity (σ) is p-type: 0.18 Ω‑1 cm‑1 (as-prepared), and 6.4 Ω‑1 cm‑1 when heated. Thin film SnSe is of orthorhombic crystalline structure which remains stable when heated at 300 °C, but its Eg increases from 1.12 eV (indirect) in as-prepared film to 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden transitions) upon heating. Its electrical conductivity is p-type, which increases from 0.3 Ω‑1 cm‑1 (as-prepared) to 1 Ω‑1 cm‑1 when heated (without Se-vapor). When SnSe film is heated at 300 °C in the presence of Se-vapor, they transform to SnSe2, with Eg of 1.5 eV (direct, forbidden) with n-type electrical conductivity, 11 Ω‑1 cm‑1. The Seebeck coefficient for the PbSe films is: +0.55 mV K‑1 (as prepared) and +0.275 mV K‑1 (heated); for SnSe films it is: +0.3 mV K‑1 (as prepared) and +0.20 mV K‑1 (heated); and for SnSe2 film, ‑ 0.35 mV K‑1. A five-element PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe-SnSe2-PbSe thermoelectric device demonstrated 50 mV for a temperature difference ΔT = 20 °C (2.5 mV K‑1). For SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe-SnSe2-SnSe device, the value is 15 mV for ΔT = 20 °C (0.75 mV K‑1). Prospect of these thin films in thermoelectric devices of hybrid materials, in which the coatings may be applied on distinct substrate and geometries is attractive.

  4. Acanthamoeba castellanii is not be an adequate model to study human adenovirus interactions with macrophagic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Elodie; Cateau, Estelle; Leveque, Nicolas; Kaaki, Sihem; Beby-Defaux, Agnès; Rodier, Marie-Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba castellanii, are protozoa that feed on different microorganisms including viruses. These microorganisms show remarkable similarities with macrophages in cellular structures, physiology or ability to phagocyte preys, and some authors have therefore wondered whether Acanthamoeba and macrophages are evolutionary related. It has been considered that this amoeba may be an in vitro model to investigate relationships between pathogens and macrophagic cells. So, we intended in this study to compare the interactions between a human adenovirus strain and A. castellanii or THP-1 macrophagic cells. The results of molecular and microscopy techniques following co-cultures experiments have shown that the presence of the adenovirus decreased the viability of macrophages, while it has no effect on amoebic viability. On another hand, the viral replication occurred only in macrophages. These results showed that this amoebal model is not relevant to explore the relationships between adenoviruses and macrophages in in vitro experiments.

  5. Acanthamoeba castellanii is not be an adequate model to study human adenovirus interactions with macrophagic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Maisonneuve

    Full Text Available Free living amoebae (FLA including Acanthamoeba castellanii, are protozoa that feed on different microorganisms including viruses. These microorganisms show remarkable similarities with macrophages in cellular structures, physiology or ability to phagocyte preys, and some authors have therefore wondered whether Acanthamoeba and macrophages are evolutionary related. It has been considered that this amoeba may be an in vitro model to investigate relationships between pathogens and macrophagic cells. So, we intended in this study to compare the interactions between a human adenovirus strain and A. castellanii or THP-1 macrophagic cells. The results of molecular and microscopy techniques following co-cultures experiments have shown that the presence of the adenovirus decreased the viability of macrophages, while it has no effect on amoebic viability. On another hand, the viral replication occurred only in macrophages. These results showed that this amoebal model is not relevant to explore the relationships between adenoviruses and macrophages in in vitro experiments.

  6. Reframing Catholic Ethics: Is the Person an Integral and Adequate Starting Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sowle Cahill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Selling rightly defines human intentions and motivations as part of human nature and an important determinant of the morality of personal actions. The thesis of this paper is that Selling’s view of agency, as focused on the individual, must be expanded to include social relationships and the social constitution of selves and communities. This requires cross-cultural dialogue about human nature, the goods for persons and societies, and social ethics.

  7. Que se vea lo que se oye: a vueltas con los fonemas y las letras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez del Estal Villarino, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de lo que el refrán “La letra con sangre entra” viene a decir a quien se deje escucharlo, se abre una descripción de las diferencias radicales que se dan entre aprender a hablar y aprender a escribir. La relación entre ambas actividades no se puede entender sin analizar la tan extendida perversión que supone hablar lo que se escribe en vez de escribir lo que se habla. A continuación, se detallan algunos de los síntomas más frecuentes de dicha perversión, caracterizados todos por la intromisión de la conciencia en terrenos donde lo único que hace es estorbar, en especial la pronunciación pedantesca de ciertos finales silábicos o de palabra, como en traNSporte, aBStraKción, óPtico, oBjeto, fúTbol, libertaD, diGno o fraK, así como las distintas deformaciones que sufren las palabras que la ortografía académica prescribe que se escriban con la letra equis.

  8. Electron density distribution and bonding in ZnSe and PbSe using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    directions are relatively low in conformity with the loosely packed structure of ZnSe. (The interaction of atomic charges will be less and hence the electron densities along directions other than bonding are expected to be minimum). Figure 8(b) of PbSe shows unequal electron densities along the three directions. This is due ...

  9. Exciton dephasing and biexciton binding in CdSe/ZnSe islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Tranitz, H.-P.; Preis, H

    1999-01-01

    The dephasing of excitons and the formation of biexcitons in self-organized CdSe/ZnSe islands grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. A distribution of exciton-exciton scattering efficiencies and dephasing times in the range of 0.5-10 ps are obs...

  10. Symmetry and optical anisotropy in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Tobias

    2009-10-29

    The material system of choice for the investigations performed in the frame of this Thesis were self-assembled CdSe/ZnSe QDs. The reason for this choice is twofold. First, CdSe/ZnSe QDs can be grown with excellent optical quality, which is a prerequiste for optical studies. Second, due to the polar nature of II-VI compound semiconductors, optical anisotropies induced by various asymmetries are more pronounced than in their IIIV or element IV counterparts. Unlike in the III-V materials, where the self-organization of QDs is well described by the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode, the peculiarities of the QD formation are not entirely clear in II-VI alloys. For the purposes of the current work QDs emerging from two variants of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth were studied. In order to establish a clear connection between the optically observed anisotropies and the growth induced asymmetries in the QDs we start out by summarizing all available structural and morphological studies that were performed on the resultant QDs, including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and resonant Raman scattering. Extensive investigations by Photoluminescence (PL) and Photoluminescence Excitation (PLE) spectroscopy hence detail the resultant electronic structure of excitons confined to the above QDs as well as their energy relaxation across the latter. We find that for these small-sized strongly confining QDs k-vector conservation is entirely relaxed, which enables interaction of the excitons with a continuum of phonons and explains fast and efficient exciton capture by the QDs, even for excitation conditions far above the ground state. We demonstrate how this provides an alternative fast relaxation channel to Auger-like electron-hole scattering, that may also explain fast hole relaxation and adds to the understanding of the absence of a phonon bottleneck in the energy relaxation in these type of QDs. With the above analysis as a

  11. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, Rainer; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% ± 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% ± 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% ± 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% ± 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% ± 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% ± 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender

  12. Biaxially Oriented CdSe Nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Chin, Patrick T.K.; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    The shape, structure, and orientation of rubbing-aligned cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanorods on polymer coated glass substrates have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing incidence X-ray scattering combined with computer simulations. The nanorods are found to be of wu......The shape, structure, and orientation of rubbing-aligned cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanorods on polymer coated glass substrates have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing incidence X-ray scattering combined with computer simulations. The nanorods are found...... of the sample. Some tendency of smectic-A ordering is observed. A quantitative model incorporating atomic structure, rod shape, and preferred orientation was developed for numerically simulating the diffraction peak positions, widths, and intensities, giving good correlation with the experimental observations....

  13. Det faderløse samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    Det faderløse samfund er en kulturhistorisk afdækning af fader- og autoritetstabet i det 20. århundredes Europa, med fokus på fader-søn-forholdet og fortalt gennem skikkelser som Max Weber, Freud, Jung, Kafka - og ’den uregerlige søn’ over dem alle, psykologen og anarkisten Otto Gross. Den er sam...

  14. Patrimonio cultural: lo intangible se hace tangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Heredia Orjuela

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres reflexiones a manera de ensayo, elaboradas por estudiantes de vii semestre de la Facultad de Administración de Empresas Turísticas y Hoteleras. El tema central que engloba los escritos es el de la responsabilidad frente al patrimonio cultural, su valoración y su relación con el turismo. En el ensayo La protección del patrimonio cultural como reflejo del ser humano, la estudiante cecilia hinosTrosa hace un llamado de atención frente al problema del tráfico ilícito de bienes que conlleva la pérdida de testimonios de la cultura humana. El escrito de la estudiante mariel cecilia hernández destaca las bondades de recuperar las tradiciones y de cómo éstas se pueden difundir a través del turismo. Por último, el estudiante William heredia hace una reflexión sobre la tangibilidad de lo intangible, en el ensayo Patrimonio Cultural: lo tangible se hace intangible, donde destaca la declaratoria del Carnaval de Barranquilla como patrimonio oral e intangible de la humanidad.

  15. Forming Glasses from Se and Te

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lucas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite being close neighbors on the Periodic Table, selenium and tellurium present a totally different abilities to form glasses. Se is a very good glass former, and gives rise to numerous glass compositions which are popular for their transparency in the infrared range and their stability against crystallization. These glasses can be shaped into sophisticated optical devices such as optical fibers, planar guides or lenses. Nevertheless, their transparencies are limited at about 12 μm (depending on the thickness of the optical systems due to the relatively small mass of the Se element. On the other hand, tellurium is heavier and its use in substitution for Se permits to shift the IR cutoff beyond 20 μm. However, the semimetallic nature of Te limits its glass formation ability and this glass family is known to be unstable and consequently has found application as phase change material in the Digital Versatile Disk (DVD technology. In this paper, after a review of selenide glasses and their applications, it will be shown how, in a recent past, it has been possible to stabilize tellurium glasses by introducing new elements like Ga or I in their compositions.

  16. Magnetic ground state of FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qisi; Shen, Yao; Pan, Bingying; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ikeuchi, K.; Iida, K.; Christianson, A. D.; Walker, H. C.; Adroja, D. T.; Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Chen, Xiaojia; Chareev, D. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the nature of the magnetism of a high-temperature superconductor is crucial for establishing its pairing mechanism. The parent compounds of the cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors exhibit Néel and stripe magnetic order, respectively. However, FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor, shows nematic order (Ts=90 K), but not magnetic order in the parent phase, and its magnetic ground state is intensely debated. Here we report inelastic neutron-scattering experiments that reveal both stripe and Néel spin fluctuations over a wide energy range at 110 K. On entering the nematic phase, a substantial amount of spectral weight is transferred from the Néel to the stripe spin fluctuations. Moreover, the total fluctuating magnetic moment of FeSe is ∼60% larger than that in the iron pnictide BaFe2As2. Our results suggest that FeSe is a novel S=1 nematic quantum-disordered paramagnet interpolating between the Néel and stripe magnetic instabilities. PMID:27431986

  17. Qué se sabe de bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ricardo Musalem, Ps.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se define bullying como una dinámica de maltrato sistemática que ocurre entre iguales de manera persistente. Es considerado un problema de salud pública debido a su prevalencia y las consecuencias que tiene en todos sus participantes: en los agresores, en las víctimas, en los espectadores, en los padres y familias, en la comunidad escolar y en la sociedad en general. Las investigaciones muestran efectos a corto, mediano y largo plazo en el desarrollo emocional y social de niños y adolescentes. Se ha constatado una relación del acoso escolar con las patologías físicas, psicosomática y de salud mental en niños, adolescentes y en la vida adulta. En este artículo se describen las características individuales, las relacionales, los factores conocidos como de riesgo y factores protectores, la prevalencia y los programas de abordaje integral del fenómeno. Son múltiples los estudios que muestran la efectividad de la aplicación de estos programas de intervención, diseñados en función de los conocimientos acumulados.

  18. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Imported Food Consequences § 1.283 What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without...

  19. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  20. Late Reopening of Adequately Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms Frequency and Risk Factors in 400 Patients With 440 Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferns, Sandra P.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; van Rooij, Willem Jan; van Zwam, Wim H.; de Kort, Gerard A. P.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Schaafsma, Joanna D.; van den Berg, Rene; Sluzewski, Menno; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.

    Background and Purpose-In aneurysms that are adequately occluded 6 months after coiling, the risk of late reopening is largely unknown. We assessed the occurrence of late aneurysm reopening and possible risk factors. Methods-From January 1995 to June 2005, 1808 intracranial aneurysms were coiled in

  1. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or

  2. The Comprehension Problems for Second-Language Learners with Poor Reading Comprehension Despite Adequate Decoding: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 existing studies to examine the nature of the comprehension problems for children who were second-language learners with poor reading comprehension despite adequate decoding. Results indicated that these children had deficits in oral language (d = -0.80), but these deficits were not as severe as their reading…

  3. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  4. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  5. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and athletic participation: are we adequately preparing for sports integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxter, Alysha; Foss, Kim Barber; Melson, Paula; Ford, Kevin R; Shaffer, Michael; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-09-01

    Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) now have well-controlled disease due to improved therapies and management strategies. Children with JIA are more active than in the past and often participate in dynamic, high-loading sports. Standard measures of disease control include examination findings, laboratory values, and patient-directed surveys. However, these standards do not address the subtle deficits in biomechanics and neuromuscular control, which could place affected joints at higher risk for injury. Currently, there are limited evidence-based guidelines to structure conditioning recommendations as to the fitness and mechanics needed to provide safe integration into sports in this population; therefore, tools that objectively measure function with high accuracy and precision may be warranted. Previous work using 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated usefulness in guiding physical therapy treatment to correct these deficits. The use of a multidisciplinary team, including physical therapy, rheumatology, and sports medicine, is crucial for preparing these children to return to play. We suggest that the child transition into a sport preparatory-conditioning program to address any underlying deficits. A pediatric exercise specialist who is sensitive to the needs of this population can work with a physical therapist to then appropriately integrate the child safely into sport. Encouraging an active lifestyle is vital to the management of JIA and does not worsen the symptoms associated with childhood arthritis.

  6. Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe.sub.2) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing CuInSe.sub.2 crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 along with stoichiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 percent over the stoichiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The crystal is grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B.sub.2 O.sub.3 encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

  7. Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe/sub 2/) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-11-29

    A process for preparing CuInSe/sub 2/ crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B/sub 2/O/sub 2/ along with stochiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high-pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2% over the stochiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The melt can then be cooled slowly to form the crystal as direct solidification, or the crystal can be grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

  8. Assuring Adequate Health Insurance for Children With Special Health Care Needs: Progress From 2001 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Comeau, Meg; Tobias, Carol; Dworetzky, Beth; Hamershock, Rose; Honberg, Lynda; Mann, Marie Y; Bachman, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    To report on coverage and adequacy of health insurance for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in 2009-2010 and assess changes since 2001. Data were from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), a random-digit telephone survey with 40,243 (2009-2010) and 38,866 (2001) completed interviews. Consistency and adequacy of insurance was measured by: 1) coverage status, 2) gaps in coverage, 3) coverage of needed services, 4) reasonableness of uncovered costs, and 5) ability to see needed providers, as reported by parents. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with adequate insurance coverage in 2009-2010. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence estimates were examined to identify changes in the type of insurance coverage and the proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage by insurance type. The proportion of CSHCN with private coverage decreased from 64.7% to 50.7% between 2001 and 2009-2010, while public coverage increased from 21.7% to 34.7%; the proportion of CSHCN without any insurance declined from 5.2% to 3.5%. The proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage varied over time and by insurance type: among privately covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate coverage declined (62.6% to 59.6%), while among publicly covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate insurance increased (63.0% to 70.7%). Publicly insured CSHCN experienced improvements in each of the 3 adequacy components. There has been a continued shift from private to public coverage, which is more affordable, offers benefits that are more likely to meet CSHCN needs, and allowed CSHCN to see necessary providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Interdisciplinary care for adequate adherence totreatment in patients with lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Gaviria-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review is based on the contribution that each discipline should provide the patient for a holistic care, which include medical assessment, monitoring and counselling as emotional support, assessment and nutritional monitoring as a key element in core requirements, physical activity that optimize the quality of life, social activities that can enter the individual in active groups, follow-up by nurses to the fulfillment of the ordered drug treatment, car care and orientation education to the family. The novelty of this proposal is to basically carry out care of the interdisciplinary team for treatment adherence. This review concluded that patients with lupus nephritis (NL treated after assessment and follow-up holistic, such as system monitoring and adherence to the treatment of comprehensive care, provides better quality of life, and minimizes the risks of complication of the patient, avoiding recurrent hospitalizations.

  10. [Is hyposensitization still an adequate procedure in treatment of bronchial asthma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X

    1992-03-01

    Hyposensitization of asthmatic patients is still an open and controversially discussed question. An own randomized, single-blind study including 39 patients who were controlled twice at one year intervals by bronchial allergen challenges is demonstrated. Hyposensitization resulted in a decrease of the number of late asthmatic reactions whereas placebo was associated with an increase of this type of reaction. On the other hand only placebo induced an elevation of the specific bronchial threshold dosage for allergens, e.g. the asthma-inducing or tolerated allergen load increased by 13 to 36% (p greater than 0.005). These results which are in agreement with experiences especially of anglo-saxon authors, severe side effects in some cases as well as the improvement obtained by topic corticosteroids and mast cell stabilizers reveal hyposensitization not to be the treatment of choice for asthmatic patients.

  11. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  12. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  13. Absorption Spectra of CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2 Semiconducting Nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2015-10-01

    The structural and optical properties of the chalcopyrite CunGanSe2n and CunInnSe2n nanoclusters (n = 2, 4, 6, and 8) are investigated as a function of the size using a combination of basin-hopping global optimization and time-dependent density functional theory. Although the lowest energy structures are found to show almost random geometries, the band gaps and absorption spectra still are subject to systematic blue shifts for decreasing cluster size in the case of CunGanSe2n, indicating strong electron confinement. The applicability of the nanoclusters in photovoltaics is discussed. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  14. Algo sobre la autoestima. Qué es y cómo se expresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autoestima es uno de los conceptos psicológicos más complejos y uno de los más difíciles de precisar, a pesar de ser un factor que siempre ha estado presente en cualquier intento de explicación del comportamiento humano normal y patológico. Describir adecuadamente qué es la autoestima, requiere abordar previamente algunos aspectos que han influido en la falta de precisión de este concepto. En este sentido es necesario puntualizar que autoconcepto y autoestima no son términos intercambiables aunque ambos se impliquen, que la autoestima no es un factor unitario sino multidimensional, que la autoestima no sólo incluye los aspectos positivos y más valorables del sujeto, sino también aspectos menos valorables o las limitaciones y por último, que la autoestima no es autoafirmación incondicional ante los demás, sino autoafirmación respetando la individualidad de los otros. Se puede definir la autoestima como «la valoración positiva o negativa que el sujeto hace de su autoconcepto, valoración que se acompaña de sentimientos de valía personal y auto aceptación». La autoestima, así entendida, influye y se expresa a través del comportamiento del sujeto en todas sus dimensiones y manifestaciones, tales como autoaceptación, afrontamiento, aceptación de los demás e interacciones sociales, entre otras.ABSTRACT: Self-esteem is one of the most complex psychological concepts an one of the most difficult ones to define, despite the fact that it is a factor that has always been present in any attempt to explain the normal and pathological human behavior. In order to describe adequately what self-esteem is we need to first look at some of the aspects that have contributed to the lack of precision of this concept. We need to make clear that self-concept and self-esteem are not interchangeable terms even though they are both in some way related, that self-esteem not a unitary factor but multidimensional, that self-esteem not

  15. History and challenges of Brazilian social movements for the achievement of the right to adequate food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Carolina Feldenheimer; Recine, Elisabetta; Johns, Paula; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; Ferraz, Mariana de Araújo; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    The historical struggles that Brazil faced to overcome malnutrition coincided with the empowerment of civil society and social movements which played a crucial role in the affirmation of health and food as social rights. After two decades under military dictatorship, Brazil went through a redemocratization process in the 1980s when activism emerged to demand spaces to participate in policy-making regarding the social agenda, including food and nutrition security (FNS). From 1988 onward institutional structures were established: the National Council of FNS (CONSEA) convenes government and civil society sectors to develop and monitor the implementation of policies, systems and actions. Social participation has been at the heart of structural changes achieved since then. Nevertheless, the country faces multiple challenges regarding FNS such as the double burden of disease, increasing use of pesticides and genetically modified seeds, weak regulation of ultra-processed products, and marketing practices that affect the environment, population health, and food sovereignty. This article aims at examining the development of the participatory political system and the role played by Brazilian social movements in the country's policies on FNS, in addition to outlining challenges faced by those policies.

  16. ROLE OF DIETARY DIVERSITY IN ENSURING ADEQUATE HAEMATOLOGICAL STATUS DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka, Abdulai Abdul Rauf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though nutrition is a key input to blood formation, little is known about the extent maternal dietary quality contributes to the haematological status of pregnant women in Northern Region of Ghana. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the independent contribution of dietary diversity to haematological status of pregnant women whilst controlling for potential confounding factors including malarial infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample of 307 pregnant women in their third trimester. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and dietary data related to anaemia. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the dietary diversity score. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was measured using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of anaemia were estimated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The mean Hb was 10.8±1.4 g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl was 46.3 %. High dietary diversity score [Beta coefficient (β, = 0.141 p < 0.001], multi-gravidity (β=0.205 and high composite score for ANC content (β= 0.201 were associated with a decreased risk of anaemia in the third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: The findings suggest the need to strengthen interventions that focus on improving the consumption of diversified foods particularly during pregnancy.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates - A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kingsley

    Full Text Available Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society.The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC.A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers.At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society's willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY. Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy.Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%.

  18. Direito humano à alimentação adequada: um olhar urbano The human right to adequate food: an urban vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Casemiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O direito humano à alimentação adequada é compreendido em duas dimensões: estar livre da fome e da desnutrição e ter acesso a uma alimentação adequada1,2. No contexto urbano, com seu forte apelo ao consumo e em que a aquisição de alimentos se dá prioritariamente a partir de relações mercantis, debater este tema em bairros empobrecidos apresenta-se como grande desafio. Este artigo reúne reflexões realizadas a partir de um estudo qualitativo realizado em São João de Meriti, município localizado na Baixada Fluminense (RJ, reunindo líderes da Pastoral da Criança em sessões de grupo focal. O desemprego e subemprego e a dificuldade de acesso aos serviços públicos de saúde, assistência social e saneamento foram apresentados como principais obstáculos para a efetivação do direito humano à alimentação. Foi possível identificar que, dentre as estratégias de enfrentamento da pobreza e da fome, o estabelecimento de circuitos de ajuda mútua tem grande destaque. Apoio social, dádiva e religiosidade apresentaram-se como categorias relevantes nas reflexões dos líderes. Diante de uma realidade em que a pobreza e a fome ou são naturalizadas ou se revertem em moeda de troca durante as eleições, a questão do clientelismo aparece como grande preocupação e desafio para estes líderes.The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic

  19. Pintuco se internacionaliza en el mercado andino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ramírez R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la internacionalización de Pintuco está presentada en este trabajo. Es importante resaltar la valiosa información sobre el mercado mundial de pinturas lo cual despierta el interés del lector al mostrar el tamaño del mercado y la importancia económica del mismo. De igual forma, la introducción es muy expedita al señalar cuál es la tendencia de dicho mercado, pues con esto se puede hacer una idea de hacia dónde deberá ir Pintuco y cuáles serán sus principales retos a superar. Luego de dar un vistazo general de lo que son las pinturas y su impacto económico, el artículo continúa con la historia del Grupo Inversiones Mundial (GIM, ente económico que ha triunfado gracias a la tenacidad de sus directivos desde 1921. La estrategia utilizada por la empresa colombiana es explicada a través de los ejemplos de cómo empezó y se desarrolló en Venezuela y Ecuador, principalmente. Y es en esto, en lo que precisamente radica lo más importante del trabajo pues sirve como motivación y como ejemplo a seguir. Las empresas colombianas como Pintuco han entendido que una de las formas de amoldarse a las nuevas tendencias del mundo empresarial es la de competir con calidad, pero no sólo en su propio mercado, sino también en el mercado de origen de su competencia. Hoy en día las fronteras son cada vez más invisibles y eso, más que una amenaza, debería ser un atractivo.

  20. Determination of As and Se in crude oil diluted in xylene by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a dynamic reaction cell for interference correction on 80Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Fernanda Inda de; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium can be found in crude oils and represent an important source of pollution when released to the environment during any stage of extraction or refinery. These elements present low sensitivity in the direct determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), due to their high ionization potential, and are also prone to spectral interferences. Hydride generation (HG) can be alternatively employed for the separation of these analytes from the sample matrix and introduction into the instrument. However, the required sample preparation usually increases the analysis time. In this work, a method was developed for the determination of As and Se in crude oil by ICP-MS, after sample dilution in xylene. The use of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) allowed for the overcoming of Ar 2 + interference on 80 Se, but was not necessary for As, since interference on m/z 75 was not observed. The optimized operational conditions for 75 As and 80 Se were: 1350 W of RF power, 0.4 L min −1 of Ar nebulizer and 0.7 L min −1 of Ar auxiliary flow rates. The DRC conditions for 80 Se were 0.5 L min −1 of methane and rejection parameter q (Rpq) of 0.2. The analyses were carried out by analyte addition and the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04 μg kg −1 for As and 0.1 μg kg −1 for Se. The accuracy was verified by the analysis of residual fuel oil certified material, with agreement at a 95% confidence level. Nine Brazilian crude oil samples were analyzed and the results compared to those obtained by hydride generation ICP-MS. In this case, samples were decomposed with nitric acid in a digester block, the analytes pre-reduced with HCl 6 mol L −1 and the determination carried out by external calibration. Although better instrumental LODs were obtained by HG (0.002 μg kg −1 of As and 0.04 μg kg −1 of Se), the direct determination of As and Se in crude oil diluted in xylene by DRC-ICP-MS showed to be an adequate and a faster method. - Highlights

  1. Prediction of radionuclide migration in the geosphere: is the porous-flow model adequate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Practically all models used today to describe radionuclide migration in geologic media are based on the concept of flow in porous media. Recently it has been questioned if Fickian dispersion is the most important dispersion mechanism. Field observations of dispersion indicate that the dispersion coefficient increases with observation distance. This should not be the case in a homogeneous porous medium. For a medium with essentially independent channels, on the other hand, such an effect can be predicted. In some calculated examples it is shown that the use of the Fickian dispersion mechanism will very seriously underestimate the radionuclide concentration at a point downstream if the spreading mechanism in reality is channelling. The consequences of the often-used assumption that the interaction between the radionuclides and the rock is instantaneous is also discussed. It has been shown that in sparsely fissured crystalline rock the whole rock mass will not be able to participate in the sorption reactions, because the radionuclides will not have time to penetrate all through the large blocks. On the other hand, the assumption that only the surface of the fissures interacts with the radionuclides is likely to be an extremely conservative assumption in view of some recent diffusion experiments in crystalline rocks performed in our laboratories and at the Canadian Geologic Survey. Some experimental results on radionuclide migration in a single natural fissure under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory are also presented and interpreted using a model which includes channelling, surface sorption, diffusion in the rock matrix and sorption in the rock matrix. Some implications of these mechanisms in predicting radionuclide migration in the geosphere are discussed and compared with what a porous-flow model would predict

  2. Schilddrüse und Schwangerschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zettinig G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinderwunsch, Schwangerschaft und die Zeit nach einer Geburt sind besondere Lebensabschnitte bei Patientinnen mit Schilddrüsenerkrankungen. Bei jungen Frauen sind Autoimmunerkrankungen der Schilddrüse, die Einfluss auf die Fruchtbarkeit und die intellektuelle und körperliche Entwicklung des Fetus haben können, häufig. Schilddrüsenerkrankungen können sich in dieser Lebensphase auch erstmals manifestieren; besondere Beachtung verdient die Wechselwirkung von β-HCG mit dem TSH-Rezeptor. Diese Übersicht behandelt das aktuelle Management von Patientinnen mit Schilddrüsenerkrankungen bei Kinderwunsch, in der Schwangerschaft und Postpartalperiode.

  3. Thermoelectric power in n-InSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, A.; Cantarero, A.; Segura, A.

    1985-01-01

    Thermoelectric power of InSe samples doped with tin has been measured as functions of the doping concentration in the range of 0.01 to 10% Sn and of the temperature in the range of 50 to 550 K. In the low temperature range the results obtained are coherent with the two-dimensional behaviour of electrons proposed by other authors. About 100 K the results can be explained successfully by introducing the same scattering mechanisms used to interpret the temperature dependence of the electron mobility

  4. Qué se sabe de bullying

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ricardo Musalem, Ps.; O. Paulina Castro, Dra.

    2015-01-01

    Se define bullying como una dinámica de maltrato sistemática que ocurre entre iguales de manera persistente. Es considerado un problema de salud pública debido a su prevalencia y las consecuencias que tiene en todos sus participantes: en los agresores, en las víctimas, en los espectadores, en los padres y familias, en la comunidad escolar y en la sociedad en general. Las investigaciones muestran efectos a corto, mediano y largo plazo en el desarrollo emocional y social de niños y adolescentes...

  5. Patrimonio cultural: lo intangible se hace tangible

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Orjuela, William

    2004-01-01

    Se presentan tres reflexiones a manera de ensayo, elaboradas por estudiantes de vii semestre de la Facultad de Administración de Empresas Turísticas y Hoteleras. El tema central que engloba los escritos es el de la responsabilidad frente al patrimonio cultural, su valoración y su relación con el turismo. En el ensayo La protección del patrimonio cultural como reflejo del ser humano, la estudiante cecilia hinosTrosa hace un llamado de atención frente al problema del tráfico ilícito de bienes q...

  6. Evidenced-based, practical food portion sizes for preschool children and how they fit into a well balanced, nutritionally adequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, J A; Emmett, P M

    2015-04-01

    Healthy eating guidelines for 1-4-year-old children are available but evidence-based portion sizes have not been specified. Parents and early-years providers are concerned about under- or over-feeding young children. The present study aimed to report detailed information about appropriate average portion size ranges and suggest a practical food plan for feeding preschool children, providing adequate nutrient intakes within energy requirements. Two sources of information were used to obtain an appropriate portion size range for the types of foods normally eaten by this age group. Median portions of a variety of foods were combined into a food plan fulfilling healthy eating guidelines regarding the number of servings from each food group. The nutrient and energy content of the plan was assessed and compared with recommended adequate nutrient intakes and percentage energy contributions from macronutrients. UK children, aged 1-4 years, taking part in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and National Diet and Nutrition Survey, were used in the present study. Portion size ranges were developed for 164 foods. The theoretical food plan using foods with high to medium nutrient density was shown to provide an adequate intake of all nutrients, except vitamin D, for which there are very few food sources. These practical food portion size ranges could be used both in early years settings and in advice to parents. The food plan emphasises the need to include a variety of nutrient-dense foods if a balanced diet is to be achieved for preschool children. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe and ZnMgSe lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Říha, A.; Němec, M.; Jelínková, H.; Čech, M.; Vyhlídal, D.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Komar, V. K.; Gerasimenko, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Chromium ions Cr2+ are known to have good fluorescence properties in the mid-infrared spectral region around the wavelength of 2.5 μm. The aim of this study was the investigation of new laser crystal materials - Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Zn0.70Mn 0.30Se, and Zn0.75Mg0.25Se doped by Cr2+ ions and comparison of their spectral and laser characteristics. The spectroscopic parameters as absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as lifetimes were measured. As optical pumping the laser diode generating radiation at the wavelength of 1.69 μm (pulse repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 2 ms) was used. The longitudinal-pumped resonator was hemispherical with an output coupler radius of curvature 150 mm. The laser emission spectra were investigated and the highest intensity of emitted radiation was achieved at wavelengths 2451 nm, 2469 nm, and 2470 nm from the Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Cr:Zn0.70Mn0.30Se, and Cr:Zn0.75Mg0.25Se laser systems, respectively. The input-output characteristics of laser systems were measured; the maximum output peak power 177 mW was obtained for Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se laser system with slope efficiency of 6.3 % with respect to absorbed peak power. The output peak power as well as output beam spatial structure were stable during measurements. For the selection of the lasing wavelength, the single 1.5 mm thick quartz plate was placed at the Brewster angle inside the optical resonator between the output coupler and laser active medium. This element provided the tuning in the wavelength range 2290-2578 nm, 2353-2543 nm, and 2420-2551 nm for Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Cr:Zn0.70Mn0.30Se, and Cr:Zn0.75Mg0.25Se, respectively. The obtained spectral FWHM linewidth of the individual output radiation was 10 nm. A comparison with previously measured Cr:ZnSe laser system was added in the end

  8. Single-leg spica provides adequate stability after open reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassaf, Nabil

    2018-02-01

    The late detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) will remain a major concern in some parts of the world until effective screening programs become available. With late diagnosis comes the need for open surgical reduction. Surgery is invariably followed by a period of immobilisation in a spica cast to prevent postoperative displacement. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of double-leg spica as compared to single-leg spica, on the risk of displacement after unilateral open reduction of the hip. This was a retrospective review of DDH patients from 2012 to 2016 and younger than 4 years of age, who had unilateral anterior open reduction. Patients who had one of the following were excluded: neuromuscular diagnosis, the addition of K-wire, and simultaneous bilateral open reductions. Demographic data were collected along with related clinical and radiographic variables. A total of 128 patients (162 hips) met the inclusion criteria; 93 were in the double-leg spica group, and 69 were in the single-leg spica group. The mean age was 25.4 ± 8.1 months and the mean follow-up was 18.6 ± 11.6 months. Baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups. There were three events of redislocation in the double-leg spica group as compared to one redislocation in the single-leg spica group. The difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.637, risk ratio 1.317, CI 0.736-2.356). The difference in subsequent disruption of Shenton's line and hip migration of more than 29% was (p = 0.395, risk ratio 1.411, CI 0.892-2.234) and (p = 0.087, risk ratio 0.67, CI 0.417-1.078), respectively. Three patients had a greenstick distal femur fracture after double-leg spica and one after single-leg spica. These data suggest that including the contralateral hip in the cast after open reduction is not essential as it does not seem to improve stability.

  9. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a Ghanaian Tertiary Hospital: Are the current antibiotic recommendations adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appiah-Korang Labi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. Methods A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis. The national and WHO treatment guidelines recommend either ampicillin plus gentamicin or ampicillin plus cefotaxime for empiric treatment of neonatal BSI. The WHO recommendations also include cloxacillin plus gentamicin. We described the resistance profile over a 28-day neonatal period using multivariable logistic regression analysis with linear or restricted cubic splines. Results A total of 8,025 neonatal blood culture reports were reviewed over the four-year period. Total blood culture positivity was 21.9 %. Gram positive organisms accounted for most positive cultures, with coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS being the most frequently isolated pathogen in early onset infections (EOS (59.1 % and late onset infections (LOS (52.8 %. Susceptibility coverage of early onset bacterial isolates were 20.7 % to ampicillin plus cefotaxime, 32.2 % to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin, and 71.7 % to cloxacillin plus gentamicin. For LOS, coverage was 24.6 % to ampicillin plus cefotaxime, 36.2 % to the combination ampicillin and gentamicin and 63.6 % to cloxacillin plus gentamicin. Cloxacillin plus gentamicin remained the most active regimen for EOS and LOS after exclusion of BSI caused by CoNS. For this regimen, the adjusted odds of resistance decreased between 12-34 % per day from

  10. Band structure calculation of GaSe-based nanostructures using empirical pseudopotential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadchy, A V; Obraztsova, E D; Volotovskiy, S G; Golovashkin, D L; Savin, V V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of band structure computer simulation of GaSe- based nanostructures using the empirical pseudopotential method. Calculations were performed using a specially developed software that allows performing simulations using cluster computing. Application of this method significantly reduces the demands on computing resources compared to traditional approaches based on ab-initio techniques and provides receiving the adequate comparable results. The use of cluster computing allows to obtain information for structures that require an explicit account of a significant number of atoms, such as quantum dots and quantum pillars. (paper)

  11. Multiexciton absorption in CdSe nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Alberto; Zhang, Yong

    2009-03-01

    Efficient multiple-exciton generation (MEG) has been recently reported in semiconductor nanocrystals. In this process, a single absorbed photon generates two or more electron-hole pairs. The MEG efficiency has so far been evaluated assuming that the change (bleaching) of the absorption spectrum due to MEG is linearly proportional to the number of excitons (NX) that are present in the nanocrystal. We have examined this assumption using atomistic pseudopotential calculations for colloidal CdSe nanocrystals ranging in size from 3 to 4.6 nm. We found that the bleaching of the first absorption peak, δα1S, depends non-linearly on NX, due to carrier-carrier interactions. When a single exciton is present in the nanocrystal, the 1S exciton peak is already 65-75% bleached. This non-linearity mandates an upper bound of 1.5 to the value of the normalized bleaching that can be attributed to MEG, significantly smaller than the limit of 2.0 predicted by the linear scaling assumption. Thus, measured values of the normalized bleaching in excess of 1.5 in CdSe nanocrystals cannot be due entirely to MEG, but must originate in part from other mechanisms.

  12. Lo que se debe a las cimentaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroviogoicoechea, Alberto

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes: the problems that arise when the foundations has to act on soils with low consistency or when very narrow tolerances have to be met; the origin of the above mentioned problems; the requirements that are not really necessary, with suitable examples; the absolute and relative admissible magnitudes of differential settlements in concrete structures, walls, partitions and metal structures; the tolerances for mechanical installations; recommendations for projects and a table that sums up the proposed tolerances for relative foundations.En el artículo se describen: los problemas que surgen cuando la cimentación ha de actuar sobre terrenos poco consistentes o cuando se quieren cumplir tolerancias muy estrechas; de dónde provienen dichos problemas; las exigencias que no son realmente necesarias, con ejemplos apropiados; las magnitudes absolutas y relativas admisibles de asientos diferenciales, en estructuras de hormigón, muros, tabiques y estructuras metálicas; las tolerancias para instalaciones mecánicas; recomendaciones para proyecto, y una tabla que recoge las tolerancias propuestas para asientos relativos.

  13. Escuela para señoritas, Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stillman y Eastwlck-Field, Arquitectos

    1963-02-01

    Full Text Available The object was to design part of a new building which had been seriously damaged during the war, so that the old and new parts would blend into a pleasant whole, with a capacity for 600 girls. The new designs avoid the glass box style of school buildings, and glass walls have been adopted only on the ground floor, thus giving an impression of light and airiness to what used to be a partial basement. Classrooms have been designed in a simple manner, and give the impression of conventional rooms. Simple lines and materials have been chosen throughout. Strong contrasts in the external finish have been avoided, and colours provide a relaxing background to the intensive activities of the students. A constructional feature is the use of prefabricated concrete joists and supports. Outer walls consist of brick panels filling in the space between the visible concrete framework. Ceilings are of insulating boards, and the floors are covered with linoleum. Special attention has been devoted to the hall. In this case the roof is of white gypsum, and the only features are the grills covering the fluorescent lighting. The walls of this hall are of glass, and are covered with heavy velvet curtains. A balcony with hardwood posts adds a simple and friendly feature to the building. The furniture and drapery have been carefully chosen. Camden school has a rigid tradition of individualism and fine education, and the new building has succeeded in maintaining the exclusive quality of the older parts, as well as offering an overall impression of up to date construction.El problema consistía en proyectar un nuevo núcleo para un edificio que había sido seriamente bombardeado durante la guerra, de tal modo que las partes antiguas y nuevas formasen un conjunto agradable y con capacidad para más de 600 chicas. En la nueva construcción se ha evitado el carácter de «cajas de cristal» de las nuevas escuelas ordinarias y se han empleado muros de cristal solamente en la

  14. Stable and metastable phases in reciprocal systems PbSe + Ag2I2 Ag2Se + PbI2 and PbSe + CdI2 = CdSe + PbI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Safronov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Mutual system PbSe + Ag 2 I 2 = Ag 2 Se + PbI 2 is investigated. It is shown that diagonal Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 is stable. Liquidus surface and isothermal section at 633 K of phase diagram of PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 system are built. Transformations directing to crystallization metastable ternary compound forming in PbSe-PbI 2 system and metastable polytype modifications of lead iodide in PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 system at 620-685 K are studied. By hardening from molten state (1150-1220 K) new interstitial metastable phases crystallizing in CdCl 2 structural type are obtained in PbSe-Ag 2 Se-PbI 2 and PbSe + CdI 2 = CdSe + PbI 2 systems [ru

  15. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  16. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  17. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  18. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents

  19. Adequate levels of adherence with controller medication is associated with increased use of rescue medication in asthmatic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Elkout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of asthma controller medication adherence and the level of asthma control in children is poorly defined. AIMS: To assess the association between asthma controller medication adherence and asthma control in children using routinely acquired prescribing data. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of children aged 0-18 years prescribed inhaled corticosteroids only (ICS, leukotriene receptors antagonists (LTRA, or long-acting β2 agonists (LABA and ICS prescribed as separate or combined inhalers, between 01/09/2001 and 31/08/2006, registered with primary care practices contributing to the Practice Team Information database. The medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated and associations with asthma control explored. Poor asthma control was defined as the issue of prescriptions for ≥ 1 course of oral corticosteroids (OCS and/or ≥ 6 short-acting β2 agonists (SABA canisters annually. RESULTS: A total of 3172 children prescribed asthma controller medication were identified. Of these, 15-39% (depending on controller medication demonstrated adequate MPR. Adequate MPR was associated with male gender, good socio-economic status, and oral LTRA therapy. Adequate MPR was more likely to be associated with increased use of rescue medication. However logistic regression only identified a significant relationship for ICS only (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.48; p<0.001, LTRA (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.27-3.48; p = 0.004 and LABA/ICS (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.62-5.02; p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence was observed for all asthma controller medications, although was significantly better for oral LRTA. In this study adequate adherence was not associated with the use of less rescue medication, suggesting that adherence is a complex issue.

  20. The Audit Opinion of the DISA FY 2011 Working Capital Fund Financial Statements Was Not Adequately Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency MD&A Management Discussion and Analysis MFR Memorandum for Record NoF Notification of...memorandums for record ( MFRs ) would have a material impact on the financial statements and ultimately Acuity’s opinion, • perform adequate completeness...the deficiencies identified by DISA in its FBWT MFRs would impact the reliability of the financial statements and ultimately Acuity’s opinion

  1. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  2. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  3. Emocionar-se no MCT-PUCRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Petry Da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em apresentar uma narrativa de uma saída de campo pelos bolsistas da pesquisa intitulada “Na ponta dos dedos: o iPad como instrumento complexo de cognição/subjetivação”, ao MCT-PUCRS (Museu de Ciências e Tecnologias das PUCRS, com 4 crianças diagnosticadas com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA. Através do projeto utilizamos o iPad para o acoplamento dos sujeitos com a realidade. Neste passeio especificamente, nossas percepções se deram em relação às emoções que os sujeitos demonstraram frente as suas descobertas durante a visitação as dependências do museu. Nesta escrita abordaremos as emoções disparadas durante a vivência destas crianças em um ambiente novo e desafiador para elas.

  4. Ducasse y Onetti se encuentran en Rocambole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Bolon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Muy notoria en abundantes lugares, la presencia de la literatura francesa en la obra de Juan Carlos Onetti incluye pocas referencias explícitas a los Cantos de Maldoror. Para rastrear las huellas de Isidore Ducasse en la obra de Juan Carlos Onetti, conviene pegar un rodeo, que conducirá hasta Rocambole, Silvio Astier y Fantomas. De este modo, es posible percibir un aire de familia que se expande y alcanza a Lautréamont, Onetti, Arlt, Ponson du Terrail y Pierre Souvestre & Marcel Allain, envolviendo no solo temas y personajes sino también y fundamentalmente una particular relaciόn entre el saber y el contar.

  5. CuInSe2 nano-crystallite reaction kinetics using solid state reaction from Cu2Se and In2Se3 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I; Lu, Li-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Lun; Ray, Dahtong; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CuInSe 2 phase increased gradually accompanied with a decrease in γ-In 2 Se 3 and no intermediate phase during calcination. → CuInSe 2 formation from Cu 2 Se and In 2 Se 3 powders follows a one-dimensional diffusion-controlled reaction with apparent activation energy of about 122.5 kJ/mol. → The solid reaction kinetics may be dominated by the diffusion of In 3+ ions. - Abstract: The reaction mechanism and CuInSe 2 formation kinetics using a solid state reaction from Cu 2 Se and In 2 Se 3 powders synthesized using a heating up process were investigated using X-ray diffractomy (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the CuInSe 2 phase increased gradually, accompanied with a decrease in γ-In 2 Se 3 with no intermediate phase as the calcination temperature and soaking time were increased. The reaction kinetics was analyzed using the Avrami and polynomial kinetic model, suggesting that CuInSe 2 formation from Cu 2 Se and In 2 Se 3 powders follows a diffusion-controlled reaction with an apparent activation energy of about 122.5-182.3 kJ/mol. Cu 2 Se and In 2 Se 3 phases react and directly transform into CIS without the occurrence of any intermediate phase and the size of the newly formed CuInSe 2 crystallites was close to that of the Cu 2 Se reactant particle based on the TEM results, which indicated that the solid reaction kinetics may be dominated by the diffusion of In 3+ ions.

  6. Frustrated magnetism in the tetragonal CoSe analog of superconducting FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, Brandon; Zhou, Xiuquan; Vivanco, Hector; Campbell, Daniel J.; Wang, Kefeng; Graf, Dave; Paglione, Johnpierre; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2018-03-01

    Recently synthesized metastable tetragonal CoSe, isostructural to the FeSe superconductor, offers a new avenue for investigating systems in close proximity to the iron-based superconductors. We present magnetic and transport property measurements on powders and single crystals of CoSe. High field magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a suppression of the previously reported 10 K ferromagnetic transition with the magnetic susceptibility, exhibiting time dependence below the proposed transition. Dynamic scaling analysis of the time dependence yields a critical relaxation time of τ*=0.064 ±0.008 s which in turn yields activation energy Ea*=14.84 ±0.59 K and an ideal glass temperature T0*=8.91 ±0.09 K from Vogel-Fulcher analysis. No transition is observed in resistivity and specific heat measurements, but both measurements indicate that CoSe is metallic. These results are interpreted on the basis of CoSe exhibiting frustrated magnetic ordering arising from competing magnetic interactions. Arrott analysis of single crystal magnetic susceptibility has indicated the transition temperature occurs in close proximity to previous reports and that the magnetic moment lies solely in the a b plane. The results have implications for understanding the relationship between magnetism and transport properties in the iron chalcogenide superconductors.

  7. BiCuSeO Thermoelectrics: An Update on Recent Progress and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxuan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A BiCuSeO system has been reported as a promising thermoelectric material and has attracted great attention in the thermoelectric community since 2010. Recently, several remarkable studies have been reported and the ZT of BiCuSeO was pushed to a higher level. It motivates us to systematically summarize the recent reports on the BiCuSeO system. In this short review, we start with several attempts to optimize thermoelectric properties of BiCuSeO. Then, we introduce several opinions to explore the origins of low thermal conductivity for BiCuSeO. Several approaches to enhance thermoelectric performance are also summarized, including modulation doping, introducing dual-vacancies, and dual-doping, etc. At last, we propose some possible strategies for enhancing thermoelectric performance of BiCuSeO in future research.

  8. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  9. Temperature-dependent exciton recombination in asymmetrical ZnCdSe/ZnSe double quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Guang You; Zhang, J Y; Zheng, Z H; Yang, B J; Zhao Xiao Wei; Shen De Zhen; Kong Xiang Gui

    1999-01-01

    Temperature-dependent exciton recombination in asymmetrical ZnCdSe/ZnSe double quantum wells is studied by recording photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence decay spectra. The exciton tunnelling from the wide well to the narrow well and the thermal dissociation of excitons are two factors that influence the exciton recombination in this structure. In the narrow well, both of the two processes decrease the emission intensity, whereas, in the wide well, these two processes have contrary influences on the exciton density. The change of the emission intensity depends on which is the stronger one. (author)

  10. Layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe2 by soft and reactive plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Xiao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xiumei; Qin, Fang; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soft plasma etching technique using SF 6 + N 2 as precursors for layer-by-layer thinning of MoSe 2 was adopted in this work. • Optical microscopy, Raman, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy measurements were used to confirm the thickness change. • Layer-dependent vibrational and photoluminescence spectra of the etched MoSe 2 were also demonstrated. • Equal numbers of MoSe 2 layers can be removed uniformly without affecting the underlying SiO 2 substrate and the remaining MoSe 2 layers. - Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) like molybdenum diselenide (MoSe 2 ) have recently gained considerable interest since their properties are complementary to those of graphene. Unlike gapless graphene, the band structure of MoSe 2 can be changed from the indirect band gap to the direct band gap when MoSe 2 changed from bulk material to monolayer. This transition from multilayer to monolayer requires atomic-layer-precision thining of thick MoSe 2 layers without damaging the remaining layers. Here, we present atomic-layer-precision thinning of MoSe 2 nanaosheets down to monolayer by using SF 6 + N 2 plasmas, which has been demonstrated to be soft, selective and high-throughput. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectra suggest that equal numbers of MoSe 2 layers can be removed uniformly regardless of their initial thickness, without affecting the underlying SiO 2 substrate and the remaining MoSe 2 layers. By adjusting the etching rates we can achieve complete MoSe 2 removal and any disired number of MoSe 2 layers including monolayer. This soft plasma etching method is highly reliable and compatible with the semiconductor manufacturing processes, thereby holding great promise for various 2D materials and TMD-based devices.

  11. Fabrication mechanism of FeSe superconductors with high-energy ball milling aided sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengnan; Liu, Jixing; Feng, Jianqing; Wang, Yao; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Chengshan; Zhang, Pingxiang

    2015-01-01

    FeSe Superconducting bulks with high content of superconducting PbO-type β-FeSe phase were prepared with high-energy ball milling (HEBM) aided sintering process. During this process, precursor powders with certain Fe/Se ratio were ball milled first then sintered. The influences of HEBM process as well as initial Fe/Se ratio on the phase evolution process were systematically discussed. With HEBM process and proper initial Fe/Se ratio, the formation of non-superconducting hexagonal δ-FeSe phase were effectively avoided. FeSe bulk with the critical temperature of 9.0 K was obtained through a simple one-step sintering process with lower sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the phase evolution mechanism of the HEBM precursor powders during sintering was deduced based on both the thermodynamic analysis and step-by-step sintering results. The key function of the HEBM process was to provide a high uniformity of chemical composition distribution, thus to successfully avoide the formation of intermediate product during sintering, including FeSe 2 and Fe 7 Se 8 . Therefore, the fundamental principal for the synthesis of FeSe superconductors were concluded as: HEBM aided sintering process, with the sintering temperature of >635 °C and a slow cooling process. - Highlights: • A novel synthesis technique was developed for FeSe based superconductors. • FeSe bulks with high Tc and high β-FeSe phase content has been obtained. • Phase evolution process for the HEBM aided sintering process was proposed

  12. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  13. Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Lee-Shrewsbury, Victoria; Hogg, Kitwani; Petley, Graham W

    2013-07-01

    Uninterrupted chest compressions are a key factor in determining resuscitation success. Interruptions to chest compression are often associated with defibrillation, particularly the need to stand clear from the patient during defibrillation. It has been suggested that clinical examination gloves may provide adequate electrical resistance to enable safe hands-on defibrillation in order to minimise interruptions. We therefore examined whether commonly used nitrile clinical examination gloves provide adequate resistance to current flow to enable safe hands-on defibrillation. Clinical examination gloves (Kimberly Clark KC300 Sterling nitrile) worn by members of hospital cardiac arrest teams were collected immediately following termination of resuscitation. To determine the level of protection afforded by visually intact gloves, electrical resistance across the glove was measured by applying a DC voltage across the glove and measuring subsequent resistance. Forty new unused gloves (control) were compared with 28 clinical (non-CPR) gloves and 128 clinical (CPR) gloves. One glove in each group had a visible tear and was excluded from analysis. Control gloves had a minimum resistance of 120 kΩ (median 190 kΩ) compared with 60 kΩ in clinical gloves (both CPR (median 140 kΩ) and non-CPR groups (median 160 kΩ)). Nitrile clinical examination gloves do not provide adequate electrical insulation for the rescuer to safely undertake 'hands-on' defibrillation and when exposed to the physical forces of external chest compression, even greater resistive degradation occurs. Further work is required to identify gloves suitable for safe use for 'hands-on' defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjects with molecularly defined familial hypercholesterolemia or familial defective apoB-100 are not being adequately treated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond P Leren

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To study whether subjects with a molecular genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH or familial defective apoB-100 (FDB are being adequately treated.A questionnaire regarding medical history was sent to 2611 subjects who had been provided with a molecular genetic diagnosis of FH or FDB, and a blood sample was obtained for lipid measurements.956 (36.6% of the 2611 subjects participated. The mean age for starting lipid-lowering therapy was 33.4 (±12.1 years. Among those below 18 years of age, only 20.4% were on lipid-lowering drugs, whereas 89.1% of those aged 18 and above were on lipid-lowering drugs. The mean levels of total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 5.7 (±1.5 mmol/l and 3.9 (±1.3 mmol/l, respectively. Among those who were on lipid-lowering drugs, 29.0% and 12.2% had levels of LDL cholesterol below 3.0 mmol/l and 2.6 mmol/l, respectively. Only 47.3% of the 956 subjects were considered as being adequately treated largely due to a failure to titrate their drug regimens. From the use of cholesterol-years score, lipid-lowering therapy must start before the age of 20 in order to prevent the subjects from contracting premature coronary heart disease.The majority of FH/FDB subjects are being diagnosed late in life and are not being adequately treated. In order to prevent them from contracting premature coronary heart disease, it is key that levels of LDL cholesterol are normalized from a young age and that sufficient doses of lipid-lowering drugs are being used.

  15. Adequate Consultation And Dialogue With Local Community Unlocking The Untapped Potential For Peace And Development Evidences From South Omo Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that adequate consultation and public wide dialogues at the grass root level are the two potential entry points in times of development interventions. This will foster peace among the nearby people and led a foundation for the subsequent development. The study was undertaken to examine whether the agro-pastoral communities of South Omo zone were jeopardized as a result of the Omo Kuraz Sugar development project or not. It also targeted whether there was adequate consultation with the local people at the earliest days of the project. Adopting Ethnographic design the study accompanied by primary data collected through participant observation focus group discussion and key informant interview indicated that there were attempts to consult the indigenous people though not adequate. It also indicated that despite the absence of compensation for the local displaced people due to their mobile life the people were not endangered as a result of the project. This project as a development project that is established at the communal land of the agro-pastoralists is providing training for the nearby people to hire them in its various offices. Far from the claims of the various oversees institutions propounded as if the agro-pastoral communities were miserably suffered from such a project the people consider it as if it is their own project. The study implied that South Omo zone is a counter example of how local level consultation and a wide range of dialogue are indispensable preconditions to foster peace and development in many pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the country.

  16. Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken

    2018-01-01

    Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18-50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies...... from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe...... on safe and adequate levels. Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake...

  17. Uma vida que se esvai no Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Michelini Marraccini

    Full Text Available A doença de Parkinson é uma síndrome neurológica de evolução lenta e progressiva que emerge na idade madura e velhice. A crescente debilitação física contrasta com a manutenção da integridade mental, na maioria dos pacientes até o fim da vida. Nessa enfermidade incurável, que costuma perdurar por longos anos, surgem importantes reações físicas diante da progressiva incapacitação, com profundos reflexos na subjetividade do paciente. Este trabalho refere-se ao atendimento de uma paciente, acompanhada em seu processo de conscientização e elaboração da irreversibilidade da doença. Ao final,é ressaltada a intrínseca articulação somatopsíquica, com destaque para a depressão na acentuação dos sintomas parkinsonianos.

  18. PREPARATION, SPECTROSCOPIC AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ETA-1-N AND ETA-2-SE,SE' COMPLEXES OF A P2N4SE2 RING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIVERS, T; DOXSEE, DD; HILTS, RW; MEETSMA, A; PARVEZ, M; VANDEGRAMPEL, JC

    1992-01-01

    The reaction of 1,5-Ph4P2N4Se2, 1, prepared by the treatment of Ph2PN2(SiMe3)3 with a mixture of SeCl4 and Se2Cl2 in acetonitrile, with [PtCl2(PEt3)]2 gives the adducts [PtCl2(PEt3)]n[eta1-N-Ph4P2N4Se2] (2, n = 1; 3, n = 2) in which the P2N4Se2 ring is shown by an X-ray structural determination of 3

  19. Study on InSe-GaSe heterojunctions produced by realization of the optical contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakumenko, V.L.; Kovalyuk, Z.D.; Kurbatov, L.N.; Tagaev, V.G.; Chishko, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated were current-farad and current voltage characteristics as well as electroluminescence of InSe-GaSe heterojunctions (HJ) produced by the method of realization of optical contact (ROC). Basing on the results of the investigations suggested is a HJ energy scheme and determined are mechanisms of carriers transfer through unlighted transition on flowing current in different regimes. Efficiency of HJ production method applied is concluded. The ROC method permits to produce abrupt HJs. Producing by such a way HJ is not accompanied by formation of states with high density, localized at interface boundary and changing the barrier height in HJ as compared with a value expected from contact difference in potentials. A tunnel-recombination process with participation of states in a forbidden zone is the mechanism determining the carrier transfer through HJ in a straight direction before barrier removal. Current through HJ after barrier removal flows in the form of injection currents in both directions leading to the decrease of base resistance GaSe and intensive luminescence from the InSe area adjoining to HJ. Currents in case of reverse displacements have the character of currents in case of the Ziener reversible break-down. HJ produced by the ROC method have well reproducible characteristics testifying to the method efficiency

  20. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO 2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or landfilled biomass, but there are major uncertainties about net greenhouse gas emissions linked to the bio-char life cycle, which necessitate suspension of judgement about the adequacy of bio-char addition to soils as an offset for CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

  1. In situ observation of the formation of FeSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeSe compound from a mixture of Fe and Se powders encased in a composite Cu/Nb sheath was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Tetragonal beta-FeSe does not seem to form directly from the starting elements. Instead, a sequence of FeSe2, Fe3Se4...

  2. Bio-fortification and isotopic labelling of Se metabolites in onions and carrots following foliar application of Se and 77Se

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.; Husted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to bio-fortify onions by foliar application of selenium (Se) and to intrinsically label bioactive Se-metabolites in onion and carrot by enriched, stable 77Se for use in human physiological studies. Onion bulbs and leaves were enriched in Se by repeated foliar spraying of 10 or 100μg......Seml−1 solutions of sodium selenite (Se(IV)) or sodium selenate (Se(VI)). ICP-MS analysis of onion leaves and bulbs showed that the Se concentration was enhanced by up to a factor of approximately 50 and 200 in bulbs and leaves, respectively. HPLC–ICP-MS analysis of proteolytic plant extracts showed...... that foliar application of Se(IV) gave rise to bio-synthesis of a higher fraction of the desired organic Se species and was better tolerated by the plants than Se(VI). Based on these findings onions and carrots were bio-fortified by foliar application of a solution of 77Se(IV) that was enriched to 99.7% as 77...

  3. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  4. Photoinduced aging and viscosity evolution in Se-rich Ge-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueguen, Yann; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Rouxel, Tanguy [LARMAUR ERL CNRS 6274, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); King, Ellyn A.; Lucas, Pierre [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, 4715 E. Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, Arizona 85712 (United States); Keryvin, Vincent [LIMATB EA 4250, Université de Bretagne Sud, Rue de Saint Maudé, 56321 Lorient Cedex (France); Bureau, Bruno [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226 Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-08-21

    We propose here to investigate the non-equilibrium viscosity of Ge-Se glasses under and after light irradiation. Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} and Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers have been aged in the dark and under ambient light, over months. During aging, both the relaxation of enthalpy and the viscosity have been investigated. The viscosity was measured by shear relaxation-recovery tests allowing the measurement of non-equilibrium viscosity. When Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90} glass fibers are aged under irradiation, a relatively fast fictive temperature decrease is observed. Concomitantly, during aging under irradiation, the non-equilibrium viscosity increases and reaches an equilibrium after two months of aging. This viscosity increase is also observed in Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80} fibers. Nevertheless, this equilibrium viscosity is far below the viscosity expected at the configurational equilibrium. As soon as the irradiation ceases, the viscosity increases almost instantaneously by about one order of magnitude. Then, if the fibers are kept in the dark, their viscosity slowly increases over months. The analysis of the shear relaxation functions shows that the aging is thermorheologically simple. On the other side, there is no simple relaxation between the shear relaxation functions measured under irradiation and those measured in the dark. These results clearly suggest that a very specific photoinduced aging process occurs under irradiation. This aging is due to photorelaxation. Nevertheless, the viscosity changes are not solely correlated to photoaging and photorelaxation. A scenario is proposed to explain all the observed viscosity evolutions under and after irradiation, on the basis of photoinduced transient defects.

  5. Benefits of oxygen in CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 containing Se-rich grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chunbao; Luo, Min; Li, Bolin; Li, Dengfeng; Nie, Jinlan; Dong, Huining

    2014-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculation, we show that oxygen (O) exhibits an interesting effect in CuInSe 2 and CuGaSe 2 . The Se atoms with dangling bonds in a Se-rich Σ3 (114) grain boundary (GB) create deep gap states due to strong interaction between Se atoms. However, when such a Se atom is substituted by an O atom, the deep gap states can be shifted into valence band, making the site no longer a harmful non-radiative recombination center. We find that O atoms prefer energetically to substitute these Se atoms and induce significant lattice relaxation due to their smaller atomic size and stronger electronegativity, which effectively reduces the anion–anion interaction. Consequently, the deep gap states are shifted to lower energy regions close or even below the top of the valence band.

  6. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. From (Cd2Se2)(pa) (pa=propylamine) hybrid precursors to various CdSe nanostructures: structural evolution and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Han; Yu, Shu-Hong; Li, Jing

    2011-04-07

    Nanostructural evolution of II-VI semiconductors emerges as a hot research field because it offers a novel route for the synthesis of functional semiconductor nanomaterials. Here, we report a "top-down" process of structural evolution from two dimensional Cd(2)Se(2)(pa) hybrid structures to zero- or one- dimensional CdSe nanostructures. We firstly synthesized the Cd(2)Se(2)(pa) hybrid by a facile solvothermal reaction and determined the hybrid crystal structure through the Rietveld refinement based on the PXRD data. The (Cd(2)Se(2))(pa) hybrid consists of [Cd(2)Se(2)] slabs sandwiched by coordinated n-propylamine layers. Then, we used this hybrid as a precursor to explore the "top-down" fabrication process of structural evolution from two dimensional layered structures to zero- or one- dimensional nanocrystals. It has been shown that various CdSe nanostructures including lamellar structures, nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanorods can be obtained through the pyrolysis of (Cd(2)Se(2))(pa) hybrid precursor under different conditions. It is worth mentioning that the oriented attachment of nanoparticles has been observed during the pyrolysis process. Additionally, the variation of optical properties with structural evolution has been investigated in detail. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

  9. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  10. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth of CuInSe2 and In2Se3/CuInSe2 nano-heterostructures through solid state reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Lee, Wei-Fan; Huang, Chi-Te; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2011-10-12

    In(2)Se(3) is an essential phase change material and CuInSe(2) is the fundamental basis of the copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar energy material. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility to transform the phase change material to the solar energy material via the solid state reaction. The In(2)Se(3) nanobelts (NBs) were synthesized via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The chemical composition and the optical properties were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and reflectance and photoluminescence spectra. In the in situ observation of the solid state reaction with Cu to form the CuInSe(2) NBs with ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy, we observed the In(2)Se(3)/CuInSe(2) transformation at atomic scale in real time. The progression of the atomic layer at the interface provided the pertinent information on the kinetic mechanism. In(2)Se(3)/CuInSe(2) nano-heterostructures were also obtained in the present investigation. The approach to the CIGS nanosolar cell was also proposed. This study shall be beneficial in the development of high-performance nanowire solar cells and nanodevices with In(2)Se(3)/CuInSe(2) nano-heterostructures.

  12. La desaceleración económica colombiana: se cosecha lo que se siembra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Ortiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La desaceleración económica que experimenta Colombia desde 1980 se explica por el estancamiento estructural de la economía y por la escalada de violencia relacionada con la expansión del narcotráfico. Los datos disponibles no rechazan esta hipótesis. El artículo plantea que la desindustrialización y el narcotráfico se forjaron en el mismo crisol: un modelo de desarrollo que ha integrado progresivamente la economía nacional a los mercados mundiales al tiempo que ha renunciado, también progresivamente, a la opción industrialista. Además, argumenta que la explosión del narcotráfico obedece a la profundización de la guerra contra las drogas en un contexto de demanda mundial creciente e inelástica.

  13. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Gabor, Andrew M.; Noufi, Rommel; Tennant, Andrew L.

    1995-07-25

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  14. Por uma cidade que se move e se comunica: corpo, rua e improviso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Saldanha Vieira de Aguiar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da relação de um lugar com suas pessoas. A reflexão acontece a partir de um estudo de caso: o Camelódromo da Praça XV. O Camelódromo foi uma grande feira, que durante 40 anos ocupou um espaço importante no centro de Porto Alegre/RS. (Auto organizado e vivido principalmente pelo povo, o fenômeno se configurava em um lugar onde improviso e estética constituiam o modo de ser e agir no cotidiano da rua. Ironicamente, no início de 2009, o Camelódromo foi transferido para dentro de um prédio. Hoje, onde se desenrolava o espetáculo do imprevisível, encontra-se um estacionamento para carros. Este trabalho foi produzido nos últimos meses do Camelódromo; em um espírito de elogio à estética do improviso e à auto-organização. Buscamos articular idéias da teoria da complexidade, do urbanismo, das artes e da comunicação, para tentar compreender um pouco essa manifestação espontânea, tão característica da urbe no século XXI.

  15. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  16. PASCAL for engineers: A course including OMEGASOFT PASCAL for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    These are the notes of a PASCAL course for controls engineers at CERN. The course starts with 'Standard Pascal' and includes OMEGASOFT Pascal, a powerful extension of Pascal towards real-time and systems applications. It demonstrates how a language such as Pascal, with adequate extensions for systems programming and embedded microprocessor-driven systems, can substantially increase the productivity of programmers and the reliability of their products. Also enhanced will be the legibility of the programs and their maintainability, since programming in Pascal automatically leads to autodocumentation. Simple examples show how OMEGASOFT-PASCAL can be used for efficient programming of embedded systems for real-time data acquisition and control using the MC6809 microprocessor. (orig.)

  17. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  18. Antibacterial effect of the laser-generated Se nanocoatings on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Ivanova, A. K.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Klevkov, Yu V.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Levchenko, A. O.; Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Smirnov, N. A.; Zayarny, D. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Tolordava, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) were successfully demonstrated in vitro for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The possible mechanisms of antibacterial impact included the emergence of reactive oxygen species, induced by free radicals on the NP surface and accompanied by subsequent oxidative stress, as well as mechanical decomposition of the mitochondrial membrane. Se nanocoatings were deposited on bare and silver-coated silica glass substrates via inkjet printing with concentrated nanoinks, prepared by infrared laser-ablative processing of a solid Se target in a 50%-isopropyl solution. The resulted porous nanofilms with high-percentage surface coverage, consisting of spherical Se NPs and Se nanorods, were characterized by means of standard microscopy techniques (optical, scanning electron, transmission), UV-vis-IR and EDX spectroscopy.

  19. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  20. Poor neurological sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in an infant despite adequate antiviral and adjunct corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna B Basak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old infant presented to our emergency department with fever, altered consciousness, and focal seizures of acute onset. He had vesicular skin lesions over the right preauricular region. CT brain showed a large hypodense lesion involving the left temporo-parietal region, left basal ganglia and left thalamus. MRI brain revealed bilateral multifocal corticomedullary lesions suggestive of encephalitis. CSF-PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV type I. He was treated with standard dose intravenous acyclovir for 15 days along with a trial of pulse methylprednisolone, but was readmitted within a week with features of an early relapse. The infant survived but developed significant neurological sequelae. Although treatment of HSV is available, the neurological outcome is guarded even with adequate antiviral therapy. Adjunct corticosteroid therapy did not appear to attenuate the neurological sequelae.

  1. Effects of Awareness Material on Suicide-Related Knowledge and the Intention to Provide Adequate Help to Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Krallmann, Sabrina; Till, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths. Analyses show that exposure to printed awareness material increased knowledge, which in turn positively influenced intentions to provide help. The inclusion of information regarding suicide myths did not reduce reading enjoyment. The awareness material used in this study only addressed two suicide myths that were considered to be especially important. Information debunking suicide myths in suicide-related media reports is therefore both feasible and potentially helpful.

  2. Assessment of minimum sample sizes required to adequately represent diversity reveals inadequacies in datasets of domestic dog mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kristen; Allard, Marc

    2010-02-01

    Evolutionary and forensic studies commonly choose the mitochondrial control region as the locus for which to evaluate the domestic dog. However, the number of dogs that need to be sampled in order to represent the control region variation present in the worldwide population is yet to be determined. Following the methods of Pereira et al. (2004), we have demonstrated the importance of surveying the complete control region rather than only the popular left domain. We have also evaluated sample saturation in terms of the haplotype number and the number of polymorphisms within the control region. Of the most commonly cited evolutionary research, only a single study has adequately surveyed the domestic dog population, while all forensic studies have failed to meet the minimum values. We recommend that future studies consider dataset size when designing experiments and ideally sample both domains of the control region in an appropriate number of domestic dogs.

  3. Refining the W1 and SE1 Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Engine Research Building (ERB) houses more than 60 test rigs that study all aspects of engine development. By working with Mary Gibson in the SE1 and W1A Turbine Facilities, I became aware of her responsibilities and better acquainted with the inner workings of the ERB. The SE1 Supersonic/Subsonic Wind Tunnel Facility contains 2 small wind tunnels. The first tunnel uses an atmospheric inlet, while the second uses treated 40-psig air. Both of the tunnels are capable of subsonic and supersonic operation. An auxiliary air supply and exhaust piping providing both test sections with suction, blowing, and crossfire capabilities. The current configuration of SE1 consists of a curved diffuser that studies the blockage along the endwalls. The W1A Low Speed Compressor Facility provides insight for the complex flow phenomena within its 4-stage axial compressor, sand the data obtained from W 1A is used to develop advanced models for fluid dynamic assessment. W1A is based off of a low speed research compressor developed by GE in the 1950's. This compressor has a removable casing treatment under rotor 1, which allows for various tip treatment studies. The increased size and low speed allows instrumentation to be located in the compressor s complex flow paths. Air enters the facility through a filtered roof vent, conditioned for temperature and turbulence, and then passed through the compressor W1A is described as a dynamic facility with many projects taking place simultaneously. This current environment makes it challenging to follow the various affairs that are taking place within the area. During my first 4 weeks at the NASA Glenn Research Center, I have assisted Mary Gibson in multiple tasks such as facility documents, record keeping, maintenance and upgrades. The facility has lube systems for its gearbox and compressor. These systems are critical in the successful operation of the facility. I was assigned the task of creating a facility estimate list, which included the

  4. Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Spakman, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Seismic travel-time tomography of the mantle under SE Asia reveals patterns of subduction-related seismic P-wave velocity anomalies that are of great value in helping to understand the region's tectonic development. We discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of an area centred on Indonesia and including Malaysia, parts of the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. We begin with an explanation of seismic tomography and causes of velocity anomalies in the mantle, and discuss assessment of model quality for tomographic models created from P-wave travel times. We then introduce the global P-wave velocity anomaly model UU-P07 and the tectonic model used in this paper and give an overview of previous interpretations of mantle structure. The slab-related velocity anomalies we identify in the upper and lower mantle based on the UU-P07 model are interpreted in terms of the tectonic model and illustrated with figures and movies. Finally, we discuss where tomographic and tectonic models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important conclusions concerning the history of the region. The tomographic images of the mantle record subduction beneath the SE Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. In the upper mantle anomalies mainly record subduction during the last 10 to 25 Ma, depending on the region considered. We interpret a vertical slab tear crossing the entire upper mantle north of west Sumatra where there is a strong lateral kink in slab morphology, slab holes between c.200-400 km below East Java and Sumbawa, and offer a new three-slab explanation for subduction in the North Sulawesi region. There is a different structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle and the deep structure changes from west to east. What was imaged in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below SE Asia has a clear internal structure and we argue that many features can be identified as older subduction zones. We identify remnants of slabs

  5. Many randomized trials of physical therapy interventions are not adequately registered: a survey of 200 published trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Christopher G; Ferreira, Paulo H; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2013-03-01

    Clinical trial registration has several putative benefits: prevention of selective reporting, avoidance of duplication, encouragement of participation, and facilitation of reviews. Previous surveys suggest that most trials are registered. However, these surveys examined only trials in journals with high impact factors, which may bias the results. This study examined the completeness of clinical trial registration and the extent of selective reporting of outcomes in a random sample of published randomized trials in physical therapy. This was a retrospective cohort study in which 200 randomized trials of physical therapy interventions were randomly selected from those published in 2009 and indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), regardless of the publishing journal. Evidence of registration was sought for each trial in the study, on clinical trial registers, and by contacting authors. The proportion of randomized trials that were registered was 67/200 (34%). This proportion was significantly lower than among the trials in journals with high impact factors, where the proportion was 75% (odds ratio=7.4, 95% confidence interval=2.6-21.4). Unambiguous primary outcomes (ie, method and time points of measurement clearly defined in the trial registry entry) were registered for 32 trials, and registration was adequate (ie, prospective with unambiguous primary outcomes) for 5/200 (2.5%) trials. Selective outcome reporting occurred in 23 (47%) of the 49 trials in which selective reporting was assessable. The inclusion of only English-language trials prevents generalization of the results to non-English-language trials. Registration of randomized trials of physical therapy interventions is rarely adequate. Consequently, the putative benefits of registration are not being fully realized.

  6. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  7. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    2 and Se powder reacted under different radiation doses, and the optimal experi- mental conditions were studied. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents.

  8. Influences of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of BHJ organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Allahverdi, Cagdas; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Gunes, Serap

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined 3.0 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as 2.1 eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0 wt%, 0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1 wt% and 2 wt%) were fabricated by spin-casting process. The effect of the concentration of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of these BHJ organic solar cells was investigated. The surface morphology of the photoactive layer modified by the incorporation of CdSe NCs into P3HT:PCBM matrix was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that when the concentration of CdSe NCs increases above 0.1 wt% in this ternary system, the photovoltaic performance of the devices significantly decreases. The power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device was enhanced 20% by incorporating CdSe NCs with 0.1 wt% with respect to those without CdSe NCs.

  9. Influences of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of BHJ organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Allahverdi, Cagdas; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Gunes, Serap

    2018-04-05

    In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined ~3.0nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as ~2.1eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0wt%, 0.1wt%, 0.5wt%, 1wt% and 2wt%) were fabricated by spin-casting process. The effect of the concentration of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of these BHJ organic solar cells was investigated. The surface morphology of the photoactive layer modified by the incorporation of CdSe NCs into P3HT:PCBM matrix was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that when the concentration of CdSe NCs increases above 0.1wt% in this ternary system, the photovoltaic performance of the devices significantly decreases. The power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device was enhanced ~20% by incorporating CdSe NCs with 0.1wt% with respect to those without CdSe NCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled Growth of ZnSe Nanocrystals by Tuning Reactivity and Amount of Zinc Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc selenide (ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized via a phosphine-free route using the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex as selenium precursor and zinc precursors with different reactivity. The reactivity of zinc precursor was tuned by using three kinds of zinc carboxylates with different alkyl chain lengths, including zinc acetate, zinc nonanoate, and zinc stearate. The effect of the reactivity and the amount of zinc precursor on nucleation and growth of ZnSe nanocrystals were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra. Result indicates that the growth and optical property of the resulting ZnSe nanocrystals are strongly dependent on the alkyl chain length and the amount of the zinc carboxylates and both shorter alkyl chain length, and more amount of zinc carboxylate will lead to faster growth of ZnSe nanocrystals. This allows that the controlled growth and excellent optical property of high-quality ZnSe nanocrystals can be achieved by combining the different reactivity and the used amount of zinc precursor, such as by using stoichiometric and reactive Zn precursor and Se precursor or by using larger amount of more unreactive Zn precursor relative to the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex precursor.

  11. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  12. Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, J.F.; Wuister, S.F.; Kelly, J.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2000-01-01

    The luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn^(2+) prepared via an inorganic chemical synthesis are described. Photoluminescence spectra show distinct ZnSe and Mn^(2+) related emissions, both of which are excited via the ZnSe host lattice. The Mn^(2+) emission wavelength and the

  13. SE Requirements Development Tool User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Faith Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The LANL Systems Engineering Requirements Development Tool (SERDT) is a data collection tool created in InfoPath for use with the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) SharePoint sites. Projects can fail if a clear definition of the final product requirements is not performed. For projects to be successful requirements must be defined early in the project and those requirements must be tracked during execution of the project to ensure the goals of the project are met. Therefore, the focus of this tool is requirements definition. The content of this form is based on International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and Department of Defense (DoD) process standards and allows for single or collaborative input. The “Scoping” section is where project information is entered by the project team prior to requirements development, and includes definitions and examples to assist the user in completing the forms. The data entered will be used to define the requirements and once the form is filled out, a “Requirements List” is automatically generated and a Word document is created and saved to a SharePoint document library. SharePoint also includes the ability to download the requirements data defined in the InfoPath from into an Excel spreadsheet. This User Guide will assist you in navigating through the data entry process.

  14. SOFIA Program SE and I Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Fobel, Laura J.; Brignola, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Once a "Troubled Project" threatened with cancellation, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program has overcome many difficult challenges and recently achieved its first light images. To achieve success, SOFIA had to overcome significant deficiencies in fundamental Systems Engineering identified during a major Program restructuring. This presentation will summarize the lessons learn in Systems Engineering on the SOFIA Program. After the Program was reformulated, an initial assessment of Systems Engineering established the scope of the problem and helped to set a list of priorities that needed to be work. A revised Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) was written to address the new Program structure and requirements established in the approved NPR7123.1A. An important result of the "Technical Planning" effort was the decision by the Program and Technical Leadership team to re-phasing the lifecycle into increments. The reformed SOFIA Program Office had to quickly develop and establish several new System Engineering core processes including; Requirements Management, Risk Management, Configuration Management and Data Management. Implementing these processes had to consider the physical and cultural diversity of the SOFIA Program team which includes two Projects spanning two NASA Centers, a major German partnership, and sub-contractors located across the United States and Europe. The SOFIA Program experience represents a creative approach to doing "System Engineering in the middle" while a Program is well established. Many challenges were identified and overcome. The SOFIA example demonstrates it is never too late to benefit from fixing deficiencies in the System Engineering processes.

  15. There is no gap 'per se' between theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Adamsen, Lis; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2003-01-01

    and practitioners in terms of the source of their knowledge. Unlike a dominant barrier paradigm, theory and practice have different logics; they are not on a continuum nor are they hierarchically ordered. They exist in their own right as theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge. In daily practice, clinical...... nurses are inspired and learn from the context, including each other, and they are active producers of knowledge, not simply recipients of knowledge. This study, therefore, claims that there is no research-practice gap “in itself” (per se) as argued in the “barriers paradigm.”......The aim of this article is to highlight relations between theory and practice and the genesis of professional action in clinical nursing and among researchers. With use of a sociologically based empirical approach, focus is placed on the knowledge involved in the work of researchers...

  16. A PHREEQE database for Pd, Ni and Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.

    1989-06-01

    This report presents a selection of thermodynamic data for Pd, Ni and Se to allow modelling of the speciation and solubility of these elements in repository safety analysis. Insufficient data are available in the literature to allow full appraisal of the data selected but, where possible, values were chosen from critical compilations or were checked for consistency between different sources. In an appendix, the data selected are presented in a format for direct use in the geochemical code PHREEQE. The report also includes examples of use of the database to examine the behaviour of these elements in chemical systems relevant to the Swiss nuclear waste management programme. Limitations of application and possible future work in this field are also discussed. (author) 12 tabs., 53 refs

  17. Direct solution-phase synthesis of Se submicrotubes using Se powder as selenium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Wang Haitao; Zhang Yuping; Li Shuchun; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    The selenium submicrotubes were directly prepared using Se powder as selenium source by microwave-assisted method. Field-emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to characterize the as-prepared products. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and XRD pattern proved that the selenium submicrotubes were single crystalline in nature and [0 0 1] oriented. A possible growth mechanism of the selenium submicrotubes was proposed. The effects of the experimental conditions, such as alkaline concentration and solvent properties, on the morphology and dimension of the products have also been discussed

  18. Effect of dietary sodium selenite, Se-enriched yeast and Se-enriched Chlorella on egg Se concentration, physical parameters of eggs and laying hen production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Šimáně, J.; Dlouhá, G.; Doucha, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 163-167 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sodium selenite * se-yeast * se-chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.421, year: 2006

  19. Carbon Balance in an Olive Orchard of SE Spain: Influence of Weed Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Chamizo, S.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Lopez-Ballesteros, A.; Vicente-Vicente, J. L.; Kowalski, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is largely responsible for greenhouse gas emissions due to deforestation, land use changes and inadequate practices. High carbon (C) losses in agricultural lands caused by inadequate soil management entail a reduction of their C sequestration capacity and make agriculture more vulnerable to climate change impact. However, this trend can be potentially reversed if adequate agricultural practices are applied. Olive trees are one of the most widespread crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Spain. Due to climate characteristics of the Mediterranean region and soils characterized by poor structure and low organic matter content, these crops are subject to environmental problems including erosion, soil compaction, and the loss of soil fertility that, indeed, can be aggravated by conventional practices such as intensive tillage. No-till agriculture and maintenance of the spontaneous resident vegetation cover (hereinafter, "weeds") have been applied in olive orchards in order to reduce erosion and increase soil organic C content. However, the role of these conservation practices in C balance at ecosystem scale has not been assessed so far. In this study, we analyzed the influence of weeds against weed removal via herbicide application on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in an olive orchard in Jaén (SE Spain), by using two eddy covariance towers during the hydrological year 2014-2015. We found that the presence of weeds increased net C uptake during winter and early spring. However, after weeds were mowed in April and kept on the soil, net C uptake decreased in this treatment due to an increase in soil respiration. Despite the lower net C uptake observed during late spring, the presence of weeds increased C fixation at annual scale. During the year of study, the weed removal practice decreased C uptake by 50% compared to the olive orchard where weeds were kept. We conclude that maintenance of weeds in olive groves has a positive effect on CO2

  20. PbSe Quantum Well VECSEL on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers in the wavelength region from 3-5 μm are presented. They are based on PbSe quantum wells grown on Si substrates. As host material Pb1-xEuxSe and Pb1-xSrxSe are used. With Pb1-xSrxSe as host material maximum operation temperatures of 325 K are achieved, while with Pb1-xEuxSe an operation temperature of 245 K could not be overcome. This may be explained by a band alignment transition from type I to type II with increasing temperature.

  1. ARPES study on Bi2Se3 and BiSbTe1.25Se1.75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, H.; Mishra, P.; Majhi, K.; Banerjee, A.; Yadav, A. K.; Ganesan, R.; Kumar, P. S. Anil; Sekhar, B. R.

    2017-05-01

    We present a comparative angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) study on Bi2Se3 and BiSbTe1.25Se1.75. Dirac like surface state bands (SSB) and effects of band bending (BB) are observed in both the compounds. The BB effects are more pronounced in BiSbTe1.25Se1.75 in comparison to Bi2Se3.

  2. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  3. Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, Anil O.; Fan, Zhaochuan; Goris, Bart; Li, Wun Fan; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Casavola, Marianna; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we show a novel solid-solid-vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  4. Atomic Resolution Monitoring of Cation Exchange in CdSe-PbSe Heteronanocrystals during Epitaxial Solid?Solid?Vapor Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, A.O.; Fan, Z.; Goris, B.; Li, W.F.; Koster, R.S.; Fang, C.M.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Casavola, M.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Bals, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Van Huis, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we show a novel solid?solid?vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  5. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  6. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Meier

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10% of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR. This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1; salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3 and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion. Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  7. Resonant tunneling transport in ZnxBe1-xSe/ZnSe/ZnyBe1-ySe asymmetric quantum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkeli, Vadim P.; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Al-Daffaie, Shihab; Oprea, Ion; Ong, Duu Sheng; Küppers, Franko; Hartnagel, Hans L.

    2017-05-01

    II-VI compounds are promising materials for the fabrication of room-temperature terahertz devices due to their beneficial properties like as type-I conduction band alignment, high breakdown field strength ( 331 kV/cm for ZnSe vs. 80 kV/cm for GaAs), and higher values of the conduction band offset (1.5 eV for BeSe/ZnSe vs. 0.7 eV for AlAs/GaAs). In this paper we report on numerical study of the resonant tunneling transport in ZnBeSe/ZnSe/ZnBeSe symmetric and asymmetric resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs). The negative differential resistance feature is observed in the current-voltage characteristics of the ZnSe-based RTDs. It is found that the maximum of peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the current density is equal to 6.025 and 7.144 at 150 K, and to 1.120 and 1.105 at 300 K for the symmetric and asymmetric RTDs, respectively. The effect of barrier heights on the frequency and output power performance of RTD devices are studied and discussed.

  8. Investigation of biocompatible and protein sensitive highly luminescent quantum dots/nanocrystals of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2017-05-01

    The size and shape dependent semiconductor quantum dots (0D nanoparticles) with color tunability demonstrating significant influence in a biological system and considered as ideal probes. Here, a non-coordinated colloidal approach was used for the synthesis of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm. The synthesized nanocrystals show a high crystallinity, examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The core-shell semiconductor QDs exhibit stronger photoluminescence (PL) as compared to the core QDs. The strong PL with small full-width half maximum (FWHM) indicates that the prepared QDs have a nearly uniform size distribution and well dispersibility. The quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases due to the surface passivation. Further, the PL of BSA is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shell QDs and follows the well-known Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the PL lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among CdSe core, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity and most biocompatibility. Thus, the prepared core-shell QDs are biocompatible and exhibit strong sensing ability.

  9. Complexing in (NH4)2SeO4-UO2SeO4 H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    Isotherm of solubility in the (NH 4 ) 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system has been constructed at 25 deg C. (NH 4 ) 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x6H 2 O formation is established for the first time and certain its physicochemical properties are determined. Regularities of complexing in the R 2 Se) 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O systems, where R-univalent cation are under discussion. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Presymptomatic diagnosis with MRI and adequate treatment ameliorate the outcome after natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eLindå

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Tysabri® is a monoclonal antibody that prevents inflammatory cells from binding to brain endothelial cells and passing into the brain parenchyma. Natalizumab is a highly effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is an opportunistic brain JC virus infection that has been shown to be associated with natalizumab treatment. We describe PML in a patient with MS after 44 monthly infusions of natalizumab. With the aid of a routine MRI scan, PML was detected before any unambiguous clinical manifestations had emerged. PML was treated with plasma exchange to accelerate removal of natalizumab. Mirtazapine and mefloquine was promptly added and approximately one month after plasma exchange, when an immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome (IRIS appeared, steroid treatment was initiated. Steroid treatment was then continued until no virus could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favourable. We believe that this case clearly illustrates the importance of an early, presymptomatic, detection of PML and an adequate treatment. We also propose that surveillance with MRI scans, every 3 months after 24 months of treatment, should be performed in JC virus antibody positive natalizumab-treated MS patients in order to detect PML in an early phase.

  11. An analysis of survey reporting in the imaging professions: Is the issue of non-response bias being adequately addressed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Emily F.; Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surveys are a common method of data collection within health service research. An essential aspect of reporting survey research is ensuring that sufficient information is provided to enable readers to determine the validity and representativeness of research findings. Method: This study reports a secondary analysis of survey research published in Radiography and Clinical Radiology between 2001 and 2010. The purpose of the study was to evaluate trends in response rates and establish how non-response bias was being addressed. Results: Analysis of non-response bias was undertaken in 9.4% (n = 9/96) of studies. Where analysis was performed, strong reliance on demographic characteristics to determine sample representativeness was noted (n = 8/9; 88.9%). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that non-response bias is not being adequately addressed within published imaging related survey research and more needs to be done to encourage a rigorous approach to the analysis and reporting of survey results

  12. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles; Zeitaufgeloeste Messungen an CdSe Nanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-06-06

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S{sub e} was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S{sub 3/2}-1S-e and 1P{sub 3/2}-1P{sub e} but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S{sub 3/2}-1S{sub e} were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S{sub e} and 1P{sub e}. The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation

  13. SeP, ApoER2 and megalin as necessary factors to maintain Se homeostasis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Magdalena Beata; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    Selenoprotein P (SeP) is an extracellular protein containing ten selenium atoms in the form of selenocysteine, secreted mainly from the liver. About 60% of the whole plasma selenium level is present in SeP, which makes it a useful biomarker of selenium nutritional status. The main functions of SeP are transport and storage of selenium in plasma. It is especially an important protein for the brain, testes and kidneys where the supplementation of the proper amount of Se ensures the synthesis of selenoenzymes with antioxidant properties.Recently, it has been found that SeP uptake in kidneys, testes and brain depends on the apolipoprotein receptor 2 (ApoER2) and lipoprotein megalin receptor (Lrp2). Megalin receptor represents a physiological SeP receptor in kidneys, mediating the re-uptake of secreted SeP from the primary urine. The absence of a functional megalin receptor causes a significant reduction of plasma selenium and the SeP levels as a result of Se excretion. ApoER2 is a SeP receptor in the brain and testes which uptakes Se from the extracellular fluid. Deletion of ApoER2 in mice leads to a lowered selenium level in the brain and testes, neurological dysfunction, production of abnormal spermatozoa, infertility and even death when the subjects are fed a low-selenium diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Absorption and initial metabolism of 75Se-l-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosse Ruse, Mareile; Søndergaard, Lasse R.; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Selenomethionine (SeMet) is an important organic nutritional source of Se, but the uptake and metabolism of SeMet are poorly characterised in humans. Dynamic gamma camera images of the abdominal region were acquired from eight healthy young men after the ingestion of radioactive 75Se-l-SeMet (75S...... variables for quantifying reduced intestinal absorption capacity or liver function.......-SeMet). Scanning started simultaneously to the ingestion of 75Se-SeMet and lasted 120 min. We generated time-activity curves from two-dimensional regions of interest in the stomach, small intestine and liver. During scanning, blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals to generate plasma time-activity curves....... A four-compartment model, augmented with a delay between the liver and plasma, was fitted to individual participants’ data. The mean rate constant for 75Se-SeMet transport was 2·63 h–1 from the stomach to the small intestine, 13·2 h–1 from the small intestine to the liver, 0·261 h–1 from the liver...

  15. Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Yamaguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles.

  16. Synthesis of dextran/Se nanocomposites for nanomedicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuhua; Wang Xiufang; Xie Anjian; Huang Lachun; Zhu Jinmiao; Chen Long

    2008-01-01

    In this study, spherical Se nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of aqueous selenious acid with ice bath through a simple, conventional, and one-step method without the aid of any surfactant, or template. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Zeta potential, respectively. The results show the Se nanoparticles have good particle dispersion with the average diameters of 36 nm and are amorphous (α-Se). Tablets A and B containing dextran and Se nanoparticles were synthesized with different preparation methods. Se nanoparticles studded equably in the interior and the surface of the tablets, and there are strong interactions between Se and dextran. The release of Se from tablets is investigated in the simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. It is found that the pH environment and different synthetical methods have significant influence on the release rate of Se. The release mechanism of Se nanoparticles is also discussed. The nanocomposites can be applied in controlled releasing of Se nanomedicine

  17. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics; Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this testing is to determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. This project will evaluate the ability of coated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals. Testing will assess performance of the trivalent chromium coatings against the known control hexavalent chromium MIL-DTL-5541 Type I Class 3 before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings.

  18. RNA adducts with Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 - Stability and structural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Montazeri, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Selenium compounds are widely available in dietary supplements and have been extensively studied for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Low blood Se levels were found to be associated with an increased incidence and mortality from various types of cancers. Although many in vivo and clinical trials have been conducted using these compounds, their biochemical and chemical mechanisms of efficacy are the focus of much current research. This study was designed to examine the interaction of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant RNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various sodium selenate and sodium selenite/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared, UV-Visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the drug binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 bind to the major and minor grooves of RNA ( via G, A and U bases) with some degree of the Se-phosphate (PO 2) interaction for both compounds with overall binding constants of K(Na 2SeO 4-RNA) = 8.34 × 10 3 and K(Na 2SeO 3-RNA) = 4.57 × 10 3 M -1. The order of selenium salts-biopolymer stability was Na 2SeO 4-RNA > Na 2SeO 3-RNA. RNA aggregations occurred at higher selenium concentrations. No biopolymer conformational changes were observed upon Na 2SeO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 interactions, while RNA remains in the A-family structure.

  19. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  2. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  3. Emission variation in infrared (CdSeTe)/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Gómez, J. A.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Douda, J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering investigations of infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 800 nm (1.60 eV) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to the anti-papilloma virus antibodies (Ab). The Raman scattering study has shown that the CdSeTe core includes two layers with different material compositions such as: CdSe0.5Te0.5 and CdSe0.7Te0.3. PL spectra of nonconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs are characterized by two Gaussian shape PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSeTe core and in intermediate layer at the core/shell interface. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the main PL band related to the core emission shifts into high energy and become asymmetric. The energy diagram of double core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been analyzed to explain the PL spectrum of nonconjugated QDs and its transformation at the bioconjugation to the papiloma virus antibodies. It is shown that the PL spectrum transformation in bioconjugated QDs can be a powerful technique for biology and medicine.

  4. Emission variation in infrared (CdSeTe)/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo Gómez, J.A. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L., E-mail: jlcasas@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07738, México (Mexico); Douda, J. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. 07320, México (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    The paper presents the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering investigations of infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 800 nm (1.60 eV) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to the anti-papilloma virus antibodies (Ab). The Raman scattering study has shown that the CdSeTe core includes two layers with different material compositions such as: CdSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} and CdSe{sub 0.7}Te{sub 0.3}. PL spectra of nonconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs are characterized by two Gaussian shape PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSeTe core and in intermediate layer at the core/shell interface. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the main PL band related to the core emission shifts into high energy and become asymmetric. The energy diagram of double core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been analyzed to explain the PL spectrum of nonconjugated QDs and its transformation at the bioconjugation to the papiloma virus antibodies. It is shown that the PL spectrum transformation in bioconjugated QDs can be a powerful technique for biology and medicine.

  5. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  6. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of SeO-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.V.; Snodgrass, J.T.; Freidhoff, C.B.; McHugh, K.M.; Bowen, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) involves a kinetic energy analysis of electrons which are photodetached when a mass selected beam of negative ions is crossed with a fixed frequency laser beam. The photodetachment spectra of SeO - displays transitions from the X 2 PI state of SeO - to both the X 3 Σ - and a 1 Δ states of SeO. The singlet-triplet splitting of SeO is readily observable since selection rules regarding spin do not apply in the bound to free state process of photodetachment. The electron affinity of SeO and the negative ion potential parameters of SeO - have been determined

  7. PySE: Software for extracting sources from radio images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D.; Garsden, H.; Spreeuw, H.; Swinbank, J. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Broderick, J. W.; Rol, E.; Law, C.; Molenaar, G.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2018-04-01

    PySE is a Python software package for finding and measuring sources in radio telescope images. The software was designed to detect sources in the LOFAR telescope images, but can be used with images from other radio telescopes as well. We introduce the LOFAR Telescope, the context within which PySE was developed, the design of PySE, and describe how it is used. Detailed experiments on the validation and testing of PySE are then presented, along with results of performance testing. We discuss some of the current issues with the algorithms implemented in PySE and their interaction with LOFAR images, concluding with the current status of PySE and its future development.

  8. Are trainee teachers being adequately prepared to promote the health and well-being of school children? A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Sue; Pickett, Karen; Speller, Viv; Shepherd, Jonathan; Byrne, Jenny; Almond, Palo; Grace, Marcus; Hartwell, Debbie; Roderick, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Teachers are a key part of the wider public health workforce in England. We conducted a survey to find out how they are trained for this role during their initial teacher education (ITE). Between 2011 and 2012, we sent an online questionnaire to 220 ITE course managers and conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 19 course managers to explore issues in more depth. The response rate to the questionnaire was 34% (n = 74). Although most of the course managers felt inclusion of health and well-being training in ITE was important, provision across courses was variable. Topics which are public health priorities [e.g. sex and relationships education (SRE) and drugs, alcohol and tobacco] were covered by fewer courses than other topics (e.g. child protection, emotional health and anti-bullying). Perceived barriers to training included lack of time and a belief that health and well-being were low priorities in educational policy. Not all of tomorrow's teachers are being adequately prepared for their role in helping to address public health priorities. Educational policy does not appear to be supporting the priorities of public health policy, and this is a key barrier to health promotion training in ITE. Keywords children, educational settings, health promotion. © Crown copyright 2013.

  9. Predictors of and health- and fall-related program outcomes resulting from complete and adequate doses of a fall risk reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Durbin, Laura L; Hertzberg, Fern; Nobile-Hernandez, Diana; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-06-01

    Falls are dangerous and costly for older adults. The A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader (AMOB/VLL) program is an evidence-based fall risk reduction program that could help reduce this burden. This study introduced a door-through-door transportation program to improve program delivery (N = 126). Characteristics predicting completion of all eight AMOB/VLL sessions were identified using logistic regression. Individual growth models were employed to determine the immediate, intermediate, and long-term goal outcomes resulting from receiving an adequate dose of the program (five to eight sessions). Self-restriction of activities due to fear of falling (OR 5.04, 95 % CI 1.86-13.69) and a lower frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27) were significantly predictive of receiving a complete dose. Three outcome goals were significant, including (1) immediate-improved self-efficacy of managing medications and treatments, (2) intermediate-reduced activity limitations, and (3) intermediate-reduced physical disability. Self-restriction of activities due to a fear of falling and physical activity levels may be simple and effective screening questions to prevent AMOB/VLL attrition. In our study, those who did receive the program improved on a specific type of self-efficacy and on self-reported physical functioning.

  10. SeRLoc: Robust Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, Loukas; Poovendran, Radha

    2005-01-01

    .... We show that SeRLoc is robust against known attacks on WSNs such as the wormhole attack, the Sybil attack, and compromise of network entities and analytically compute the probability of success for each attack. We also compare the performance of SeRLoc with state-of-the-art range-independent localization schemes and show that SeRLoc has better performance.

  11. Electrical conduction mechanism in GeSeSb chalcogenide glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    number of GeSe2 units are present in a three-dimensionally connected network of GexSe1−x. The addition of antimony to GeSe chalcogenides leads to a considerable reconstruction of the glass structure because of the change in the structural units that form a continuous network. Here Sb enters in the system at the cost of ...

  12. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, M; Budkin, G; Reznitsky, A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings. (paper)

  13. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, M.; Budkin, G.; Reznitsky, A.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings.

  14. Comparision effect of adequate intraoperative fluid therapy with dexamethasone on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after general surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shahinfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background and aim: Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common and unpleasant side effects of surgery and anesthesia, which causes spasms, aspiration, need more medicine. The researchers express several drugs and methods to reduce transmission of its complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fluid therapy on nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. Methods: In this double blind clinical trial study, 120 patients 15-60 years undergoing general participated in Bojnurd. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received adequate intra-operative fluid therapy. Group 2 received pharmacological intervention with dexamethasone 0.1 mg per kg of body weight along with induction of anesthesia- and group 3 - without prophylactic intervention-. The research tools included demographic, visual analogue scale and recorded the number of vomiting. The visual analog scale was used to assess the severity of nausea. In order to assess the severity of vomiting, frequency count was considered as retch or vomit. The scientific validity of content validity was used for data collection. For reliability, the correlation coefficient was used. Based on self-reporting scale, the severity and incidence of nausea and vomiting were evaluated in three stages- post-op, 2 and 6 hours post-op - the data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Result showed that the three groups were homogeneous in terms of confounding variables. According one-way ANOVA, the difference between severity and incidence of nausea and vomiting was significantly different among the three groups in the recovery phase. So that based on post hoc test, the difference between the control and fluid therapy with dexamethasone group was significant, and both dexamethasone and fluid therapy had no significant differences in terms of these variables together. Based on the findings the incidence of vomiting was relatively low over time. Conclusion

  15. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  16. Undergraduate medical textbooks do not provide adequate information on intravenous fluid therapy: a systematic survey and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Arfon G M T; Paterson-Brown, Simon; Drummond, Gordon B

    2014-02-20

    Inappropriate prescribing of intravenous (IV) fluid, particularly 0.9% sodium chloride, causes post-operative complications. Fluid prescription is often left to junior medical staff and is frequently poorly managed. One reason for poor intravenous fluid prescribing practices could be inadequate coverage of this topic in the textbooks that are used. We formulated a comprehensive set of topics, related to important common clinical situations involving IV fluid therapy, (routine fluid replacement, fluid loss, fluids overload) to assess the adequacy of textbooks in common use. We assessed 29 medical textbooks widely available to students in the UK, scoring the presence of information provided by each book on each of the topics. The scores indicated how fully the topics were considered: not at all, partly, and adequately. No attempt was made to judge the quality of the information, because there is no consensus on these topics. The maximum score that a book could achieve was 52. Three of the topics we chose were not considered by any of the books. Discounting these topics as "too esoteric", the maximum possible score became 46. One textbook gained a score of 45, but the general score was poor (median 11, quartiles 4, 21). In particular, coverage of routine postoperative management was inadequate. Textbooks for undergraduates cover the topic of intravenous therapy badly, which may partly explain the poor knowledge and performance of junior doctors in this important field. Systematic revision of current textbooks might improve knowledge and practice by junior doctors. Careful definition of the remit and content of textbooks should be applied more widely to ensure quality and "fitness for purpose", and avoid omission of vital knowledge.

  17. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

  18. Twice-monthly administration of a lower dose of epoetin beta pegol can maintain adequate hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikami, Yuki; Fujimori, Akira; Okada, Shioko; Kumei, Mai; Mizobuchi, Noriko; Sakai, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Epoetin beta pegol is a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) with a long half-life. Although CERA has been shown to maintain adequate hemoglobin (Hb) levels at prolonged dosing intervals, the optimal dosing schedule remains unclear. We therefore compared the efficacy of maintaining hemoglobin levels with administration of twice-monthly CERA (TWICE) versus once-monthly CERA (ONCE). Twenty hemodialysis patients receiving epoetin beta (EPO) were enrolled in this crossover study. Patients were assigned to either the TWICE or the ONCE group based on matching Hb levels and EPO doses. After 6 months of treatment, the CERA dosage was interchanged between the groups and the study was continued for an additional 6 months. The effect of the different regimens on iron metabolism was also assessed during the first 6 months of the study. Hb levels significantly increased in the TWICE group, allowing for a reduction in CERA dosage, while the dose of CERA required to maintain Hb levels in the ONCE group remained unchanged. After the interchange, a decrease in Hb levels with incremental increase in CERA dosage was observed in the TWICE→ONCE group, with the opposite effect observed in the ONCE→TWICE group. Although increases in ferritin and hepcidin-25 levels in the ONCE group were noted at one month, they disappeared at 6 months. Although Hb levels were maintained in both the ONCE and TWICE groups, a twice-monthly administration was advantageous, as it required a lower dose of CERA. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  19. Defects and oxidation resilience in InSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, K. J.; Carvalho, A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2017-08-01

    We use density functional theory to study intrinsic defects and oxygen related defects in indium selenide. We find that InSe is prone to oxidation, but however not reacting with oxygen as strongly as phosphorene. The dominant intrinsic defects in In-rich material are the In interstitial, a shallow donor, and the Se vacancy, which introduces deep traps. The latter can be passivated by oxygen, which is isoelectronic with Se. The dominant intrinsic defects in Se-rich material have comparatively higher formation energies.

  20. Structural characterizations of As-Se-Te glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaizir, G., E-mail: delaizir@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Dussauze, M. [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Nazabal, V. [Equipe ' Verres et Ceramiques' , UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Lecante, P.; Dolle, M.; Rozier, P. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Kamitsos, E.I. [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Jovari, P. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Bureau, B. [Equipe ' Verres et Ceramiques' , UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > First-neighbor Te-Te bonds are unlikely. > Te is homogeneously distributed in the glassy network. > The formation of mixed structural units AsSe{sub 3-x}Te{sub x} is confirmed. - Abstract: The atomic structure of chalcogenide glasses As{sub 3}Se{sub 7-x}Te{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 3) and As{sub 2}Se{sub 3-x}Te{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 2.5) has been investigated by different methods. Short-range order has been studied by Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS). {sup 77}Se NMR as well as Raman and infrared measurements were also performed on the different compositions. We show that the progressive introduction of tellurium in As{sub 3}Se{sub 7-x}Te{sub x} or As{sub 2}Se{sub 3-x}Te{sub x} induces breaking of Se-Se bonds and the formation of AsSe{sub 3-x}Te{sub x} pyramidal units. Experimental data also reveal the absence of Te-Te bonds even in the tellurium richest composition which let suppose a homogeneous repartition of tellurium atoms in the glassy network.

  1. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  2. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  3. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  4. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD.

  5. Stable and metastable equilibria in PbSe + SnI2=SnSe + PbI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Demidova, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    T-x-y phase diagrams of the PbSe + SnI 2 =SnSe + PbI 2 mutual system (stable states) are plotted for the first time. It is shown that melt, solid solutions on the base of components of the mutual system and phase on the base of Sn 2 SeI 4 take part in phase equilibria. Transformations in the PbSe + SnI 2 =SnSe + PbI 2 mutual system leading to crystallization of metastable polytype modifications of lead iodides and metastable ternary compound forming in PbSe-PbI 2 system are investigated for the first time [ru

  6. CdSe quantum dot in vertical ZnSe nanowire and photonic wire for efficient single-photon emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremel, Thibault; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Cagnon, Laurent

    We’ve recently demonstrated that a CdSe quantum dot (QD) in a ZnSe nanowire (NW) can emit triggered single photons up to room temperature [1]. In this contribution, we present the possibilities of enhancing the photon emission and collection in such NW-QDs structures for a realistic application...... as a single photon source. We have grown vertically oriented ZnSe NWs (with typical diameter of 10 nm) by molecular beam epitaxy on a ZnSe(111)B buffer layer. The growth of a ZnMgSe passivating shell increases the (otherwise weak) ZnSe near-band-edge luminescence by two orders of magnitude. This has allowed...

  7. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, Tyvin A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course will give an overview of the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies in the upper abdomen, with an emphasis on carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas and biliary tract. For each site, information will be presented related to failure patterns with conventional surgical treatment and the indications for surgery for different stages of disease. The possible uses of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection will be discussed as well as the use of radiation therapy alone. In addition, the combination of radiation therapy with chemotherapy will be discussed for each of these sites, as well as the information available at present as to the optimal way to combine chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is not generally accepted to have a role in the treatment of patients with adenocarcinomas of the stomach. This is related to the fact that gastric cancer has been standardly treated with surgical resection alone, and delivery of high dose radiation therapy to the upper abdomen can be difficult because of the sensitivity of nearby normal tissues. Nonetheless, data on failure patterns suggest that local recurrence is common in patients with disease through the gastric wall and with positive nodes. Although there is some suggestive data to indicate that radiation therapy is effective as an adjuvant, results of an ongoing trial will be necessary for determination of the exact role of radiation therapy. Possible uses of radiation therapy as preoperative therapy or given alone will also be briefly discussed. Radiation therapy has been often used in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, either alone or combined with surgical resection. Its use is more common for this site both because of the extremely poor prognosis of standard therapies, and because of the difficulty in performing an adequate surgical resection. Data will be reviewed suggesting that radiation therapy has a role when

  8. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepper, Joel E.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This course will give an overview of the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies in the upper abdomen, with an emphasis on carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas and biliary tract. For each site, information will be presented related to failure patterns with conventional surgical treatment and the indications for surgery for different stages of disease. The possible uses of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection will be discussed as well as the use of radiation therapy alone. In addition, the combination of radiation therapy with chemotherapy will be discussed for each of these sites, as well as the information available at present as to the optimal way to combine chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is not generally accepted to have a role in the treatment of patients with adenocarcinomas of the stomach. This is related to the fact that gastric cancer has been standardly treated with surgical resection alone, and delivery of high dose radiation therapy to the upper abdomen can be difficult because of the sensitivity of nearby normal tissues. Nonetheless, data on failure patterns suggest that local recurrence is common in patients with disease through the gastric wall and with positive nodes. Although there is some suggestive data to indicate that radiation therapy is effective as an adjuvant, results of an ongoing trial will be necessary for determination of the exact role of radiation therapy. Possible uses of radiation therapy as preoperative therapy or given alone will also be briefly discussed. Radiation therapy has been often used in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, either alone or combined with surgical resection. Its use is more common for this site both because of the extremely poor prognosis of standard therapies, and because of the difficulty in performing an adequate surgical resection. Data will be reviewed suggesting that radiation therapy has a role when

  9. Electronic structure and superconductivity of FeSe-related superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; He, Junfeng; Liu, Defa; Mou, Daixiang; Shen, Bing; Hu, Yong; Huang, Jianwei; Zhou, X J

    2015-05-13

    FeSe superconductors and their related systems have attracted much attention in the study of iron-based superconductors owing to their simple crystal structure and peculiar electronic and physical properties. The bulk FeSe superconductor has a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of ~8 K and it can be dramatically enhanced to 37 K at high pressure. On the other hand, its cousin system, FeTe, possesses a unique antiferromagnetic ground state but is non-superconducting. Substitution of Se with Te in the FeSe superconductor results in an enhancement of Tc up to 14.5 K and superconductivity can persist over a large composition range in the Fe(Se,Te) system. Intercalation of the FeSe superconductor leads to the discovery of the AxFe2-ySe2 (A = K, Cs and Tl) system that exhibits a Tc higher than 30 K and a unique electronic structure of the superconducting phase. A recent report of possible high temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films with a Tc above 65 K has generated much excitement in the community. This pioneering work opens a door for interface superconductivity to explore for high Tc superconductors. The distinct electronic structure and superconducting gap, layer-dependent behavior and insulator-superconductor transition of the FeSe/SrTiO3 films provide critical information in understanding the superconductivity mechanism of iron-based superconductors. In this paper, we present a brief review of the investigation of the electronic structure and superconductivity of the FeSe superconductor and related systems, with a particular focus on the FeSe films.

  10. 79Se: geochemical and crystallo-chemical retardation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    79 Se is a long-lived (1.1 x 10 6 yrs) fission product which is chemically and radiologically toxic. Under Eh-pH conditions typical of oxidative alteration of spent nuclear fuel, selenite, SeO 3 2- or HSeO 3 - or selenate, SeO 4 2- , are the dominant aqueous species of selenium. Because of the high solubility of metal-selenites and metal-selenates and the low adsorption of selenite and selenate aqueous species by geological materials under alkaline conditions, selenium may be highly mobile. However, 79 Se released from altered fuel may become immobilized by incorporation into secondary uranyl phases as low concentration impurities, and this may significantly reduce the mobility of selenium. Analysis and comparison of the known structures of uranyl phases indicate that (SeO 3 ) may substitute for (SiO 3 OH) in structures of α-uranophane and boltwoodite that are expected to be the dominant alteration products of UO 2 in Si-rich groundwater. The substitutions (SeO 3 ) (SiO 3 OH) in sklodowskite, Mg[(UO 2 )(SiO 3 OH)] 2 (H 2 O) 6 and (SeO 3 ) (PO 4 ) in phurcalite, Ca 2 [(UO 2 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 O 2 ](H 2 O) 7 , may occur with the eliminated apical anion being substituted for by an H 2 O group, but experimental investigation is required. The close similarity between the sheets in the structures of rutherfordine, [(UO 2 )(CO 3 )] and [(UO 2 )(SeO 3 )] implies that the substitution (SeO 3 ) (CO 3 ) can occur in rutherfordine, and possibly other uranyl carbonates. However, the substitutions: (SeO 3 ) (SiO 4 ) in soddyite and (SeO 3 ) (PO 4 ) in phosphuranylite may disrupt their structural connectivity and are, therefore, unlikely. (orig.)

  11. The MgSeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The method of isothermal solubility at 25 deg C has been used to study MgSeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system. Formation of the new compound Mg 2 (UO 2 ) 3 (SeO 4 ) 5 X32H 2 O, congruently soluble in water is stated. Thermographic and X-ray diffraction investigations of the prepared magnesium selenato-uranylate and products of its dehydration are conducted

  12. Ab initio phonon thermal transport in monolayer InSe, GaSe, GaS, and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tribhuwan; Parker, David S.; Lindsay, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    We compare vibrational properties and phonon thermal conductivities (κ) of monolayer InSe, GaSe, and GaS systems using density functional theory and Peierls-Boltzmann transport methods. In going from InSe to GaSe to GaS, system mass decreases giving both increasing acoustic phonon velocities and decreasing scattering of these heat-carrying modes with optic phonons, ultimately giving {κ }{InSe}conservation conditions with mode scattering rates and phonon dispersions for each material. We also show that, unlike flat monolayer systems such as graphene, in InSe, GaSe and GaS thermal transport is governed by in-plane vibrations. Alloying of InSe, GaSe, and GaS systems provides an effective method for modulating their κ through intrinsic vibrational modifications and phonon scattering from mass disorder giving reductions ˜2-3.5 times. This disorder also suppresses phonon mean free paths in the alloy systems compared to those in their crystalline counterparts. This work provides fundamental insights of lattice thermal transport from basic vibrational properties for an interesting set of two-dimensional materials.

  13. Complexing in K2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Kuchumova, N.V.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Complexing in K 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system was studied by the method of isothermal solubility at 25 deg C. Congruently soluble K 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 )2·4H 2 O (1) and incongruently soluble K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 )3·6H 2 O (2) compounds were revealed in the system. It is shown that (1) and (2) complexes are the representatives of crystallochemical AB 2 2 M 1 and A 2 T 3 3 M 1 groups of uranyl complexes respectively

  14. n-type doping and passivation of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 by hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Çetin; Zunger, Alex

    2003-08-01

    An impurity in a semiconductor can have either amphoteric behavior (no net production of electron or holes), or be an energetically deep center (carriers produced only at high temperature), or a shallow center (carriers produced even at low temperature). In most semiconductors (e.g., Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, and ZnSe) hydrogen impurities do not produce free carriers, being instead an amphoretic center; yet hydrogen does dope n-type some oxides such as SnO2 and ZnO. We studied theoretically whether or not H could dope chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 compounds, CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2. Based on the first-principles calculations, we find that nonsubstitutionally incorporated hydrogen forms a deep donor in CuGaSe2, but a relatively shallow donor in CuInSe2. The interaction of hydrogen with the abundant defect complex (2VCu+InCu)0 yields an even shallower donor, making CuInSe2 n type. In addition, our results show that hydrogen passivates the acceptorlike copper vacancies in both CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2, thus eliminating p type behavior. These findings, in conjunction with typical conditions under which CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 are grown, indicate that CuInSe2 could be doped n type via hydrogen incorporation, whereas CuGaSe2 could not. The reason for the different behavior of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 towards hydrogen is that in the latter case the conduction-band minimum is at a considerably higher energy than in the former case. Despite this difference in electrical properties, it is predicted that hydrogen can be stored in both CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 via implantation since the implanted hydrogens decorate copper atoms as well as preexisting copper vacancies.

  15. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3-PbI2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Gao; Liu Cunming; Luo Lan; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of new selenium-based GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses have been measured using the optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique, with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses. The 0.70GeSe 2 -0.15Ga 2 Se 3 -0.15PbI 2 glass has the largest third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility in GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glass system with χ (3) of 5.28x10 12 esu. In addition, the response time of glasses is sub-picosecond, which is predominantly associated with electron cloud. Local structure of the glasses has been identified by using Raman studies, while the origins of the observed nonlinear optical response are discussed. The [Ge(Ga)Se 4 ] tetrahedral and lone-pair electrons from highly polarizable Pb atom in glasses play an important role in enhanced NLO response. These results as well as their good chemical stability indicate that GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses are promising materials for photonic applications of third-order nonlinear optical signal processing.

  16. Dynamical properties and their strain-dependence of ZnSe(ZnSe:N: Zinc-blende and wurtzite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The lattice dynamical properties of ZnSe and ZnSe with substitutional N incorporation(ZnSe:N are investigated in both the zinc-blend(ZB and wurtzite(WZ structures using first-principles calculations. The optical phonon modes of ZB-ZnSe at the Γ-point locate at 250 cm−1 for LO and 213 cm−1 for TO. The characteristic E2 phonon modes at about 50 cm−1 and the E1 and another E2 phonon modes around 200 cm−1 of WZ-ZnSe are suggested to be the fingerprint for distinguishing the two polytypes of ZnSe. For substitutional N incorporated ZnSe, the N incorporation introduces three new high energy modes above 500 cm−1, and the splitting of them is much larger in the WZ phase than that in ZB phase. The strain dependence of phonon frequency which could be useful for corresponding spectroscopic strain characterization are also studied. The simple linear dependence is determined for ZB-ZnSe, while the situation for WZ-ZnSe looks more complicated.

  17. Formation of ZnSe/Bi2Se3 QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhi Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi2Se3 quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi2Se3 shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  18. Heterojunctions formed by annealing of GaSe and InSe layered crystals in zinc vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrynskyi Z. R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method of creating heterojunc¬tions based on semiconductors with different lattice types. Substrates manufactured from GaSe and InSe layered crystals were annealed in Zn vapor. This way, n-ZnSe–p-GaSe and n-ZnSe–p-InSe heterojunctions were obtained. The obtained heterojunctions are photo¬sensitive in near and infrared spectral regions. This method opens up greate possibilities of producing heterostructures with a desired sensitivity band.

  19. Double-Outlet Right Ventricle With Noncommitted Ventricular Septal Defect and 2 Adequate Ventricles: Is Anatomical Repair Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemain, Olivier; Bonnet, Damien; Houyel, Lucile; Vergnat, Mathieu; Ladouceur, Magalie; Lambert, Virginie; Jalal, Zakaria; Vouhé, Pascal; Belli, Emre

    The management of double-outlet right ventricle associated with anatomically noncommitted ventricular septal defect constitutes a surgical challenge. The limits for, and the specific outcomes after anatomical vs univentricular repair still remain to be established. Between 1993 and 2011, 36 consecutive patients presenting with double-outlet right ventricle or noncommitted ventricular septal defect (21 inlet, 10 muscular, and 5 central perimembranous) and 2 adequately sized ventricles underwent surgical repair at 2 centers. Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 18 of 36 patients (50%). A total of 21 patients had undergone previous palliative procedures. Anatomical repair (group I) by means of intraventricular baffle construction was performed in 24 (associated right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in 12 and arterial switch in 5) at a median age of 10.5 months. Ventricular septal defect was surgically enlarged in 12 (50%) patients. The remaining 12 patients underwent univentricular repair (group II). There were 4 hospital deaths (11%), all in group I (P = 0.30 vs group II). A total of 8 of 20 patients in group I survivors underwent 13 reoperations after a median delay of 24 months: subaortic stenosis was the main cause for reoperation in 6 of 8 patients. There was 1 late death in group I and 2 late deaths in group II. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (95% CI: 0.2-9.8). The 10- year actuarial survival rate and freedom from reoperation were 74.7 ± 5% and 58 ± 5% in group I and 71 ± 7% and 70 ± 7% in group II, respectively. At the last visit, all survivors were in New York Heart Association class I-II. Univariate analysis showed that atrioventricular septal defect and isolated mitral cleft were associated with death (P = 0.04) and need for reoperation (P = 0.038). In conclusion, anatomical repair, associated with substantial rates of mortality and need for reoperation, should be considered with caution. Associated atrioventricular

  20. Low temperature magnetic structure of MnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we report low temperature neutron diffraction studies on MnSe in order to understand the anomalous behaviour of their magnetic and transport prop- erties. Our study indicates that at low temperatures MnSe has two coexisting crystal structures, high temperature NaCl and hexagonal NiAs. NiAs phase ...

  1. ¿Cómo se pueden aplicar los lineamiento curriculares?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Natalia Andrea

    2008-01-01

    La ponencia muestra las características que se deben manejar en las metodologías a aplicar si se quieren aplicar los Lineamientos Curriculares. Identifica sus bases teóricas y la forma de aplicación de cada una de ellas.

  2. Thermoelectric Performance of Na-Doped GeSe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaabani, Laaya; Aminorroaya-Yamini, Sima; Byrnes, Jacob; Akbar Nezhad, Ali; Blake, Graeme R

    2017-01-01

    Recently, hole-doped GeSe materials have been predicted to exhibit extraordinary thermoelectric performance owing largely to extremely low thermal conductivity. However, experimental research on the thermoelectric properties of GeSe has received less attention. Here, we have synthesized

  3. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. Thin films of CdSe were deposited by potentiostatic mode on different substrates such as stainless steel, titanium and fluorine tin–oxide (FTO) coated glass using non-aqueous bath. The preparative parameters were optimized to get good quality CdSe thin films. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction.

  4. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and ...

  5. Preparation and characteristics of nanotetrapods CdSe-polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nanocrystal composition on the photovoltaic properties of hybrid solar cells based on nanotetrapods CdSe/MEH–. PPV were investigated. The power conversion efficiency values initially increased and then decreased, but the V OC values linearly decreased from 1·1 to 0·25 V with increased CdSe nanotetrapod in the blend ...

  6. setswana se ka tsenngwa kgotsa lomaganngwa jang mo thuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kgona sireletsa. le kutlo, dira go tsholwa mo labi motshwarakgamel sang. kgomong, se Go a se go ela gore e Go mosola a kamo, nna tlhoka a bonolo o Go monate. karolo e botlhokwa pono, mo rate, letlotlo go baithuting ya ruta tupelelo Go mme tlholego nna go motho fa leo itse karolo o gonne le e rata a mme leng tatso.

  7. Migration rate of volcanism along the Foundation Chain, SE Pacific.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O Connor, J.M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanism has migrated along the NW-SE-trending Foundation Chain, SE Pacific, at a rate of 91 ± 2 mm/y for the past 21 million years (My). The Foundation Chain is at least 1900 km long, and was erupted mostly in the interior of the Pacific plate. The linear migration of intraplate, often

  8. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  9. Defect Engineering in MoSe2 for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction: From Point Defects to Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Zhou, Dong; Li, Feng; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2017-12-13

    Superior catalytic activity and high chemical stability of inexpensive electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are crucial to the large-scale production of hydrogen from water. The nonprecious two-dimensional MoSe 2 materials emerge as a potential candidate, and the improvement of their catalytic activity depends on the optimization of active reaction sites at both the edges and the basal plane. Herein, the structural stability, electrocatalytic activity, and HER mechanisms on a series of MoSe 2 catalytic structures including of point defects, holes, and edges have been explored by using first-principles calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that thermodynamically stable defects (e.g., V Se , V Se 2 , Se Mo , and V Mo 3 Se 2 ) and edges (e.g., Mo-R and Se-R) in MoSe 2 are very similar to the case of MoS 2 , but their HER activity is higher than that of the corresponding structures in MoS 2 , which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, a Fermi-abundance model is proposed to explain the fundamental correlation between the HER activity of various MoSe 2 catalysts and their intrinsic electronic structures, and this model is also applicable for assessing the HER activity of other types of catalysts, such as MoS 2 and Pt. Moreover, two different HER mechanisms have been revealed in the MoSe 2 catalytic structures: the Volmer-Tafel mechanism is preferred for the V Se and V Se 2 structures, whereas the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism is more favorable for other MoSe 2 catalytic structures. The present work suggests that MoSe 2 with appropriate defects and edges is able to compete against the Pt-based catalysts and also opens a route to design highly active electrocatalysts for the HER.

  10. A Review of SnSe: Growth and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quang; Kim, Jungdae; Cho, Sunglae

    2018-04-01

    SnSe is a 2D semiconductor with an indirect energy gap of 0.86 - 1 eV; it is widely used in solar cell, optoelectronics, and electronic device applications. Recently, SnSe has been considered as a robust candidate for energy conversion applications due to its high thermoelectric performance ( ZT = 2.6 in p-type and 2.2 in n-type), which is assigned mainly to its anhamornic bonding leading to an ultralow thermal conductivity. In this review, we first discuss the crystalline and electronic structures of SnSe and the source of its p-type characteristic. Then, some typical single crystal and polycrystal growth techniques, as well as an epitaxial thin film growth technique, are outlined. The reported thermoelectric properties of SnSe grown by using each technique are also reviewed. Finally, we will describe some remaining issues concerning the use of SnSe for thermoelectric applications.

  11. Immobilization of Se and U by iron sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Ma Bin; Yang Zhuanwei; Liu Chunli; Chen Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Both uranium and selenium are redox-sensitive, and can occur in several oxidation states. In reducing environments, they exist as insoluble forms. Therefore, reductive precipitation is the most effective way to immobilize U and Se. The interaction of aqueous Se (IV) and uranylwithiron sulfidesweresystematically investigated in light of thermodynamic calculations, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results from the speciation study revealed that the reduction product was Se (O) when natural pyrite and pyrrhotitereacted with Se (IV), although FeSe 2 is the thermodynamically predicted product from nearly neural to alkaline conditions. This discrepancy is attributed to the oxidizing ability of Se (IV) towards FeSe 2 , of which produce the insoluble Se (0) as the stable product in short-term experiments. In contrast to the thermodynamic calculations, with a reaction product of mixed U (IV) and U (VI) (e.g., U 3 O 8 ), redox reaction was observed only at pH ∼ 8.5 and ∼ 4.5 for U (VI) reduction by nanosized pyrite and natural pyrite, respectively. We proposed that oxidation of pyrite needs an intermediate (e.g., Fe 2+ ), and the reaction between the uranyl and the intermediate is thermodynamically or kinetically limited. Moreover, trace elements generally held within pyrite structure can also greatly influence its reactivity. This study demonstrated that reaction kinetics play a significant role on the reaction product. From a geological time scale, Se and U are likely to be immobilized by iron sulfides via the form of FeSe 2 and UO 2 . (authors)

  12. Short and medium range structures of 80GeSe2–20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracovschi, Elena; Calvez, Laurent; Cormier, Laurent; Le Coq, David; Du, Jincheng

    2018-05-01

    The short and medium range structures of 80GeSe2–20Ga2Se3 (or Ge23.5Ga11.8Se64.7) chalcogenide glasses have been studied by combining ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and experimental neutron diffraction studies. The structure factor and total correlation function were calculated from glass structures generated from AIMD simulations and compared with neutron diffraction experiments showing reasonable agreement. The atomic structures of ternary chalcogenide glasses were analyzed in detail, and it was found that gallium atoms are four-fold coordinated by selenium (Se) and form [GaSe4] tetrahedra. Germanium atoms on average also have four-fold coordination, among which Se is 3.5 with the remaining being Ge–Ge homo-nuclear bonds. Ga and Ge tetrahedra link together mainly through corner-sharing and some edge-sharing of Se. No homo-nuclear bonds were observed among Ga atoms or between Ge and Ga. In addition, Se–Se homo-nuclear bonds and Se chains with various lengths were observed. A small fraction of Se atom triclusters that bond to three cations of Ge and Ga were also observed, confirming earlier proposals from 77Se solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Furthermore, the electronic structures of ternary chalcogenide glasses were studied in terms of atomic charge and electronic density of states in order to gain insights into the chemical bonding and electronic properties, as well as to provide an explanation of the observed atomic structures in these ternary chalcogenide glasses.

  13. AgSbSe2 and AgSb(S,Se)2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, J.G.; Shaji, S.; Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe 2 ) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ), silver selenide (Ag 2 Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb 2 S 3 thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 , Ag 2 Se from a solution containing AgNO 3 and Na 2 SeSO 3 and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na 2 SeSO 3 , at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10 -3 Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe 2 or AgSb(S,Se) 2 depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe 2 /Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V oc = 435 mV and J sc = 0.08 mA/cm 2 under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe 2 as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  14. Effect of long-term phosphorus fertilization on soil Se and transfer of soil Se to crops in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altansuvd, Javkhlantuya; Nakamaru, Yasuo M; Kasajima, Shinya; Ito, Hirotake; Yoshida, Hozumi

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) fertilizer can potentially serve as a source for Se accumulation in croplands. Furthermore, it has been reported that the addition of P fertilizer to soil may enhance Se availability. Japanese agricultural soils are typically enriched in P as a result of long-term, excessive P fertilization. Therefore, we conducted a three-year field experiment in order to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on the Se content of soils and crops. Potato, wheat and barley were cultivated with and without P fertilization at two field sites in Hokkaido (northern Japan) with different levels of historical P accumulation. The first field site consisted of an Andosol soil with low available P and the second site, a Cambisol soil with high available P. The three years of continuous P fertilization over the course of the experiment did not result in a significant increase in the Se content of soils or plants. The Se content of soils and plants, however, was higher in soil samples from the Cambisol field site than from the Andosol field site, and total soil Se was significantly correlated with available soil P. Soluble soil Se and the soil-plant transfer factor for Se were not affected by P fertilization. Thus, we concluded that the higher plant Se content at the Cambisol field site was primarily due to the higher levels of accumulated Se in the soil at the site and that historical excess P fertilization typical of agricultural soils in Japan contributes to increased Se uptake by crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  16. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  17. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  18. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  19. Superconductivity and spin excitations in orbitally ordered FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Andreas; Mukherjee, Shantanu; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Andersen, B. M.

    We provide a band-structure with low-energy properties consistent with recent photoemission and quantum oscillations measurements on the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, including a mean-field like orbital ordering in the dxz /dyz channel, and show that this model also accounts for the temperature dependence of the measured Knight shift and the spin-relaxation rate. An RPA calculation of the dynamical spin susceptibility yields spin excitations which are peaked at wave vector (π , 0) in the 1-Fe Brillouin zone, with a broad maximum at energies of order a few meV. Furthermore, the superconducting gap structure obtained from spin fluctuation theory exhibits nodes on the electron pockets, consistent with the 'V'-shaped density of states measured by tunneling spectroscopy on this material. The redistribution of spectral weight in the superconducting state creates a (π , 0) ''neutron resonance'' as seen in recent experiments. Comparing to various experimental results, we give predictions for further studies A.K. and B.M.A. acknowledge financial support from a Lundbeckfond fellowship (Grant No. A9318). P.J.H. was partially supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46236.

  20. Superconductivity and spin excitations in orbitally ordered FeSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisel, Andreas; Andersen, Brian M. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Mukherjee, Shantanu [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY (United States); Hirschfeld, Peter J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We provide a band-structure with low-energy properties consistent with recent photoemission and quantum oscillations measurements on the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, including a mean-field like orbital ordering in the d{sub xz}/d{sub yz} channel, and show that this model also accounts for the temperature dependence of the measured Knight shift and the spin-relaxation rate. An RPA calculation of the dynamical spin susceptibility yields spin excitations which are peaked at wave vector (π,0) in the 1-Fe Brillouin zone, with a broad maximum at energies of order a few meV. Furthermore, the superconducting gap structure obtained from spin fluctuation theory exhibits nodes on the electron pockets, consistent with the 'V'-shaped density of states measured by tunneling spectroscopy on this material. The redistribution of spectral weight in the superconducting state creates a (π,0) ''neutron resonance'' as seen in recent experiments. Comparing to various experimental results, we give predictions for further studies.

  1. Influence of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of AgSbSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kader, A. M.; El-Gendy, Y. A.

    2013-06-01

    Amorphous AgSbSe2 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using electron beam evaporation. The effect of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of the deposited AgSbSe2 films was studied in the wavelength range 550-2500 nm. A red shift in the transmission spectra was observed with increasing γ-irradiation dose. The refractive index of the deposited films was determined as a function of γ-dose. It was established that exposure of the deposited films to γ-radiation leads to increased refractive index in the whole spectral region. The refractive index dispersion of the deposited films is adequately described by the single oscillator model, whereby, the values of the oscillator parameters were determined as a function of γ-dose. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of an indirect optical transition with band gap value decreases with increasing γ-dose.

  2. Self-efficacy of physical education teachers in including students with cerebral palsy in their classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Barak, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are often mainstreamed into the general education system, but are likely to be excluded from physical education (PE) classes. A questionnaire was constructed and utilized to measure PE teachers' self-efficacy (SE) toward inclusion of students with CP in each of three mobility categories (independent, using assistive devices, using wheelchair mobility) and the impact of experience and training on teachers' SE. Participants in the study were 121 PE teachers from different parts of Israel (mean age: 41.02±9.33 years; range: 25.00-59.00 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the structure of the sub-scales' factors' structure and Cronbach's Alpha reliability was satisfactory (range 0.872-0.941). Independent t-tests were calculated in order to compare the SE of teachers with and without adapted PE experience. Repeated Analysis of Variance was performed to measure within-group differences in SE. Results revealed that the PE teachers' SE in teaching students who use mobility assistive devices or wheelchairs was significantly lower compared to teaching those who walk and run unaided (F=19.11; pteachers' SE towards including CP children who independently ambulate was influenced (pteacher's experience (elementary school practicum). SE in the mobility with assistive device group was also significantly influenced (pteachers' SE and enable greater participation of children with CP in general physical education classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. O contexto global e nacional frente aos desafios do acesso adequado à água para consumo humano The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os desafios do acesso à água para consumo humano, considerando-se o contexto internacional e nacional. A partir da deliberação da ONU de que o acesso à água limpa e segura é um direito fundamental de todo ser humano são identificadas vulnerabilidades que podem se constituir em restrições ao acesso. A distribuição da água e das populações no planeta, a poluição, as políticas e gestões inadequadas produzem injustiça ambiental. A iniquidade de acesso a água constitui-se na crise contemporânea da água. A partir da década de 1980, emerge o mercado transnacional de água pelo controle privado que ocorre em três níveis principais: de mananciais superficiais e subterrâneos; de água engarrafada; e dos serviços públicos de abastecimento. Os conflitos dos usos múltiplos dos recursos hídricos, do mercado e dos problemas ambientais têm contribuído para a vulnerabilização da saúde das populações e dos ecossistemas. São necessárias políticas públicas adequadas ao exercício do direito humano fundamental de acesso a água com qualidade.The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the

  4. Selective pressure for allelic diversity in SeM of Streptococcus equi does not affect immunoreactive proteins SzPSe or Se18.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F

    2011-07-01

    Streptococcus equi, a clone or biovar of an ancestral Streptococcus zooepidemicus of Lancefield group C causes equine strangles, a highly contagious tonsillitis and lymphadenitis of the head and neck. At least 74 alleles based on N-terminal amino acid sequence of the anti-phagocytic SeM have been observed among isolates of S. equi from N. America, Europe and Japan. A d(N)/d(S) ratio of 5.93 for the 5' region of sem is indicative of positive selective pressure. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM were accompanied by variations in the surface exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9, both of which bind to equine tonsillar epithelium and, along with SeM, elicit strong nasopharyngeal IgA responses during convalescence. Sequences of genes for these proteins from 25 S. equi expressing 19 different SeM alleles isolated over 40 years in different countries were compared. No variation was observed in szpse, except for an Australian isolate with a deletion of a single repeat in the 3' end of the gene. Interestingly, only two SNP loci were detected in se18.9 compared to 93 and 55 in sem and szpse, respectively. The high frequency of nucleotide substitutions in szpse may be related to its mosaic structure since this gene in S. zooepidemicus exists in a variety of combinations of sequence segments and has a central hypervariable region that includes exogenous DNA sequence based on an atypical G-C percentage. In summary, the results of this study document very different responses of streptococcal genes for 3 immunoreactive proteins to selection pressure of the nasopharyngeal mucosal immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-temperature superconductivity in one-unit-cell FeSe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqiao; Liu, Chaofei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Since the dramatic enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature (T c) was reported in a one-unit-cell FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate (1-UC FeSe/STO) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), related research on this system has become a new frontier in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we present a brief review on this rapidly developing field, mainly focusing on the superconducting properties of 1-UC FeSe/STO. Experimental evidence for high-temperature superconductivity in 1-UC FeSe/STO, including direct evidence revealed by transport and diamagnetic measurements, as well as other evidence from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), are overviewed. The potential mechanisms of the enhanced superconductivity are also discussed. There are accumulating arguments to suggest that the strengthened Cooper pairing in 1-UC FeSe/STO originates from the interface effects, specifically the charge transfer and coupling to phonon modes in the TiO2 plane. The study of superconductivity in 1-UC FeSe/STO not only sheds new light on the mechanism of high-temperature superconductors with layered structures, but also provides an insight into the exploration of new superconductors by interface engineering.

  6. Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarman, William N. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-10-12

    This project “Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells”, completed by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) at the University of Delaware in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida, developed the fundamental understanding and technology to increase module efficiency and improve the manufacturability of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 films using the precursor reaction approach currently being developed by a number of companies. Key results included: (1) development of a three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction process to control Ga distribution through the film and minimizes back contact MoSe2 formation; (2) Ag-alloying to improve precursor homogeneity by avoiding In phase agglomeration, faster reaction and improved adhesion to allow wider reaction process window; (3) addition of Sb, Bi, and Te interlayers at the Mo/precursor junction to produce more uniform precursor morphology and improve adhesion with reduced void formation in reacted films; (4) a precursor structure containing Se and a reaction process to reduce processing time to 5 minutes and eliminate H2Se usage, thereby increasing throughput and reducing costs. All these results were supported by detailed characterization of the film growth, reaction pathways, thermodynamic assessment and device behavior.

  7. Thermal conductivity of zinc blende and wurtzite CdSe nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juekuan; Tang, Hao; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Yin; Li, Jiapeng; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei; Xu, Dongyan

    2015-10-14

    Many binary octet compounds including CdSe can be grown in either the wurtzite (WZ) or zinc blende (ZB) phase, which has aroused great interest among the research community in understanding the phase dependence of the thermal transport properties of these compounds. So far, it has been debatable whether the ZB phase possesses higher thermal conductivity than the WZ phase. In this work, we report on thermal conductivity measurements of CdSe nanowires/nanoribbons with both WZ and ZB phases via a suspended device method. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity of all the ZB CdSe nanostructures measured in this work is higher than the bulk thermal conductivity of the WZ CdSe reported in the literature, suggesting that the bulk thermal conductivity of the ZB CdSe is higher than that of the WZ phase. Our result is different from previous experimental results in the literature for InAs nanowires which suggest similar thermal conductivity values for the bulk ZB and WZ InAs crystals. The higher thermal conductivity of the ZB CdSe can be explained by its lower anharmonicity and a smaller number of atoms per unit cell compared to the WZ phase.

  8. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Key Navy Programs' Compliance with DOD's Federated Business Enterprise Architecture Needs to be Adequately Demonstrated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hite, Randolph C; Lakhmani, Neela; Barkakati, Nabajyoti; Doherty, Neil; Glover, Nancy; Longcore, Emily; Holland, Michael; Le, Anh; Leiling, Josh; McCracken, Lee; Srikanth, Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    .... In particular, the programs BEA compliance assessments did not: * Include all relevant architecture products, such as products that specify the technical standards needed to promote interoperability among related systems...

  9. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of thin films of As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the important branches of spec- troscopy, which enables one to detect light-induced heat production following the absorp- tion of pulsed radiation by the sample. As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2 exhibit a wide variety of photo-induced phenomena that enable them to be used ...

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of thin films of As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the important branches of spectroscopy, which enables one to detect light-induced heat production following the absorption of pulsed radiation by the sample. As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2 exhibit a wide variety of photo-induced phenomena that enable them to be used as optical ...

  11. Electronic and Optical Modeling of Solar Cell Compounds CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Amit; Dashora, Alpa; Gupta, Vikas; Arora, C. M.; Rérat, M.; Ahuja, B. L.; Pandey, Ravindra

    2011-11-01

    We present dielectric-function-related optical properties such as absorption coefficient, refractive index, and reflectivity of the semiconducting chalcopyrites CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2. The optical properties were calculated in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) and full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. The calculated spectral dependence of complex dielectric functions is interpreted in terms of interband transitions within energy bands of both chalcopyrites; for example, the lowest energy peak in the \\varepsilon2 (ω ) spectra for CuGaSe2 corresponds to interband transitions from Ga/Se-4p → Ga-4s while that for CuInSe2 emerges as due to transition between Se-4p → In-5s bands. The calculated dielectric constant, \\varepsilon1 (0) , for CuInSe2 is higher than that of CuGaSe2. The electronic structure of both compounds is reasonably interpreted by the LCAO (DFT) method. The optical properties computed using the FP-LAPW model (with scissor correction) are close to the spectroscopic ellipsometry data available in the literature.

  12. Cs2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Using the method of isothermal solubility at 25 deg C the interaction of cesium and uranyl selenates in aqueous solution is studied. Formation of congruently soluble Cs 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O and Cs 2 (UO 2 ) 2 x(SeO 4 ) 3 is ascertained, their crystallographic characteristics being determined

  13. Eccles se mistisisme en kuhlendeck se boeddhisme as moontlike grondslag vir fisiologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J Pretorius

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The discussion ranging around the issues of human worth, uniqueness, the typically human, spirituality and human freedom also includes the subject of Physiology. The sense and the meaning of physiological knowledge, foundations for ethical norms and religious functions of man are of cardinal importance for the subject philosophy of Physiology.

  14. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriera,Jorge Castellá; Casas,Ferran; Alfaro,Jaime; Bedin,Lívia; Strelhow,Miriam Raquel Wachholz; Abs,Daniel; Valdenegro,Boris; García,Catalina; Oyarzún,Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047) and Chilean (n = 1.053) adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08), whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the ...

  15. Studying nursing in a rural setting: are students adequately supported and prepared for rural practice? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, L F

    2007-01-01

    A rural nursing program has a vital role in improving the recruitment and retention of nurses in rural and remote settings. A small pilot study was conducted to explore the views and experiences of the first cohort of undergraduate nursing students who completed a rurally based bachelor of nursing program which commenced in 2002 in Renmark, South Australia. The participants were eight current undergraduate nursing students who were part of the first cohort of nursing students nearing completion of the program. The pilot study set out to explore support provided to rural nursing students studying in a rural setting; to investigate whether rural nursing students feel adequately prepared for rural clinical practice near completion of the nursing program; to identify the challenges and highlights of studying rurally; and to explore the probability of retention and recruitment of future nursing graduates in a rural setting. The method used was a descriptive, exploratory, web-based survey. Quantitative data were limited to descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, career goals, graduate nurse program and future employment intentions, level of support, preparation for practice, challenges and highlights of rural study and clinical placements. Qualitative responses to open-ended questions were content analysed to identify common themes. This study found between two and four participants indicated they received no support from academic, administrative staff and clinical facilitators from the city campus. Five participants (63%) indicated they received no financial support during their studies. Seven of the participants (88%) surveyed, indicated an intention to undertake a graduate nurse program and the same number indicated they would be living in a rural or remote area in 5 years time. Six participants (75%) indicated they were prepared with regard to their 'attitude' towards their future practice as a registered nurse. The study identified some of the

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafashan, Hosein, E-mail: hosein840521@gmail.com; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films. The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  17. Energetics and electronic properties of Pt wires of different topologies on monolayer MoSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdagni, Pooja, E-mail: j.poojaa1228@gmail.com; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Centre for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Panjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India); Thakur, Anil [Physics Department, Govt. Collage Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 173212 (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Physics Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The energetics and electronic properties of different topology of Pt wires including linear, zigzag and ladder structures on MoSe{sub 2} monolayer have been investigated in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The predicted order of stability of Pt wire on MoSe{sub 2} monolayer is found to be: linear > ladder > zigzag. Pt wires induce states near the Fermi level of MoSe{sub 2} that results into metallic characteristics of Pt-wire/MoSe{sub 2} assembled system. Valence band charge density signifies most of the contribution from Pt atoms near the Fermi energy of assembled wire/MoSe{sub 2} system. These findings are expected to be important for the fabrication of devices based on MoSe{sub 2} layers for flexible nanoelectronics.

  18. ¿Qué se juega al jugar un juego?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalejman, Cecilia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se considera el juego en relación a la niñez. Se indaga acerca del papel que juega el juego en la niñez intentando responder a diversas preguntas, entre ellas la más importante: ¿Qué significa jugar? A lo largo de esta etapa del desarrollo en que comienza a constituirse la subjetividad del individuo el juego constituye, sin dudas, un factor central, una herramienta fundamental en el desarrollo. Juego no es sólo el juego dramático, también consideramos para nuestro análisis aquellas modalidades de juego que se transmiten de generación en generación, juegos de construcción, los dibujos, teniendo en cuenta asimismo los objetos utilizados en los juegos, los contenidos de los mismos, los espacios en los que se desarrollan. Se piensa y se interpreta al juego, como un derecho y como un modo de expresión del niño, se finaliza este desarrollo con una conclusión acera del juego y el espacio que ocupa en la vida cotidiana.

  19. 79Se: Geochemical and crystallo-chemical retardation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Burns, P.C.; Ewing, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    79 Se is a long-lived (1.1x10 6 years) fission product which is chemically and radiologically toxic. Under Eh-pH conditions typical of oxidative alteration of spent nuclear fuel, selenite or selenate are the dominant aqueous species of selenium. Because of the high solubility of metal-selenites and metal-selenates and the low adsorption of selenite and selenate aqueous species under alkaline conditions, selenium may be highly mobile. However, 79 Se released from altered fuel may be immobilized by incorporation into secondary uranyl phases as low concentration impurities, and this may significantly reduce the mobility of selenium. Analysis and comparison of the known structures of uranyl phases indicate that (SeO 3 ) may substitute for (SiO 3 OH) in structures with the uranophane anion-topology (α-uranophane, sklodowskite, boltwoodite) which are expected to be the dominant alteration phases of UO 2 in Si-rich groundwater. The structural similarity of guilleminite, Ba[(UO 2 ) 3 (SeO 3 ) 2 O 2 ](H 2 O) 3 , to phurcalite, [(UO 2 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ](H 2 O) 7 , suggests that the substitution (SeO 3 ) leftrightarrow (PO 4 ) may occur in phurcalite. The close similarity between the sheets in the structures of rutherfordine and [(UO 2 )(SeO 3 )] implies that the substitution (SeO 3 ) leftrightarrow (Co 3 ) can occur in rutherfordine. However, the substitution: (SeO 3 ) leftrightarrow (SiO 3 OH) in soddyite and (SeO 3 ) leftrightarrow (PO 4 ) in phosphuranylite may disrupt their structural connectivity and are unlikely to occur. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.