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Sample records for included reversal multiple

  1. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  2. Multiples least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the image quality, we propose multiples least-squares reverse time migration (MLSRTM) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. Since each recorded trace is treated as a virtual source, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required. Numerical tests on synthetic data for the Sigsbee2B model and field data from Gulf of Mexico show that MLSRTM can improve the image quality by removing artifacts, balancing amplitudes, and suppressing crosstalk compared to standard migration of the free-surface multiples. The potential liability of this method is that multiples require several roundtrips between the reflector and the free surface, so that high frequencies in the multiples are attenuated compared to the primary reflections. This can lead to lower resolution in the migration image compared to that computed from primaries.

  3. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  4. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  5. Multiple Reversals of Bill Length over 1.7 Million Years in a Hawaiian Bird Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Leonard A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Cann, Rebecca L

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary change has been documented over geological time, but reversals in morphology, from an ancestral state to a derived state and back again, tend to be rare. Multiple reversals along the same lineage are even rarer. We use the chronology of the Hawaiian Islands and an avian example, the Hawaiian honeycreeper 'amakihi (Hemignathus spp.) lineage, which originated on the oldest main island of Kaua'i 1.7 million years ago, to examine the process of sequential reversals in bill length. We document three single and two multiple reversals of bill length on six main islands from oldest to youngest, consistent with the phylogeny of the lineage. Longer bills occur on islands with endemic species, including phylogenetically relevant outgroups, that may compete with or dominate the 'amakihi. On islands without those species, the 'amakihi had shorter bills of similar length. Both types of reversals in morphology in this lineage integrate microevolutionary processes with macroevolution in the adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

  6. Least-squares reverse time migration of multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-12-06

    The theory of least-squares reverse time migration of multiples (RTMM) is presented. In this method, least squares migration (LSM) is used to image free-surface multiples where the recorded traces are used as the time histories of the virtual sources at the hydrophones and the surface-related multiples are the observed data. For a single source, the entire free-surface becomes an extended virtual source where the downgoing free-surface multiples more fully illuminate the subsurface compared to the primaries. Since each recorded trace is treated as the time history of a virtual source, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required and the ringy time series for each source is automatically deconvolved. If the multiples can be perfectly separated from the primaries, numerical tests on synthetic data for the Sigsbee2B and Marmousi2 models show that least-squares reverse time migration of multiples (LSRTMM) can significantly improve the image quality compared to RTMM or standard reverse time migration (RTM) of primaries. However, if there is imperfect separation and the multiples are strongly interfering with the primaries then LSRTMM images show no significant advantage over the primary migration images. In some cases, they can be of worse quality. Applying LSRTMM to Gulf of Mexico data shows higher signal-to-noise imaging of the salt bottom and top compared to standard RTM images. This is likely attributed to the fact that the target body is just below the sea bed so that the deep water multiples do not have strong interference with the primaries. Migrating a sparsely sampled version of the Marmousi2 ocean bottom seismic data shows that LSM of primaries and LSRTMM provides significantly better imaging than standard RTM. A potential liability of LSRTMM is that multiples require several round trips between the reflector and the free surface, so that high frequencies in the multiples suffer greater attenuation compared to the primary reflections. This can lead to lower

  7. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  8. Multiple Memory Structure Bit Reversal Algorithm Based on Recursive Patterns of Bit Reversal Permutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. L. B. Adikaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.

  9. Reverse time migration of multiples for OBS data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2014-08-05

    Reverse time migration of multiples (RTMM) is applied to OBS data with sparse receiver spacing. RTMM for OBS data unlike a marine streamer acquisition is implemented in the common receiver gathers (CRG) and provides a wider and denser illumination for each CRG than the conventional RTM of primaries. Hence, while the the conventional RTM image contains strong aliasing artifacts due to a sparser receiver interval, the RTMM image suffers from this artifacts less. This benefit of RTMM is demonstrated with numerical test on the Marmousi model for sparsely sampled OBS data.

  10. Multiple time-reversed guide-sources in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.; Lingevitch, Joseph F.; Gauss, Roger C.; Menis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Detection in a monostatic, broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation-induced spreading. The detection improvement from multiple spatially separated guide sources (GSs) is presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. The improvement of detection by using information in a set of one-way transmissions from a variety of positions is shown using sea data. The experimental area is south of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New Jersey. The data were taken using five elements of a time-reversing VLA. The five elements were contiguous and at midwater depth. The target and guide source was an echo repeater positioned at various ranges and at middepth. The transmitted signals were 3.0- to 3.5-kHz LFMs. The data are analyzed to show the amount of information present in the collection, a baseline probability of detection (PD) not using the collection of GS signals, the improvement in PD from the use of various sets of GS signals. The dependence of the improvement as a function of range is also shown. [The authors acknowledge support from Dr. Jeffrey Simmen, ONR321OS, and the chief scientist Dr. Charles Holland. Work supported by ONR.

  11. Study on wall locking of multiple tearing modes in reversed field pinch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S. C.; Chu, M. S.

    2004-08-01

    The nonlinear interactions between multiple unstable tearing modes and the resistive wall in reversed field pinch plasmas are studied. The nonlinear interactions include the nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between multiple modes, the effect of the eddy currents induced in the resistive wall by the magnetic perturbations of the multiple modes, and the effect of the angular momentum transport due to the viscous diffusion in the plasma. A set of fully time-dependent equations describing the dynamics of the three tearing modes (dynamo modes) has been employed and solved numerically by using the finite element method. Both the time-dependent and the steady state solutions are obtained. It is found that the multiple modes enhance the braking effect of the resistive wall. The "locking threshold" predicted in the case of multiple modes is much smaller than that of the case of the single mode (as far as the same mode is concerned). The formation of the "slinky mode" is clearly demonstrated. The relation of two existing thresholds: "wall locking" and "phase locking" is also discussed. Comparison is made between the time-dependent solution and the steady state solution for two examples, in which the mode amplitudes grow linearly with time. The validity of the steady state assumption, in particular, for the calculation of the viscous torque is discussed. Numerical analysis is applied to the reversed field experiment [F. Gnesotto, P. Sonato, W. R. Baker et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)].

  12. Study on wall locking of multiple tearing modes in reversed field pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Chu, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between multiple unstable tearing modes and the resistive wall in reversed field pinch plasmas are studied. The nonlinear interactions include the nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between multiple modes, the effect of the eddy currents induced in the resistive wall by the magnetic perturbations of the multiple modes, and the effect of the angular momentum transport due to the viscous diffusion in the plasma. A set of fully time-dependent equations describing the dynamics of the three tearing modes (dynamo modes) has been employed and solved numerically by using the finite element method. Both the time-dependent and the steady state solutions are obtained. It is found that the multiple modes enhance the braking effect of the resistive wall. The 'locking threshold' predicted in the case of multiple modes is much smaller than that of the case of the single mode (as far as the same mode is concerned). The formation of the 'slinky mode' is clearly demonstrated. The relation of two existing thresholds: 'wall locking' and 'phase locking' is also discussed. Comparison is made between the time-dependent solution and the steady state solution for two examples, in which the mode amplitudes grow linearly with time. The validity of the steady state assumption, in particular, for the calculation of the viscous torque is discussed. Numerical analysis is applied to the reversed field experiment [F. Gnesotto, P. Sonato, W. R. Baker et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)

  13. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pellegrino and Santos [10] raise the question whether there are true inclusion results for the class of strongly multiple summing operators. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the results proven in [16] for multiple summing operators can be adapted to obtain similar results for strongly multiple summing operators ...

  14. Severe reversible pulmonary hypertension in smoldering multiple myeloma: two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisn, Wayne L; Fenstad, Eric R; McCully, Robert B; Lacy, Martha Q

    2015-03-01

    An association between pulmonary hypertension (PH) and POEMS syndrome (characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) as well as other plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma (MM), has been shown to exist. Recent case reports have identified a reversible form of PH that occurs outside of previously identified etiologies. We report two cases of PH in the setting of smoldering MM (SMM) that resolved with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Although other features were individualized among the cases (dermatomyositis, scleromyxedema), treatment of MM and SMM resulted in a normalization of right ventricular systolic pressure and improvement in right ventricular dysfunction that was previously unresponsive to PH therapies. The magnitude and sustained nature of reversibility in these four cases could offer clues about the pathophysiology and treatment of PH.

  15. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and strongly multiple summing operators under the assumption that the range has finite cotype. Keywords. .... multiple (q, p)-summing, if there exists a constant C ≥ 0 such that for every choice of systems (x j i j )1≤i j ≤m j ...... Ideals and their Applications in Theoretical Physics (1983) (Leipzig: Teubner-Texte) pp. 185–199.

  16. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  17. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  18. The reverse effects of random perturbation on discrete systems for single and multiple population models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Li; Tang, Sanyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The discrete single species and multiple species models with random perturbation are proposed. • The complex dynamics and interesting bifurcation behavior have been investigated. • The reverse effects of random perturbation on discrete systems have been discussed and revealed. • The main results can be applied for pest control and resources management. - Abstract: The natural species are likely to present several interesting and complex phenomena under random perturbations, which have been confirmed by simple mathematical models. The important questions are: how the random perturbations influence the dynamics of the discrete population models with multiple steady states or multiple species interactions? and is there any different effects for single species and multiple species models with random perturbation? To address those interesting questions, we have proposed the discrete single species model with two stable equilibria and the host-parasitoid model with Holling type functional response functions to address how the random perturbation affects the dynamics. The main results indicate that the random perturbation does not change the number of blurred orbits of the single species model with two stable steady states compared with results for the classical Ricker model with same random perturbation, but it can strength the stability. However, extensive numerical investigations depict that the random perturbation does not influence the complexities of the host-parasitoid models compared with the results for the models without perturbation, while it does increase the period of periodic orbits doubly. All those confirm that the random perturbation has a reverse effect on the dynamics of the discrete single and multiple population models, which could be applied in reality including pest control and resources management.

  19. Time-reversal invariance in multiple collisions between coupled masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The time evolution of two mechanical oscillators coupled by a spring can (but need not) exhibit an instant t = 2t' when the initial conditions at t = 0 have been exactly restored. When that is the case, then at t = t' energy and momentum have been exchanged exactly as in an elastic collision between two free particles, and the evolution of the system from t = t' to 2t' is related to that from 0 to t' by time-reversal invariance. A similar ''simulation of elastic scattering'' at t = t' can occur for two free particles coupled via collisions with an intermediary mass that bounces back and forth between the two particles provided the intermediary is left at rest at t = t'. Examined here is the time evolution of the exchange of momentum and energy for these two examples, determining the values of the coupling spring constant (or mass value) of the intermediating spring (or mass) needed to simulate single elastic scattering between free particles, and looking at the manifestation of time-reversal invariance

  20. Troglitazone reverses the multiple drug resistance phenotype in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F Davies

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Gerald F Davies1, Bernhard HJ Juurlink2, Troy AA Harkness11Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: A major problem in treating cancer is the development of drug resistance. We previously demonstrated doxorubicin (DOX resistance in K562 human leukemia cells that was associated with upregulation of glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1 and histone H3 expression. The thiazolidinedione troglitazone (TRG downregulated GLO-1 expression and further upregulated histone H3 expression and post-translational modifications in these cells, leading to a regained sensitivity to DOX. Given the pleiotropic effects of epigenetic changes in cancer development, we hypothesized that TRG may downregulate the multiple drug resistance (MDR phenotype in a variety of cancer cells. To test this, MCF7 human breast cancer cells and K562 cells were cultured in the presence of low-dose DOX to establish DOX-resistant cell lines (K562/DOX and MCF7/DOX. The MDR phenotype was confirmed by Western blot analysis of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp drug efflux pump multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1, and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. TRG markedly decreased expression of both MDR-1 and BCRP in these cells, resulting in sensitivity to DOX. Silencing of MDR-1 expression also sensitized MCF7/DOX cells to DOX. Use of the specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 in the nanomolar range not only demonstrated that the action of TRG on MCF/DOX was PPARγ-independent, but indicated that PPARγ may play a role in the MDR phenotype, which is antagonized by TRG. We conclude that TRG is potentially a useful adjunct therapy in chemoresistant cancers. Keywords: chemotherapy, doxorubicin, breast cancer resistance protein-1, multiple drug resistance, multiple drug resistance protein 1

  1. A graphic approach to include dissipative-like effects in reversible thermal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Arias-Hernandez, Luis Antonio; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Since the decade of 1980's, a connection between a family of maximum-work reversible thermal cycles and maximum-power finite-time endoreversible cycles has been established. The endoreversible cycles produce entropy at their couplings with the external heat baths. Thus, this kind of cycles can be optimized under criteria of merit that involve entropy production terms. Meanwhile the relation between the concept of work and power is quite direct, apparently, the finite-time objective functions involving entropy production have not reversible counterparts. In the present paper we show that it is also possible to establish a connection between irreversible cycle models and reversible ones by means of the concept of "geometric dissipation", which has to do with the equivalent role of a deficit of areas between some reversible cycles and the Carnot cycle and actual dissipative terms in a Curzon-Ahlborn engine.

  2. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  3. A Novel Texture-Quantization-Based Reversible Multiple Watermarking Scheme Applied to Health Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuk, Mousami; Dhande, Ashwin

    2018-04-01

    The recent innovations in information and communication technologies have appreciably changed the panorama of health information system (HIS). These advances provide new means to process, handle, and share medical images and also augment the medical image security issues in terms of confidentiality, reliability, and integrity. Digital watermarking has emerged as new era that offers acceptable solutions to the security issues in HIS. Texture is a significant feature to detect the embedding sites in an image, which further leads to substantial improvement in the robustness. However, considering the perspective of digital watermarking, this feature has received meager attention in the reported literature. This paper exploits the texture property of an image and presents a novel hybrid texture-quantization-based approach for reversible multiple watermarking. The watermarked image quality has been accessed by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity measure (SSIM), and universal image quality index (UIQI), and the obtained results are superior to the state-of-the-art methods. The algorithm has been evaluated on a variety of medical imaging modalities (CT, MRA, MRI, US) and robustness has been verified, considering various image processing attacks including JPEG compression. The proposed scheme offers additional security using repetitive embedding of BCH encoded watermarks and ADM encrypted ECG signal. Experimental results achieved a maximum of 22,616 bits hiding capacity with PSNR of 53.64 dB.

  4. Corrected multiple upsets and bit reversals for improved 1-s resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucker, G.J.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has studied the generation of single and multiple errors in control and irradiated static RAM samples (Harris 6504RH) which were exposed to heavy ions for relatively long intervals of time (minute), and read out only after the beam was shut off. The present investigation involved storing 4k x 1 bit maps every second during 1 min ion exposures at low flux rates of 10 3 ions/cm 2 -s in order to reduce the chance of two sequential ions upsetting adjacent bits. The data were analyzed for the presence of adjacent upset bit locations in the physical memory plane, which were previously defined to constitute multiple upsets. Improvement in the time resolution of these measurements has provided more accurate estimates of multiple upsets. The results indicate that the percentage of multiples decreased from a high of 17% in the previous experiment to less than 1% for this new experimental technique. Consecutive double and triple upsets (reversals of bits) were detected. These were caused by sequential ions hitting the same bit, with one or two reversals of state occurring in a 1-min run. In addition to these results, a status review for these same parts covering 3.5 years of imprint damage recovery is also presented

  5. Numerical investigation on the effects of acceleration reversal times in Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with multiple reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Zachary; Aslangil, Denis; Banerjee, Arindam; Lawrie, Andrew G. W.

    2017-11-01

    An implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) code, MOBILE, is used to explore the growth rate of the mixing layer width of the acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) under variable acceleration histories. The sets of computations performed consist of a series of accel-decel-accel (ADA) cases in addition to baseline constant acceleration and accel-decel (AD) cases. The ADA cases are a series of varied times for the second acceleration reversal (t2) and show drastic differences in the growth rates. Upon the deceleration phase, the kinetic energy of the flow is shifted into internal wavelike patterns. These waves are evidenced by the examined differences in growth rate in the second acceleration phase for the set of ADA cases. Here, we investigate global parameters that include mixing width, growth rates and the anisotropy tensor for the kinetic energy to better understand the behavior of the growth during the re-acceleration period. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.

  6. Detection of multiple, novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human nucleic acids: relation to primate retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, A.; Misra, R.; Rush, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of chemically synthesized oligonucleotides designed on the basis of amino acid and/or nucleotide sequence data were used to detect a large number of novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human and mouse DNAs. Procedures involving Southern blotting, library screening, and the polymerase chain reaction were all used to detect such sequences; the polymerase chain reaction was the most rapid and productive approach. In the polymerase chain reaction, oligonucleotide mixtures based on consensus sequence homologies to reverse transcriptase coding sequences and unique oligonucleotides containing perfect homology to the coding sequences of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II were both effective in amplifying reverse transcriptase-related DNA. It is shown that human DNA contains a wide spectrum of retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase coding sequences, including some that are clearly related to human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II, some that are related to the L-1 family of long interspersed nucleotide sequences, and others that are related to previously described human endogenous proviral DNAs. In addition, human T-cell leukemia virus type I-related sequences appear to be transcribed in both normal human T cells and in a cell line derived from a human teratocarcinoma

  7. First passage times for multiple particles with reversible target-binding kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the first passage problem for multiple particles that diffuse towards a target, partially adsorb there, and then desorb after a finite exponentially distributed residence time. We search for the first time when m particles undergoing such reversible target-binding kinetics are found simultaneously on the target that may trigger an irreversible chemical reaction or a biophysical event. Even if the particles are independent, the finite residence time on the target yields an intricate temporal coupling between particles. We compute analytically the mean first passage time (MFPT) for two independent particles by mapping the original problem to higher-dimensional surface-mediated diffusion and solving the coupled partial differential equations. The respective effects of the adsorption and desorption rates on the MFPT are revealed and discussed.

  8. Multiple reversals of strand asymmetry in molluscs mitochondrial genomes, and consequences for phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. The strand-specific bias in the nucleotide composition of the mtDNA has been known to be highly problematic for phylogenetic analyses. Here, the strand asymmetry was compared across 140 mollusc species and analyzed for a mtDNA fragment including twelve protein-coding genes. The analyses show that almost all species in Gastropoda (except Heterobranchia) and all species in Bivalvia present reversals of strand bias. The skew values on individual genes for all codon positions (P 123 ), third codon positions (P 3 ), and fourfold redundant third codon positions (P 4FD ) indicated that CG skews are the best indicators of strand asymmetry. The differences in the patterns of strand asymmetry significantly influenced the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. These biases are most striking for the amino acids Valine, Cysteine, Asparagine and Threonines, which appear to have evolved asymmetrical exchanges in response to shifts in nucleotide composition. Molluscs with strong variability of genome architectures (ARs) are usually characterized by a reversal of the usual strand bias. Phylogenetic analyses show that reversals of asymmetric mutational constraints have consequences on the phylogenetic inferences, as taxa characterized by reverse strand bias (Heterobranchia and Bivalvia) tend to group together due to long-branch attraction (LBA) artifacts. Neutral Transitions Excluded (NTE) model did not overcome the problem of heterogeneous biases present in molluscs mt genomes, suggested it may not be appropriate for molluscs mt genome data. Further refinement phylogenetic models may help us better understand internal relationships among these diverse organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pancreatic-type Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Included in Multiple Primary Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kurosawa, Manabu; Mise, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Miki; Higashide, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) in the stomach is extraordinarily rare. We pathologically examined two cases with multiple primary carcinomas, including gastric tumors. Gastric cancer specimens were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Both cases had cancer cells with acinar patterns, resembling pancreatic ACC. The cancer cells in the first case were positive for exocrine markers, including chymotrypsin, lipase and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), as well as neuroendocrine markers, including chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The cancer cells in the second case were positive for chymotrypsin and alpha-1 ACT, while being slightly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, cancer cells contained zymogen granules in both cases. The final diagnosis was pancreatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma and pure pancreatic ACC, respectively. We confirmed two cases with gastric pancreatic-type ACC included in multiple primary carcinomas. This type of double cancer has not been reported previously. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Development, Maintenance, and Reversal of Multiple Drug Resistance: At the Crossroads of TFPI1, ABC Transporters, and HIF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra Arnason

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and improved therapies for many cancers are enhancing survival rates. Although many cytotoxic therapies are approved for aggressive or metastatic cancer; response rates are low and acquisition of de novo resistance is virtually universal. For decades; chemotherapeutic treatments for cancer have included anthracyclines such as Doxorubicin (DOX; and its use in aggressive tumors appears to remain a viable option; but drug resistance arises against DOX; as for all other classes of compounds. Our recent work suggests the anticoagulant protein Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1α (TFPI1α plays a role in driving the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR; but not maintenance; of the MDR state. Other factors; such as the ABC transporter drug efflux pumps MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1 and BCRP (ABCG2; are required for MDR maintenance; as well as development. The patient population struggling with therapeutic resistance specifically requires novel treatment options to resensitize these tumor cells to therapy. In this review we discuss the development, maintenance, and reversal of MDR as three distinct phases of cancer biology. Possible means to exploit these stages to reverse MDR will be explored. Early molecular detection of MDRcancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fighting MDRcancer.

  11. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  12. Reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome associated with bortezomib in a patient with relapsed multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, Liesbeth M.; Kersten, Marie-Jose; Kloppenborg, Raoul Peter; van Oers, Rien; van den Born, Bert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a potentially fatal but reversible clinico-radiological syndrome with symptoms of headache, altered mental functioning, visual changes and seizures in association with typical posterior cerebral white matter lesions. RPLS is associated with

  13. Using multiple hydrogen bonding cross-linkers to access reversibly responsive three dimensional graphene oxide architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junkai; Shen, Yongtao; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene materials have attracted a lot of attention for efficiently utilizing inherent properties of graphene sheets. However, 3D graphene materials reported in the previous literature are constructed through covalent or weak non-covalent interactions, causing permanent structure/property changes. In this paper, a novel 3D graphene material of dynamic interactions between lamellas with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone as a supra-molecular motif has been synthesized. This 3D graphene material shows enhanced sheet interactions while the cross-linking takes place. With proper solvent stimulation, the integrated 3D graphene material can disassemble as isolated sheets. The driving force for the 3D structure assembly or disassembly is considered to be the forming or breaking of the multiple hydrogen bonding pairs. Furthermore, the 3D material is used as an intelligent dye adsorber to adsorb methylene blue and release it. The controllable and reversible characteristic of this 3D graphene material may open an avenue to the synthesis and application of novel intelligent materials.Three-dimensional (3D) graphene materials have attracted a lot of attention for efficiently utilizing inherent properties of graphene sheets. However, 3D graphene materials reported in the previous literature are constructed through covalent or weak non-covalent interactions, causing permanent structure/property changes. In this paper, a novel 3D graphene material of dynamic interactions between lamellas with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone as a supra-molecular motif has been synthesized. This 3D graphene material shows enhanced sheet interactions while the cross-linking takes place. With proper solvent stimulation, the integrated 3D graphene material can disassemble as isolated sheets. The driving force for the 3D structure assembly or disassembly is considered to be the forming or breaking of the multiple hydrogen bonding pairs. Furthermore, the 3D material is used as an

  14. Asymmetry in Student Achievement on Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Items in Reversible Mathematics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.; Jones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment designed to test the hypothesis that when faced with a question involving the inverse direction of a reversible mathematical process, students solve a multiple-choice version by verifying the answers presented to them by the direct method, not by undertaking the actual inverse calculation.…

  15. Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Law of Included Multiple-Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that bosons are not subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions. According to the Law of Included MultipleMiddle and the like, the 4 neutralities between Pauli Exclusion Principle's validity and invalidity are as follows: first, according to Neutrosophy, any proposition has three situations of truth, falsehood and indeterminacy respectively; second, some scholars have pointed out that the exclusion principle may be broken in highenergy state; third, due to the existance of man created law (man-made law, the broken exclusion principle and the man-made (instantaneous magnetic monopole can be artificially created; fourth, the exclusion principle is not compatible with law of conservation of energy, and in physics the principles that are not compatible with law of conservation of energy will be invalid in some cases,

  16. Multiple causes of apnea in 1p36 deletion syndrome include seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanabar, Gorande; Boyd, Stewart; Schugal, Anna; Bhate, Sanjay

    2012-06-01

    Apneic episodes have not previously been described in children with 1p36 deletion syndrome with seizures. Having encountered one such patient, we reviewed our experience of breathing difficulties in this syndrome, with particular attention to evidence of ictal apnea. We describe four children with 1p36 deletion syndrome, seizures and apneic episodes. Retrospective analysis of clinical features, seizure semiology and video-EEG data. All patients showed characteristic craniofacial features, mental retardation, and diffuse hypotonia and apnea. Seizure semiology included focal motor, ± secondary generalized tonic clonic and tonic events. All had histories of status epilepticus; three showed clustering of their habitual seizures. Assessment of apnea was complicated by the presence of multiple other potential causes including obesity, reflux, respiratory, and cardiac problems Epileptic apneas were confirmed in one child by video-telemetry. In three other children, an epileptic basis for apneas was inferred from their clinical histories and treatment response supported by EEG findings. In three children, epileptiform discharges occurred over fronto-centro-temporal regions. Epileptic apnea is a feature of 1p36 deletion syndrome, though episodic apnea is multifactorial in these children, and may need repeated re-appraisal. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability including cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Weier

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory, including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV, normalized brain volume (nBV and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV. Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r(2 = 0.36. The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores (r(2 = 0.23 included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r(2 = 0.17 emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV.

  18. Thymoquinone causes multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Sameh E; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Azeiz, Ahmed Z Abdel; Mohammed, Rasha A; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Kamal, Khalid B H; Rabah, Samar; Sabir, Jamal S M; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Martin, Gregory B; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a major constituent of Nigella sativa oil with reported anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity in animal cells. It also inhibits proliferation and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human skin cancer cells. The present study sought to detect the influence of TQ on dividing cells of three plant systems and on expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene-like (BAG-like) genes that might be involved during the process of cell death. BAG genes are known for the regulation of diverse physiological processes in animals, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, stress responses, and cell division. Synthetic TQ at 0.1mg/mL greatly reduced wheat seed germination rate, whereas 0.2mg/mL completely inhibited germination. An Evans blue assay revealed moderate cell death in the meristematic zone of Glycine max roots after 1h of TQ treatment (0.2mg/mL), with severe cell death occurring in this zone after 2h of treatment. Light microscopy of TQ-treated (0.2mg/mL) onion hairy root tips for 1h revealed anti-mitotic activity and also cell death-associated changes, including nuclear membrane disruption and nuclear fragmentation. Transmission electron microscopy of TQ-treated cells (0.2mg/mL) for 1h revealed shrinkage of the plasma membrane, leakage of cell lysate, degradation of cell walls, enlargement of vacuoles and condensation of nuclei. Expression of one BAG-like gene, previously associated with cell death, was induced 20 min after TQ treatment in Glycine max root tip cells. Thus, TQ has multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells and plants may serve as a useful system to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the response of eukaryotic cells to TQ. © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. A Comprehensive Mathematical Programming Model for Minimizing Costs in A Multiple-Item Reverse Supply Chain with Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Hoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IFAC conferences. A reverse supply chain is configured by a sequence of elements forming a continuous process to treat return-products until they are properly recovered or disposed. The activities in a reverse supply chain include collection, cleaning, disassembly, test and sorting, storage, transport, and recovery operations. This paper presents a mathematical programming model with the objective of minimizing the total costs of reverse supply chain including transportation, fixed opening, operation, maintenance and remanufacturing costs of centers. The proposed model considers the design of a multi-layer, multi-product reverse supply chain that consists of returning, disassembly, processing, recycling, remanufacturing, materials and distribution centers. This integer linear programming model is solved by using Lingo 9 software and the results are reported. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model is also presented.

  20. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  1. Magnetic properties of a novel molecule-based ferrimagnet exhibiting multiple magnetic pole reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cador, Olivier; Vaz, Maria G.F.; Stumpf, Humberto O.; Mathoniere, Corine

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a new molecule-based ferrimagnet containing three different spin sources have been studied. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the magnetic poles reverse once in a small external field as the temperature varies. At a higher field, they reverse twice at temperatures that depend on the measurement process. A double thermal hysteresis is observed in a constant field. These experimental results can be rationalized by a combination of the molecular-field theory (MFT) and magnetic anisotropy

  2. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihui [Lakeshore, CA; Shi, Xun [Troy, MI; Bai, Shengqiang [Shanghai, CN; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai, CN; Chen, Lidong [Shanghai, CN; Yang, Jiong [Shanghai, CN

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  3. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prognosis, and treatment for these diseases.

  4. Evaluation of multiple small-angle neutron scattering including magnetic interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaroun, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, s1 (2007), s701-s705 ISSN 0021-8898. [XIII International Conference on Small - Angle Scattering . Kyoto, 09.07.2006-13.07.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : multiple small - angle scattering * neutron scattering * ferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2007

  5. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  6. Clinical problems of multiple primary cancers including head and neck cancers. From the viewpoint of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masamichi; Myojin, Miyako; Nishiyama, Noriaki; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Takagi, Masaru; Tanaka, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    A total of 2144 head and neck cancers were treated by radiotherapy at the National Sapporo Hospital between 1974 and 2001. Of these, 313 (14.6%) were found to have other primary cancers besides head and neck cancer, in which double cancers were 79% and triple or more cancers were 21%. Frequency according to primary site of the first head and neck cancer was oral cavity: 107/603 (17.7%), epipharynx cancer: 7/117 (6.0%), oropharyngeal cancer: 63/257 (24.5%), hypopharyngeal cancer: 65/200 (32.5%), laryngeal cancer: 114/558 (20.4%), and nose/paranasal sinus: 4.9% respectively. Esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancer were very frequent as other primary sites combined with the head and neck. The first onset region was the head and neck in 233 out of 313 cases with multiple primary cancers. The five-year survival rate from the onset of head and neck cancers is 52%, 10-year: 30%, and 5-year cause-specific survival rate 82%, and 10-year: 78%, respectively. The treatment possibilities in multiple primary cancers tend to be limited because the treatment areas are sometimes overlapped. New approaches to the treatment of multiple primary cancers should be considered in the future. (author)

  7. Estimates of lay views about reversal multiple intelligences for self and others: Sex and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; da Conceição Pinto, Maria; Mullet, Etienne; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on lay conceptions of intelligence. It examined sex and cross-cultural similarities and differences in estimated intelligences and beliefs about intelligence in two countries, Angola and East Timor, within the reversal theory framework. A total of 209 Angolan (109 women and 100 men) and 183 Timorese (89 women and 94 men) students were participated in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire in order to estimate their parents', partners' and own overall intelligence and the 8 reversal multiple intelligences (telic, paratelic, conformist, negativistic, autic mastery, autic sympathy, alloic mastery and alloic sympathy intelligence). Respondents also rated 6 questions about intelligence. Men rated their overall, conformist and autic mastery higher than women. Angolans rated their overall, telic, paratelic, conformist, negativistic, autic mastery, autic sympathy, alloic mastery and alloic sympathy intelligence higher than Timorese. In both countries, fathers have been perceived as more intelligent than mothers, and telic intelligence emerged as a significant predictor of overall intelligence. Principal component analysis of the 8 reversal multiple intelligences yielded one factor. Angolan participants revealed more IQ test experience than Timorese participants. Most of respondents in both countries did not believe in sex differences in intelligence. These findings are discussed by means of cross-cultural literature. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Characteristics of the ichthyofauna of a temperate microtidal estuary with a reverse salinity gradient, including inter-decadal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, L; Tweedley, J R; Clarke, K R; Hallett, C S; Potter, I C

    2014-11-01

    Data on the fish fauna of the Leschenault Estuary on the lower west coast of Australia were collected and used as a model to elucidate the characteristics of permanently open estuaries with a reverse salinity gradient, which undergo seasonal changes similar to many other estuaries with Mediterranean climate. Focus was placed on determining (1) the relationships of the number of species, density, life cycle category and species composition of fishes with region (within estuary), season and year and salinity, (2) whether species are partitioned along the lengths of such systems and (3) the extent and significance of any inter-decadal changes in species composition. The analyses and interpretation involved using multi-factorial permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) designs, and three new or recently published visualization tools, i.e. modified non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots, coherent species curves and segmented bubble plots. The base, lower, upper and apex regions of the Leschenault Estuary, along which the salinity increased in each season except in winter when most rainfall occurs, were sampled seasonally for the 2 years between winter 2008 and autumn 2010. Estuarine residents contributed twice as many individuals, but less than half the number of species as marine taxa. While the numbers of marine species and estuarine residents declined between the base or lower and apex regions, the individuals of marine species dominated the catches in the base region and estuarine residents in the other three regions. Ichthyofaunal composition in each region underwent conspicuous annual cyclical changes, due to time-staggered differences in recruitment among species, and changed sequentially along the estuary, both paralleling salinity trends. Different groups of species characterized the fauna in the different regions and seasons, thereby partitioning resources among species. The ichthyofauna of the

  9. Evaluating barriers for reverse logistics implementation under a multiple stakeholders' perspective analysis using grey decision making approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada

    2018-01-01

    issues, the subject is still in a state of infancy in emerging economies such as Brazil. In these connections, impediments to reverse logistics implementation must be considered and analyzed, as well as the many different perspectives from the key stakeholders for their development. The objective...... of this research is to evaluate the interrelationship among reverse logistics barriers from the perspectives of the most important stakeholders in the Brazilian context. For this purpose, a Multi-Criteria Decision Making tool named grey-based Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (grey-DEMATEL) was used...... to extract a multiple company-customer-government association perspective. Three respondents - one expert from each stakeholder - have been consulted to obtain the pair-wise comparison of barriers. Thus, both the net effect and the importance level of each impediment are provided by means of a Euclidean...

  10. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention is currently paid by several industries toward the friction stir welding process to realize lightweight structures. Within this aim, the realistic prediction of fatigue behavior of welded assemblies is a key factor. In this work an integrated finite element method - dual...... boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA...

  11. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...... traditionally used in finance, to bound the risk on constraint violation. We propose a reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) algorithm to solve the underlying optimization problem. This algorithm exploits the structure of the coherent risk measures, thus a large set of constraints are solved within...... sub-problems. Moreover, a variable elimination procedure allows solving the optimization problem in a reduced space and an iterative active-set method helps to handle a large set of inequality constraints. Finally, we demonstrate the application of constraints to bound the risk of water production...

  12. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA......2024-T3 alloy was simulated using a thermo-mechanical FEM model to predict the process induced residual stress field and material softening. The computed stress field was transferred to a DBEM environment and superimposed to the stress field produced by a remote fatigue traction load applied...... on a notched specimen. The whole procedure was finally tested comparing simulation outcomes with experimental data. The good agreement obtained highlights the predictive capability of the method. The influence of the residual stress distribution on crack growth and the mutual interaction between propagating...

  13. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. A parallel implementation of the network identification by multiple regression (NIR) algorithm to reverse-engineer regulatory gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoretti, Francesco; Belcastro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego; Oliva, Gennaro

    2010-04-21

    The reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks using gene expression profile data has become crucial to gain novel biological knowledge. Large amounts of data that need to be analyzed are currently being produced due to advances in microarray technologies. Using current reverse engineering algorithms to analyze large data sets can be very computational-intensive. These emerging computational requirements can be met using parallel computing techniques. It has been shown that the Network Identification by multiple Regression (NIR) algorithm performs better than the other ready-to-use reverse engineering software. However it cannot be used with large networks with thousands of nodes--as is the case in biological networks--due to the high time and space complexity. In this work we overcome this limitation by designing and developing a parallel version of the NIR algorithm. The new implementation of the algorithm reaches a very good accuracy even for large gene networks, improving our understanding of the gene regulatory networks that is crucial for a wide range of biomedical applications.

  15. Using Photovoice to Include People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…

  16. Prospective evaluation of dermatologic surgery complications including patients on multiple antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Martires, Kathryn J; Goldberg, Dori; Pattee, Sean F; Fu, Pingfu; Maloney, Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Few prospective studies have evaluated the safety of dermatologic surgery. We sought to determine rates of bleeding, infection, flap and graft necrosis, and dehiscence in outpatient dermatologic surgery, and to examine their relationship to type of repair, anatomic location of repair, antibiotic use, antiplatelet use, or anticoagulant use. Patients presenting to University of Massachusetts Medical School Dermatology Clinic for surgery during a 15-month period were prospectively entered. Medications, procedures, and complications were recorded. Of the 1911 patients, 38% were on one anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication, and 8.0% were on two or more. Risk of hemorrhage was 0.89%. Complex repair (odds ratio [OR] = 5.80), graft repair (OR = 7.58), flap repair (OR = 11.93), and partial repair (OR = 43.13) were more likely to result in bleeding than intermediate repair. Patients on both clopidogrel and warfarin were 40 times more likely to have bleeding complications than all others (P = .03). Risk of infection was 1.3%, but was greater than 3% on the genitalia, scalp, back, and leg. Partial flap necrosis occurred in 1.7% of flaps, and partial graft necrosis occurred in 8.6% of grafts. Partial graft necrosis occurred in 20% of grafts on the scalp and 10% of grafts on the nose. All complications resolved without sequelae. The study was limited to one academic dermatology practice. The rate of complications in dermatologic surgery is low, even when multiple oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications are continued, and prophylactic antibiotics are not used. Closure type and use of warfarin or clopidogrel increase bleeding risk. However, these medications should be continued to avoid adverse thrombotic events. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Unpredicted Side Effect of Bisphosphonates in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure Due to Multiple Myeloma: Reversible Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış İşak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a unique case in which the chemotherapeutic agent, i.e., zoledronic acid, deepened the hypocalcemia on the basis of chronic renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma and caused parkinsonism episodes. An 80-year-old female patient, who had been diagnosed as multiple myeloma and had been administered bisphosphonate therapy monthly for six months, was ad¬mitted to our emergency room with two parkinsonism episodes. Low serum calcium levels accompanied parkinsonism symptoms, which subsided with calcium replacement therapy in both episodes. Imaging did not reveal any pathology in the basal ganglia. The fact that the patient was cured both times with calcium replacement suggests that hypocalcemia was the actual cause. This can be interpreted as a unique case, reflecting the reversible functional impairment due to metabolic side effects of a chemotherapeutic agent rather than destructive changes in the basal ganglia.

  18. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  19. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Call-Fleming Syndrome (Reversible Cerebral Artery Vasoconstriction and Aneurysm Associated with Multiple Recreational Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doniel Drazin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  1. Effective multiple oral administration of reverse genetics engineered infectious bursal disease virus in mice in the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyák, Ákos; Lipinski, Kai S; Bakonyi, Tamás; Forgách, Petra; Horváth, Ernő; Farsang, Attila; Hedley, Susan J; Palya, Vilmos; Bakács, Tibor; Kovesdi, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Despite spectacular successes in hepatitis B and C therapies, severe hepatic impairment is still a major treatment problem. The clinically tested infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) superinfection therapy promises an innovative, interferon-free solution to this great unmet need, provided that a consistent manufacturing process preventing mutations or reversions to virulent strains is obtained. To address safety concerns, a tissue culture adapted IBDV vaccine strain V903/78 was cloned into cDNA plasmids ensuring reproducible production of a reverse engineered virus R903/78. The therapeutic drug candidate was characterized by immunocytochemistry assay, virus particle determination and immunoblot analysis. The biodistribution and potential immunogenicity of the IBDV agent was determined in mice, which is not a natural host of this virus, by quantitative detection of IBDV RNA by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus neutralization test, respectively. Several human cell lines supported IBDV propagation in the absence of visible cytopathic effect. The virus was stable from pH 8 to pH 6 and demonstrated significant resistance to low pH and also proved to be highly resistant to high temperatures. No pathological effects were observed in mice. Single and multiple oral administration of IBDV elicited antibodies with neutralizing activities in vitro. Repeat oral administration of R903/78 was successful despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Single oral and intravenous administration indicated that IBDV does not replicate in mammalian liver alleviating some safety related concerns. These data supports the development of an orally delivered anti-hepatitis B virus/ anti-hepatitis C virus viral agent for human use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  3. Reversed-phase chromatography with multiple fraction concatenation strategy for proteome profiling of human MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Gritsenko, Marina A; Wang, Yingchun; Clauss, Therese; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yufeng; Monroe, Matthew E; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Reno, Theresa; Moore, Ronald J; Klemke, Richard L; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated a concatenated low pH (pH 3) and high pH (pH 10) reversed-phase liquid chromatography strategy as a first dimension for two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry ("shotgun") proteomic analysis of trypsin-digested human MCF10A cell sample. Compared with the more traditional strong cation exchange method, the use of concatenated high pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography as a first-dimension fractionation strategy resulted in 1.8- and 1.6-fold increases in the number of peptide and protein identifications (with two or more unique peptides), respectively. In addition to broader identifications, advantages of the concatenated high pH fractionation approach include improved protein sequence coverage, simplified sample processing, and reduced sample losses. The results demonstrate that the concatenated high pH reversed-phased strategy is an attractive alternative to strong cation exchange for two-dimensional shotgun proteomic analysis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiple long-term trends and trend reversals dominate environmental conditions in a man-made freshwater reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Seďa, Jaromír; Kopáček, Jiří; Boukal, David; Mrkvička, Tomáš

    2018-05-15

    Man-made reservoirs are common across the world and provide a wide range of ecological services. Environmental conditions in riverine reservoirs are affected by the changing climate, catchment-wide processes and manipulations with the water level, and water abstraction from the reservoir. Long-term trends of environmental conditions in reservoirs thus reflect a wider range of drivers in comparison to lakes, which makes the understanding of reservoir dynamics more challenging. We analysed a 32-year time series of 36 environmental variables characterising weather, land use in the catchment, reservoir hydrochemistry, hydrology and light availability in the small, canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir in the Czech Republic to detect underlying trends, trend reversals and regime shifts. To do so, we fitted linear and piecewise linear regression and a regime shift model to the time series of mean annual values of each variable and to principal components produced by Principal Component Analysis. Models were weighted and ranked using Akaike information criterion and the model selection approach. Most environmental variables exhibited temporal changes that included time-varying trends and trend reversals. For instance, dissolved organic carbon showed a linear increasing trend while nitrate concentration or conductivity exemplified trend reversal. All trend reversals and cessations of temporal trends in reservoir hydrochemistry (except total phosphorus concentrations) occurred in the late 1980s and during 1990s as a consequence of dramatic socioeconomic changes. After a series of heavy rains in the late 1990s, an administrative decision to increase the flood-retention volume of the reservoir resulted in a significant regime shift in reservoir hydraulic conditions in 1999. Our analyses also highlight the utility of the model selection framework, based on relatively simple extensions of linear regression, to describe temporal trends in reservoir characteristics. This approach can

  6. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    the adjustment of the day-ahead scheduling and giving priority to the use of renewable energy. According to the forecast of the critical and noncritical load, the wind speed, and the solar irradiation, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization method is used to solve the multi-objective optimization......A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  7. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  8. Wet beriberi with multiple organ failure remarkably reversed by thiamine administration: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuanli; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Huang, Weijian; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Yingru

    2018-03-01

    Circulatory failure, especially with low systemic vascular resistance (SVR), as observed in septic shock, thyrotoxicosis, and anemia, is a particular pattern that should suggest thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. The clinical picture of wet beriberi secondary to thiamine deficiency only demonstrates non-specific clinical manifestations. For a diagnosis of wet beriberi, medical history is very important. Interestingly, imprisonment was also found to be related to thiamine deficiency. This article presents a rare case of wet beriberi associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) in a prison patient with years of heavy alcohol consumption. The patient reported repetitive symptoms of nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress, and palpitations for a period of 1 month; dyspnea and edema for 5 days; and decreased blood pressure and urine volume for 2 days. The heart failure patient had a history of dietary deficiency. Right heart catheterization showed high cardiac output (CO) and low SVR. Measurement of serum thiamine concentration was low. The most important factor was that the hemodynamic indices were remarkably reversed by thiamine administration. The patient started treatment with thiamine (100 mg) by intramuscular injection, together with basic supportive care. The hemodynamic indices improved within 12 hours after thiamine administration. Echocardiographic examinations revealed right ventricular function improvement within a few days, which were normal within a month. A diagnosis of wet beriberi should be considered for a prison patient who has unexplained heart failure, lactic acidosis, and/or MOF. Moreover, the patient should be empirically given thiamine administration without delay.

  9. Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S-protopanaxadiol, CK, an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC. A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC.

  10. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  11. Multiple reversions of an IL2RG mutation restore T cell function in an X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tomoki; Saito, Megumu; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Yasumi, Takahiro; Izawa, Kazushi; Murakami, Tomohiko; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Mori, Yasuko; Nakagawa, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Wada, Taizo; Yachie, Akihiro; Ohmori, Katsuyuki; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio

    2012-08-01

    Reversion mosaicism is increasingly being reported in primary immunodeficiency diseases, but there have been few cases with clinically improved immune function. Here, a case is reported of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) with multiple somatic reversions in T cells, which restored sufficient cell-mediated immunity to overcome viral infection. Lineage-specific analysis revealed multiple reversions in T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells. Diversity of the TCRVβ repertoire was comparable to normal and, furthermore, mitogen-induced proliferation of the patient's T cells was minimally impaired compared to healthy controls. In vivo and in vitro varicella antigen-specific T cell responses were comparable to those of healthy controls, although a reduced level of T cell receptor excision circles suggested that recent thymic output was low. During long-term evaluation of the patient's immunologic status, both the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and T cell proliferation responses were stable and the patient remained healthy. This case demonstrates that multiple but restricted somatic reversions in T cell progenitors can improve the clinical phenotype of SCID-X1.

  12. Effects of the W153L substitution in HIV reverse transcriptase on viral replication and drug resistance to multiple categories of reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Oliveira, Maureen; Rajotte, Daniel; Bethell, Richard; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    A W153L substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) was recently identified by selection with a novel nucleotide-competing RT inhibitor (NcRTI) termed compound A that is a member of the benzo[4,5]furo[3,2,d]pyrimidin-2-one NcRTI family of drugs. To investigate the impact of W153L, alone or in combination with the clinically relevant RT resistance substitutions K65R (change of Lys to Arg at position 65), M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C, on HIV-1 phenotypic susceptibility, viral replication, and RT enzymatic function, we generated recombinant RT enzymes and viruses containing each of these substitutions or various combinations of them. We found that W153L-containing viruses were impaired in viral replicative capacity and were hypersusceptible to tenofovir (TFV) while retaining susceptibility to most nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. The nucleoside 3TC retained potency against W153L-containing viruses but not when the M184I substitution was also present. W153L was also able to reverse the effects of the K65R substitution on resistance to TFV, and K65R conferred hypersusceptibility to compound A. Biochemical assays demonstrated that W153L alone or in combination with K65R, M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C impaired enzyme processivity and polymerization efficiency but did not diminish RNase H activity, providing mechanistic insights into the low replicative fitness associated with these substitutions. We show that the mechanism of the TFV hypersusceptibility conferred by W153L is mainly due to increased efficiency of TFV-diphosphate incorporation. These results demonstrate that compound A and/or derivatives thereof have the potential to be important antiretroviral agents that may be combined with tenofovir to achieve synergistic results. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  14. Reversed-Phase Chromatography with Multiple Fraction Concatenation Strategy for Proteome Profiling of Human MCF10A Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wang, Yingchun; Clauss, Therese RW; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yufeng; Monroe, Matthew E.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Reno, Theresa; Moore, Ronald J.; Klemke, Richard L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-05-01

    Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC) is commonly used for shotgun proteomics to improve the analysis dynamic range. Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been routinely employed as the second dimensional separation prior to the mass spectrometric analysis. Construction of 2D separation with RP-RP arises a concern for the separation orthogonality. In this study, we applied a novel concatenation strategy to improve the orthogonality of 2D RP-RP formed by low pH (i.e., pH 3) and high pH (i.e., pH 10) RPLC. We confidently identified 3753 proteins (18570 unique peptides) and 5907 proteins (37633 unique peptides) from low pH RPLC-RP and high pH RPLC-RP, respectively, for a trypsin-digested human MCF10A cell sample. Compared with SCX-RP, the high pH-low pH RP-RP approach resulted in 1.8-fold and 1.6-fold in the number of peptide and protein identifications, respectively. In addition to the broader identifications, the High pH-low pH RP-RP approach has advantages including the improved protein sequence coverage, the simplified sample processing, and the reduced sample loss. These results demonstrated that the concatenation high pH-low pH RP-RP strategy is an attractive alternative to SCX for 2D LC shotgun proteomic analysis.

  15. Klotho: a humeral mediator in CSF and plasma that influences longevity and susceptibility to multiple complex disorders, including depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlatou, M G; Remaley, A T; Gold, P W

    2016-08-30

    Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a significant decrease in lifespan. The Klotho-deficient mouse dies prematurely at 8-9 weeks of age. At 4-5 weeks of age, a syndrome resembling human ageing emerges consisting of atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, cognitive disturbances and alterations of hippocampal architecture. Several deficits in Klotho-deficient mice are likely to contribute to these phenomena. These include an inability to defend against oxidative stress in the central nervous system and periphery, decreased capacity to generate nitric oxide to sustain normal endothelial reactivity, defective Klotho-related mediation of glycosylation and ion channel regulation, increased insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and a disturbed calcium and phosphate homeostasis accompanied by altered vitamin D levels and ectopic calcification. Identifying the mechanisms by which Klotho influences multiple important pathways is an emerging field in human biology that will contribute significantly to understanding basic physiologic processes and targets for the treatment of complex diseases. Because many of the phenomena seen in Klotho-deficient mice occur in depressive illness, major depression and bipolar disorder represent illnesses potentially associated with Klotho dysregulation. Klotho's presence in CSF, blood and urine should facilitate its study in clinical populations.

  16. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ment of Civil Engineering and is presently the. Chairman of Center for. Sustainable Technologies,. Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research areas include, unsaturated soil behaviour, hazardous waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis,.

  17. Evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis using reverse nutech functional score and expanded disability status scale after human embryonic stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is a validated and reliable tool to assess the extent of disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the use of this tool has been found to be limited in assessing various symptoms of MS that are important. Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a new scoring system, reverse nutech functional score (RNFS) as compared to EDSS in assessing patients with MS treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy. Met...

  18. Stimulus-response bindings code both abstract and specific representations of stimuli: evidence from a classification priming design that reverses multiple levels of response representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, A J; Henson, R N

    2011-11-01

    Repetition priming can be caused by the rapid retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. S-R bindings have recently been shown to simultaneously code multiple levels of response representation, from specific Motor-actions to more abstract Decisions ("yes"/"no") and Classifications (e.g., "man-made"/"natural"). Using an experimental design that reverses responses at all of these levels, we assessed whether S-R bindings also code multiple levels of stimulus representation. Across two experiments, we found effects of response reversal on priming when switching between object pictures and object names, consistent with S-R bindings that code stimuli at an abstract level. Nonetheless, the size of this reversal effect was smaller for such across-format (e.g., word-picture) repetition than for within-format (e.g., picture-picture) repetition, suggesting additional coding of format-specific stimulus representations. We conclude that S-R bindings simultaneously represent both stimuli and responses at multiple levels of abstraction.

  19. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  20. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10 vs. moderate correlations (r=.50 with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3.

  1. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  2. Nontypeable pneumococci can be divided into multiple cps types, including one type expressing the novel gene pspK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Ho; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Briles, David E; McDaniel, Larry S; Nahm, Moon H

    2012-01-01

    Although virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with its capsule, some pathogenic S. pneumoniae isolates lack capsules and are serologically nontypeable (NT). We obtained 64 isolates that were identified as NT "pneumococci" (i.e., bacteria satisfying the conventional definition but without the multilocus sequence typing [MLST]-based definition of S. pneumoniae) by the traditional criteria. All 64 were optochin sensitive and had lytA, and 63 had ply. Twelve isolates had cpsA, suggesting the presence of a conventional but defective capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus. The 52 cpsA-negative isolates could be divided into three null capsule clades (NCC) based on aliC (aliB-like ORF1), aliD (aliB-like ORF2), and our newly discovered gene, pspK, in their cps loci. pspK encodes a protein with a long alpha-helical region containing an LPxTG motif and a YPT motif known to bind human pIgR. There were nine isolates in NCC1 (pspK(+) but negative for aliC and aliD), 32 isolates in NCC2 (aliC(+) aliD(+) but negative for pspK), and 11 in NCC3 (aliD(+) but negative for aliC and pspK). Among 52 cpsA-negative isolates, 41 were identified as S. pneumoniae by MLST analysis. All NCC1 and most NCC2 isolates were S. pneumoniae, whereas all nine NCC3 and two NCC2 isolates were not S. pneumoniae. Several NCC1 and NCC2 isolates from multiple individuals had identical MLST and cps regions, showing that unencapsulated S. pneumoniae can be infectious among humans. Furthermore, NCC1 and NCC2 S. pneumoniae isolates could colonize mice as well as encapsulated S. pneumoniae, although S. pneumoniae with an artificially disrupted cps locus did not. Moreover, an NCC1 isolate with pspK deletion did not colonize mice, suggesting that pspK is critical for colonization. Thus, PspK may provide pneumococci a means of surviving in the nasopharynx without capsule. IMPORTANCE The presence of a capsule is critical for many pathogenic bacteria, including pneumococci. Reflecting the

  3. Will PEDF Therapy Reverse Chronic Demyelination and Prevent Axon Loss in a Murine Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis ? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Pleasure MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California Davis, CA 95618 REPORT DATE...Murine Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis ? 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Pleasure MD 5d...enhance central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and preserve CNS axons in mouse models of multiple sclerosis models. After determining the dosage of

  4. Multiple schwannomas, including a plexiform variant, in a patient in the absence of neurofibromatosis I or II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehlata R Hingway

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple schwannomatosis, is defined as two or more, pathologically proven schwannomas, without radiographic evidence of vestibular nerve tumor, below 18 years, or absence of VIII nerve dysfunction beyond 30 years with absence of stigmata of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2. The plexiform schwannoma (PS is a rare tumor. The gross appearance is an important diagnostic criterion for diagnosis of PSs. It is associated with NF2, which was ruled out in this case. Here we present a 50 year female patient with two nonintradermal schwannomas, in the supraclavicular and infraauricular deep soft tissues. One was plexiform, diagnosed on cytology and confirmed by histopathology. She also had multiple pulmonary and pleural lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears from both supraclavicular and infraauricular lesions as well as the lung lesion sampled, showed spindle cells in a myxoid background, having wavy nuclei with pointed ends. Verocay body - like palisading of nuclei was noted.

  5. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  6. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation levels at multiple genomic loci but the effect is partially reversible upon cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaprouni, Loukia G; Yang, Tsun-Po; Bell, Jordana; Dick, Katherine J; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nisbet, James; Viñuela, Ana; Grundberg, Elin; Nelson, Christopher P; Meduri, Eshwar; Buil, Alfonso; Cambien, Francois; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Goodall, Alison H; Ouwehand, Willem H; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Spector, Tim D; Samani, Nilesh J; Deloukas, Panos

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in many diseases. Genome wide association studies have linked genes for nicotine dependence and smoking behavior to increased risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and malignant diseases. We conducted an epigenome wide association study in peripheral-blood DNA in 464 individuals (22 current smokers and 263 ex-smokers), using the Human Methylation 450 K array. Upon replication in an independent sample of 356 twins (41 current and 104 ex-smokers), we identified 30 probes in 15 distinct loci, all of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis P peaks (ENCODE data set), which mark regulatory elements. The effect of smoking on DNA methylation was partially reversible upon smoking cessation for longer than 3 months. We report the first statistically significant interaction between a SNP (rs2697768) and cigarette smoking on DNA methylation (cg03329539). We provide evidence that the metSNP for cg03329539 regulates expression of the CHRND gene located circa 95 Kb downstream of the methylation site. Our findings suggest the existence of dynamic, reversible site-specific methylation changes in response to cigarette smoking , which may contribute to the extended health risks associated with cigarette smoking.

  9. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... (DATAC1, which only contained the first crop daughters) for proven bulls. In addition, the superiority of the models was evaluated by expected reliability of EBV, calculated from the prediction error variance of EBV. Based on these criteria, the models combining milk production traits showed better model...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Latent introduction to the Netherlands of multiple antibiotic resistance including NDM-1 after hospitalisation in Egypt, August 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Friedrich, A W; Zhou, K; Arends, J P; Borst, D M; Grundmann, H; Rossen, J W

    2013-01-01

    We describe the introduction of various multi-drug resistant bacterial strains, including an NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, through a traveller returning from Egypt, where they had been admitted to a private hospital. All family members of the patient were colonised with one or more

  12. Outcomes of an aquatic exercise program including aerobic capacity, lactate threshold, and fatigue in two individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, Gina; Madras, Diane; Weiss, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Fatigue in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be exacerbated by poor cardiovascular fitness. Although aqua aerobic exercise is often recommended, little research has been conducted on the efficacy of aqua aerobic exercise in improving cardiovascular fitness in patients with MS. The purpose of this case report is to describe changes in cardiovascular fitness and fatigue for 2 people with MS following an aqua aerobics class. The participants were 2 females, both with MS for over 10 years and mild disability. Participant A (40 years old and EDSS = 2.5/10) reported fatigue, numbness in her hands and feet, and occasional blurred vision. Participant B (51 years old and EDSS = 3.0/10) reported the same problems as Participant A plus stiffness in her right lower extremity. The participants performed aqua aerobics at an intensity equivalent to their lactate threshold twice a week for 8 weeks. Lactate threshold is the exercise intensity just prior to the accumulation of blood lactate during graded exercise. A graded exercise test (with measurements of gas exchange) and a test of fatigue were administered before and after the intervention. Initially, both participants had poor cardiovascular fitness as demonstrated by their low peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and low lactate threshold (LT). After the intervention, both participants achieved a higher peak workload (their VO2peak increased) and they could sustain a higher submaximal workload without accumulation of acid substances causing fatigue (their LT increased). Changes in fatigue following the intervention were equivocal with Participant A reporting decreased fatigue and Participant B reporting no change. This report describes the use of exercise testing to guide clinical decision making for dosing of an aqua aerobic fitness intervention and illustrates positive effects of the intervention on cardiovascular fitness in 2 people with MS.

  13. Klotho: a humeral mediator in CSF and plasma that influences longevity and susceptibility to multiple complex disorders, including depression

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlatou, M G; Remaley, A T; Gold, P W

    2016-01-01

    Klotho is a hormone secreted into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and urine that promotes longevity and influences the onset of several premature senescent phenotypes in mice and humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, stroke and osteoporosis. Preliminary studies also suggest that Klotho possesses tumor suppressor properties. Klotho's roles in these phenomena were first suggested by studies demonstrating that a defect in the Klotho gene in mice results in a signific...

  14. Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight, including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs, and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4% and 22:6n-3 (7.3% acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin.

  15. Activation of endogenous retrovirus reverse transcriptase in multiple sclerosis patient lymphocytes by inactivated HSV-1, HHV-6 and VZV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Lühdorf, Pernille; Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and herpesviruses have been associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). These virus groups interact with each other and have been shown to induce synergistic immune responses. Here, we focus on the possible role of herpesviruses as contributin...

  16. A reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction mixed-mode C18-Diol stationary phase for multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ye, Mao; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo

    2015-08-12

    A mixed-mode chromatographic packing material, C18 and diol groups modified silica (C18-Diol), was prepared with controllable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. It demonstrated excellent aqueous compatibility and stability in aqueous mobile phase; compared to the traditional C18 column, improved peak shape of basic analytes was also obtained. Additionally, it exhibited both reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) performance; the analyte separation scope was thus enlarged, demonstrated by simultaneous separation of twenty acids, bases and neutrals. More interestingly, a novel on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was established by modifying the high performance liquid chromatographic instrument only with the addition of an extra six-port two-position valve. The early co-eluted components of the extract of Lonicera japonica on the 1st-dimension (RPLC) were collected for the online re-injection to the 2nd-dimension (HILIC) by conveniently varying the mobile phase components. Six more peaks were obtained. The established system was simple, easy operation and low cost, which had advantages in analyzing complicated samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A de novo 1.58 Mb deletion, including MAP2K6 and mapping 1.28 Mb upstream to SOX9, identified in a patient with Pierre Robin sequence and osteopenia with multiple fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Marta; Roeder, Elizabeth; Cheung, Sau Wai; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    Defects of long-range regulatory elements of dosage-sensitive genes represent an under-recognized mechanism underlying genetic diseases. Haploinsufficiency of SOX9, the gene essential for development of testes and differentiation of chondrocytes, results in campomelic dysplasia, a skeletal malformation syndrome often associated with sex reversal. Chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints mapping up to 1.6 Mb up- and downstream to SOX9, and disrupting its distant cis-regulatory elements, have been described in patients with milder forms of campomelic dysplasia, Pierre Robin sequence, and sex reversal. We present an ∼1.58 Mb deletion mapping ∼1.28 Mb upstream to SOX9 that encompasses its putative long-range cis-regulatory element(s) and MAP2K6 in a patient with Pierre Robin sequence and osteopenia with multiple fractures. Low bone mass panel testing using massively parallel sequencing of 23 nuclear genes, including COL1A1 and COL1A2 was negative. Based on the previous mouse model of Map2k6, suggesting that Sox9 is likely a downstream target of the p38 MAPK pathway, and our previous chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C) data showing potential interactions between SOX9 promoter and MAP2K6, we hypothesize that deletion of MAP2K6 might have affected SOX9 expression and contributed to our patient's phenotype. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Improved detection limit in rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 by a novel reverse transcription-isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiong; Nie, Kai; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Dan; Qi, Shunxiang; Ma, Xuejun

    2014-06-01

    Rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is important in the early phase of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel reverse transcription-isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (RT-IMSA) assay for the rapid detection of EV71 and CVA16 by use of reverse transcriptase, together with a strand displacement DNA polymerase. Real-time RT-IMSA assays using a turbidimeter and visual RT-IMSA assays to detect EV71 and CVA16 were established and completed in 1 h, and the reported corresponding real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays targeting the same regions of the VP1 gene were adopted as parallel tests. Through testing VP1 RNAs transcribed in vitro, the real-time RT-IMSA assays exhibited better linearity of quantification, with R(2) values of 0.952 (for EV71) and 0.967 (for CVA16), than the real-time RT-LAMP assays, which had R(2) values of 0.803 (for EV71) and 0.904 (for CVA16). Additionally, the detection limits of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (approximately 937 for EV71 and 67 for CVA16 copies/reaction) were higher than those of real-time RT-LAMP assays (approximately 3,266 for EV71 and 430 for CVA16 copies/reaction), and similar results were observed in the visual RT-IMSA assays. The new approaches also possess high specificities for the corresponding targets, with no cross-reactivity observed. In clinical assessment, compared to commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) kits, the diagnostic sensitivities of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (96.4% for EV71 and 94.6% for CVA16) were higher than those of the real-time RT-LAMP assays (91.1% for EV71 and 90.8% for CVA16). The visual RT-IMSA assays also exhibited the same results. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel RT-IMSA assay is superior to the RT-LAMP assay in terms of detection limit and has the potential to rapidly detect EV71

  19. Inhibition of peptidyl-arginine deiminases reverses protein-hypercitrullination and disease in mouse models of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Moscarello

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common CNS-demyelinating disease of humans, showing clinical and pathological heterogeneity and a general resistance to therapy. We first discovered that abnormal myelin hypercitrullination, even in normal-appearing white matter, by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs correlates strongly with disease severity and might have an important role in MS progression. Hypercitrullination is known to promote focal demyelination through reduced myelin compaction. Here we report that 2-chloroacetamidine (2CA, a small-molecule, PAD active-site inhibitor, dramatically attenuates disease at any stage in independent neurodegenerative as well as autoimmune MS mouse models. 2CA reduced PAD activity and protein citrullination to pre-disease status. In the autoimmune models, disease induction uniformly induced spontaneous hypercitrullination with citrulline+ epitopes targeted frequently. 2CA rapidly suppressed T cell autoreactivity, clearing brain and spinal cord infiltrates, through selective removal of newly activated T cells. 2CA essentially prevented disease when administered before disease onset or before autoimmune induction, making hypercitrullination, and specifically PAD enzymes, a therapeutic target in MS models and thus possibly in MS.

  20. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  1. Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II secretion substrates, including a novel protein, contribute to differential infection of the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jessica Y; Pearce, Meghan M; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2013-05-01

    Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila.

  2. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P2 preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P 2 preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-[ 3 H]nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-[ 3 H]nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine

  3. Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)(criminal statute prohibiting interracial marriages held unconstitutional violation of the Equal Protection and Due Process...such sentences does not violate the Constitution."°2 7 In effect , the double jeopardy protection from multiple punishments is coextensive with...unaware of what it accomplished . . . . In effect , the Blockburger test establishes a presumption of legislative intent: if each of two statutes

  4. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  5. A coupled electro-thermo-mechanical FEM code for large scale problems including multi-domain and multiple time-step aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Menanteau, Laurent; Pantalé, Olivier; Caperaa, Serge

    2005-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a virtual prototyping tool for large scale electro-thermo-mechanical simulation of power converters used in railway transport including multi-domain and multiple time-steps aspects. For this purpose, Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) is used to give on one hand the ability to treat large scale problems and on the other hand, for transient analysis, the ability to use different time-steps in different parts of the numerical model. An Object-Oriented progra...

  6. Oral administration of PF-01247324, a subtype-selective Nav1.8 blocker, reverses cerebellar deficits in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon D Shields

    Full Text Available Cerebellar symptoms significantly diminish quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. We previously showed that sodium channel Nav1.8, although normally restricted to peripheral somatosensory neurons, is upregulated in the cerebellum in MS, and that Nav1.8 expression is linked to ataxia and MS-like symptoms in mice. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of the Nav1.8 blocker A-803467 temporarily reversed electrophysiological and behavioral manifestations of disease in a mouse MS model; unfortunately A-803467 is not orally bioavailable, diminishing the potential for translation to human patients. In the present study, we assessed the effect of per os (p.o. dosing of a new orally bioavailable Nav1.8-selective blocker, PF-01247324, in transgenic mice expressing Nav1.8 in Purkinje neurons, and in wildtype mice in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. PF-01247324 was administered by oral gavage at 1000 mg/kg; control groups received an equal volume of vehicle. Behavioral assays of motor coordination, grip strength, and ataxia were performed. We observed significant improvements in motor coordination and cerebellar-like symptoms in mice that received PF-01247324 compared to control littermates that received vehicle. These preclinical proof-of-concept data suggest that PF-01247324, its derivatives, or other Nav1.8-selective blockers merit further study for providing symptomatic therapy for cerebellar dysfunction in MS and related disorders.

  7. Sensitive determination of neurotransmitters in urine by microchip electrophoresis with multiple-concentration approaches combining field-amplified and reversed-field stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Guan; Chen, Wujuan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yating; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang

    2016-07-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is particularly attractive as it provides high sensitivity and selectivity, short analysis time and low sample consumption. An on-line preconcentration strategy combining field-amplified stacking (FASS) and reversed-field stacking (RFS) was developed for efficient and sensitive analysis of neurotransmitters in real urine samples by MCE with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. In this study, the multiple-preconcentration strategy greatly improves the sensitivity enhancement and surpass other conventional analytical methods for neurotransmitters detection. Under optimal conditions, the separation of three neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin), was achieved within 3min with limits of detection (S/N=3) of 1.69, 2.35, and 2.73nM, respectively. The detection sensitivities were improved by 201-, 182-, and 292-fold enhancement, for the three neurotransmitters respectively. Other evaluation parameters such as linear correlation coefficients were considered as satisfactory. A real urine sample was analyzed with recoveries of 101.8-106.4%. The proposed FASS-RFS-MCE method was characterized in terms of precision, linearity, accuracy and successfully applied for rapid and sensitive determination of three neurotransmitters in human urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: development of a multivariable model including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mheen, Lidewij; Schuit, Ewoud; Lim, Arianne C; Porath, Martina M; Papatsonis, Dimitri; Erwich, Jan J; van Eyck, Jim; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Hummel, Piet; Duvekot, Johannes J; Hasaart, Tom H M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Moons, Karl G M; de Groot, Christianne J M; Bruinse, Hein W; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-04-01

    To develop a multivariable prognostic model for the risk of preterm delivery in women with multiple pregnancy that includes cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and other variables. We used data from a previous randomized trial. We assessed the association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and time to delivery using multivariable Cox regression modelling. Performance of the final model was assessed for the outcomes of preterm and very preterm delivery using calibration and discrimination measures. We studied 507 women, of whom 270 (53%) delivered models for preterm and very preterm delivery had a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.75), respectively, and showed good calibration. In women with a multiple pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery can be assessed with a multivariable model incorporating cervical length and other predictors.

  9. Long-term efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with persistent allergic rhinitis due to multiple allergens including house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Long, J; Wang, T; Xie, J; Wang, M; Tan, G

    2018-03-01

    To observe the five-year efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite allergy in monosensitised and polysensitised children with persistent allergic rhinitis. From January 2007 to August 2009, 236 children with persistent allergic rhinitis were divided into 2 groups: 1 group received standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract; the other received pharmacotherapy with intranasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. A total of 193 patients (106 in the immunotherapy group and 87 in the pharmacotherapy group) completed treatment. Scores for symptoms, total medication and quality of life were evaluated. The subcutaneous immunotherapy group demonstrated a significant reduction in visual analogue scale scores, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and total medication scores (p 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred. Standardised subcutaneous immunotherapy has long-term efficacy for children with persistent allergic rhinitis. Single-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy was appropriate for allergic rhinitis caused by multiple allergens, including house dust mites, in the paediatric population.

  10. Myeloid dendritic cells loaded with dendritic tandem multiple antigenic telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) epitope peptides: a potentially promising tumor vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bai-lin; Du, Hui-min; Shen, Hua-ping; Lian, Zheng-rong; Li, Jin-zheng; Lai, Xing; Wei, Si-dong; Zou, Li-quan; Gong, Jian-ping

    2012-05-14

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been identified as an ideal tumor-associated antigen (TAA). Use of a synthetic hTERT epitope peptide to pulse dendritic cells can induce autologous T cell anti-tumor immune responses, but such responses induced by a single epitope peptide have been shown to be weak and a narrow-spectrum. Here, we designed dendritic tandem multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs) containing the following three hTERT epitope peptides: I540, V461 and L766, which are HLA-A*02-, HLA-A*24- and HLA-RDB1*04/11/15-restricted, respectively. The MAPs and their three single-epitope peptides were obtained through solid-phase synthesis. Healthy volunteers that were HLA-A*02(+)/HLA-DRB1*04(+) and HLA-A*24(+)/HLA-DRB1*15(+) were recruited. Myeloid dendritic cells were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting and were divided into a MAP-stimulated group (MAP-DC), a group in which the three epitope peptides were mixed and used to stimulate the DCs (MixP-DC) and a no peptide-stimulated group (NoP-DC, control group). All of the DCs were cultured in serum-free medium, pulsed with the corresponding peptides on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days, and co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes when they were mature. The related cytokines were measured via ELISA. The killing effects of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) on SW480/A549 tumor cells expressing HLA-A*02(+), HepG2/SMMC-7721 cells expressing HLA-A*24(+) and SKOV3 cells negative for HLA-A*02/A*24 were detected by flow cytometry. Our results indicated that the CTLs induced by the MAP-DCs had the greatest anti-tumor effect. Therefore, the dendritic tandem multiple antigenic hTERT epitope peptides combined with MDCs may represent a powerful, broad-spectrum anti-tumor vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MiR-7 triggers cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition by targeting multiple genes including Skp2 and Psme3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sanchez

    Full Text Available MiR-7 acts as a tumour suppressor in many cancers and abrogates proliferation of CHO cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that miR-7 targets key regulators of the G1 to S phase transition, including Skp2 and Psme3, to promote increased levels of p27(KIP and temporary growth arrest of CHO cells in the G1 phase. Simultaneously, the down-regulation of DNA repair-specific proteins via miR-7 including Rad54L, and pro-apoptotic regulators such as p53, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic factors like p-Akt, promoted cell survival while arrested in G1. Thus miR-7 can co-ordinate the levels of multiple genes and proteins to influence G1 to S phase transition and the apoptotic response in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. This work provides further mechanistic insight into the role of miR-7 as a regulator of cell growth in times of cellular stress.

  12. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  13. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor

  14. Reversible Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  15. The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K. A.

    1982-08-01

    The number of available palaeomagnetic records displaying detailed transitional field behaviour has increased significantly over the past few years. The expanded data set of transitions now includes records of sequential reversals from the same site locality as well as multiple recordings of a particular reversal from widely separated sites. Such data are most useful with regard to the testing of geomagnetic reversal models. First, records of successive reversals may make it possible to distinguish whether transitional fields originate primarily with the configurational characteristics of the reversing geodynamo or whether a non-reversing portion of the field is responsible. Such an analysis does not yet provide conclusive evidence in support of either hypothesis. Second, multiple records from distant sites furnish the best possible data with regard to the determination of the harmonic content of particular transitional fields. In this regard, two quite independent, testable models have been applied to the several recordings of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition. Findings support the hypothesis that the intermediate field geometry during this particular polarity transition was indeed controlled by non-dipole zonal harmonic terms. Moreover, analysis of the paths of the virtual geomagnetic pole associated with the available records strongly suggests that the most extreme dominance of transitional fields by axisymmetric components occurs during the onset of the reversal, a finding that now has support on purely theoretical grounds. Finally, field behaviour associated with existing igneous-recorded palaeomagnetic excursions is not unlike that observed at the onset of field reversals. Hence, there is growing evidence in support of the hypothesis that attempts by the geodynamo to reverse are not always successful. These recordings of apparent abortive reversals may be of considerable value with regard to our understanding of transitional fields and geomagnetic reversal.

  16. Gas Phase Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectra of Positively Charged Sodium Bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate Reverse Micelle-like Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgi, G.; Ceraulo, L.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Liveri, V. T.

    2011-01-01

    The capability of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy to gain structural information on surfactant-based supramolecular aggregates has been exploited to elucidate intermolecular interactions and local organization of positively charged sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate

  17. Report of Increasing Overdose Deaths that include Acetyl Fentanyl in Multiple Counties of the Southwestern Region of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Janssen, Jennifer; Luckasevic, Todd M; Williams, Karl E

    2018-01-01

    Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405.3 ng/mL, respectively. Thirty-six individuals (88%) had a confirmed history of substance abuse, and all but one case (96%) were ruled multiple drug toxicities. This report characterizes this localized trend of overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl and provides further evidence supporting an alarmingly concentrated opiate and opioid epidemic of both traditional and novel drugs within this region of the United States. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  19. Reversible binding of the HPLC6 isoform of type I antifreeze proteins to ice surfaces and the antifreeze mechanism studied by multiple quantum filtering-spin exchange NMR experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yong; Wongskhaluang, Jeff; Li, Jiabo

    2003-01-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect organisms from freezing damage by inhibiting the growth of seed-ice crystals. It has long been hypothesized that irreversible binding of AFPs to ice surfaces is responsible for inhibiting the growth of seed-ice crystals as such a mechanism supports the popularly accepted Kelvin effect for the explanation of local freezing-point depression. However, whether the binding is reversible or irreversible is still under debate due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here, we report the first direct experimental result, by using the newly developed multiple quantum (MQ) filtering-spin exchange NMR experiment, that shows that the binding of HPLC6 peptides to ice surfaces is reversible. It was found that the reversible process can be explained by the model of monolayer adsorption. These results suggest that the Kelvin effect is not suitable for explaining the antifreeze mechanism, and direct interactions between the peptides and the ice-surface binding sites are the driving forces for the binding of AFPs to ice surfaces. We propose that there exists a concentration gradient of AFP from an ice-binding surface to the solution due to the affinity of ice surfaces to AFPs. This concentration gradient creates a dense layer of AFP in contact with the ice-binding surface, which depresses the local freezing point because of the colligative property, but not the Kelvin effect.

  20. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or the water reaches the tip of every leaf of a plant is due to osmotic pressure. ... concentration and temperature of the solution by a law that is similar to the gas law. ... waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis, desalinatiion, seawater, water purification.

  1. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  2. EPR spectroscopy of MRI-related Gd(III) complexes: simultaneous analysis of multiple frequency and temperature spectra, including static and transient crystal field effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S; Borel, A; Helm, L; Belorizky, E; Fries, P H; Merbach, A E

    2001-03-21

    For the first time, a very general theoretical method is proposed to interpret the full electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at multiple temperatures and frequencies in the important case of S-state metal ions complexed in liquid solution. This method is illustrated by a careful analysis of the measured spectra of two Gd3+ (S = 7/2) complexes. It is shown that the electronic relaxation mechanisms at the origin of the EPR line shape arise from the combined effects of the modulation of the static crystal field by the random Brownian rotation of the complex and of the transient zero-field splitting. A detailed study of the static crystal field mechanism shows that, contrarily to the usual global models involving only second-order terms, the fourth and sixth order terms can play a non-negligible role. The obtained parameters are well interpreted in the framework of the physics of the various underlying relaxation processes. A better understanding of these mechanisms is highly valuable since they partly control the efficiency of paramagnetic metal ions in contrast agents for medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  3. Transcriptional regulation of PP2A-A alpha is mediated by multiple factors including AP-2alpha, CREB, ETS-1, and SP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Ge Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatases-2A (PP-2A is a major serine/threonine phosphatase and accounts for more than 50% serine/threonine phosphatase activity in eukaryotes. The holoenzyme of PP-2A consists of the scaffold A subunit, the catalytic C subunit and the regulatory B subunit. The scaffold subunits, PP2A-A alpha/beta, provide a platform for both C and B subunits to bind, thus playing a crucial role in providing specific PP-2A activity. Mutation of the two genes encoding PP2A-A alpha/beta leads to carcinogenesis and likely other human diseases. Regulation of these genes by various factors, both extracellular and intracellular, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we have conducted functional dissection of the promoter of the mouse PP2A-A alpha gene. Our results demonstrate that the proximal promoter of the mouse PP2A-A alpha gene contains numerous cis-elements for the binding of CREB, ETS-1, AP-2 alpha, SP-1 besides the putative TFIIB binding site (BRE and the downstream promoter element (DPE. Gel mobility shifting assays revealed that CREB, ETS-1, AP-2 alpha, and SP-1 all bind to PP2A-A alpha gene promoter. In vitro mutagenesis and reporter gene activity assays reveal that while SP-1 displays negative regulation, CREB, ETS-1 and AP-2A alpha all positively regulate the promoter of the PP2A-A alpha gene. ChIP assays further confirm that all the above transcription factors participate the regulation of PP2A-A alpha gene promoter. Together, our results reveal that multiple transcription factors regulate the PP2A-A alpha gene.

  4. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... by accounting for the significance of the materials and the equipment that enters into the production of statistics. Key words: Reversible statistics, diverse materials, constructivism, economics, science, and technology....

  5. Novel interstitial deletion of 10q24.3-25.1 associated with multiple congenital anomalies including lobar holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, and hypoplastic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltekova, Iskra T; Hurteau-Millar, Julie; Armour, Christine M

    2014-12-01

    Chromosome 10q deletions are rare and phenotypically diverse. Such deletions differ in length and occur in numerous regions on the long arm of chromosome 10, accounting for the wide clinical variability. Commonly reported findings include dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and genitourinary abnormalities. Here, we report on a female patient with a novel interstitial 5.54 Mb deletion at 10q24.31-q25.1. This patient had findings in common with a previously reported patient with an overlapping deletion, including renal anomalies and an orofacial cleft, but also demonstrated lobar holoprosencephaly and a Dandy-Walker malformation, features which have not been previously reported with 10q deletions. An analysis of the region deleted in our patient showed numerous genes, such as KAZALD1, PAX2, SEMA4G, ACTRA1, INA, and FGF8, whose putative functions may have played a role in the phenotype seen in our patient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray mass detection and 1H and 13C NMR characterization of new process-related impurities, including forced degradants of efavirenz: related substances correlated to the synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadapayale, Kamalesh; Kakde, Rajendra; Sarma, V U M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic electrospray mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of process-related impurities and forced degradants of Efavirenz in bulk drugs. Efavirenz was subjected to acid, alkaline hydrolysis, H2O2 oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress. Significant degradation was observed during alkaline hydrolysis, and the degradants were isolated on a mass-based purification system and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Accurate mass measurement and NMR spectroscopy revealed the possible structure of process-related impurities and degradant under stress conditions. The acceptable separation was accomplished on Waters bondapak C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm), using 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 247 nm and quantitation limits were obtained in the range of 0.1-2.5 μg/mL for Efavirenz, degradants, and process-related impurities. The liquid chromatography method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, and limits of detection and quantification as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Laser heating of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental facility is a 21-cm-long solenoid with a 5.5-cm bore. The 4-cm ID quartz tube is filled with slowly flowing H 2 to 0.5-3.0 torr. Fields up to 6.5 T in 3.7 μsec are produced, with reverse-bias fields up -1.9 T. Preionization is by 40kA axial discharge 4.5 μsec before field-reversal is begun. The CO 2 laser used produces 300 to 400 J in 2 μsec, in an annular beam that can be defocused for preheating the outer edges of the plasma, or focused tightly for central-column heating and beam propagation during formation. The focusing system includes a return mirror for multiple passing of the laser energy. Diagnostics include compensated, diamagnetic flux loops, internal field probes, cross-tube and axial interferometers, fast photography, and spectroscopy

  8. A pH and solvent optimized reverse-phase ion-paring-LC–MS/MS method that leverages multiple scan-types for targeted absolute quantification of intracellular metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    existing reverse phase ion-paring liquid chromatography methods for separation and detection of polar and anionic compounds that comprise key nodes of intracellular metabolism by optimizing pH and solvent composition. In addition, the presented method utilizes multiple scan types provided by hybrid......Comprehensive knowledge of intracellular biochemistry is needed to accurately understand, model, and manipulate metabolism for industrial and therapeutic applications. Quantitative metabolomics has been driven by advances in analytical instrumentation and can add valuable knowledge...... to the understanding of intracellular metabolism. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS and LC–MS/MS) has become a reliable means with which to quantify a multitude of intracellular metabolites in parallel with great specificity and accuracy. This work details a method that builds and extends upon...

  9. Dynamic evolution and biogenesis of small RNAs during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Luo, Majing; Sheng, Yue; Hong, Qiang; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-06

    Understanding origin, evolution and functions of small RNA (sRNA) genes has been a great challenge in the past decade. Molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal in vertebrates, particularly sRNAs involved in this process, are largely unknown. By deep-sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in combination with genomic analysis, we identified a large amount of piRNAs and miRNAs including over 1,000 novel miRNAs, which were differentially expressed during gonad reversal from ovary to testis via ovotesis. Biogenesis and expressions of miRNAs were dynamically changed during the reversal. Notably, phylogenetic analysis revealed dynamic expansions of miRNAs in vertebrates and an evolutionary trajectory of conserved miR-17-92 cluster in the Eukarya. We showed that the miR-17-92 cluster in vertebrates was generated through multiple duplications from ancestor miR-92 in invertebrates Tetranychus urticae and Daphnia pulex from the Chelicerata around 580 Mya. Moreover, we identified the sexual regulator Dmrt1 as a direct target of the members miR-19a and -19b in the cluster. These data suggested dynamic biogenesis and expressions of small RNAs during sex reversal and revealed multiple expansions and evolutionary trajectory of miRNAs from invertebrates to vertebrates, which implicate small RNAs in sexual reversal and provide new insight into evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal.

  10. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  11. A reversible processor architecture and its reversible logic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a purely reversible computing architecture, Bob, and its instruction set, BobISA. The special features of the design include a simple, yet expressive, locally-invertible instruction set, and fully reversible control logic and address calculation. We have designed an arch...

  12. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  13. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  14. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  15. Kronisk ileus efter iatrogen reversering af tyndtarmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebaek; Rahr, Hans B; Mahdi, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of inadvertent reversal of the entire small intestine leading to severe complications and long-standing ileus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and laparotomy. The patient was cured by surgical re-reversal of the bowel. Care should be taken to ma...... the bowel ends when multiple simultaneous bowel resections are performed....

  16. Reversing factor Xa inhibitors – clinical utility of andexanet alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaatz S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scott Kaatz,1 Hardik Bhansali,1 Joseph Gibbs,2 Robert Lavender,3 Charles E Mahan,4 David G Paje5 1Division of Hospital Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, 3Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 4University of New Mexico, Presbyterian Healthcare Services, Albuquerque, NM, 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Approximately half of patients started on an oral anticoagulant in the USA now receive one of the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs. Although there is an approved reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, a specific reversal agent for the anti-factor Xa (FXa DOACs has yet to be licensed. Unlike the strategy to reverse the only oral direct thrombin inhibitor with idarucizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment, a different approach is necessary to design a single agent that can reverse multiple anti-FXa medications. Andexanet alfa is a FXa decoy designed to reverse all anticoagulants that act through this part of the coagulation cascade including anti-FXa DOACs, such as apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban, and indirect FXa inhibitors such as low-molecular-weight heparins. This narrative reviews the development of andexanet alfa and explores its basic science, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, animal models, and human studies. Keywords: factor Xa, DOAC, andexanet alfa, reversal, rivaroxaban, apixaban

  17. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  18. Interesting images: Multiple coronary artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon M; Viswanath, Omar; Armas, Alfredo; Santana, Orlando; Rosen, Gerald P

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old male who presented with stable angina and dyspnea on exertion. His initial workup yielded a positive treadmill stress test for reversible apical ischemia, and transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated impaired systolic function. Cardiac catheterization was then performed, revealing severe atherosclerotic disease including multiple coronary artery aneurysms. As a result, the patient was advised to and subsequently underwent a coronary artery bypass graft. This case highlights the presence of multiple coronary artery aneurysms and the ability to appreciate these pathologic findings on multiple imaging modalities, including coronary angiogram, transesophageal echocardiography, and direct visualization through the surgical field.

  19. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication....../equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent......We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise...

  20. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  1. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Multiple molecular dynamics simulation of the isoforms of human translation elongation factor 1A reveals reversible fluctuations between "open" and "closed" conformations and suggests specific for eEF1A1 affinity for Ca2+-calmodulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrutskii Boris S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A directs the correct aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomal A-site. In addition, eEF1A is involved in carcinogenesis and apoptosis and can interact with large number of non-translational ligands. There are two isoforms of eEF1A, which are 98% similar. Despite the strong similarity, the isoforms differ in some properties. Importantly, the appearance of eEF1A2 in tissues in which the variant is not normally expressed can be coupled to cancer development. We reasoned that the background for the functional difference of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 might lie in changes of dynamics of the isoforms. Results It has been determined by multiple MD simulation that eEF1A1 shows increased reciprocal flexibility of structural domains I and II and less average distance between the domains, while increased non-correlated diffusive atom motions within protein domains characterize eEF1A2. The divergence in the dynamic properties of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 is caused by interactions of amino acid residues that differ between the two variants with neighboring residues and water environment. The main correlated motion of both protein isoforms is the change in proximity of domains I and II which can lead to disappearance of the gap between the domains and transition of the protein into a "closed" conformation. Such a transition is reversible and the protein can adopt an "open" conformation again. This finding is in line with our earlier experimental observation that the transition between "open" and "closed" conformations of eEF1A could be essential for binding of tRNA and/or other biological ligands. The putative calmodulin-binding region Asn311-Gly327 is less flexible in eEF1A1 implying its increased affinity for calmodulin. The ability of eEF1A1 rather than eEF1A2 to interact with Ca2+/calmodulin is shown experimentally in an ELISA-based test. Conclusion We have found that reversible transitions between "open" and "close

  3. HIV-1 reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name "retrovirus" derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT.

  4. Multiple-port valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable with one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitting into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits

  5. Anormalidades do potencial evocado visual por padrão reverso em pacientes com esclerose múltipla definida Pattern reversal visual evoked potential abnormalities in patients with defined multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Tumas

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial evocado visual por padrão reverso, obtido por padrões de 14' e 28', foi analisado retrospectivamente em 28 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla definida. Observamos respostas anormais em 27/28 (96,4% pacientes, em 31/36 (86% dos olhos considerados sintomáticos e em 16/20 (80% dos ollhos assintomáticos. Classificando os achados em cada olho segundo as respostas obtidas aos dois estímulos, observamos uma possível relação entre essa classificação e a gravidade de comprometimento visual pela doença. Detectamos em alguns olhos anormalidades isoladas do N75 e também de P100 apenas à estimulação de 28'. Dessa forma, a técnica empregada foi considerada sensível e pôde definir inclusive comprometimento visual subclínico. Entretanto, não teve sensibilidade absoluta para detectar anormalidades em alguns olhos sintomáticos. O tipo de resposta aos estímulos empregados pode sugerir o grau de extensão de envolvimento do sistema visual pela doença. Os achados mostram ainda o envolvimento irregular e predominante das fibras mais centrais da visão pela esclerose múltipla, e sugerem processadores neurais distintos e paralelos para as respostas aos dois padrões utilizados.The pattern reversal visual evoked potential with checks of 14' and 28' was restropectivelly studied in 28 patients with definite multiple sclerosis. We observed abnormal responses in 27/28 (96.4% patients, in 31/36 (86% of symptomatic eyes, and in 16/20 (80% of asymptomatic eyes. When we classified the abnormalities in each eye according to the findings obtained with each check, there was a correlation between the pattern of abnormalities and the severity of visual involvement. Occasionally there were isolated abnormalities of N75 or only in P100 obtained with 28' checks. In conclusion the methodology applied was very sensible in detecting abnormalities in visual pathway. We could classify the findings in each eye and correlate them with the

  6. Reverse Transcriptase and Cellular Factors: Regulators of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kylie; Warrilow, David; Meredith, Luke; Harrich, David

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence that synthesis of HIV-1 proviral DNA from the viral RNA genome during reverse transcription requires host factors. However, only a few cellular proteins have been described in detail that affect reverse transcription and interact with reverse transcriptase (RT). HIV-1 integrase is an RT binding protein and a number of IN-binding proteins including INI1, components of the Sin3a complex, and Gemin2 affect reverse transcription. In addition, recent studies implicate the c...

  7. Reverse logistics - a framework

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, M.P.; Dekker, R.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  8. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral fact...

  9. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  10. Problemas multiplicativos envolvendo combinatória: estratégias de resolução empregadas por alunos do Ensino Fundamental público Multiplicative problems including combinatorics: solving strategies adopted by Public Elementary School students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny R. M. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    was better in problems with two variables and factors with low values. There was no alteration in the performance among the 6th and 9th graders. In general, the difficulties found were related to: 1 intuitive models students have when dealing with multiplication (especially the one including repeated addition; 2 the semantic structure of the problem; 3 numerical preferences regarding the quantity of numerical digits, ways of representing the problem and interpretation of verbal problem statements. Because multiplication is a very complex operation involving abstract cognitive processes in its solution, we believe that the teacher needs to know them to facilitate students' learning.

  11. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  12. Principles of a reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....

  13. Detection of Quiescent Infections with Multiple Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs), Including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within Lymphoid Lung Nodules or Lung and Spleen Tissue Samples from Five Asymptomatic Adult African Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jian-Chao; Heaggans, Sarah Y; Long, Simon Y; Latimer, Erin M; Nofs, Sally A; Bronson, Ellen; Casares, Miguel; Fouraker, Michael D; Pearson, Virginia R; Richman, Laura K; Hayward, Gary S

    2015-12-30

    More than 80 cases of lethal hemorrhagic disease associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) have been identified in young Asian elephants worldwide. Diagnostic PCR tests detected six types of EEHV in blood of elephants with acute disease, although EEHV1A is the predominant pathogenic type. Previously, the presence of herpesvirus virions within benign lung and skin nodules from healthy African elephants led to suggestions that African elephants may be the source of EEHV disease in Asian elephants. Here, we used direct PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect EEHV genomes in necropsy tissue from five healthy adult African elephants. Two large lung nodules collected from culled wild South African elephants contained high levels of either EEHV3 alone or both EEHV2 and EEHV3. Similarly, a euthanized U.S. elephant proved to harbor multiple EEHV types distributed nonuniformly across four small lung nodules, including high levels of EEHV6, lower levels of EEHV3 and EEHV2, and a new GC-rich branch type, EEHV7. Several of the same EEHV types were also detected in random lung and spleen samples from two other elephants. Sanger PCR DNA sequence data comprising 100 kb were obtained from a total of 15 different strains identified, with (except for a few hypervariable genes) the EEHV2, EEHV3, and EEHV6 strains all being closely related to known genotypes from cases of acute disease, whereas the seven loci (4.0 kb) obtained from EEHV7 averaged 18% divergence from their nearest relative, EEHV3. Overall, we conclude that these four EEHV species, but probably not EEHV1, occur commonly as quiescent infections in African elephants. Acute hemorrhagic disease characterized by high-level viremia due to infection by members of the Proboscivirus genus threatens the future breeding success of endangered Asian elephants worldwide. Although the genomes of six EEHV types from acute cases have been partially or fully characterized, lethal disease predominantly involves a variety

  14. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  15. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  16. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  17. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  18. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  19. Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2010-01-01

    -bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible...

  20. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  1. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  2. Malware analysis and reverse engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Šváb, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Focus of this thesis is reverse engineering in information technology closely linked with the malware analysis. It explains fundamentals of IA-32 processors architecture and basics of operating system Microsoft Windows. Main part of this thesis is dedicated to the malware analysis, including description of creating a tool for simplification of static part of the analysis. In Conclusion various approaches to the malware analysis, which were described in previous part of the thesis, are practic...

  3. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other factors. Success rates may be as high as 80 percent or as low as near 40 percent depending on your circumstances. Tubal ligation reversal is abdominal surgery, which carries a risk of infection, bleeding and ...

  4. Structure and reactivity in reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pileni, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This book gives an up-to-date, comprehensive assessment of current knowledge in the very fast-moving field of reverse micelles, ranging from physical studies to biotechnological applications. Starting with physical and spectroscopic studies of reverse micelle structure at the macro- and microstructural levels, topics dealt with in detail are the NMR spectroscopy of reverse micells, fluorescence quenching kinetics, photochemical behaviour, role and behaviour of hydrated electrons in reverse micelles, including femtosecond phenomena, reactivity-dependent applications such as microlatex formation, protein partitioning, extraction, and purification. The microreactor characteristics of reverse micelles are shown to allow formation of semiconductor clusters, peptide synthesis through enzyme-catalyzed reactions, reaction product extraction, and enhanced-reactivity phenomena. The reactivity effects and their consequences are particularly highlighted throughout the book

  5. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...

  6. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping

    2011-07-08

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors have been previously verified with computer simulations and laboratory experiments but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate the high-resolution and the super-stacking properties in locating seismic sources with field seismic data that include multiple scattering. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that a time reversal mirror has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 4 or more. Results also show that a time reversal mirror has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests also demonstrate that time reversal mirrors can sometimes enhance the signal by a factor proportional to the square root of the product of the number of traces, denoted as N and the number of events in the traces. This enhancement property is denoted as super-stacking and greatly exceeds the classical signal-to-noise enhancement factor of. High-resolution and super-stacking are properties also enjoyed by seismic interferometry and reverse-time migration with the exact velocity model. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  7. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  8. Reverse Shock Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    2015-01-01

    reverse shock which have been confirmed by observations. Investigations of the nature of the reverse shock emission can provide valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of the GRB ejecta. Here we briefly review the standard and the extended models of the reverse shock emission, discussing the connection between the theory and observations, including the implications of the latest observational advances.

  9. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    %). There was no difference in postoperative complications between the two groups (10 versus 14%), and no anastomotic leaks. The total mortality was 2% as one patient died postoperatively after an open operation. CONCLUSION: It is possible for trained laparoscopic colorectal surgeons to perform laparoscopic reversal...... of all patients who underwent reversal of a colostomy after a primary Hartmann's procedure during the period May 2005 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively in a case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were included. Twenty-one had a laparoscopic and 22 an open procedure. The two...... groups matched with regard to age, sex, American Society of Anestheologists (ASA) score, body mass index and indication for Hartmann's operation. A significantly longer operation time was found for laparoscopic than for open surgery (median 285 versus 158 minutes, p

  10. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records...... of all patients who underwent reversal of a colostomy after a primary Hartmann's procedure during the period May 2005 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively in a case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were included. Twenty-one had a laparoscopic and 22 an open procedure. The two...... groups matched with regard to age, sex, American Society of Anestheologists (ASA) score, body mass index and indication for Hartmann's operation. A significantly longer operation time was found for laparoscopic than for open surgery (median 285 versus 158 minutes, p

  11. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  12. Biotin Switch Assays for Quantitation of Reversible Cysteine Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Kast, J

    2017-01-01

    Thiol groups in protein cysteine residues can be subjected to different oxidative modifications by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Reversible cysteine oxidation, including S-nitrosylation, S-sulfenylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide formation, modulate multiple biological functions, such as enzyme catalysis, antioxidant, and other signaling pathways. However, the biological relevance of reversible cysteine oxidation is typically underestimated, in part due to the low abundance and high reactivity of some of these modifications, and the lack of methods to enrich and quantify them. To facilitate future research efforts, this chapter describes detailed procedures to target the different modifications using mass spectrometry-based biotin switch assays. By switching the modification of interest to a biotin moiety, these assays leverage the high affinity between biotin and avidin to enrich the modification. The use of stable isotope labeling and a range of selective reducing agents facilitate the quantitation of individual as well as total reversible cysteine oxidation. The biotin switch assay has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of S-nitrosylation in different disease models and is now also emerging as a valuable research tool for other oxidative cysteine modifications, highlighting its relevance as a versatile, robust strategy for carrying out in-depth studies in redox proteomics. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected...... to the start-up of elongation for three Hencky strain units and subsequently the reversed flow. The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept agrees with the experiments. In the experiments the Hencky strain at which the str~ss becomes zero (the recovery strain......) in the reversed flow has been identified. The recovery strain is found to increase with elongational rate, and has a maximum value of approximately 1.45. The Doi Edwards model using any stretch evolution equation is not able to predict the correct level of the recovery strain....

  14. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nick W; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized. On the other hand, frail (CHS-frailty phenotype ≥ 3 physical deficits) older adults should exercise 3 times per week, for 30-45 min for each session with an emphasis on aerobic training. During aerobic, balance, and flexibility training, both frail and pre-frail older adults should work at an intensity equivalent to a rating of perceived exertion of 3-4 ("somewhat hard") on the Borg CR10 scale. Resistance-training intensity should be based on a percentage of 1-repetition estimated maximum (1RM). Program onset should occur at 55% of 1RM (endurance) and progress to higher intensities of 80% of 1RM (strength) to maximize functional gains. Exercise is the medicine to reverse or mitigate frailty, preserve quality of life, and restore independent functioning in older adults at risk of frailty.

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  16. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions. II: Parallel reversible chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Geert; van Beckum, F.P.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    An absorption model has been developed which can be used to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon mass transfer accompanied by multiple complex parallel reversible chemical reactions. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and

  17. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  18. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  19. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  1. Outbreak epidemiologically linked with a composite product of beef, mechanically separated chicken and textured vegetable protein contaminated with multiple serotypes of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant Infantis, California 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J A; Wheeler, C; Mohle-Boetani, J C

    2018-03-01

    A salmonellosis outbreak occurred at a California prison in April and May 2016. In a cohort study of 371 inmates, persons who consumed dishes from the prison kitchen made from ground meat had a higher attack rate (15%) than those who did not (4%) (risk ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.6). The ground meat product was composed exclusively of beef, mechanically separated chicken (MSC) and textured vegetable protein; eight of eight lots of the product collected from the prison and processing facility were contaminated with Salmonella enterica of eight serotypes and 17 distinct PFGE patterns, including multidrug-resistant S. Infantis. Either the MSC or the beef could have been the source of the particular strains of S. enterica isolated from patients or the product. The microbiological evidence is most consistent with MSC as the source of the high levels of S. enterica in the epidemiologically linked meat product. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the hazard posed by the use of products containing raw mechanically separated poultry in kitchens in institutions.

  2. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  3. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  4. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  5. Medical abortion reversal: science and politics meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2018-03-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  7. Improving Passive Time Reversal Underwater Acoustic Communications Using Subarray Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbing He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel receivers are usually employed in high-rate underwater acoustic communication to achieve spatial diversity. In the context of multichannel underwater acoustic communications, passive time reversal (TR combined with a single-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-DFE is a low-complexity solution to achieve both spatial and temporal focusing. In this paper, we present a novel receiver structure to combine passive time reversal with a low-order multichannel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-MC-DFE to improve the performance of the conventional TR-DFE. First, the proposed method divides the whole received array into several subarrays. Second, we conduct passive time reversal processing in each subarray. Third, the multiple subarray outputs are equalized with a low-order multichannel DFE. We also investigated different channel estimation methods, including least squares (LS, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP, and improved proportionate normalized least mean squares (IPNLMS. The bit error rate (BER and output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR performances of the receiver algorithms are evaluated using simulation and real data collected in a lake experiment. The source-receiver range is 7.4 km, and the data rate with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK signal is 8 kbits/s. The uncoded BER of the single input multiple output (SIMO systems varies between 1 × 10 − 1 and 2 × 10 − 2 for the conventional TR-DFE, and between 1 × 10 − 2 and 1 × 10 − 3 for the proposed TR-MC-DFE when eight hydrophones are utilized. Compared to conventional TR-DFE, the average output SNR of the experimental data is enhanced by 3 dB.

  8. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be so...

  9. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  10. Duplication of dosage sensitive sex reversal area in a 46, XY patient with normal sex determining region of Y causing complete sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anju; Desmangles, Jean-Claude; Gartner, Lou Ann; Buchlis, John

    2013-01-01

    The sex chromosome composition of the primordial gonad, either 46XX or 46XY, determines its differentiation as ovaries or testes. Local hormones secreted by developing gonads and tissue specific transcription factors influence the differentiation of external and internal genital structures. Dosage sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region (DAX1) on Xp21 is a gene which is expressed in the developing adrenals, gonads, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Duplication of this area causes dosage sensitive male-to-female sex reversal while mutation or deletion leads to adrenal hypoplasia congenita with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in affected males. To report a case with duplication of the X chromosome segment within the region of Xp21.1-22.2 resulting in 46 XY sex reversal and a literature review on DAX1 and dosage sensitive sex reversal (DSS). We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory, and imaging study results in a newborn baby. This infant was sex assigned as female at birth and had normal female external genitalia. Chromosome analysis was done due to multiple minor malformations and showed a karyotype of 46 Xp+Y. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed the duplication in the DSS area. Duplication of the DAX1 gene on the X chromosome with normal sex determining region of Y (SRY) results in 46 XY sex reversal. This was inherited from the mother who had normal ovarian function. Additional problems include growth failure, mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies. The baby did not have a mutation or deletion of DAX1, which would have caused adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism.

  11. Time-reversal acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Mathias [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: mathias.fink@espci.fr

    2008-10-15

    Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) refocus an incident acoustic field to the position of the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRM's have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from MHz ultrasonics with order centimeter aperture size to hundreds/thousands of Hz in ocean acoustics with order hundred meter aperture size. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations at all scales that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM, the sharper the focus. The relation between the medium complexity and the size of the focal spot is studied in this paper. It is certainly the most exciting property of TRM compared to standard focusing devices. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appears wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse in a refocusing quality that does not depend of the TRM aperture. In this paper, we investigate the time-reversal approach in various media of increasing complexity and we discuss the link existing between time-reversal approach and local helioseismology where Green's functions can be extracted from diffusive noise.

  12. Refined Probability of Differential Characteristics Including Dependency Between Multiple Rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Canteaut (Anne); E. Lambooij (Eran); S. Neves (Samuel); S. Rasoolzadeh (Shahram); Y. Sasaki (Yu); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe current paper studies the probability of differential characteristics for an unkeyed (or with a fixed key) construction. Most notably, it focuses on the gap between two probabilities of differential characteristics: probability with independent S-box assumption, p_ind, and exact

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient ( autologous transplant) or a donor ( allogeneic transplant) and are ... the patient's stem cells from the blood or bone marrow are used; or two autologous stem cell transplants followed by an autologous or ...

  14. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient ( autologous transplant) or a donor ( allogeneic transplant) and are ... the patient's stem cells from the blood or bone marrow are used; or two autologous stem cell transplants followed by an autologous or ...

  15. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  16. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  17. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed

  18. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  19. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  1. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  2. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  3. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  4. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L.; Schulz, Andreas L.; Ohl, Frank W.; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  5. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jarvers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e. tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN, which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that

  6. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L; Schulz, Andreas L; Ohl, Frank W; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  7. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  8. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  9. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  10. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  11. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan J; Baranzini, Sergio E; Geurts, Jeroen; Hemmer, Bernhard; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-03-22

    Multiple sclerosis continues to be a challenging and disabling condition but there is now greater understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental factors that drive the condition, including low vitamin D levels, cigarette smoking, and obesity. Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial and is supported by diagnostic criteria, incorporating imaging and spinal fluid abnormalities for those presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome. Importantly, there is an extensive therapeutic armamentarium, both oral and by infusion, for those with the relapsing remitting form of the disease. Careful consideration is required when choosing the correct treatment, balancing the side-effect profile with efficacy and escalating as clinically appropriate. This move towards more personalised medicine is supported by a clinical guideline published in 2018. Finally, a comprehensive management programme is strongly recommended for all patients with multiple sclerosis, enhancing health-related quality of life through advocating wellness, addressing aggravating factors, and managing comorbidities. The greatest remaining challenge for multiple sclerosis is the development of treatments incorporating neuroprotection and remyelination to treat and ultimately prevent the disabling, progressive forms of the condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reverse Genetics of Influenza B Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Perez, Daniel R; Santos, Jefferson; Finch, Courtney; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Annual influenza epidemics are caused not only by influenza A viruses but also by influenza B viruses. Initially established for the generation of recombinant influenza A viruses, plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques have allowed researchers the generation of wild type and mutant viruses from full-length cDNA copies of the influenza viral genome. These reverse genetics approaches have allowed researchers to answer important questions on the biology of influenza viruses by genetically engineering infectious recombinant viruses. This has resulted in a better understanding of the molecular biology of influenza viruses, including both viral and host factors required for genome replication and transcription. With the ability to generate recombinant viruses containing specific mutations in the viral genome, these reverse genetics tools have also allowed the identification of viral and host factors involved in influenza pathogenesis, transmissibility, host-range interactions and restrictions, and virulence. Likewise, reverse genetics techniques have been used for the implementation of inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines and the identification of anti-influenza drugs and their mechanism of antiviral activity. In 2002, these reverse genetics approaches allowed also the recovery of recombinant influenza B viruses entirely from plasmid DNA. In this chapter we describe the cloning of influenza B/Brisbane/60/2008 viral RNAs into the ambisense pDP-2002 plasmid and the experimental procedures for the successful generation of recombinant influenza B viruses.

  14. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  15. Heraclitus, Seaford and Reversible Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, C; Duschinsky, Robert Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In this essay we identify a characteristic pattern of Heraclitus’ thought and language, the “figure of reversible exchange”. We suggest that this figure allows Heraclitus to propose an ontological structure consisting of two intersecting circuits of relations: a pre-temporal reversible exchange between Being and Becoming and between One and Many, and a temporal reversible exchange within the Many as the very process of Becoming. Against Richard Seaford’s interpretation of Heraclitus’ thought ...

  16. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-01-01

    Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The mo...

  17. Boiler feedwater treatment using reverse osmosis at Suncor OSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment system for boiler feedwater at a Suncor plant was discussed. The selection process began in 1993 when Suncor identified a need to increase its boiler feedwater capacity. The company reviewed many options available to increase the treated water capacity. These included: contracting the supply of treated water, adding additional capacity, replacing the entire plant, reverse osmosis, and demineralization. The eventual decision was to build a new 1000 cu m/hr reverse osmosis water treatment plant with the following key components: a Degremont Infilco Ultra Pulsator Clarifier and a Glegg Water Conditioning multimedia filter, Amberpack softeners and reverse osmosis arrays. The reverse osmosis plant was environmentally favourable over an equivalent demineralization plant. A technical comparison was provided between demineralization and reverse osmosis. The system has proven to be successful and economical in meeting the plants needs. 5 figs

  18. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marquet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target.

  19. Physics of field reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Since the earliest days of fusion research it has been hoped that diamagnetic currents flowing in a plasma could be used to help confine the plasma. Recently this hope has been strengthened both by theoretical advances and by experimental results made possible by technological developments. On the theoretical front analytical treatments and computer simulation studies have demonstrated equilibrium solutions existing both in the fluid limit and in the large-orbit limit. Progress has also been made in determining the conditions required for the stability of field-reversed entities. It appears that configurations of the general form of fat doughnuts, possibly elongated to napkin-ring form, represent stable states. Building on previous experimental work, several investigators have been able to create field-reversed states. One method, based on the ASTRON idea of Christofilos, traps an intense relativistic electron beams (REB) to create a field-reversing current ring. Other approaches use either the reversed field theta pinch technique or REB pulses to create field-reversing diamagnetic currents in a long cylindrical plasma. In the former method, millisecond-long field-reversing electron rings have been achieved; in the latter method field-reversed plasma states lasting 30 to 50 microseconds have been achieved. Another approach under investigation is the Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) created by the tangential injection of high current neutral beams. Plasma states that approach field reversal have been achieved by this technique

  20. Effect of Reverse Bias Stress on Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltages of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of solid tantalum capacitors are produced by high-temperature sintering of a fine tantalum powder around a tantalum wire followed by electrolytic anodization that forms a thin amorphous Ta2O5 dielectric layer and pyrolysis of manganese nitrite on the oxide to create a conductive manganese dioxide electrode. A contact to tantalum wire is used as anode terminal and to the manganese layer as a cathode terminal of the device. This process results in formation of an asymmetric Ta -- Ta2O5 -- MnO2 capacitor that has different characteristics at forward (positive bias applied to tantalum) and reverse (positive bias applied to manganese cathode) voltages. Reverse bias currents might be several orders of magnitude larger than forward leakage currents so I-V characteristics of tantalum capacitors resemble characteristics of semiconductor rectifiers. Asymmetric I-V characteristics of Ta -- anodic Ta2O5 systems have been observed at different top electrode materials including metals, electrolytes, conductive polymers, and manganese oxide thus indicating that this phenomenon is likely related to the specifics of the Ta -- Ta2O5 interface. There have been multiple attempts to explain rectifying characteristics of capacitors employing anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. A brief review of works related to reverse bias (RB) behavior of tantalum capacitors shows that the mechanism of conduction in Ta -- Ta2O5 systems is still not clear and more testing and analysis is necessary to understand the processes involved. If tantalum capacitors behave just as rectifiers, then the assessment of the safe reverse bias operating conditions would be a relatively simple task. Unfortunately, these parts can degrade with time under reverse bias significantly, and this further complicates analysis of the I-V characteristics and establishing safe operating areas of the parts. On other hand, time dependence of reverse currents might provide additional information for investigation of

  1. Reversal of Hartmann's procedure following acute diverticulitis: is timing everything?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Fergal J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo a Hartmann\\'s procedure may not be offered a reversal due to concerns over the morbidity of the second procedure. The aims of this study were to examine the morbidity post reversal of Hartmann\\'s procedure. METHODS: Patients who underwent a Hartmann\\'s procedure for acute diverticulitis (Hinchey 3 or 4) between 1995 and 2006 were studied. Clinical factors including patient comorbidities were analysed to elucidate what preoperative factors were associated with complications following reversal of Hartmann\\'s procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and ten patients were included. Median age was 70 years and 56% of the cohort were male (n = 61). The mortality and morbidity rate for the acute presentation was 7.3% (n = 8) and 34% (n = 37) respectively. Seventy six patients (69%) underwent a reversal at a median of 7 months (range 3-22 months) post-Hartmann\\'s procedure. The complication rate in the reversal group was 25% (n = 18). A history of current smoking (p = 0.004), increasing time to reversal (p = 0.04) and low preoperative albumin (p = 0.003) were all associated with complications following reversal. CONCLUSIONS: Reversal of Hartmann\\'s procedure can be offered to appropriately selected patients though with a significant (25%) morbidity rate. The identification of potential modifiable factors such as current smoking, prolonged time to reversal and low preoperative albumin may allow optimisation of such patients preoperatively.

  2. Iterative Approximate Solutions of Kinetic Equations for Reversible Enzyme Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshnaw, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study kinetic models of reversible enzyme reactions and compare two techniques for analytic approximate solutions of the model. Analytic approximate solutions of non-linear reaction equations for reversible enzyme reactions are calculated using the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the Simple Iteration Method (SIM). The results of the approximations are similar. The Matlab programs are included in appendices.

  3. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  4. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  5. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  6. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  7. REVERSE LOGISTICS IN GLOBALIZATION ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Grabara; Iwona Grabara

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents issues connected with adaptation of modern solutions of reverse logisticsmanagement in enterprise to the concept of sustainable development promoted by the European Union.Nowadays more and more businesses are looking to grow their reverse logistics capabilities in global market.

  8. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.

    Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant

  9. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  10. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...... inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies...... a pointer decreases the reference count. We show reversible implementations of operations on nodes with reference counts. We then show these operations can be used when implementing a reversible functional language RCFUN to the reversible imperative language Janus....

  11. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  12. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  13. Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2014-01-01

    We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups...

  14. Reverse Methanogenesis and Respiration in Methanotrophic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer H. A. Timmers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is catalyzed by anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME via a reverse and modified methanogenesis pathway. Methanogens can also reverse the methanogenesis pathway to oxidize methane, but only during net methane production (i.e., “trace methane oxidation”. In turn, ANME can produce methane, but only during net methane oxidation (i.e., enzymatic back flux. Net AOM is exergonic when coupled to an external electron acceptor such as sulfate (ANME-1, ANME-2abc, and ANME-3, nitrate (ANME-2d, or metal (oxides. In this review, the reversibility of the methanogenesis pathway and essential differences between ANME and methanogens are described by combining published information with domain based (metagenome comparison of archaeal methanotrophs and selected archaea. These differences include abundances and special structure of methyl coenzyme M reductase and of multiheme cytochromes and the presence of menaquinones or methanophenazines. ANME-2a and ANME-2d can use electron acceptors other than sulfate or nitrate for AOM, respectively. Environmental studies suggest that ANME-2d are also involved in sulfate-dependent AOM. ANME-1 seem to use a different mechanism for disposal of electrons and possibly are less versatile in electron acceptors use than ANME-2. Future research will shed light on the molecular basis of reversal of the methanogenic pathway and electron transfer in different ANME types.

  15. Amyloid Beta Peptide Folding in Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Gözde; Axelsen, Paul H

    2017-07-19

    Previously published experimental studies have suggested that when the 40-residue amyloid beta peptide is encapsulated in a reverse micelle, it folds into a structure that may nucleate amyloid fibril formation (Yeung, P. S.-W.; Axelsen, P. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 6061 ). The factors that induce the formation of this structure have now been identified in a multi-microsecond simulation of the same reverse micelle system that was studied experimentally. Key features of the polypeptide-micelle interaction include the anchoring of a hydrophobic residue cluster into gaps in the reverse micelle surface, the formation of a beta turn at the anchor point that brings N- and C-terminal segments of the polypeptide into proximity, high ionic strength that promotes intramolecular hydrogen bond formation, and deformation of the reverse micelle surface to facilitate interactions with the surface along the entire length of the polypeptide. Together, these features cause the simulation-derived vibrational spectrum to red shift in a manner that reproduces the red-shift previously reported experimentally. On the basis of these findings, a new mechanism is proposed whereby membranes nucleate fibril formation and facilitate the in-register alignment of polypeptide strands that is characteristic of amyloid fibrils.

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  18. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  19. Multiple Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Parys, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    In ANOVA we are mainly based on inter-treatment comparisons. Another common problems arising in biometric studies (especially in biomedical studies) is that of comparing two groups of patients (treatment and a control group) based on multiple response (called multiple endpoints). In this paper we present the continuos and discrete approaches to multiple endpoints. In the case of continuous multiple endpoints we have common assumption in that the covariance matrices in group ...

  20. Artefactual multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Whiteboards are highly important to the work in emergency departments (EDs). As a collaborative technology ED whiteboards are usually placed in the dynamic centre of the ED, and all ED staff will approach the whiteboard regularly to organize their individual yet interdependent work. Currently, di...... this characteristic of heterogeneous artefacts; namely artefactual multiplicity. Artefactual multiplicity identifies not only the multiple functions of heterogeneous artefacts but also the intricate relations between these multiple functionalities....

  1. Null tests of time-reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Because null tests of parity conservation exist in nuclear and particle reactions, it has been possible to measure very precisely the (weak-interaction) parity nonconserving contribution to the process. There is, however, a proof of the nonexistence of a comparable null test of time-reversal invariance. As a result, reaction tests of T symmetry have, at best, achieved precisions several orders of magnitude below that of the tests of P symmetry. Since transmission experiments are not included in the nonexistence proof, the existing formalism used to describe spin observables in neutron transmission experiments has been expanded to include explicitly the target spin. Through this formalism, the time-reversal-violating (and parity nonconserving) forward scattering amplitudes are identified, along with the corresponding spin observables. It is noted that new and more precise tests of T symmetry are provided in transmission experiments, and that such investigations are applicable more generally in nuclear and particle physics

  2. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    Reverse innovation commonly refers to an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Adopting a linear innovation model with the four sequential phases of concept ideation, product development, primary target market introduction, and subsequent...... secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations...

  3. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  4. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  5. Finger Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  6. Reverse Engineering Integrated Circuits Using Finite State Machine Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oler, Kiri J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Carl H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, we present a methodology for reverse engineering integrated circuits, including a mathematical verification of a scalable algorithm used to generate minimal finite state machine representations of integrated circuits.

  7. Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafimova, Iana M; Pufall, Miles A; Krishnan, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins' intrinsic reactivity, but, paradoxically, eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation...

  8. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  9. Reverse genetics in ecological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwachtje

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT, and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  10. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  11. A radial global dyssynchrony index as predictor of left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Luigi; Iengo, Raffaele; Accadia, Maria; Rumolo, Salvatore; Celentano, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonello; De Michele, Mario; Muto, Carmine; Carreras, Giovanni; Maglione, Marco; Tuccillo, Bernardino; Roelandt, Jos

    2008-07-01

    Cardiac mechanical efficiency requires that opposing left ventricular regions are coupled both in shortening and lengthening during the same phase of cardiac cycle. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether global measures of mechanical dyssynchrony are able to predict reverse remodeling of the left ventricle in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Sixty-two patients underwent a clinical examination, including New York Heart Association class evaluation and 6-minute walking distance and both echocardiographic study before and 6 months after CRT. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was evaluated by two-dimensional strain echocardiography, measuring the amount of uncoordinated contraction and relaxation between septum and free wall for both longitudinal and radial function and was presented as the longitudinal global dyssynchrony index (LGDI) and the radial global dyssynchrony index (RGDI). Reverse remodeling was defined by a left ventricular end systolic volume reduction >or= 15%. After CRT 39 patients showed reverse remodeling. In this group, RGDI (0.74 +/- 0.26 vs 0.32 +/- 0.30; P = 0.0001) and LGDI (0.52 +/- 0.28 vs 0.30 +/- 0.24; P = 0.002) were significantly higher than in nonresponders. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that RGDI >0.47 and LGDI >0.34 had a sensitivity and a specificity to predict reverse remodeling of 87% and 74%, 82%, and 74%, respectively. Stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis showed that RGDI (O.R.:13.4; 95%C.I.:4.2-120.5; P < 0.0001) was an independent determinant of a positive response to CRT. A radial global dyssynchrony index predicts left ventricular reverse remodeling after CRT.

  12. Throwing computing into reverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Michael P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    For more than 50 years, computers have made steady and dramatic improvements, all thanks to Moore’s Law—the exponential increase over time in the number of transistors that can be fabricated on an integrated circuit of a given size. Moore’s Law owed its success to the fact that as transistors were made smaller, they became simultaneously cheaper, faster, and more energy efficient. The payoff from this win-win-win scenario enabled reinvestment in semiconductor fabrication technology that could make even smaller, more densely-packed transistors. And so this virtuous cycle continued, decade after decade. Now though, experts in industry, academia, and government laboratories anticipate that semiconductor miniaturization won’t continue much longer—maybe 10 years or so, at best. Making transistors smaller no longer yields the improvements it used to. The physical characteristics of small transistors forced clock speeds to cease getting faster more than a decade ago, which drove the industry to start building chips with multiple cores. But even multi-core architectures must contend with increasing amounts of “dark silicon,” areas of the chip that must be powered off to avoid overheating.

  13. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy....... Research limitations/implications – The focus is restricted to the industry of electrical and electronic products. Practical implications – Based on the outcome of the study, managers are able to determine the basic prerequisites for the design of their reverse supply chains. Originality/value – Previous......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...

  14. Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Induced by Pazopanib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelis, Leonidas; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Souftas, Vasilios; Amarantidis, Kiriakos; Xenidis, Nikolaos; Chamalidou, Eleni; Dimopoulos, Prokopios; Michailidis, Prodromos; Christakidis, Evagelos; Prassopoulos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    The reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a clinical/radiological syndrome characterized by headache, seizures, impaired vision, acute hypertension, and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings. There are several reports in the literature that depict its occurrence in cancer patients. The list of common anticancer and supportive care drugs that predispose to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is expanding and includes not only a large number of chemotherapeutic agents but also an increased number of new targeted drugs, particularly angiogenesis inhibitors such as bevacizumab,sorefenib and sunitinib. Pazopanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit which after a positive phase III randomized clinical trial in patients with advanced renal cell cancer received FDA approval for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Until now no cases of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome induced by pazopanib have been reported. We present the case of a 40 years old female patient with heavily pre-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received pazopanib as salvage treatment. After 21 days of pazopanib therapy the patient referred to the emergency department with epileptic seizure, impaired vision at both eyes and headache. MRI of the brain revealed subcortical oedema at the occipital and parietal lobes bilaterally. She was treated with anticonvulsants, i.v. administration of mannitol and antihypertensives and she recovered completely from her symptoms and was discharged on the tenth hospital day. A brain MRI performed 3 weeks after showed that the subcortical oedema had been subsided. In conclusion this is the first case of pazopanib induced reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Although usually reversible, this syndrome is a serious and potentially life threatening adverse effect, if untreated, that should

  15. Spontaneous direct and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valitov, N.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    It has been ascertained experimentally that in the course of separation of CsCl, KCl, NaCl aqueous solutions by semi-permeable membrane from distilled water the direct and then reverse osmosis are observed. The same sequence is observed in case of separation of CsCl aqueous solutions from NaCl of different concentrations. The reason for the direct and reverse osmosis has been explained. 5 refs.; 3 figs. 1 tab

  16. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Isel, Catherine; Ehresmann, Chantal; Marquet, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of...

  17. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  18. Strength of the reversible, garbage-free 2 k ±1 multiplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotenberg, Eva; Cranch, James; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a reversible garbage-free 2 k ±1 constant-multiplier circuit was presented by Axelsen and Thomsen. This was the first construction of a garbage-free, reversible circuit for multiplication with non-trivial constants. At the time, the strength, that is, the range of constants obtainable...

  19. Let's talk about sex (again): advancing the conversation around long-acting reversible contraception for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has incredible potential for decreasing teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, but use among adolescents remains low. LARC methods, including intrauterine devices and implants, are recommended as first-line choices for teenagers by multiple medical professional associations. Barriers at the system, provider and patient level persist, but new demonstration projects, in addition to provisions of the Affordable Care Act, show great promise in facilitating LARC use. A renewed national discourse should acknowledge the reality that many US teenagers have sex, that LARC is safe and effective and that LARC offers an opportunity to prevent teenage pregnancy. By encouraging widespread access and use, a large, positive impact across multiple health and economic sectors can be achieved.

  20. Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, N.; Menjeaud, C.; Poyet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (120 0 C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  1. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by the following symptoms: seizures, impaired consciousness and/or vision, vomiting, nausea, and focal neurological signs. Diagnostic imaging includes examination by magnetic resonance (MR and computed tomography (CT, where brain edema is visualized bi-laterally and symmetrically, predominantly posteriorly, parietally, and occipitally. Case report. We presented a 73-year-old patient with the years-long medical history of hipertension and renal insufficiency, who developed PRES with the symptomatology of the rear cranium. CT and MR verified changes in the white matter involving all lobes on both sides of the brain. After a two-week treatment (antihypertensive, hypolipemic and rehydration therapy clinical improvement with no complications occurred, with complete resolution of changes in the white matter observed on CT and MR. Conclusion. PRES is a reversible syndrome in which the symptoms withdraw after several days to several weeks if early diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started without delay.

  2. Reversal of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivio, Taneli; Falardeau, John; Dwyer, Andrew; Quinton, Richard; Hayes, Frances J; Hughes, Virginia A; Cole, Lindsay W; Pearce, Simon H; Lee, Hang; Boepple, Paul; Crowley, William F; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2007-08-30

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which may be associated with anosmia (the Kallmann syndrome) or with a normal sense of smell, is a treatable form of male infertility caused by a congenital defect in the secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Patients have absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was previously thought to require lifelong therapy. We describe 15 men in whom reversal of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was sustained after discontinuation of hormonal therapy. We defined the sustained reversal of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as the presence of normal adult testosterone levels after hormonal therapy was discontinued. Ten sustained reversals were identified retrospectively. Five sustained reversals were identified prospectively among 50 men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism after a mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment interruption of 6+/-3 weeks. Of the 15 men who had a sustained reversal, 4 had anosmia. At initial evaluation, 6 men had absent puberty, 9 had partial puberty, and all had abnormal secretion of GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone. All 15 men had received previous hormonal therapy to induce virilization, fertility, or both. Among those whose hypogonadism was reversed, the mean serum level of endogenous testosterone increased from 55+/-29 ng per deciliter (1.9+/-1.0 nmol per liter) to 386+/-91 ng per deciliter (13.4+/-3.2 nmol per liter, Phypogonadotropic hypogonadism and the Kallmann syndrome was noted after discontinuation of treatment in about 10% of patients with either absent or partial puberty. Therefore, brief discontinuation of hormonal therapy to assess reversibility of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is reasonable. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00392756 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  3. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  4. Reversal Strategies for NOACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen; Verheugt, Freek; Comuth, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are used for thromboembolic prophylaxis of patients with atrial fibrillation and in the treatment as well as secondary prophylaxis of patients with venous thromboembolism. Even though NOACs have a better safety profile than vitamin K...... including NOACs is currently undergoing phase II trials. For use of these specific antidotes, it is desirable that measurements for coagulation activity with a short response delay are widely available for the different NOACs and further research in this field is needed. Furthermore, guidelines for antidote...

  5. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...... to this challenge by examining the factors decisive for whether a firm will achieve profits from operating a RSC. By combining a literature review and multiple case study, the paper identifies a set of factors that prohibit or advance RSC-profitability and develops a set of propositions that define the relation...

  6. Factors predicting reversion from mild cognitive impairment to normal cognitive functioning: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition.Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male aged 71-89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded. Associations with reversion were investigated for (1 baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2 longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors.There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI. Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p = 0.011, a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, or an informant-based memory complaint (p = 0.031. Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p = 0.037, but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p = 0.003, greater openness to experience (p = 0.041, better vision (p = 0.014, better smelling ability (p = 0.040, or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040. Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p = 0.026.Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in

  7. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Nordsletten, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has already published 2 papers describing results of reverse hybrid THAs in different age groups. Based on data collected over 2 additional years, we wanted to perform in depth analyses of not only the reverse hybrid concept but also of the different cup/stem combinations used. Patients and methods From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk of revision. The main endpoint was revision for any reason. We also performed specific analyses regarding the different reasons for revision and analyses regarding the cup/stem combinations used in more than 500 cases. Results We found a higher rate of revision for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs, with an adjusted relative risk of revision (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.5). At 10 years, the survival rate was 94% (CI: 94–95) for cemented THAs and 92% (95% CI: 92–93) for reverse hybrids. The results for the reverse hybrid THAs were inferior to those for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =1.1, CI: 1.0–1.3; p revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =3.1, CI: 2.2–4.5; p revision than cemented THAs in patients aged 55 or more. The difference in survival was mainly caused by a higher incidence of early revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture in the reversed hybrid THAs. PMID:28095724

  8. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  9. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  10. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Petri Nets with Fuzzy Logic (PNFL: reverse engineering and parametrization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Küffner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent DREAM4 blind assessment provided a particularly realistic and challenging setting for network reverse engineering methods. The in silico part of DREAM4 solicited the inference of cycle-rich gene regulatory networks from heterogeneous, noisy expression data including time courses as well as knockout, knockdown and multifactorial perturbations. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We inferred and parametrized simulation models based on Petri Nets with Fuzzy Logic (PNFL. This completely automated approach correctly reconstructed networks with cycles as well as oscillating network motifs. PNFL was evaluated as the best performer on DREAM4 in silico networks of size 10 with an area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR of 81%. Besides topology, we inferred a range of additional mechanistic details with good reliability, e.g. distinguishing activation from inhibition as well as dependent from independent regulation. Our models also performed well on new experimental conditions such as double knockout mutations that were not included in the provided datasets. CONCLUSIONS: The inference of biological networks substantially benefits from methods that are expressive enough to deal with diverse datasets in a unified way. At the same time, overly complex approaches could generate multiple different models that explain the data equally well. PNFL appears to strike the balance between expressive power and complexity. This also applies to the intuitive representation of PNFL models combining a straightforward graphical notation with colloquial fuzzy parameters.

  12. Electromagnetic Time-Reversal Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Inverse Scattering and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Ahmed E.

    Time-reversal (TR) was originated in acoustics as a technique for re-focusing waves around their source location. Under certain conditions, the wave equation is invariant under TR, therefore, waves emanated from a source or scattered from a passive target, and recorded by a transceivers array, will retrace their forward path and automatically focus at the source/target location if back propagated in a time-reversed (last-in first-out) fashion from that array. Focusing resolution of time-reversed back propagation in rich scattering environments beats that in free space, yielding what is known as 'superresolution'. Moreover, under ultrawideband (UWB) operation, TR exhibits the distinctive property of 'statistical stability', which makes it an attractive technique for imaging in disordered media whose characteristics are not known deterministically (random media). Over the past few years, TR has been exploited in a variety of electromagnetic sensing and imaging applications such as ground penetrating radar, breast cancer detection, nondestructive testing, and through-wall imaging. In addition, TR has been extensively applied in UWB wireless communication providing myriad of advantages including reduced receiver complexity, power saving, increased system capacity, and enhanced information secrecy. In this work, we introduce new TR-based signal processing techniques for imaging, tracking, and communicating with targets/users embedded in rich scattering environments. We start by demonstrating, both numerically and experimentally, the statistical stability of UWB TR imaging in inhomogeneous random media, under different combinations of random medium parameters and interrogating signal properties. We examine conditions under which frequency decorrelation in random media provides a more effective 'self-averaging' and therefore better statistical stability. Then, we devise a technique for detecting and tracking multiple moving targets in cluttered environments based on

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  14. Reversible Restricted Diffusion in the Corpus Callosum in Various Pediatric Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Won Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum in pediatric patients with clinical findings, and to discuss the possible pathogenesis of these lesions. Between 2007 and 2011, seven children with reversible signal abnormalities in the corpus callosum were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Diseases and conditions associated with lesions included: trauma (n = 3), neonatal seizure (n = 1), clinically suspected mild encephalopathy (n = 1), multiple sclerosis (n = 1), and seizure with subdural hygroma (n = 1). The callosal lesions were located in the splenium and the genu (n = 2), the splenium and the body (n = 1), and the splenium only (n 4). The shape of the lesions was round-to-ovoid (n = 4) or linear (n = 3). Follow-up MRI scans showed completely resolved (n = 6) or persistent (n = 1) signal abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging as well as apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. Clinical outcomes were good in six of the patents but poor in the seventh. Reversible restricted diffusion in the corpus callosum can develop in various diseases. Knowledge of the MRI findings and associated diseases might be helpful in predicting patients' conditions and clinical outcomes.

  15. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  16. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  17. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-03-08

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  18. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  19. Reverse Zymography: Overview and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Reverse zymography is a technique by which protease inhibitor(s) in a sample could be electrophoretically separated in a substrate-impregnated acrylamide gel and their relative abundance could be semi-quantified. The gel after electrophoresis is incubated with a protease when the impregnated substrate and all other proteins of the sample are degraded into small peptides except the inhibitor(s) that show clear bands against a white background. Since reverse zymography cannot distinguish between a protease inhibitor and a protein that is resistant against proteolysis, the results should be confirmed from inhibition of protease activity by solution state assay.

  20. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  1. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    key species found in the fermentation broth: ethanol, butanol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid. Correlations of the rejection...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2007-4545 POSTPRINT REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESSING OF ORGANIC MODEL COMPOUNDS AND FERMENTATION BROTHS Robert Diltz...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 686–695Reverse osmosis processing of organic model compounds and fermentation broths

  2. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  3. Vasectomy as a reversible form of contraception for select patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Daniel, Ariande; Jarvi, Keith

    2014-04-01

    To provide an effective form of birth control, men may choose a reversible or permanent form of contraception. Vasectomy is presently offered as a permanent option for male contraception. We have had patients who were interested in vasectomy and reversal as a temporary birth control option. The purpose of this paper is to determine if vasectomy should be offered for selected couples as a temporary form of contraception and under which circumstances. A literature review was conducted to determine the available reversible contraceptive options, risks, failure rates and contraindications to each, and the risks and success rates of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal. Reversible contraceptives include hormonally based methods for women, non-hormonal anatomic barrier devices and spermatocidal agents. Hormone based therapies may be contraindicated in women with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Non-hormonal contraceptives are generally less effective and may be unacceptable for some couples due to higher failure rates, difficulty of use and lack of acceptance. Both vasectomy and vasectomy reversal are low risk procedures. Reversal may be performed with a high degree of success, particularly with a short obstructive interval (97% patency if performed contraception.

  4. A model for 'reverse innovation' in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depasse, Jacqueline W; Lee, Patrick T

    2013-08-30

    'Reverse innovation,' a principle well established in the business world, describes the flow of ideas from emerging to more developed economies. There is strong and growing interest in applying this concept to health care, yet there is currently no framework for describing the stages of reverse innovation or identifying opportunities to accelerate the development process. This paper combines the business concept of reverse innovation with diffusion of innovation theory to propose a model for reverse innovation as a way to innovate in health care. Our model includes the following steps: (1) identifying a problem common to lower- and higher-income countries; (2) innovation and spread in the low-income country (LIC); (3) crossover to the higher-income country (HIC); and (4) innovation and spread in the HIC. The crucial populations in this pathway, drawing from diffusion of innovation theory, are LIC innovators, LIC early adopters, and HIC innovators. We illustrate the model with three examples of current reverse innovations. We then propose four sets of specific actions that forward-looking policymakers, entrepreneurs, health system leaders, and researchers may take to accelerate the movement of promising solutions through the reverse innovation pipeline: (1) identify high-priority problems shared by HICs and LICs; (2) create slack for change, especially for LIC innovators, LIC early adopters, and HIC innovators; (3) create spannable social distances between LIC early adopters and HIC innovators; and (4) measure reverse innovation activity globally.

  5. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    . Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  6. Reversibility of chronic airflow obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje Sjoukje

    1984-01-01

    This thesis deals with variations in airway diameter in patients with chronic, partly reversible airflow obstruction. The patients studied in this thesis have been addressed in the literature with terms as CAO, COPD, CNSLD. The confusion caused by combining patients in one descriptive term, e.g.

  7. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. On the dependency of division on multiplication: selective loss for conceptual knowledge of multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    This study reports the case of a patient (AG) whose main calculation problem was with multiplication that was severely affected at all levels including that of conceptual knowledge. In contrast AG's problems with addition, subtraction and division were much less conspicuous and just involved the use of procedures. For all these latter operations, and for division in particular, conceptual knowledge was spared. Despite his procedural problems, AG in fact was fully aware that division consists of finding out how many times a given quantity is contained in another quantity. Thus while he was able to reach the correct results for division by subtracting the divisor from the dividend, he never used the reverse strategy to complete multiplication operations, i.e. add the number for as many times as the multiplier to complete the operation, and showed no awareness that this was what multiplying means, even when explicit suggestions were made by the examiner. The existence of AG's case could not be expected on the basis of theories holding that division depends on multiplication and that is not separately represented in semantic memory. It follows, therefore, that the extent to which division depends on multiplication needs to be reconsidered. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... read or download the National Academies/Institute of Medicine report, go to: " Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future ." Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus ...

  11. Reversed-Field Pinch plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is strongly dependent on the plasma profile and the confining sheared magnetic field. Magnetic diffusion and thermal transport produce changing conditions of stability. Despite the limited understanding of RFP transport, modelling is important to predict general trends and to study possible field programming options. To study the ZT-40 experiment and to predict the performance of future RFP reactors, a one-dimensional transport code has been developed. This code includes a linear, ideal MHD stability check based on an energy principle. The transport section integrates plasma profiles forward in time while the stability section periodically checks the stability of the evolving plasma profile

  12. Understanding Virtual Objects through Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Moitinho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our research is to develop a new methodology, based on Reverse Engineering processes – 3D scan, quantitative data analysis and Artificial Intelligence techniques, in particular simulation – to study the relationship between form and function of artefacts. Furthermore, we aim to provide new data, as well as possible explanations of the archaeological record according to what it expects about social activity, including working processes, by simulating the potentialities of such actions in terms of input-output relationships.

  13. Synthesis and agglomeration of gold nanoparticles in reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Resto, Oscar; Briano, Julio G.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2005-07-01

    Reverse micelles prepared in the system water, sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoccinate (AOT), and isooctane were investigated as a templating system for the production of gold nanoparticles from Au(III) and the reducing agent sulfite. A core-shell Mie model was used to describe the optical properties of gold nanoparticles in the reverse micelles. Dynamic light scattering of gold colloids in aqueous media and in reverse micelle solution indicated agglomeration of micelles containing particles. This was verified theoretically with an analysis of the total interaction energy between pairs of particles as a function of particle size. The analysis indicated that particles larger than about 8 nm in diameter should reversibly flocculate. Transmission electron microscopy measurements of gold nanoparticles produced in our reverse micelles showed diameters of 8-10 nm. Evidence of cluster formation was also observed. Time-correlated UV-vis absorption measurements showed a red shift for the peak wavelength. This was interpreted as the result of multiple scattering and plasmon interaction between particles due to agglomeration of micelles with particles larger than 8 nm.

  14. Describing and optimizing reversible logic using a functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a language for the description and optimisation of reversible logic circuits. The language is a combinator-style functional language designed to be close to the reversible logical gate-level. The combinators include high-level constructs such as ripples, but also...... the recognisable inversion combinator f^(-1), which defines the inverse function of f using an efficient semantics. It is important to ensure that all circuits descriptions are reversible, and furthermore we must require this to be done statically. This is en- sured by the type system, which also allows...... the description of arbitrary sized circuits. The combination of the functional language and the restricted reversible model results in many arithmetic laws, which provide more possibilities for term rewriting and, thus, the opportunity for good optimisation....

  15. Applications of reversible covalent chemistry in analytical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David

    2012-12-07

    Reversible covalent chemistry (RCC) adds another dimension to commonly used sample preparation techniques like solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) or immuno-affinity cleanup (IAC): chemical selectivity. By selecting analytes according to their covalent reactivity, sample complexity can be reduced significantly, resulting in enhanced analytical performance for low-abundance target analytes. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the applications of RCC in analytical sample preparation. The major reactions covered include reversible boronic ester formation, thiol-disulfide exchange and reversible hydrazone formation, targeting analyte groups like diols (sugars, glycoproteins and glycopeptides, catechols), thiols (cysteinyl-proteins and cysteinyl-peptides) and carbonyls (carbonylated proteins, mycotoxins). Their applications range from low abundance proteomics to reversible protein/peptide labelling to antibody chromatography to quantitative and qualitative food analysis. In discussing the potential of RCC, a special focus is on the conditions and restrictions of the utilized reaction chemistry.

  16. Reversible uranyl fluoride nephrotoxicity in the Long Evans rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, G.L.; Morrow, P.E.; Panner, B.J.; Gelein, R.M.; Baggs, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Severity and duration of renal injury produced by low levels of uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) were examined in the rat. Rats received multiple ip injections of UO2F2 (cumulative dose: 0.66 or 1.32 mg U/kg body wt). Renal injury was characterized histologically by cellular and tubular necrosis of pars recta of proximal tubule (S2 and S3), with less severe cellular injury to thick ascending limb of loop of Henle and collecting tubule. Injury was evident when renal uranium levels were between 0.7 and 1.4 micrograms U/g wet kidney and was most severe when renal uranium burden was between 3.4 and 5.6 micrograms U/g. Repair of injury was rapid, with complete restoration within 35 days after exposure. Associated with injury were abnormalities in renal function, including impaired tubular reabsorption, proteinuria, and enzymuria, which appeared temporally related, to variable degrees, to progression of renal injury. Thus, reversible renal injury occurs in the rat at levels of uranium in kidney below the present Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard of 3 micrograms U/g kidney for renal injury in humans

  17. Adverse Remodeling and Reverse Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review it to summarize the current literature on remodeling after myocardial infarction, inclusive of pathophysiological considerations, imaging modalities, treatment strategies, and future directions. As patients continue to live longer after myocardial infarction (MI), the prevalence of post-MI heart failure continues to rise. Changes in the left ventricle (LV) after MI involve complex interactions between cellular and extracellular components, under neurohormonal regulation. Treatments to prevent adverse LV remodeling and promote reverse remodeling in the post-MI setting include early revascularization, pharmacotherapy aimed at neurohormonal blockade, and device-based therapies that address ventricular dyssynchrony. Despite varying definitions of adverse LV remodeling examined across multiple imaging modalities, the presence of an enlarged LV cavity and/or reduced ejection fraction is consistently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Advances in our knowledge of the neurohormonal regulation of adverse cardiac remodeling have been instrumental in generating therapies aimed at arresting adverse remodeling and promoting reserve remodeling. Further investigation into other specific mechanisms of adverse LV remodeling and pathways to disrupt these mechanisms is ongoing and may provide incremental benefit to current evidence-based therapies.

  18. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography investigation of reversible cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, G.F.; Maso, R.; Filosto, L.; Piovan, E.; Morgante, D.; Taddei, G.; Tonegutti, M.; Portuese, A.

    1986-01-01

    The brachio-cephalic, carotid, vertebral and intra-cranial vessels of 497 patients presenting reversible ischemic attacks (R.I.A) were evaluated with venous digital subtraction angiography (V.D.S.A.). Alterations of the vascular wall were observed in 289/497 (58.2%) patients, of whom 60% presented multiple locations (539 lesions): obstruction (12%), stenosis >50% (29%), stenosis 50%. The incidence of vascular lesions was higher (p [fr

  19. Horndeski gravity and the violation of reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lu, Wen-Tian; Lue, H. [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China); Liu, Hai-Shan [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    We consider Einstein-Horndeski-Maxwell gravity, together with a cosmological constant and multiple Horndeski axions. We construct charged AdS planar black holes in general dimensions where the Horndeski axions span over the planar directions. We analyze the thermodynamics and obtain the black hole volumes. We show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality can be violated, implying that these black holes can store information more efficiently than the Schwarzschild black hole. (orig.)

  20. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  1. Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Yuan, Zhuliang; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)-isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-benzene and SDS-carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) reverse micelles were analysized. The results revealed that the maximum rate of hydrogen production (R{sub m}) was also suitable to formulate the relationship between hydrogen-producing rate and hydrogen productivity in reverse micelles. (author)

  2. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Eric G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10-4 or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10-5 is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + $\\bar{v}$e) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σn • pp x pe). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

  3. Sawteeth in the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckstead, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    A dynamo mechanism has been used in astrophysics to explain the self-generation of the magnetic fields observed throughout the universe. This same type of phenomenon is believed to occur in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The RFP dynamo has been a major theoretical and experimental investigation since the first observations of the self-reversal process in early pinch research. A discrete dynamo event has been observed in the experimental RFP plasmas; this event is termed the RFP sawtooth. This phenomenon is similar to the sawtooth phenomenon observed in tokamak plasmas, but the two events differ in many respects. Both events are a result of the inward diffusion of the plasma current density. This causes the plasma to become unstable to the m = 1 tearing modes. It has been shown theoretically that the nonlinear interaction of these modes can generate the reversed toroidal field in the RFP. This thesis is a study of the RFP sawtooth phenomenon on the MST RFP. This includes experimental observations as well as 1-D numerical simulations of the sawtooth rise-time. During the rise-time of the sawtooth, the plasma is undergoing a purely diffusive process -- no dynamo is occurring during this phase. The dynamo only occurs during the sawtooth crash. During the rise-time, the m = 1 modes are observed to grow, and nonlinear interactions are observed prior to the sawtooth crash. At the time of the crash, many of the plasma profiles are flattened; these include the current density, the plasma temperature and the plasma density. The period of the sawteeth is observed to increase with the plasma current, as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, S

  4. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, E.G.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10 -4 or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10 -5 is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + bar v e ) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σ n · p p x p e ). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography at Diagnosis and Before Maintenance Therapy in Symptomatic Patients With Multiple Myeloma Included in the IFM/DFCI 2009 Trial: Results of the IMAJEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Caillot, Denis; Macro, Margaret; Karlin, Lionel; Garderet, Laurent; Facon, Thierry; Benboubker, Lotfi; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Laribi, Kamel; Hulin, Cyrille; Perrot, Aurore; Marit, Gerald; Eveillard, Jean-Richard; Caillon, Florence; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Pegourie, Brigitte; Dorvaux, Veronique; Chaleteix, Carine; Anderson, Kenneth; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil C; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Gaultier, Aurelie; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Dupas, Benoit; Frampas, Eric; Kraeber-Bodere, Françoise

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) are important imaging techniques in multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a prospective trial in patients with MM aimed at comparing MRI and PET-CT with respect to the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis and the prognostic value of the techniques. Patients and Methods One hundred thirty-four patients received a combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD) with or without autologous stem-cell transplantation, followed by lenalidomide maintenance. PET-CT and MRI were performed at diagnosis, after three cycles of RVD, and before maintenance therapy. The primary end point was the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis by MRI versus PET-CT. Secondary end points included the prognostic impact of MRI and PET-CT regarding progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results At diagnosis, MRI results were positive in 127 of 134 patients (95%), and PET-CT results were positive in 122 of 134 patients (91%; P = .33). Normalization of MRI after three cycles of RVD and before maintenance was not predictive of PFS or OS. PET-CT became normal after three cycles of RVD in 32% of the patients with a positive evaluation at baseline, and PFS was improved in this group (30-month PFS, 78.7% v 56.8%, respectively). PET-CT normalization before maintenance was described in 62% of the patients who were positive at baseline. This was associated with better PFS and OS. Extramedullary disease at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS, whereas PET-CT normalization before maintenance was an independent prognostic factor for PFS. Conclusion There is no difference in the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis when comparing PET-CT and MRI. PET-CT is a powerful tool to evaluate the prognosis of de novo myeloma.

  6. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  7. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  8. Trend towards reverse leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The South African gold mining industry is making notable strides in improving recovery methods for both gold and uranium with significant additions to profits because of higher efficiencies and reductions in costs in the recovery processes. The most notable step on the gold side recently is the adoption of the reverse leach process at Buffelsfontein and Western Deep Levels. This process was pioneered at Hartebeesfontein as far back as 1975 and when introduced there resulted in a two and a half per cent improvement in recovery efficiencies. The essence of reverse leaching under which the uranium is recovered before the gold is the fact that the gold partly coated with iron oxide or locked in uranite, is exposed to be recovered later by cyanidation

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  10. A Generalized Reverse Jacket Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Moon Ho; Rajan, Sundar B; Park, JY

    2001-01-01

    Generalization of the well-known Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT), namely center-weighted Hadamard transform (CWHT) and complex reverse-jacket transform (CRJT) have been proposed and their fast implementation and simple index generation algorithms have recently been reported. These transforms are of size 2(r) x 2(r) for integral values or r, and defined in terms of binary radix representation of integers. In this paper, using appropriate mixed-radix representation of integers, we present a gene...

  11. Interval orders and reverse mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Marcone, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of interval orders. We establish the logical strength of the implications between various definitions of the notion of interval order. We also consider the strength of different versions of the characterization theorem for interval orders: a partial order is an interval order if and only if it does not contain $2 \\oplus 2$. We also study proper interval orders and their characterization theorem: a partial order is a proper interval order if and only if it cont...

  12. Risperidone-induced reversible neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Chima, Victoria; Nnamdi, Uchechukwu; Sharma, Kavita; Shah, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia who developed neutropenia on risperidone therapy. The patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of leukocytes and neutrophils after resolution and rechallenging. This was reversed with the discontinuation of risperidone and by switching to olanzapine. In this case report, we also discuss the updated evidence base for management of risperidone-induced neutropenia.

  13. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  14. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES REGARDING REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the power of consumers is growing, the product return for customer service and customer retention has become a common practice in the competitive market, which propels the recent practice of reverse logistics in companies. Many firms attracted by the value available in the flow, have proactively participated in handling returned products at the end of their usefulness or from other parts of the product life cycle. Reverse logistics is the flow and management of products, packaging, components and information from the point of consumption to the point of origin. It is a collection of practices similar to those of supply chain management, but in the opposite direction, from downstream to upstream. It involves activities such as reuse, repair, remanufacture, refurbish, reclaim and recycle. For the conventional forward logistics systems, the flow starts upstream as raw materials, later as manufactured parts and components to be assembled and continues downstream to reach customers as final products to be disposed once they reach their economic or useful lives. In reverse logistics, the disposed products are pushed upstream to be repaired, remanufactured, refurbished, and disassembled into components to be reused or as raw material to be recycled for later use.

  15. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include t...

  16. Smoldering multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and...

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  18. Multiple Myeloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the use of melphalan in 52 patients with multiple myeloma have been analysed. The median survival of the whole group of patients was 30 months, and of those w:th renal insufficiency only 12,5 months. Bence-lones proteinuria was also a poor prognostic finding,. but only because of its association with renal ...

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlati...

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  1. Legal and Regulatory Barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John

    Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of

  2. J. Genet. classic 227 NOTE: The pagination in the original included ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , December 2005. 227. NOTE: The pagination in the original included the reverse of plate 1 on p. 445, which was a blank. The blank is not included here, but the original page numbers have been retained.

  3. NERVE: New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippini Francesco

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a milestone work on Neisseria meningitidis B, Reverse Vaccinology has strongly enhanced the identification of vaccine candidates by replacing several experimental tasks using in silico prediction steps. These steps have allowed scientists to face the selection of antigens from the predicted proteome of pathogens, for which cell culture is difficult or impossible, saving time and money. However, this good example of bioinformatics-driven immunology can be further developed by improving in silico steps and implementing biologist-friendly tools. Results We introduce NERVE (New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment, an user-friendly software environment for the in silico identification of the best vaccine candidates from whole proteomes of bacterial pathogens. The software integrates multiple robust and well-known algorithms for protein analysis and comparison. Vaccine candidates are ranked and presented in a html table showing relevant information and links to corresponding primary data. Information concerning all proteins of the analyzed proteome is not deleted along selection steps but rather flows into an SQL database for further mining and analyses. Conclusion After learning from recent years' works in this field and analysing a large dataset, NERVE has been implemented and tuned as the first available tool able to rank a restricted pool (~8–9% of the whole proteome of vaccine candidates and to show high recall (~75–80% of known protective antigens. These vaccine candidates are required to be "safe" (taking into account autoimmunity risk and "easy" for further experimental, high-throughput screening (avoiding possibly not soluble antigens. NERVE is expected to help save time and money in vaccine design and is available as an additional file with this manuscript; updated versions will be available at http://www.bio.unipd.it/molbinfo.

  4. An Impact of Reverse Logistics Activities on Marketing Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Milichovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of reverse logistics has become very actual due the requirements of highly competitive market. This importance is made by significance of condition for environment-friendly production and purchasing around the world. Individual activities, which are included in reverse logistics, support entrepreneurs in their competitiveness to other companies and to own customers. The objective of the paper is to find relationship between marketing communication tool and activities of reverse logistics on behaviour of final customers in Czech Republic. A theoretical background from the area of reverse logistics supports this approach with data from primary research collected by the author. A data from primary research was used. The entire primary research focused on the evaluation of customers’ perception in the area of reverse logistics in the Czech Republic by a questionnaire survey. Sample population was created by 1266 consumers’ respondents, which were chosen in random way. There were returned questionnaires from 332 respondents. Questionnaire itself was distributed by only platform, during June 2016. The research itself was aimed at a random chosen group of people in the Czech Republic. Findings of the research shows connection of individual activities of reverse logistics and individual communication tools, which are well-accepted on customer side. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market.

  5. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the emergency service. ... The most common etiologies of PRES are hypertension and renal failure, and the most frequent pathophysiology is hyperperfusion. PRES is ... Keywords: Emergency service, hyperperfusion, posterior reversible encephalopathy, vasogenic edema ...

  6. Dynamo mode dynamics in reversed field pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    1999-11-01

    Reversed field pinches (RFPs) are unstable to multiple m=1 tearing modes, resonant in the plasma core. These ``dynamo modes'' are ultimately responsible for the dynamo action which maintains the reversal of the edge toroidal magnetic field against ohmic decay. Unfortunately, the dynamo modes also generally disrupt magnetic flux surfaces in the core, thereby strongly degrading the plasma confinement. However, recent experiments in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) and the Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) indicate that a well-confined RFP plasma is a possibility provided that the amplitude of the dynamo modes is controlled, and the rotation of these modes is also maintained. An analytic formalism has been developed in order to investigate the nonlinear interaction of dynamo modes with one another, with static error-fields, and with eddy currents excited in the vacuum vessel or stabilizing shell. The dynamo modes are found to couple nonlinearly to form a toroidally localized magnetic structure which can be identified as the ``slinky mode,'' reported in many RFP experiments. As the mode amplitudes increase, the slinky mode forms via a series of bifurcations in which the overall mode structure and the plasma rotation profile both change discontinuously. The threshold amplitude for the onset of these bifurcations is similar to that observed experimentally. The absence of mode rotation in RFX (which gives rise to serious edge loading problems) is shown to be due to strong eddy currents excited in the resistive vacuum vessel. Dynamo modes are slowed down by these eddy currents to such an extent that they are easily locked by small static error-fields which would otherwise (i.e., in the absence of the vacuum vessel eddy currents) be unable to affect the mode rotation. Since MST does not possess a resistive vacuum vessel (in MST the thick stabilizing shell also plays the role of the vacuum vessel: in RFX there is a separate vacuum vessel inside the shell) there are no vacuum

  7. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    . Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...

  8. Reversal of sterilization by microsurgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, A L; Ortensi, A; Parlangeli, V; Pellizzari, G; Setti, C; Lania, M

    1988-01-01

    Tubal sterilization techniques that spare the fimbriae and cause the least amount of tubal destruction offer the best chance for reversal of sterilization. Patients seeking reversal of sterilization should be carefully selected. Surgical technique and equipment are important factors in reversal procedures; microsurgical techniques are shown to be more effective than macroscopic techniques.

  9. Cleaning Our World through Reverse Graffiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Gabe; LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade artists have begun to experiment with "reverse pollution" techniques, such as reverse graffiti, which focuses on cleaning environmental surfaces. Having recently been introduced to the works of Moose, the artist known for inventing the reverse graffiti technique, the authors decided to design a curriculum to increase…

  10. Multiple Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico

    2016-01-01

    With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  12. Idarucizumab for Reversing Dabigatran-Induced Anticoagulation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Nathan; Morrill, Amanda M; Willett, Kristine C

    2016-05-12

    The approval of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, gave patients an alternative to oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Like all anticoagulants, the primary adverse event (AE) associated with dabigatran is bleeding. Until the FDA approval of idarucizumab, there had been no reversal agent for dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in patients with life-threatening or uncontrollable bleeding, or those requiring emergent procedures. The primary purpose of this review is to summarize the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment, and its use as a reversal agent for dabigatran. A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE (1946 to November week 1 2015) and Embase (1980-2015 week 46) using the search term idarucizumab. Clinicaltrials.gov was consulted for a comprehensive list of ongoing and completed studies. Additional studies were identified through bibliographical citations. Clinical trials in animals and humans published in English evaluating the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab for reversal of anticoagulant treatment with dabigatran were included for review. Idarucizumab has been shown to significantly reverse the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran in both healthy volunteers and patients requiring a reversal agent because of either overt bleeding or an emergency surgery or invasive procedure. The most common AEs were headache, nasopharyngitis, back pain, skin irritation, hypokalemia, delirium, constipation, pyrexia, and pneumonia. Deaths reported in idarucizumab studies were attributed to either the index event or a preexisting comorbidity. Most adverse effects were minor, but 21 serious AEs have been reported in the published data including thrombotic events. Given the increased use of direct oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, a need for specific reversal agents exists. Idarucizumab has been shown to be safe and effective in the reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in patients requiring emergent

  13. Presbycusis: reversible with anesthesia drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    Age-related hearing impairment, or presbycusis, is a degenerative condition not currently treatable by medication. It is therefore significant that the author, as a patient, experienced a reversal of high-frequency hearing loss during a 2-day period following abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. This report documents the surgery and the subsequent restoration of hearing, which was bilateral and is estimated to have exceeded 50dB at 4kHz. A possible role is noted for anesthetic agents such as lidocaine, propofol, or fentanyl. This experience may hold a clue for research toward the development of medical treatments for presbycusis.

  14. Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampat S Dumbre Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: When primary fixation of proximal femoral fractures with implants fails, revision osteosynthesis may be challenging. Tracts of previous implants and remaining insufficient bone stock in the proximal femur pose unique problems for the treatment. Intramedullary implants like proximal femoral nail (PFN or surface implants like Dynamic Condylar Screw (DCS are few of the described implants for revision surgery. There is no evidence in the literature to choose one implant over the other. We used the reverse distal femur locking compression plate (LCP of the contralateral side in such cases undergoing revision surgery. This implant has multiple options of fixation in proximal femur and its curvature along the length matches the anterior bow of the femur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this implant in salvage situations. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of failed primary proximal femoral fractures who underwent revision surgery with reverse distal femoral locking plate from February 2009 to November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. There were 18 subtrochanteric fractures and two ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, which exhibited delayed union or nonunion. The study included 14 males and six females. The mean patient age was 43.6 years (range 22-65 years and mean followup period was 52.1 months (range 27-72 months. Delayed union was considered when clinical and radiological signs of union failed to progress at the end of four months from initial surgery. Results: All fractures exhibited union without any complications. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically. One case of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture required bone grafting at the second stage for delayed union of the femoral shaft fracture. Conclusions: Reverse distal femoral LCP of the contralateral side can be used as a salvage option for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures exhibiting nonunion.

  15. Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat S; Karkamkar, Sachin S; Patil, Vaishali S Dumbre; Patil, Shailesh S; Ranaware, Abhijeet S

    2016-01-01

    When primary fixation of proximal femoral fractures with implants fails, revision osteosynthesis may be challenging. Tracts of previous implants and remaining insufficient bone stock in the proximal femur pose unique problems for the treatment. Intramedullary implants like proximal femoral nail (PFN) or surface implants like Dynamic Condylar Screw (DCS) are few of the described implants for revision surgery. There is no evidence in the literature to choose one implant over the other. We used the reverse distal femur locking compression plate (LCP) of the contralateral side in such cases undergoing revision surgery. This implant has multiple options of fixation in proximal femur and its curvature along the length matches the anterior bow of the femur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this implant in salvage situations. Twenty patients of failed primary proximal femoral fractures who underwent revision surgery with reverse distal femoral locking plate from February 2009 to November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. There were 18 subtrochanteric fractures and two ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, which exhibited delayed union or nonunion. The study included 14 males and six females. The mean patient age was 43.6 years (range 22-65 years) and mean followup period was 52.1 months (range 27-72 months). Delayed union was considered when clinical and radiological signs of union failed to progress at the end of four months from initial surgery. All fractures exhibited union without any complications. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically. One case of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture required bone grafting at the second stage for delayed union of the femoral shaft fracture. Reverse distal femoral LCP of the contralateral side can be used as a salvage option for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures exhibiting nonunion.

  16. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    of their lives, emphasising the importance of rehabilitation in order to maintain quality of life. An important aspect of multiple sclerosis rehabilitation is the preservation of physical functioning. Hot topics in the rehabilitation of physical function include (1) exercise therapy, (2) robot-assisted training......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies......In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point...

  17. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  18. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit...... in reversible logic design by drastically reducing the number of garbage bits. Specialized designs benefit from support by reversible logic synthesis. All circuit components required for optimizing the original design could also be synthesized successfully by an implementation of an existing synthesis algorithm...

  19. Epigenetic modification and inheritance in sexual reversal of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changwei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Songlin; Zhang, Pei; Lian, Jinmin; Hu, Qiaomu; Sun, Bing; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Zongji; Zhao, Hongmei; Jin, Zonghui; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Yangzhen; Zheng, Qiumei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-01-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species, co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) as a model—a marine fish that has both ZW chromosomal GSD and temperature-dependent ESD—we investigated the role of DNA methylation in transition from GSD to ESD. Comparative analysis of the gonadal DNA methylomes of pseudomale, female, and normal male fish revealed that genes in the sex determination pathways are the major targets of substantial methylation modification during sexual reversal. Methylation modification in pseudomales is globally inherited in their ZW offspring, which can naturally develop into pseudomales without temperature incubation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that dosage compensation occurs in a restricted, methylated cytosine enriched Z chromosomal region in pseudomale testes, achieving equal expression level in normal male testes. In contrast, female-specific W chromosomal genes are suppressed in pseudomales by methylation regulation. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays multiple crucial roles in sexual reversal of tongue sole fish. We also offer the first clues on the mechanisms behind gene dosage balancing in an organism that undergoes sexual reversal. Finally, we suggest a causal link between the bias sex chromosome assortment in the offspring of a pseudomale family and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of sexual reversal in tongue sole fish. PMID:24487721

  20. High-Resolution Over-the-Horizon Radar Using Time Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)9...reversal operator) [21], the MUltiple-SIgnal-Classification ( MUSIC ) algorithm [22], etc. However, besides extensive computation, these methods require a...measurements are performed in the time-domain in an all-digital manner, unlike most of other time reversal experiments done in frequency domain with the

  1. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Vision problems, including double vision, blurriness, partial color blindness, eye pain, partial or complete loss of vision in one eye Thinking and memory problems Fatigue Muscle weakness, dizziness or tremor Numbness ...

  2. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. C., E-mail: mthompson@trialphaenergy.com; Gota, H.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent....... Ninety-five percent lived in own house or flat and 70 percent received disablement pension. More than half of the patients (56.4 percent) were dependent on help from close relatives, most frequently spouse. The need for help, the risk of divorce, loss of contact with relatives, difficulty in going out...

  4. [Sterilization by ovariotexy, a reversible technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C; Leeton, J

    1970-01-01

    6 women were sterilized by ovariotexy, enclosing the ovaries in silastic bags within the peritoneum. The patients ranged in age from 23-33 years, in parity from 1-5, with indications such as hemophiliac and anencephalic children, mental illness, nephrotic syndrome, multiple contraceptive failures, and divorce. The surgical technique involved section of the ovarian ligament and incision of the peritonium from the tube to the ovary. The ovary was fastened in a Silastic bag with Silastic adhesive type A (Dow Corning Corporation), and held in place by suturing it to the ovarian pedicle. The bag and ovary were placed in a pocket created by dissecting the external half of the posterior fold of the broad ligament as far as possible from the tube. The peritoneum was closed and sutured to the mesosalpinx above the round ligament with atraumatic chromic catgut 000. There were no postoperative complications up to 12 days, no pregnancies and no gynecologic findings during follow-up of 6-18 months. 1 patient tested still had tubal patency on insufflation 6 days after the operation. 2 temperature curves recorded were biphasic. It is too soon to learn whether this method will be reversible, but use of silastic should prevent adhesions while providing another mechanical barrier between ovum and sperm.

  5. [Multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated.

  6. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  7. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  8. Reverse Transfer: Paving the Pathway. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    States are taking several distinct approaches to implement reverse transfer policies. Although contextualized by state-specific factors, approaches to policy implementation commonly include determination of a group or regulatory body responsible for policy oversight, technology, funding and identification of students eligible to participate in…

  9. 77 FR 39222 - Consumer Use of Reverse Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Mortgages AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice and request for information..., longer-term consumer outcomes of a decision to obtain a reverse mortgage, and differences in market.... Sensitive personal information such as account numbers or Social Security numbers should not be included...

  10. Computer-based Reverse Engineering of a Manual Weighting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer based reverse engineering of the weighing spring balance is a systematic reconstruction of a manual spring weighting balance to include a digital hardware circuit that can interfaces the spring balance to the computer. This research work shows the benefits of interfacing a weighting balance to a digital computer.

  11. Theory of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes results from the theoretical program on field reversed configurations (FRC) at STI Optronics. The program, which has spanned the last 13 years, has included analytical as well as computational components. It has led to published papers on every major topic of FRC theory. The report is outlined to summarize results from each of these topic areas: formation, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Also briefly described are Steinhauer's activities as Compact Toroid Theory Listening Post. Appendix A is a brief listing of the major advances achieved in this program. Attached at the back of this report is a collection of technical papers in archival journals that resulted from work in this program. The discussion within each subsection is given chronologically in order to give a historical sense of the evolution of understanding of FRC physics

  12. An interlacing theorem for reversible Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grone, Robert; Salamon, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Reversible Markov chains are an indispensable tool in the modeling of a vast class of physical, chemical, biological and statistical problems. Examples include the master equation descriptions of relaxing physical systems, stochastic optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing, chemical dynamics of protein folding and Markov chain Monte Carlo statistical estimation. Very often the large size of the state spaces requires the coarse graining or lumping of microstates into fewer mesoscopic states, and a question of utmost importance for the validity of the physical model is how the eigenvalues of the corresponding stochastic matrix change under this operation. In this paper we prove an interlacing theorem which gives explicit bounds on the eigenvalues of the lumped stochastic matrix. (fast track communication)

  13. Reversible Parkinsonism secondary to chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajid Nazir Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary parkinsonism is attributable to a wide variety of causes including supratentorial mass lesions. While tumors are known to present with parkinsonism, chronic subdural hematoma is rarely seen presenting as rapidly deteriorating parkinsonian features with complete disappearance following evacuation of hematoma. The authors present two such patients-70- and 78-year-old males who presented with sudden onset of parkinsonism features. Both failed to recollect any significant head injury. Imaging diagnosed the presence of chronic subdural hematomas, being unilateral in one and bilateral in other. Surgical evacuation resulted in complete resolution of parkinsonian symptoms. These cases reinforce earlier studies for chronic subdural hematoma to be one of the causes of reversible parkinsonism apparently from distortion of basal ganglia mechanically and bringing changes in dopaminergic function, harming the susceptible aging brain.

  14. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  15. Research on safety of reverse osmosis to treat radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Tian Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The security of reverse osmosis combined with a pretreatment process of disc filtration-ultrafiltration to treat the radioactive wastewater was analyzed and evaluated. Several aspects including reliability and security during operation, maintenance and decommissioning were investigated in this paper. Results showed that safe operation can be ensured by rational process design and scientific management. Estimation on radiation safety showed that the absorbed dose rate is below 0.04 mSv/h on the surface of reverse osmosis module, which can ensure the radiation safety of operators. (authors)

  16. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for students having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners included working in a places of .... education. Premarital sex and commercial sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs. 94% of females and 79% vs 88% of male students respectively.

  17. Reversal of diaschisis by zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.P.; Nel, H.W.; Sathekge, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent literature has reported on clinical improvement after zolpidem, a GABAergic anti insomnia drug, in brain injury and stroke patients. In this study, the effect of zolpidem on crossed cerebellar diaschisis was investigated in such patients. Method: Four patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis after brain injury or stroke were investigated before and after application of 10 mg zolpidem by 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT. Result: Apart from clinical improvements, 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT studies showed reversal of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis and improvement of perfusion defects after zolpidem. Conclusion: 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT may have a role to pre-select brain injury and stroke patients who will benefit clinically from zolpidem therapy. (author)

  18. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can always...... win if n is even/odd) and Evans’s theorem (for even n, the acute corner is a winning opening move for the first player). Also, for even n ≥ 4, we find another first-player winning opening (adjacent to the acute corner, on the first player’s side), and for odd n ≥ 3, and for each first-player opening......, we find second-player winning replies. Finally, in response to comments by Martin Gardner, for each n ≤ 5, we give a simple winning strategy for the n × n board....

  19. Model of reverse steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malasek, V.; Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Riman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The claim of Czechoslovak discovery no. 239272 is a model designed for the verification of the properties of a reverse steam generator during the penetration of water, steam-water mixture or steam into liquid metal flowing inside the heat exchange tubes. The design may primarily be used for steam generators with a built-in inter-tube structure. The model is provided with several injection devices configured in different heat exchange tubes, spaced at different distances along the model axis. The design consists in that between the pressure and the circumferential casings there are transverse partitions and that in one chamber consisting of the circumferential casings, pressure casing and two adjoining partitions there is only one passage of the injection device through the inter-tube space. (Z.M.). 1 fig

  20. Inter-lead correlation analysis for automated detection of cable reversals in 12/16-lead ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekova, Irena; Krasteva, Vessela; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Twerenbold, Raphael; Müller, Christian; Reichlin, Tobias; Abächerli, Roger

    2016-10-01

    A crucial factor for proper electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is the correct electrode placement in standard 12-lead ECG and extended 16-lead ECG for accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarctions. In the context of optimal patient care, we present and evaluate a new method for automated detection of reversals in peripheral and precordial (standard, right and posterior) leads, based on simple rules with inter-lead correlation dependencies. The algorithm for analysis of cable reversals relies on scoring of inter-lead correlations estimated over 4s snapshots with time-coherent data from multiple ECG leads. Peripheral cable reversals are detected by assessment of nine correlation coefficients, comparing V6 to limb leads: (I, II, III, -I, -II, -III, -aVR, -aVL, -aVF). Precordial lead reversals are detected by analysis of the ECG pattern cross-correlation progression within lead sets (V1-V6), (V4R, V3R, V3, V4), and (V4, V5, V6, V8, V9). Disturbed progression identifies the swapped leads. A test-set, including 2239 ECGs from three independent sources-public 12-lead (PTB, CSE) and proprietary 16-lead (Basel University Hospital) databases-is used for algorithm validation, reporting specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Se) as true negative and true positive detection of simulated lead swaps. Reversals of limb leads are detected with Se = 95.5-96.9% and 100% when right leg is involved in the reversal. Among all 15 possible pairwise reversals in standard precordial leads, adjacent lead reversals are detected with Se = 93.8% (V5-V6), 95.6% (V2-V3), 95.9% (V3-V4), 97.1% (V1-V2), and 97.8% (V4-V5), increasing to 97.8-99.8% for reversals of anatomically more distant electrodes. The pairwise reversals in the four extra precordial leads are detected with Se = 74.7% (right-sided V4R-V3R), 91.4% (posterior V8-V9), 93.7% (V4R-V9), and 97.7% (V4R-V8, V3R-V9, V3R-V8). Higher true negative rate is achieved with Sp > 99% (standard 12-lead ECG), 81.9% (V4R-V3R), 91

  1. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  2. Myths and facts in neuromuscular pharmacology - New developments in reversing neuromuscular blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, H.; Hollmann, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic reversal of neuromuscular blockade is a topic nor very well acknowledged and controversially discussed. Reasons for this are numerous and include missing perception of the potential complications of residual neuromuscular paralysis including an increased morbidity and mortality, as

  3. MRI diagnosis of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Zhou Chengtao; Mu Renqi; Zhang Guanghui; Xu Yongzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscal articular capsule. Methods: MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule confirmed by surgery and arthroscope were analyzed retrospectively in 8 cases. Results: The 'Butterfly knot sign' disappeared and was replaced with fluid signal on the sagittal slice of meniscal body in 8 cases. Part of back angle remained in 3 cases. 'Double anterior cruciate ligament sign' was showed on one side of middle sagittal slice in 7 cases. 'Reverse meniscus sign' was revealed in intercondylar fossa on the coronary view in 8 cases. Abnormal high signal was showed in the injured meniscus in 6 cases. Abnormal high signal was detected in the opposite meniscus in 5 cases. Conclusion: The MR findings of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule include disappearance of 'butterfly knot sign', appearance of 'reverse meniscus sign' and 'double anterior cruciate ligament sign'. The diagnosis would be established if the former 2 signs were present or all the 3 signs were present simultaneously. (authors)

  4. Wear Analysis of Die Inserts in the Hot Forging Process of a Forked Type Forging Using Reverse Scanning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dworzak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a wear analysis of die inserts used in the hot forging process of a forked forging (yoke, an element applied in steering systems of passenger vehicles. Studies involved the application of an original reverse scanning method intended for rapid and reliable wear analysis of forging tools (with complicated shape affording easy assessment without the need to dismount tools from the forging unit. The developed method involves analysis of progressive wear of forging tools based on measurements (scanning of forgings periodically collected from the process and constitutes a useful tool for measurement and testing. As the authors’ earlier works have demonstrated, the proposed new approach to analysis of tool wear with the application of reverse 3D scanning has proven successful in multiple instances in the case of axially symmetrical objects. The presented results of studies indicate that it is possible to utilize the expanded method to analyze the lifetime of forging tools, including tools with complex geometry. Application of the reverse scanning method allows for continuous and practical monitoring of the condition of forging tools over the course of the forging process and should have a positive impact on improving production output and reducing production costs.

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    a significant correlation between results of an attention and perceptual motor speed test i.e. Symbol Digit Modalities test and the ability to read TV-subtitles, but no correlation was found with another attention and perceptual motor speed test, or verbal or visual memory. No correlation between the use......In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...... of sedatives and results on neuropsychological tests was found. Anxiety was not correlated with the ability to read TV-subtitles. It is concluded that visual deficits but not the use of sedatives may be a confounding factor in neuropsychological testing in MS....

  6. [Multiple apheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  7. Thermodynamic advantages of nuclear desalination through reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) integrated with nuclear power station has significant thermodynamic advantages since it can utilize the waste heat available in the condenser cooling circuit and electrical power from the nuclear power plant with provision for using grid power in case of exigencies and shared infrastructure. Coupling of RO plants to the reactor is simple and straightforward and power loss due to RO unit, resulting in the loss of load, does not impact reactor turbine. Product water contamination probability is also very less since it has in-built mechanical barrier. Preheat reverse osmosis desalination has many thermodynamic advantages and studies have indicated improved performance characteristics thereby leading to savings in operational cost. The significant advantages include the operational flexibility of the desalination systems even while power plant is non-operational and non-requirement of safety systems for resource utilization. This paper brings out a comprehensive assessment of reverse osmosis process as a stand-alone nuclear desalination system. (author)

  8. Molecular signature of anastasis for reversal of apoptosis [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Man Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life" is a cell recovery phenomenon that rescues dying cells from the brink of cell death. We recently discovered anastasis to occur after the execution-stage of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Promoting anastasis could in principle preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace, such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. Conversely, arresting anastasis in dying cancer cells after cancer therapies could improve treatment efficacy. To develop new therapies that promote or inhibit anastasis, it is essential to identify the key regulators and mediators of anastasis – the therapeutic targets. Therefore, we performed time-course microarray analysis to explore the molecular mechanisms of anastasis during reversal of ethanol-induced apoptosis in mouse primary liver cells. We found striking changes in transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways, including early activation of pro-cell survival, anti-oxidation, cell cycle arrest, histone modification, DNA-damage and stress-inducible responses, and at delayed times, angiogenesis and cell migration. Validation with RT-PCR confirmed similar changes in the human liver cancer cell line, HepG2, during anastasis. Here, we present the time-course whole-genome gene expression dataset revealing gene expression profiles during the reversal of apoptosis. This dataset provides important insights into the physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications of anastasis.

  9. Sex reversal assessments reveal different vulnerability to endocrine disruption between deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-03-31

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors cause worldwide amphibian declines. Among several poorly investigated causes is global pollution of aquatic ecosystems with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These substances interfere with the endocrine system and can affect the sexual development of vertebrates including amphibians. We test the susceptibility to an environmentally relevant contraceptive, the artificial estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), simultaneously in three deeply divergent systematic anuran families, a model-species, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), and two non-models, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae). Our new approach combines synchronized tadpole exposure to three EE2-concentrations (50, 500, 5,000 ng/L) in a flow-through-system and pioneers genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in non-model anurans for EDC-studies. This novel methodology reveals striking quantitative differences in genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversal in non-model vs. model species. Our findings qualify molecular sexing in EDC-analyses as requirement to identify sex reversals and state-of-the-art approaches as mandatory to detect species-specific vulnerabilities to EDCs in amphibians.

  10. Strand transfer and elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcription is facilitated by cell factors in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Warrilow

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis.

  11. Strand transfer and elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcription is facilitated by cell factors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, David; Warren, Kylie; Harrich, David

    2010-10-06

    Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s) did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s) enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT) system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s) suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s) may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis.

  12. Study on the coherence degree of magnetization reversal in Permalloy single-domain nano-ellipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Júnior, D.S. Vieira; Leonel, S.A.; Toscano, D.; Sato, F.; Coura, P.Z.; Dias, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to study the magnetization reversal in Permalloy nano-ellipses, under combined in-plane magnetic fields along the longitudinal and the transverse directions. We have considered nano-ellipses with two different aspect ratios and five thicknesses: 220×80×t nm 3 and 70×50×t nm 3 , where t ranging from 5 to 25 nm in steps of 5 nm. We found that the mechanism of magnetization reversal is not only dependent on the parameters of the magnetic field pulse but also related to the ellipse dimensions. It is known that the reversal time is related to the mechanism behind the magnetization reversal. In particular, ultrafast magnetization reversals occur by coherent rotation, when applying a field oriented mainly perpendicular to the initial magnetization. In order to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal we have introduced a quantity called “coherence index”. Besides complementing the previous studies by including the effect of the thickness on the magnetization reversal, our results indicate that it is possible to obtain magnetization reversals with high degree of coherence in small nano-ellipses by adjusting the geometric factors of the ellipse and the parameters of the magnetic field pulse simultaneously. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversals in single-domain nano-ellipses were investigated. • A parameter to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal was proposed. • A higher coherence index indicates a complete, coherent, rotation of the magnetization.

  13. A Case for Dynamic Reverse-code Generation to Debug Non-deterministic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyong Yi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Backtracking (i.e., reverse execution helps the user of a debugger to naturally think backwards along the execution path of a program, and thinking backwards makes it easy to locate the origin of a bug. So far backtracking has been implemented mostly by state saving or by checkpointing. These implementations, however, inherently do not scale. Meanwhile, a more recent backtracking method based on reverse-code generation seems promising because executing reverse code can restore the previous states of a program without state saving. In the literature, there can be found two methods that generate reverse code: (a static reverse-code generation that pre-generates reverse code through static analysis before starting a debugging session, and (b dynamic reverse-code generation that generates reverse code by applying dynamic analysis on the fly during a debugging session. In particular, we espoused the latter one in our previous work to accommodate non-determinism of a program caused by e.g., multi-threading. To demonstrate the usefulness of our dynamic reverse-code generation, this article presents a case study of various backtracking methods including ours. We compare the memory usage of various backtracking methods in a simple but nontrivial example, a bounded-buffer program. In the case of non-deterministic programs such as this bounded-buffer program, our dynamic reverse-code generation outperforms the existing backtracking methods in terms of memory efficiency.

  14. Integrated Pumped Hydro Reverse Osmosis systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trimble, A Zachary; Ferrara, Marco; Slocum, Alexander H; Haji, Maha Niametullah; Ghaemsaidi, Sasan John

    2016-01-01

    Ideal head height for pumped hydro energy storage/generation systems and reverse osmosis desalination plants coincide (500–700 m). Many drought stricken coastal regions have nearby mountains of sufficient elevation to support upper reservoirs at this ideal head height. A good symbiotic match might thus be realized by co-locating a pumped hydro plant with a reverse osmosis desalination plant, which we call an Integrated Pumped Hydro Reverse Osmosis (IPHRO) system. Combining systems reduces cap...

  15. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  16. Reverse Mortgage Participation in the United States: Evidence from a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the most recent wave of a nationally representative dataset to examine the factors associated with elderly homeowners’ decision to obtain reverse mortgage loans. The findings of this study suggest that very few homeowners participated in the reverse mortgage market, and homeowners younger than 67 were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. However, homeowners who were risk averse, and homeowners in the two highest quartiles of net worth were more likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Further analyses reveal that among the reverse mortgage participants, homeowners with long-term care insurance coverage were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Implications for financial economists, financial planners, policy-makers, and scholars of retirement economics are included.

  17. Measurement of variable magnetic reversal paths in electrically contacted pseudo-spin-valve rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T J; Llandro, J; Schackert, F D O; Morecroft, D; Balsod, R B; Bland, J A C; Castano, F J; Ross, C A

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that the measurement of single magnetic reversal events is of critical importance in order to correctly characterize the switching of magnetic microstructures. Magnetoresistance measurements are performed on two pseudo-spin-valve ring structures with high enough signal to noise to allow the probing of single reversal events. Using this technique we acquire 'switching spectra' which demonstrate that the rings exhibit a range of variable reversal paths, including a bistable reversal mechanism of the hard layer, where the two switching routes have substantially different switching fields. The signature of the variable reversal paths would have been obscured in field cycle averaged data and in the bistable case would cause a fundamental misinterpretation of the reversal behaviour

  18. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  19. 47, XY, +der(Y),t(X;Y)(p21.1;p11.2): a unique case of XY sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Dwivedi, Alka; Bartel, Frank O; Corning, Ken; Dupont, Barbara R

    2011-02-01

    Translocations involving the short arms of the X and Y chromosomes are rare and can result in a functional disomy of the short arm of the X chromosome, including the dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS) locus. A result of such imbalance may be sex reversal with multiple congenital anomalies. We present the clinical and cytogenetic evaluation of a newborn infant with DSS and additional clinical findings of minor facial anomalies, left abdominal mass, 5th finger clinodactyly, and mild hypotonia. The external genitalia appeared to be normal female. The infant had bilateral corneal opacities and findings suggestive of anterior segment dysgenesis. Ultrasonography showed a small uterus with undetectable ovaries, and a left multicystic dysplastic kidney. High-resolution chromosome analysis identified the presence of a derivative Y chromosome, 47,XY, +der(Y)t(X;Y)(p21.1;p11.2), which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. Array CGH showed a 35.1 Mb copy number gain of chromosome region Xp22.33-p21.1 and a 52.2 Mb copy number gain of Yp11.2-qter, in addition to the intact X and Y chromosomes. Previously reported patients with XY sex reversal have not had DSS with corneal opacities, dysgenesis of the anterior segment of the eye, and unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. These findings represent a new form of XY sex reversal due to an Xp duplication. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Laparoscopic tubal sterilization reversal and fertility outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was two-fold. Firstly it was to assess the suitability for tubal recanalization and factors predicting successful laparoscopic recanalization. Secondly, it was to analyze the fertility outcomes and factors affecting the pregnancy rate following laparoscopic tubal recanalization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of prospectively followed-up 29 women at a tertiary care center seeking tubal sterilization reversal between May 2005 and February 2010 were included. Results: In 14 (48.3% women unilateral tubes were suitable and in only 3 women (10.3% bilateral tubes were suitable. All cases with laparoscopic tubal sterilization were suitable, whereas all cases with fimbriectomy were unsuitable for recanalization. In 6 (20.7% cases salphingostomy was performed as an alternative procedure to tubal reanastomosis. The overall pregnancy rate was 58.8%. In cases with sterilization by Pomeroy′s method, 4 out of 10 (40% conceived, whereas for laparoscopic tubal ligation cases 6 out of 7 (85.7% conceived (P=0.32. None of the patients with final tubal length <5 cm conceived (P=0.03. Comparing the age at recanalization, in women ≤30 years, 71.4% conceived, as compared with 50% when age of women was more than 30 years (P=0.37. Conclusions: The important factors determining the success of recanalization are technique of sterilization and the remaining length of the tube after recanalization. The gynecologist must use an effective technique of sterilization to minimize the failure rates, but at the same time, which causes minimal trauma, and aim at preserving the length of the tube so that reversal is more likely to be successful, should the patient′s circumstances change.

  1. Towards an Integrated Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Timescale for the Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Kuiper, Klaudia

    minerals. Each of these ages is then compared to independent astronomical ages for the events in order to define tie-points for constructing a Pleistocene a multi-chronometer GPTS. Although only three reversals are addressed here, the methodology applied shows promise to refining short-lived excursions......The development of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) in the mid 20th century led to the greater understanding of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics (Heirtzler et al., 1968). Over 40 years later, the GPTS continues to be refined, particularly in terms of integrating multiple dating...

  2. Anti-Aliasing filter for reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-01-01

    We develop an anti-aliasing filter for reverse-time migration (RTM). It is similar to the traditional anti-aliasing filter used for Kirchhoff migration in that it low-pass filters the migration operator so that the dominant wavelength in the operator is greater than two times the trace sampling interval, except it is applied to both primary and multiple reflection events. Instead of applying this filter to the data in the traditional RTM operation, we apply the anti-aliasing filter to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator. This gives the same migration image as computed by anti-aliased RTM. Download

  3. Tolerogenic vaccines for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannie, Mark D.; Curtis, II, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Tolerogenic vaccines represent a new class of vaccine designed to re-establish immunological tolerance, restore immune homeostasis, and thereby reverse autoimmune disease. Tolerogenic vaccines induce long-term, antigen-specific, inhibitory memory that blocks pathogenic T cell responses via loss of effector T cells and gain of regulatory T cell function. Substantial advances have been realized in the generation of tolerogenic vaccines that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a preclinical setting, and these vaccines may be a prequel of the tolerogenic vaccines that may have therapeutic benefit in Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose here is to provide a snapshot of the current concepts and future prospects of tolerogenic vaccination for Multiple Sclerosis, along with the central challenges to clinical application. PMID:23357858

  4. Reversible disruption of pre-pulse inhibition in hypomorphic-inducible and reversible CB1-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Marongiu

    Full Text Available Although several genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, in animal models for such a severe mental illness only some aspects of the pathology can be represented (endophenotypes. Genetically modified mice are currently being used to obtain or characterize such endophenotypes. Since its cloning and characterization CB1 receptor has increasingly become of significant physiological, pharmacological and clinical interest. Recently, its involvement in schizophrenia has been reported. Among the different approaches employed, gene targeting permits to study the multiple roles of the endocannabinoid system using knockout ((-/- mice represent a powerful model but with some limitations due to compensation. To overcome such a limitation, we have generated an inducible and reversible tet-off dependent tissue-specific CB1(-/- mice where the CB1R is re-expressed exclusively in the forebrain at a hypomorphic level due to a mutation (IRh-CB1(-/- only in absence of doxycycline (Dox. In such mice, under Dox(+ or vehicle, as well as in wild-type (WT and CB1(-/-, two endophenotypes motor activity (increased in animal models of schizophrenia and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI of startle reflex (disrupted in schizophrenia were analyzed. Both CB1(-/- and IRh-CB1(-/- showed increased motor activity when compared to WT animals. The PPI response, unaltered in WT and CB1(-/- animals, was on the contrary highly and significantly disrupted only in Dox(+ IRh-CB1(-/- mice. Such a response was easily reverted after either withdrawal from Dox or haloperidol treatment. This is the first Inducible and Reversible CB1(-/- mice model to be described in the literature. It is noteworthy that the PPI disruption is not present either in classical full CB1(-/- mice or following acute administration of rimonabant. Such a hypomorphic model may provide a new tool for additional in vivo and in vitro studies of the physiological and pathological roles of cannabinoid system in

  5. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  6. Reversible hypothyroidism and Whipple's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune mediated with progressive and permanent destruction of the thyroid gland resulting in life-long replacement therapy. Treatable and reversible hypothyroidism is unusual and here forth is such a case due to infection of the thyroid gland with Tropheryma whippleii, Whipple disease. Case presentation A 45 year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with primary hypothyroidism, which was also confirmed biochemically. Her response to thyroxine replacement therapy was poor however, requiring a significantly elevated amount. Further investigation revealed the presence of Whipple's disease involving the gastrointestinal trace and possibly the thyroid gland. Her thyroxine requirement decreased drastically following appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Whipple's disease to the extent that it was ceased. Thyrotropin releasing hormone testing in the steady state suggested there was diminished thyroid reserve due to Whipple's disease. Conclusion This is the first ante-mortem case report studying the possible involvement of the thyroid gland by Whipple's disease. Despite the normalization of her thyroid function test biochemically after antibiotic therapy, there is diminished thyroid reserve thus requiring close and regular monitoring.

  7. Multiple purpose electrical profit; Emprendimiento electrico de prestacion multiple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assennato, H. [Electrica de Azul Ltda., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows the multiple purpose aspects of electrification projects in rural and isolated areas. The multiple aspects involved in the electrification process may include, over electric power supply: improvement of life quality, irrigation and rural mechanization. 4 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs.

  8. Applications of Fast Truncated Multiplication in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Hars

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Truncated multiplications compute truncated products, contiguous subsequences of the digits of integer products. For an n-digit multiplication algorithm of time complexity O(nα, with 1<α≤2, there is a truncated multiplication algorithm, which is constant times faster when computing a short enough truncated product. Applying these fast truncated multiplications, several cryptographic long integer arithmetic algorithms are improved, including integer reciprocals, divisions, Barrett and Montgomery multiplications, 2n-digit modular multiplication on hardware for n-digit half products. For example, Montgomery multiplication is performed in 2.6 Karatsuba multiplication time.

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  10. Reverse logistics: an empirical study for operational framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework of reverse logistics optimizing the stakeholders gain, social gain, economic gain and environmental gain. It identifies the roadblocks that prevail in recycling industry and describes various types of returns and wastes. Framework of the reverse logistics is evolved on the basis of actual happening of the items shown in table 1-4 disposed off from industries shown in table 6. The rejected items require environmental disposal passing through the different phases described in flow of operational framework. An operational framework of reverse logistics is developed studying fifty organizations.. In ad -dition three best practices of reverse logistics are proposed by consolidating the experiential information and rich hands on industrial experience in supply chain and reverse logistics area. The research has proposed the Social, Stakeholder, Economic and Environmental (SSEE) sustained gain model optimizing the benefits of stakeholders and highlights the variety of waste and its operational methodology in Pakistani industry. The proposed framework does not include the hospital waste, radioactive waste, hazardous materials waste, municipal waste, agricultural waste and cold chain waste like meat, milk, etc.The operational framework is existing way of doing that takes the waste materials from point of origin to the point of recycling. A better understanding of this framework may help researchers and front line managers to develop better, more ac -curate models for effective and sustainable utilization of waste materials, benefiting organizations and soci -ety by simultaneously enhancing the cost effectiveness and improving environmental awareness. The paper provides an operational framework of reverse logistics and 2S2E sustained gain model. Specific applications are examined through empirical research. (author)

  11. 14 CFR 25.507 - Reversed braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reversed braking. 25.507 Section 25.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.507 Reversed braking. (a) The airplane...

  12. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive activities of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of reversible contraceptive activities of Annona squamosa (Linn.) ... Plant Products Research Journal ... Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive activities of methanol extract of the stem bark of Annoa squamosa L. (Annonaceae) with their respective reversibility in male rats.

  13. Reverse engineering of the robot base platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Azizul Rahman A Aziz; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Fadil Ismail; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The robot base platform used to place the robotic arm version 2 was imported through a local company. The robot base platform is used as a reference for reverse egineering development for a smaller size robot. The paper will discuss the reverse engineering design process and parameters involved in the development of the robot base platform. (Author)

  14. Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Paper 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.; Wolf, Edward C.

    This paper highlights some of the themes that any successful strategy to reverse the decline of Africa must embrace. Africa is a continent experiencing a breakdown in the relationship between people and their natural support systems. Famine and the threat of famine are among the manifestations of this breakdown. This decline can be reversed. To do…

  15. Reverse Methanogenesis and Respiration in Methanotrophic Archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Peer H.A.; Welte, Cornelia U.; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Jetten, Mike S.M.; Stams, Alfons J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is catalyzed by anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) via a reverse and modified methanogenesis pathway. Methanogens can also reverse the methanogenesis pathway to oxidize methane, but only during net methane production (i.e., "trace methane oxidation"). In

  16. Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Petersen, C.; Woutersen, S.; Bakker, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    he ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D2O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is

  17. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions

  18. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum

  19. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...

  20. Reversal of laryngotracheal separation in paediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laryngotracheal separation (LTS) is an effective and reliable definitive treatment for intractable aspiration. A major advantage of this treatment for intractable aspiration is its\\' potential reversibility. Should the underlying disorder improve, a reversal of the procedure may be attempted. This has been successfully achieved in the adult population. To our knowledge, no previous cases have been reported of successful reversal of LTS in children. METHODS: A retrospective review from 2003 to 2010 identified four cases of intractable aspiration treated with LTS in our department. Two of these patients displayed objective evidence of sufficient recovery of their underlying aspiration to consider reversal. Patient selection for reversal was dependent upon successful oral intake for 9 months along with videofluoroscopic evidence of normal or minimally impaired swallow. RESULTS: Two children who were successfully treated for intractable aspiration with LTS demonstrated objective evidence of recovery sufficient to attempt reversal. Both children underwent successful surgical reversal of LTS using a cricotracheal resection with end-to-end anastamosis, similar to that used in treatment of subglottic stenosis. Both children can now tolerate oral diet and their speech and language development is in line with their overall developmental level. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngotracheal separation is an effective and reliable definitive treatment for intractable aspiration facilitating protection of the airway and allowing safe swallowing with unimpeded respiration, but with the major drawback of loss of phonation. To our knowledge, we document the first two cases of successful LTS reversal in children.

  1. Reverse engineering a visual age application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Harry M.; Verhoef, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an industrial case study of how a VisualAge application system on an IBM mainframe was reverse engineered into a system reference repository. The starting point was the code fragments generated by the VisualAge interactive development tool. The results of the reverse engineering

  2. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  3. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  4. Early reverse transcription is essential for productive foamy virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamborlini, Alessia; Renault, Noémie; Saïb, Ali; Delelis, Olivier

    2010-06-11

    Although viral RNA constitutes the majority of nucleic acids packaged in virions, a late occurring step of reverse transcription leads to the presence of infectious viral cDNA in foamy virus particles. This peculiarity distinguishes them from the rest of the retroviral family. To evaluate the respective contribution of these viral nucleic acids in the replication of foamy viruses, their fate was studied by real-time PCR and RT-PCR early after infection, in the presence or in the absence of AZT. We found that an early reverse transcription step, which occurs during the first hours post-entry, is absolutely required for productive infection. Remarkably, sensitivity to AZT can be counteracted by increasing the multiplicity of infection (moi). We also show that 2-LTR circular viral DNA, which appears as soon as four hours post-infection, is transcriptionally competent. Taken together, our data demonstrate that an early reverse transcription process, which takes place soon after viral entry, is indispensable for infectivity of FVs at low moi, when the amount of DNA-containing particles is not sufficient to lead to a productive infection. This study demonstrates a key role of the packaged viral RNA in the foamy virus infection, suggesting that the replication of this virus can be achieved by involving either viral DNA or RNA genome, depending on the condition of infection.

  5. Estimation and uncertainty of reversible Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Noé, Frank

    2015-11-07

    Reversibility is a key concept in Markov models and master-equation models of molecular kinetics. The analysis and interpretation of the transition matrix encoding the kinetic properties of the model rely heavily on the reversibility property. The estimation of a reversible transition matrix from simulation data is, therefore, crucial to the successful application of the previously developed theory. In this work, we discuss methods for the maximum likelihood estimation of transition matrices from finite simulation data and present a new algorithm for the estimation if reversibility with respect to a given stationary vector is desired. We also develop new methods for the Bayesian posterior inference of reversible transition matrices with and without given stationary vector taking into account the need for a suitable prior distribution preserving the meta-stable features of the observed process during posterior inference. All algorithms here are implemented in the PyEMMA software--http://pyemma.org--as of version 2.0.

  6. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Chris; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes...... place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines...... (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin...

  7. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from...

  8. Designing hypothesis of substituted benzoxazinones as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: QSAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Ravichandran; Subramaniam, Dinesh Kumar; Chean, Ooi Chia; Ying, Ng Mei

    2012-10-01

    A linear quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model is presented for predicting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase enzyme inhibition. The 2D QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were developed by stepwise multiple linear regression, partial least square (PLS) regression and k-nearest neighbor-molecular field analysis, PLS regression, respectively using a database consisting of 33 recently discovered benzoxazinones. The primary findings of this study is that the number of hydrogen atoms, number of (-NH2) group connected with solitary single bond alters the inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Further, presence of electrostatic, hydrophobic and steric field descriptors significantly affects the ability of benzoxazinone derivatives to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The selected descriptors could serve as a primer for the design of novel and potent antagonists of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  9. Reversible machine code and its abstract processor architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A reversible abstract machine architecture and its reversible machine code are presented and formalized. For machine code to be reversible, both the underlying control logic and each instruction must be reversible. A general class of machine instruction sets was proven to be reversible, building ...... on our concept of reversible updates. The presentation is abstract and can serve as a guideline for a family of reversible processor designs. By example, we illustrate programming principles for the abstract machine architecture formalized in this paper....

  10. Long-acting reversible contraceptives: intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony

    2011-03-01

    The provision of effective contraception is fundamental to the practice of women's health care. The most effective methods of reversible contraception are the so-called long-acting reversible contraceptives, intrauterine devices and implants. These methods have multiple advantages over other reversible methods. Most importantly, once in place, they do not require maintenance and their duration of action is long, ranging from 3 to 10 years. Despite the advantages of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, they are infrequently used in the United States. Short-acting methods, specifically oral contraceptives and condoms, are by far the most commonly used reversible methods. A shift from the use of short-acting methods to long-acting reversible contraceptive methods could help reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. In this review of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, we discuss the intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant available in the United States, and we describe candidates for each method, noncontraceptive benefits, and management of complications.

  11. Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25 and younger (N = 26 adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001 such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.

  12. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  13. Thiazolidinones derived from dynamic systemic resolution of complex reversible-reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof

    2014-03-17

    A complex dynamic system based on a network of multiple reversible reactions has been established. The network was applied to a dynamic systemic resolution protocol based on kinetically controlled lipase-catalyzed transformations. This resulted in the formation of cyclized products, where two thiazolidinone compounds were efficiently produced from a range of potential transformations.

  14. Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Ali M; Barnes, Amber N; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n = 28, 50%), livestock (n = 24, 43%), companion animals (n = 13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n = 2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems.

  15. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  17. Extraction of L-Aspartic Acid with Reverse Micelle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYDOĞAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the extraction L-aspartic acid which is a hydrophobic amino acid with reverse micelle system. Production of amino acids by fermentation has been more important in recent years. These amino acids are obtained in dilute aqueous solutions and have to be separated from excess substrate, inorganic salts and by-products. Recently, separation of amino acids from fermentation media by reverse micelle extraction has received a great deal of attention. In this study, reverse micelle phase includes aliquat-336 as a surfactant, 1-decanol as a co-surfactant and isooctane as an apolar solvent. Experiments were performed at 150 rpm stirring rate, at 30 oC, for 30 min extraction time with equal volumes of reverse micelle and aqueous phases. Concentration of L-aspartic acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extraction yield increased with increasing pH and aliquat-336 concentration and with decreasing initial amino acid concentration. Maximum ekstraction yield (68 % was obtained at pH of 12, surfactant concentration of 200 mM and an initial amino acid concentration of 5 mM.

  18. [Delivery in multiple pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, F; D'Addato, F; Grio, R

    2001-04-01

    A knowledge of clinical physiognomy in pathologies related to multiple births is indispensable for improving maternal and feto-neonatal prognosis. This study is a contribution to the solution of this problem. A meta-analysis of data for multiple births at Department B of the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the University of Turi during the decade 1989-1998 was carried out, focusing on the arrangement and presentation of fetuses, the various types of birth, the gestational age at which birth occurred, the weight of neonates, neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity. Out of 11,523 births, there were a total of 194 (1.68%) multiple births, including 190 sets of twins and 4 triplets. 154 (79.38%) premature births were reported; 20 occurred 1500 g). The perinatal mortality rate was 3.82%. Maternal complications mainly occurred during the placental state, in the immediate postpartum and in puerperio. The authors feel that a more careful medical and social assistance, preventive hospitalisation, early recognition of the risk, constant monitoring for the optimal timing of birth, and lastly, qualified medical assistance during labour (expert gynecologist, trained obstetric staff) with other medical personnel (anesthetist, neonatal specialist) represent winning strategies to solve the problems arising during multiple pregnancies.

  19. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...

  20. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  1. Time reversibility, computer simulation, and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    1999-01-01

    A small army of physicists, chemists, mathematicians, and engineers has joined forces to attack a classic problem, the "reversibility paradox", with modern tools. This book describes their work from the perspective of computer simulation, emphasizing the author's approach to the problem of understanding the compatibility, and even inevitability, of the irreversible second law of thermodynamics with an underlying time-reversible mechanics. Computer simulation has made it possible to probe reversibility from a variety of directions and "chaos theory" or "nonlinear dynamics" has supplied a useful

  2. Performance of the reverse Helmbold universal portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng; Lee, Yap Jia

    2017-04-01

    The universal portfolio is an important investment strategy in a stock market where no stochastic model is assumed for the stock prices. The zero-gradient set of the objective function estimating the next-day portfolio which contains the reverse Kullback-Leibler order-alpha divergence is considered. From the zero-gradient set, the explicit, reverse Helmbold universal portfolio is obtained. The performance of the explicit, reverse Helmbold universal portfolio is studied by running them on some stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange. It is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using these portfolios in investment.

  3. NARCOSIS AND EMULSION REVERSAL BY INERT GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Dewey F.; Fenn, Wallace O.

    1957-01-01

    Investigations of the effect of high pressures of Na (100 to 130 atmospheres) and of Ar (60 to 80 atmospheres) showed that these gases are effective in reversing the phases of an oil in water emulsion. Nitrous oxide did not cause reversal at pressures as high as 53 atmospheres nor did helium as high as 107 atmospheres. We found CO2 most effective in reversing the emulsions and attributed this to its chemical properties. It is suggested that these observations may help to explain the narcotic effects of inert gases. PMID:13416527

  4. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...... promote different learning preferences and possibly complementarities may exist between these. Furthermore, double loop learning is not required for beneficial reverse knowledge transfer....

  5. Dynamic Reverse Code Generation for Backward Execution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jooyong

    2007-01-01

    he need for backward execution in debuggers has been raised a number of times. Backward execution helps a user naturally think backwards and, in turn, easily locate the cause of a bug. Backward execution has been implemented mostly by state-saving or checkpointing, which are inherently not scalable....... In this paper, we present a method to generate reverse code, so that backtracking can be performed by executing reverse code. The novelty of our work is that we generate reverse code on-the-fly, while running a debugger, which makes it possible to apply the method even to debugging multi-threaded programs....

  6. Coexistence through mutualist-dependent reversal of competitive hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Zytynska, Sharon E; Balog, Adalbert; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2018-01-01

    Mechanisms that allow for the coexistence of two competing species that share a trophic level can be broadly divided into those that prevent competitive exclusion of one species within a local area, and those that allow for coexistence only at a regional level. While the presence of aphid-tending ants can change the distribution of aphids among host plants, the role of mutualistic ants has not been fully explored to understand coexistence of multiple aphid species in a community. The tansy plant ( Tanacetum vulgare ) hosts three common and specialized aphid species, with only one being tended by ants. Often, these aphids species will not coexist on the same plant but will coexist across multiple plant hosts in a field. In this study, we aim to understand how interactions with mutualistic ants and predators affect the coexistence of multiple species of aphid herbivores on tansy. We show that the presence of ants drives community assembly at the level of individual plant, that is, the local community, by favoring one ant-tended species, Metopeurum fuscoviride , while preying on the untended Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria and, to a lesser extent, Uroleucon tanaceti . Competitive hierarchies without ants were very different from those with ants. At the regional level, multiple tansy plants provide a habitat across which all aphid species can coexist at the larger spatial scale, while being competitively excluded at the local scale. In this case, ant mutualist-dependent reversal of the competitive hierarchy can drive community dynamics in a plant-aphid system.

  7. Multiple topological phase transitions in a gyromagnetic photonic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-04-19

    We present the design of a tunable two-dimensional photonic crystal that exhibits multiple topological phases, including a conventional insulator phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, and a quantum anomalous Hall phase under different combinations of geometric parameters and external magnetic fields. Our photonic crystal enables a platform to study the topology evolution attributed to the interplay between crystalline symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. A four-band tight-binding model unambiguously reveals that the topological property is associated with the pseudospin orientations and that it is characterized by the spin Chern number. The emerging quantum anomalous Hall phase features a single helical edge state that is locked by a specific pseudospin. Simulation results demonstrate that the propagation of such a single helical edge state is robust against magnetic impurities. Potential applications, such as spin splitters, are described.

  8. Implementation of all-optical reversible logic gate based on holographic laser induced grating using azo-dye doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsati, Rana; Valipour Ebrahimi, Sara; Navi, Keivan; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jashnsaz, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Increasing demand for power reduction in computer systems has led to new trends in computations and computer design including reversible computing. Its main aim is to eliminate power dissipation in logical elements but can have some other advantages such as data security and error prevention. Because of interesting properties of reversible computing, implementing computing devices with reversible manner is the only way to make the reversible computing a reality. In recent years, reversible logic has turned out to be a promising computing paradigm having application in CMOS, nanotechnology, quantum computing and optical computing. In this paper, we propose and realize a novel implementation of Toffoli gate in all-optical domain. We have explained its principle of operations and described an actual experimental implementation. The all-optical reversible gate presented in this paper will be useful in different applications such as arithmetic and logical operations in the domain of reversible logic-based computing.

  9. The reversal of the Sun's magnetic field in cycle 24

    OpenAIRE

    Mordvinov, Alexander V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; Petrie, Gordon J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of synoptic data from the Vector Stokes Magnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) and the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope facility shows that the reversals of solar polar magnetic fields exhibit elements of a stochastic process, which may include the development of specific patterns of emerging magnetic flux, and the asymmetry in activity between northern and southern hemispheres. The presence of su...

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome presenting as Balint syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Abhayambika, Archana; Sundaram, Arun N E; Sharpe, James A

    2011-09-01

    Balint syndrome is a disorder of inaccurate visually guided saccades, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia that typically results from bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. Visual perception disturbances in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) include hemianopia, visual neglect, and cerebral blindness, but Balint syndrome had not been recognized. We report Balint syndrome associated with PRES in a 37-year-old woman with acute hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus. Balint syndrome can be an initial presentation of PRES.

  11. Visual hydrogen detector with variable reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods, processes and compositions are provided for a visual or chemochromic hydrogen-detector with variable or tunable reversible color change. The working temperature range for the hydrogen detector is from minus 100.degree. C. to plus 500.degree. C. A hydrogen-sensitive pigment, including, but not limited to, oxides, hydroxides and polyoxo-compounds of tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, chromium and combinations thereof, is combined with nano-sized metal activator particles and preferably, coated on a porous or woven substrate. In the presence of hydrogen, the composition rapidly changes its color from white or light-gray or light-tan to dark gray, navy-blue or black depending on the exposure time and hydrogen concentration in the medium. After hydrogen exposure ceases, the original color of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment is restored, and the visual hydrogen detector can be used repeatedly. By changing the composition of the hydrogen-sensitive pigment, the time required for its complete regeneration is varied from a few seconds to several days.

  12. Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stevenson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm Oe. Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO3–0.3PbTiO3, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe3+ ion of +0.142 μB. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

  13. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  14. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  15. The Cigeo project. The Cigeo reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    This publication briefly presents the main aspects of the introduction of reversibility in the design, construction and operation of the industrial centre of deep geological storage (CIGEO) of radioactive wastes. It recalls that this reversibility has been demanded by the public and requested by the French Parliament: the storage must remain reversible during 100 years. The main proposals made by the ANDRA are briefly described: to be able to recover stored parcels (technical arrangements), to choose the planning of a step-by-step storage closure, and to prepare decision and to organise the relay between generations or to decide whether to go on or not. The issue of reversibility financing is also evoked

  16. Time reversibility, computer simulation, algorithms, chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    2012-01-01

    A small army of physicists, chemists, mathematicians, and engineers has joined forces to attack a classic problem, the "reversibility paradox", with modern tools. This book describes their work from the perspective of computer simulation, emphasizing the author's approach to the problem of understanding the compatibility, and even inevitability, of the irreversible second law of thermodynamics with an underlying time-reversible mechanics. Computer simulation has made it possible to probe reversibility from a variety of directions and "chaos theory" or "nonlinear dynamics" has supplied a useful vocabulary and a set of concepts, which allow a fuller explanation of irreversibility than that available to Boltzmann or to Green, Kubo and Onsager. Clear illustration of concepts is emphasized throughout, and reinforced with a glossary of technical terms from the specialized fields which have been combined here to focus on a common theme. The book begins with a discussion, contrasting the idealized reversibility of ba...

  17. Reversal of target-specific oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, D.M.; Cuker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide safe and effective anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings by interfering with the activity of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). Although TSOACs have practical advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), there are currently no antidotes to reverse their anticoagulant effect. Herein we summarize the available evidence for TSOAC reversal using nonspecific and specific reversal agents. We discuss important limitations of existing evidence, which is derived from studies in human volunteers, animal models and in vitro experiments. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of reversal agents on clinical outcomes such as bleeding and mortality in patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding are needed. PMID:24880102

  18. Reverse-Acting Temperature-Control Louvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, James W.

    1995-01-01

    Louvers configured to accept rather than reject heat. Visually identical to those that open with increasing temperature, only difference being that bimetallic spring actuates open and closing mounted backwards to obtain reverse function.

  19. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  20. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  1. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...... explanation using the finite field of residual classes of integers modulo 5: F 5 = ℤ/5ℤ. We show also an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the set of differences of new and deleted Quad-Edge edges induced...

  2. Reversal of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian; Kodjabashia, Kamelia; Nixon, Emma

    2016-01-01

    in an adult patient with IF secondary to severe Crohn's disease and multiple small bowel resections. The patient developed liver dysfunction and pathology consistent with IFALD. Multiple causal factors were implicated, including nutrition-related factors, catheter sepsis and the use of hepatotoxic medications....... Multidisciplinary treatment in a tertiary IF referral centre included aggressive sepsis management, discontinuation of hepatotoxic medications and a reduction of parenteral nutrition dependency through optimisation of enteral nutrition via distal enteral tube feeding. Upon this, liver function tests normalised....

  3. Influence of weight at enterostomy reversal on surgical outcomes in infants after emergent neonatal stoma creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lindsay J; Sinyard, Robert D; Rialon, Kristy L; Englum, Brian R; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Rice, Henry E; Adibe, Obinna O

    2017-01-01

    Neonates after emergent enterostomy creation frequently require reversal at low weight because of complications including cholestasis, dehydration, dumping, failure to thrive, and failure to achieve enteral independence. We investigated whether stoma reversal at low weight (stoma type, reversal indication, operative details, and complications were examined. Patients were categorized by weight at reversal of less than 2kg, 2.01-2.5kg, 2.51-3.5kg, and greater than 3.5kg. Data were analyzed using univariable and multivariable regression with significance level of pstoma reversal may be acceptable when required for progression of neonatal care. Level III, Treatment Study (Retrospective comparative study). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nano-encrypted Morse code: a versatile approach to programmable and reversible nanoscale assembly and disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ngo Yin; Xing, Hang; Tan, Li Huey; Lu, Yi

    2013-02-27

    While much work has been devoted to nanoscale assembly of functional materials, selective reversible assembly of components in the nanoscale pattern at selective sites has received much less attention. Exerting such a reversible control of the assembly process will make it possible to fine-tune the functional properties of the assembly and to realize more complex designs. Herein, by taking advantage of different binding affinities of biotin and desthiobiotin toward streptavidin, we demonstrate selective and reversible decoration of DNA origami tiles with streptavidin, including revealing an encrypted Morse code "NANO" and reversible exchange of uppercase letter "I" with lowercase "i". The yields of the conjugations are high (>90%), and the process is reversible. We expect this versatile conjugation technique to be widely applicable with different nanomaterials and templates.

  5. A DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Armijo C., J.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Q. e Ing. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Condorhuamán C., C.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Q. e Ing. Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a mathematical model to simulate dynamically a reverse osmosis system. The model is formed from materials balances macroscopic unsteady state combined with the model membrane transport: diffusion-solution. In this first part, we solve the system of differential equations assuming a completely mixed flow pattern in the reverse osmosis module (module polarization = 1). The system of equations is solved simultaneously by the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The results indicate t...

  6. Habit Reversal Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Ken

    1985-01-01

    Although several writers have emphasized the habit-like characteristics of bulimia nervosa, no study has investigated the extent to which bulimia responds to treatment specifically for habit disorders. Habit reversal is a general treatment plan which teaches individuals to regain lost awareness of all aspects of a habit. The habit is then interrupted at the earliest movement in the chain by a physically competing response. Habit reversal (Azrin & Nunn, 1973) has been effective in treating oth...

  7. Boosting reversible pushdown machines by preprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Kutrib, Martin; Malcher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    languages, whereas for reversible pushdown automata the accepted family of languages lies strictly in between the reversible deterministic context-free languages and the real-time deterministic context-free languages. Moreover, it is shown that the computational power of both types of machines...... is not changed by allowing the preprocessing sequential transducer to work irreversibly. Finally, we examine the closure properties of the family of languages accepted by such machines....

  8. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is an elective surgical sterilization procedure for men that is intended to obstruct or remove a portion of both vas deferens, thereby preventing sperm from moving from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts. Although intended for permanent sterilization, vasectomy can be reversed in most men seeking to restore their fertility due to a change in marital status or reproductive goals. The purpose of this document is to provided a synopsis of the latest techniques used in vasectomy and reversal.

  9. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2011-01-01

    Vasectomy is an elective surgical sterilization procedure for men that is intended to obstruct or remove a portion of both vas deferens, thereby preventing sperm from moving from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts. Although intended for permanent sterilization, vasectomy can be reversed in most men seeking to restore their fertility due to a change in marital status or reproductive goals. The purpose of this document is to provided a synopsis of the latest techniques used in vasectomy and reversal. PMID:21716894

  10. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    1999-12-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  11. Optimizing reversible simulation of injective functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bennett showed that a clean reversible simulation of injective programs is possible without returning the input of a program as additional output. His method involves two computation and two uncomputation phases. This paper proposes an optimization of Bennett’s simulation that requires only half ......-coding program is further optimized by conserving the model over the text-generation phase. This paper may thus provide a newviewon developing efficient reversible simulations for a certain class of injective functions....

  12. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  13. Study of Time Reversal in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-02

    CSC Hive cluster. Finally we wish to acknowledge Rena Zieve and the others associated with the UC Davis REU program in physics, funded under NSF...Flower process. Again by symmetry, finding the maximum of Ξ requires finding a point that lies on the boundary of the product space of the simplices...parallel on the UC Davis CSC Hive cluster. Each -machine was time-reversed and categorized as reversible, finitely irreversible, or infinitely

  14. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2016-09-06

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  15. Portable multiplicity counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Matthew R [Los Alamos, NM; Jones, David Carl [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  16. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  17. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  18. Multiple cellular responses to serotonin contribute to epithelial homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P Pai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial homeostasis incorporates the paradoxical concept of internal change (epithelial turnover enabling the maintenance of anatomical status quo. Epithelial cell differentiation and cell loss (cell shedding and apoptosis form important components of epithelial turnover. Although the mechanisms of cell loss are being uncovered the crucial triggers that modulate epithelial turnover through regulation of cell loss remain undetermined. Serotonin is emerging as a common autocrine-paracine regulator in epithelia of multiple organs, including the breast. Here we address whether serotonin affects epithelial turnover. Specifically, serotonin's roles in regulating cell shedding, apoptosis and barrier function of the epithelium. Using in vivo studies in mouse and a robust model of differentiated human mammary duct epithelium (MCF10A, we show that serotonin induces mammary epithelial cell shedding and disrupts tight junctions in a reversible manner. However, upon sustained exposure, serotonin induces apoptosis in the replenishing cell population, causing irreversible changes to the epithelial membrane. The staggered nature of these events induced by serotonin slowly shifts the balance in the epithelium from reversible to irreversible. These finding have very important implications towards our ability to control epithelial regeneration and thus address pathologies of aberrant epithelial turnover, which range from degenerative disorders (e.g.; pancreatitis and thyrioditis to proliferative disorders (e.g.; mastitis, ductal ectasia, cholangiopathies and epithelial cancers.

  19. Is there a Link between Vitamin B and Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemazannikova, Natalie; Mikkelsen, Kathleen; Stojanovska, Lily; Blatch, Gregory L; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2018-02-06

    Damage to the myelin sheath (demyelination) is one of the main manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interestingly, both MS and vitamin B deficiencies result in severe myelin degeneration, leading to loss in neuronal signal transmission. Deficiency in vitamin B complex vary, although common symptoms include fatigue, increased oxidative stress, inflammation and demyelination. In particular, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) has had increased attention for its role in the methylation process, involvement in myelination and remyelination, and reversal of MS symptoms. Here, we discuss the role of vitamin B complex (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12) in MS. The anti-inflammatory and re-myelinating attributes of vitamin B complex members are promising, despite limited clinical studies. There is an urgent need for larger studies to determine the role of vitamin B supplementation alone, or in combination with other therapeutic agents, in prevention or reversal of MS, and aid in improved quality of life of MS patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Effect of Strain-Path Reversal on Microstructure Evolution and Cavitation During Hot Torsion Testing of Ti-6A1-4V (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semiatin, S. L; Nicolaou, P. D

    2006-01-01

    Hot torsion testing comprising multiple twist reversals was used to establish the effect of strain-path changes on concurrent dynamic globularization and cavitation of Ti-6Al-4V with a colony-alpha...

  1. Quinolone Resistance Reversion by Targeting the SOS Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recacha, E; Machuca, J; Díaz de Alba, P; Ramos-Güelfo, M; Docobo-Pérez, F; Rodriguez-Beltrán, J; Blázquez, J; Pascual, A; Rodríguez-Martínez, J M

    2017-10-10

    Suppression of the SOS response has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy for potentiating antimicrobial agents. We aimed to evaluate the impact of its suppression on reversing resistance using a model of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli representing multiple levels of quinolone resistance. E. coli mutants exhibiting a spectrum of SOS activity were constructed from isogenic strains carrying quinolone resistance mechanisms with susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Changes in susceptibility were evaluated by static (MICs) and dynamic (killing curves or flow cytometry) methodologies. A peritoneal sepsis murine model was used to evaluate in vivo impact. Suppression of the SOS response was capable of resensitizing mutant strains with genes encoding three or four different resistance mechanisms (up to 15-fold reductions in MICs). Killing curve assays showed a clear disadvantage for survival (Δlog 10 CFU per milliliter [CFU/ml] of 8 log units after 24 h), and the in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin was significantly enhanced (Δlog 10 CFU/g of 1.76 log units) in resistant strains with a suppressed SOS response. This effect was evident even after short periods (60 min) of exposure. Suppression of the SOS response reverses antimicrobial resistance across a range of E. coli phenotypes from reduced susceptibility to highly resistant, playing a significant role in increasing the in vivo efficacy. IMPORTANCE The rapid rise of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is now considered a major global health crisis. New strategies are needed to block the development of resistance and to extend the life of antibiotics. The SOS response is a promising target for developing therapeutics to reduce the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and enhance the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents such as quinolones. Significant questions remain regarding its impact as a strategy for the reversion or resensitization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To address this

  2. Resveratrol reverses morphine-induced neuroinflammation in morphine-tolerant rats by reversal HDAC1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yin Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Resveratrol restores the antinociceptive effect of morphine by reversing morphine infusion-induced spinal cord neuroinflammation and increase in TNFR1 expression. The reversal of the morphine-induced increase in TNFR1 expression by resveratrol is partially due to reversal of the morphine infusion-induced increase in HDAC1 expression. Resveratrol pretreatment can be used as an adjuvant in clinical pain management for patients who need long-term morphine treatment or with neuropathic pain.

  3. ‘Picking People to Hate’: Reversible reversals in stand-up comedy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki

    2017-01-01

    such as clowns and tricksters, reversals are part of their semiotic technique. By ‘reversible reversals’ I refer to the characteristic ambiguity of comedic performance and the ability of comedic figures to play with, combine, or shift between opposite traits, actions, and perspectives. In this sense, comedy can...... called ‘Picking People to Hate’ by stand-up comedian Louis C.K. Looking at comedic performance as reversible reversals is a way to show how humor can be efficacious and meaningful both in spite and because of its characteristic ambiguity. This will illuminate how stand-up comedy creatively engages its...

  4. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes

  5. Cluster observation of plasma flow reversal in the magnetotail during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate in detail a reversal of plasma flow from tailward to earthward detected by Cluster at the downstream distance of ~19 RE in the midnight sector of the magnetotail on 22 August 2001. This flow reversal was accompanied by a sign reversal of the Bz component and occurred during the late substorm expansion phase as revealed by simultaneous global view of auroral activity from IMAGE. We examine the associated Hall current system signature, current density, electric field, Lorentz force, and current dissipation/dynamo term, the last two parameters being new features that have not been studied previously for plasma flow reversals. It is found that (1 there was no clear quadrupole Hall current system signature organized by the flow reversal time, (2 the x-component of the Lorentz force did not change sign while the other two did, (3 the timing sequence of flow reversal from the Cluster configuration did not match tailward motion of a single plasma flow source, (4 the electric field was occasionally dawnward, producing a dynamo effect, and (5 the electric field was occasionally larger at the high-latitude plasma sheet than near the neutral sheet. These observations are consistent with the current disruption model for substorms in which these disturbances are due to shifting dominance of multiple current disruption sites and turbulence at the observing location.

  6. Quantifying Kinase-Specific Phosphorylation Stoichiometry Using Stable Isotope Labeling In a Reverse In-Gel Kinase Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Cox, Jonathan T.; Huang, Weiliang; Kane, Maureen; Tang, Keqi; Bieberich, Charles J.

    2016-12-06

    Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates essentially all cellular activities. Aberrant protein phosphorylation is an etiological factor in a wide array of diseases, including cancer1, diabetes2, and Alzheimer’s3. Given the broad impact of protein phosphorylation on cellular biology and organismal health, understanding how protein phosphorylation is regulated and the consequences of gain and loss of phosphoryl moieties from proteins is of primary importance. Advances in instrumentation, particularly in mass spectrometry, coupled with high throughput approaches have recently yielded large datasets cataloging tens of thousands of protein phosphorylation sites in multiple organisms4-6. While these studies are seminal in term of data collection, our understanding of protein phosphorylation regulation remains largely one-dimensional.

  7. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  8. Exciton multiplication from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Heather M; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-18

    Third-generation photovolatics require demanding cost and power conversion efficiency standards, which may be achieved through efficient exciton multiplication. Therefore, generating more than one electron-hole pair from the absorption of a single photon has vast ramifications on solar power conversion technology. Unlike their bulk counterparts, irradiated semiconductor quantum dots exhibit efficient exciton multiplication, due to confinement-enhanced Coulomb interactions and slower nonradiative losses. The exact characterization of the complicated photoexcited processes within quantum-dot photovoltaics is a work in progress. In this Account, we focus on the photophysics of nanocrystals and investigate three constituent processes of exciton multiplication, including photoexcitation, phonon-induced dephasing, and impact ionization. We quantify the role of each process in exciton multiplication through ab initio computation and analysis of many-electron wave functions. The probability of observing a multiple exciton in a photoexcited state is proportional to the magnitude of electron correlation, where correlated electrons can be simultaneously promoted across the band gap. Energies of multiple excitons are determined directly from the excited state wave functions, defining the threshold for multiple exciton generation. This threshold is strongly perturbed in the presence of surface defects, dopants, and ionization. Within a few femtoseconds following photoexcitation, the quantum state loses coherence through interactions with the vibrating atomic lattice. The phase relationship between single excitons and multiple excitons dissipates first, followed by multiple exciton fission. Single excitons are coupled to multiple excitons through Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions, and as a consequence, single excitons convert to multiple excitons and vice versa. Here, exciton multiplication depends on the initial energy and coupling magnitude and competes with electron

  9. Increased reverse T3 concentration in patients with anorexia nerrosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska, B.; Kaniewski, M.; Zgliczynski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa, aging 16 - 26 years, the thyroid function was estimated by +- determining TSH secretion in response to TRH, and serum thyroxine (T 4 ), 3,5,3'L-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and 3,3',5'L-triiodothyronine (reverse T 3 ) concentrations. 14 healthy women of the same age were included into the control group. If compared with control group, a marked supression of TRH stimulated TSH secretion and a lowering of serum T 3 concentration was found in patients with anorexia nervosa. On the other hand, serum reverse T 3 concentration was markedly higher in patients with anorexia nervosa than in control ones. Gain of body weight leads to normalization of thyroid hormones level in the serum. Obtained results show for peripheral mechanism of described hormonal disorders. (author)

  10. Point data reduction in reverse engineering by delaunay triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sung Min; Kim, Ho Chan; Lee, Seok Hee

    2001-01-01

    Reverse engineering has been widely used for the shape reconstruction of an object without CAD data and the measurement of clay or wood models for the development of new products. To generate a surface from measured points by a laser scanner, typical steps include the scanning of a clay or wood model and the generation of manufacturing data like STL file. A laser scanner has a great potential to get geometrical data of a model for its fast measuring speed and higher precision. The data from a laser scanner are composed of many line stripes of points. A new approach to remove point data with Delaunay triangulation is introduced to deal with problems during reverse engineering process. This approach can be used to reduce a number of measuring data from laser scanner within tolerance, thus it can avoid the time for handling point data during modelling process and the time for verifying and slicing STL model during RP process

  11. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  12. Reconstruction of hand contracture by reverse ulnar perforator flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Eser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand burn scar contractures affect patients in aesthetic and functional aspects. After releasing these scars, the defects should be repaired. The reconstruction methods include primary suturation, Z plasty, skin grafting, local or free flaps, etc. All methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the most useful flaps is the reverse ulnar perforator flap. We performed a two-staged procedure for repairing a post-burn contracture release defect in a 40-year-old male. In the first stage we applied reverse ulnar perforator flap for the hand defect, and ulnar artery and vein repair in the second stage. In conclusion, this two-staged procedure is a non-primary but useful option for hand and finger defects and prevents major vascular structure damage of the forearm. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 40-43

  13. A steady state solution to a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    To find a steady state field reversed configuration, a method is considered for sustaining the diamagnetic plasma current by a seed current externally driven at the field null point. The steady state solution is obtained by solving the one-dimensional fluid equations including equilibrium and transport. It is found that the amount of seed current necessary to maintain a steady field reversal depends strongly on τ B /τ N , where τ B and τ N are the magnetic diffusion times and the particle confinement time, respectively. As τ B /τ N increases, more flux is excluded from the plasma. The steady state solution is applied to a D-T ignited plasma. (author)

  14. Reverse Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Hache

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks has been an intensively studied topic in bioinformatics since it constitutes an intermediate step from explorative to causative gene expression analysis. Many methods have been proposed through recent years leading to a wide range of mathematical approaches. In practice, different mathematical approaches will generate different resulting network structures, thus, it is very important for users to assess the performance of these algorithms. We have conducted a comparative study with six different reverse engineering methods, including relevance networks, neural networks, and Bayesian networks. Our approach consists of the generation of defined benchmark data, the analysis of these data with the different methods, and the assessment of algorithmic performances by statistical analyses. Performance was judged by network size and noise levels. The results of the comparative study highlight the neural network approach as best performing method among those under study.

  15. Application of Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE as a rapid method for routine determination of Vibrio spp. in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahorm, Kanchana; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of PCR-DGGE and Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE techniques for rapid detection of Vibrio species in foods. Primers GC567F and 680R were initially evaluated for amplifying DNA and cDNA of ten references Vibrio species by PCR method. The GC-clamp PCR amplicons were separated according to their sequences by the DGGE using 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel containing 45-70% urea and formamide denaturants. Two pair of Vibrio species, which could not be differentiated on the gel, was Vibrio fluvialis - Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio parahaemolyticus - Vibrio harveyi. To determine the detection limit, in the community of 10 reference strains containing the same viable population, distinct DNA bands of 3 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio alginolyticus were consistently observed by PCR-DGGE technique. In fact, 5 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis consistently observed by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE. In the community containing different viable population increasing from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/mL, PCR-DGGE analysis only detected the two most prevalent species, while RT-PCR-DGGE detected the five most prevalent species. Therefore, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was also selected for detection of various Vibrio cell conditions, including viable cell (VC), injured cells from frozen cultures (IVC) and injured cells from frozen cultures with pre-enrichment (PIVC). It was found that cDNA band of all cell conditions gave the same migratory patterns, except that multiple cDNA bands of Plesiomonas shigelloides under IVC and PIVC conditions were found. When Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was used for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the pathogen-spiked food samples, Vibrio parahaemolyticus could be detected in the spiked samples containing at least 10 2 CFU/g of this pathogen. The results obtained also corresponded to standard method (USFDA, 2004

  16. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...... vaccine against yellow fever, vaccinations appear safe in untreated patients with MS and ON. However, most studies were underpowered, and small risks cannot be excluded. One study of BCG vaccination after the first demyelinating event showed even a reduced risk of developing MS. Further studies are needed...

  17. Multidimensional differential display via ion-pair reversed-phase denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Maryam M; Andrews, Peter W; Hornby, David P

    2002-05-01

    Experimental approaches are now available for the analysis of whole transcriptome expression in cells and tissues. Since the introduction of such methods for the investigation of differences in mRNA populations, they have been applied successfully to many areas of biology and medicine including development, differentiation, physiology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis. Here we describe an improved and automated approach based on the differential mRNA display method developed by Liang and Pardee (P. Liang and A. B. Pardee, 1992, Science 257, 967-971). We report the use of ion-pair reversed-phase denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (IP RP DHPLC), for the first time, to produce a "fingerprint," after amplification of the cDNA corresponding to the mRNA populations, from two or more of the samples that are to be compared. By overlaying the chromatograms produced from the amplification of different samples derived from the same set of oligodeoxynucleotide primers, those genes that are differentially expressed can be selected and subsequently cloned and sequenced rapidly to establish a profile of differentially expressed genes. In addition, validation of the data obtained is readily achieved by this method using IP RP DHPLC and quantitative RT-PCR. In this study total RNA was prepared from NTERA2 cells before and after differentiation induced by retinoic acid and was reverse-transcribed into cDNA prior to amplification to produce fluorescently tagged products. This methodology facilitates multiple rounds of interrogation of RT-PCR products and we tentatively refer to this approach as Multidimensional Differential Display. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  18. Recovery of propylene glycol from dilute aqueous solutions via reversible reaction with aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhuis, R.R.; Lynn, S.; King, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A means is proposed for separating propylene glycol and other compounds bearing multiple hydroxyl groups by reversible chemical reaction. Glycols react with aldehydes in cyclic acetalization reactions to form substituted dioxolanes. Propylene glycol reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolane and 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane. The reaction is catalyzed homogeneously by strong mineral acids or heterogeneously by cation exchange resins in the acid form. Separation processes utilizing this reaction would include an acetalization step, several distillative separation steps and finally a hydrolysis step in which the reaction is reversed. Both reaction steps must be forced to completion by removing the reaction product simultaneously. The equilibrium and kinetics of the reaction with formaldehyde were studied experimentally in systems catalyzed by Amberlite IR-120 ion exchange resin. A number of solvents were screened for their ability to extract 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane from aqueous solution. Aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited the highest distribution into the organic phase. To achieve an effective separation of propylene glycol from aqueous solution by combined reaction with formaldehyde and distillation, formaldehyde would have to be present in excess and would be difficult and costly to separate from the aqueous solution. In reactive distillation using acetaldehyde as a reactant this is not a problem. A large flow of acetaldehyde would be necessary to recover the propylene glycol sufficiently in a distillative process. In a process combining reaction and extraction into an organic solvent this problem is avoided. Process simulation indicates the energy input of such a process is less than half of the energy required in a triple-effect evaporation process. This benefit is offset by higher capital costs and increased complexity in the reaction/extraction process.

  19. Arbutus andrachne L. Reverses Sleep Deprivation-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Malkawi, Bayan S; Khabour, Omar F; El-Elimat, Tamam; Alali, Feras Q

    2018-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with cognitive deficits. It was found to affect the hippocampus region of the brain by impairing memory formation. This impairment is suggested to be caused by elevation in oxidative stress in the body, including the brain during SD. It was hypothesized that the methanolic extract of the fruits of Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae) will prevent chronic SD-induced impairment of hippocampal memory via its antioxidative properties. The methanolic extract of the fruits of A. andrachne was evaluated for its beneficial properties to reverse SD-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Animals were sleep deprived for 8 weeks using a multiple platform model. The extract was administered i.p. at three doses (50, 200, and 500 mg/kg). Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM). In addition, the hippocampus was dissected to analyze the following oxidative stress markers: glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Chronic SD impaired short- and long-term memories (P memory impairment induced by SD while such treatment prevented short-term memory impairment only at 200 and 500 mg/kg dose levels. Moreover, A. andrachne fruit extract normalized the reduction in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio and activity of GPx, and catalase (P sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory formation, while methanolic extract of A. andrachne fruits reversed this impairment, probably through normalizing oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  20. The misconception of mean-reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H

    2012-01-01

    The notion of random motion in a potential well is elemental in the physical sciences and beyond. Quantitatively, this notion is described by reverting diffusions—asymptotically stationary diffusion processes which are simultaneously (i) driven toward a reversion level by a deterministic force, and (ii) perturbed off the reversion level by a random white noise. The archetypal example of reverting diffusions is the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, which is mean-reverting. In this paper we analyze reverting diffusions and establish that: (i) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is constant then the diffusion's stationary density is unimodal and the diffusion is mode-reverting; (ii) if the magnitude of the perturbing noise is non-constant then, in general, neither is the diffusion's stationary density unimodal, nor is the diffusion mode-reverting. In the latter case we further establish a result asserting when unimodality and mode-reversion do hold. In particular, we demonstrate that the notion of mean-reversion, which is fundamental in economics and finance, is a misconception—as mean-reversion is an exception rather than the norm. (fast track communication)

  1. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  2. Reverse logistics in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M Reza; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen; Chileshe, Nicholas; Lehmann, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    Reverse logistics in construction refers to the movement of products and materials from salvaged buildings to a new construction site. While there is a plethora of studies looking at various aspects of the reverse logistics chain, there is no systematic review of literature on this important subject as applied to the construction industry. Therefore, the objective of this study is to integrate the fragmented body of knowledge on reverse logistics in construction, with the aim of promoting the concept among industry stakeholders and the wider construction community. Through a qualitative meta-analysis, the study synthesises the findings of previous studies and presents some actions needed by industry stakeholders to promote this concept within the real-life context. First, the trend of research and terminology related with reverse logistics is introduced. Second, it unearths the main advantages and barriers of reverse logistics in construction while providing some suggestions to harness the advantages and mitigate these barriers. Finally, it provides a future research direction based on the review. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  4. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  5. Physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuszczyńska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, progressive, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. 2.5 million people are affected by MS worldwide; in Poland, the number of patients is approximately 40,000. Patients with multiple sclerosis suffer from a number of symptoms associated with this disease. Aim of the research: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy in MS. Material and methods : The study enrolled 25 MS patients aged 27–72 years (including 16 females and 9 males, undergoing 6-week rehabilitation. They were examined twice: before and after rehabilitation. The study used two questionnaires created by the author. Evaluation of the clinical status and disease severity was based on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scales (EDSS, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29. The results were analysed with Student’s t-test and the chi-square (χ 2 test. Results : Statistical analysis showed significant (the level of significance was 0.05 progress in the functional status of the patients after physiotherapy, as evidenced by improved results with respect to the motor efficiency in the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the functional assessment in the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL Scale, and the influence of MS on patients’ daily life in the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29 seen in the majority of the patients, which confirms a positive impact of the therapy. Conclusions: In the study group, comprehensive rehabilitation had a beneficial influence on the improvement of functional status and the level of motor ability. Physiotherapy turned out to be an extremely effective form of symptomatic treatment of MS patients.

  6. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  7. Reverse osmosis based water treatment and purification systems for nuclear power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on the realization and service of specialized water treatment and purification plants based on the principle of reverse osmosis filtration of water at the NPU benches of the A.P. Aleksandrov Scientific Research Technological Institute (SRTI) are analyzed. Membrane-sorption unit including module of micro-, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange with productivity to 0.5 m 3 /h is developed and operated at SRTI. It is demonstrated that reverse osmosis purification of manufacturing water significantly improves service conditions of NPU and decreases salinity [ru

  8. Study on the coherence degree of magnetization reversal in Permalloy single-domain nano-ellipses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Júnior, D.S. Vieira [Departamento Acadêmico de Matemática, Física, e Estatística, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais – Campus Rio Pomba, Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais 36180-000 (Brazil); Leonel, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Sato, F.; Coura, P.Z.; Dias, R.A. [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Numerical simulations have been performed to study the magnetization reversal in Permalloy nano-ellipses, under combined in-plane magnetic fields along the longitudinal and the transverse directions. We have considered nano-ellipses with two different aspect ratios and five thicknesses: 220×80×t nm{sup 3} and 70×50×t nm{sup 3}, where t ranging from 5 to 25 nm in steps of 5 nm. We found that the mechanism of magnetization reversal is not only dependent on the parameters of the magnetic field pulse but also related to the ellipse dimensions. It is known that the reversal time is related to the mechanism behind the magnetization reversal. In particular, ultrafast magnetization reversals occur by coherent rotation, when applying a field oriented mainly perpendicular to the initial magnetization. In order to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal we have introduced a quantity called “coherence index”. Besides complementing the previous studies by including the effect of the thickness on the magnetization reversal, our results indicate that it is possible to obtain magnetization reversals with high degree of coherence in small nano-ellipses by adjusting the geometric factors of the ellipse and the parameters of the magnetic field pulse simultaneously. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversals in single-domain nano-ellipses were investigated. • A parameter to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal was proposed. • A higher coherence index indicates a complete, coherent, rotation of the magnetization.

  9. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in childhood: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Ayumi; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Maki; Hashimoto, Koji; Fujita, Yukihiko; Inamo, Yasuji; Mugishima, Hideo

    2012-02-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently described disorder with typical radiological findings of bilateral gray and white matter abnormalities in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. Its clinical symptoms include headache, decreased alertness, mental abnormalities such as confusion, diminished spontaneity of speech, and changed behavior ranging from drowsiness to stupor, seizures, vomiting, and abnormalities of visual perception such as cortical blindness. In this study, the clinical and radiological findings of 4 children with this syndrome due to a variety of conditions are reported. The records of 4 children with a diagnosis of PRES were retrospectively analyzed. PRES is associated with a disorder of cerebrovascular autoregulation of multiple etiologies. Four patients with PRES who had primary diagnoses of severe aplastic anemia, nephritic syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis are presented. This syndrome has been described in numerous medical conditions, including hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, and with the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Early recognition of PRES as a complication during different diseases and therapies in childhood may facilitate precise diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  11. Overeating, reversal theory, and weight cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkess-Vawter, S; Wendel, S; Schmoll, S; O'Connell, K

    1998-02-01

    America's overweight problem is universally recognized and escalating, despite billions of dollars spent to combat it. For the past century, a unidimensional paradigm was predominantly used to correct the overweight problem by reducing calories through dieting. As a result of the profound failure of traditional diet programs, a phenomenon known as weight cycling was born. In this article, a multidimensional paradigm is emphasized to address weight cycling. Reversal theory extends a new theoretical basis that can account for unpleasant feelings, or tension stress, as a trigger of overeating in women who weight cycle. A case example demonstrates how reversal theory explains overeating as a response to high-tension stress. Results of two studies are presented, describing overweight and normal-weight women's reversal theory states during self-reported episodes of overeating and resisting overeating. The multidimensional paradigm calls for emotional overeating behaviors to be addressed in weight management.

  12. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

    2011-09-01

    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  13. Who asks for vasectomy reversal and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, G

    1982-08-14

    Of the 76 men requesting reversal of vasectomy who were interviewed at Charing Cross Hospital between June 1978 and September 1981, 31 were still married. These men had decided to have a vasectomy during a crisis-a recent pregnancy or financial stress being the commonest reason. Most wanted another child but others wished to be "put back to normal," and a few hoped reversal would help their marriage. Forty-five (59%) were divorced or separated and felt disadvantaged in courtship or remarriage by being infertile, many wives or partners being "desperate" for a pregnancy. A greater number of requests for reversal came from men who had been under 35 at the time of vasectomy and who were more likely to have been divorced, especially if there had been a teenage pregnancy. The risks of regret after sterilisation appear to relate to immaturity at the time of the vasectomy and to be as great for young men as for young women.

  14. Neutrophil Reverse Migration Becomes Transparent with Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Starnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation is critical for both host defense and the prevention of immunopathology. In vivo imaging studies in zebrafish, and more recently in mice, have made the novel observation that neutrophils leave a site of inflammation through a process called neutrophil reverse migration. The application of advanced imaging techniques to the genetically tractable, optically transparent zebrafish larvae was critical for these advances. Still, the mechanisms underlying neutrophil reverse migration and its effects on the resolution or priming of immune responses remain unclear. Here, we review the current knowledge of neutrophil reverse migration, its potential roles in host immunity, and the live imaging tools that make zebrafish a valuable model for increasing our knowledge of neutrophil behavior in vivo.

  15. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)

  16. Implementing an interdisciplinary intergenerational program using the Cyber Seniors® reverse mentoring model within higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedahl, Skye N; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Estus, Erica; Breck, Bethany M; Dennis, Cory B; Clark, Samantha C

    2018-01-24

    Intergenerational service-learning in higher education positively affects older adults and students, but little is known about the effectiveness of interdisciplinary, reverse mentoring programs that use technology as the medium of bringing generations together. This study describes an intergenerational service-learning program that utilizes reverse mentoring within higher education, the "Engaging Generations Program," at a midsized public university in New England where students help older adults learn about technology, and students gain communication and teaching skills. In this article, we outline how the program was implemented, present quantitative data on participation outcomes for students and older adults and qualitative data from older adults, and discuss best practices. Analysis of pre/post surveys found that students' attitudes toward aging improved (p program participation. Best practices identified included: multiple meetings with the same pair to deepen friendships, in-person training for student leaders, student responsibility for scheduling, tailoring sessions to each participant, student documentation of meetings, and active involvement by community partners.

  17. Metals promote sequences of the reverse Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchowska, Kamila B; Varma, Sreejith J; Chevallot-Beroux, Elodie; Lethuillier-Karl, Lucas; Li, Guang; Moran, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (also known as the reverse Krebs cycle) is a central anabolic biochemical pathway whose origins are proposed to trace back to geochemistry, long before the advent of enzymes, RNA or cells, and whose imprint remains intimately embedded in the structure of core metabolism. If it existed, a primordial version of the rTCA cycle would necessarily have been catalysed by naturally occurring minerals at the earliest stage of the transition from geochemistry to biochemistry. Here, we report non-enzymatic promotion of multiple reactions of the rTCA cycle in consecutive sequence, whereby 6 of its 11 reactions were promoted by Zn 2+ , Cr 3+ and Fe 0 in an acidic aqueous solution. Two distinct three-reaction sequences were achieved under a common set of conditions. Selectivity was observed for reduction reactions producing rTCA cycle intermediates compared with those leading off-cycle. Reductive amination of ketoacids to furnish amino acids was observed under similar conditions. The emerging reaction network supports the feasibility of primitive anabolism in an acidic, metal-rich reducing environment.

  18. Reverse Lhermitte's phenomenon provoked by cervical cord compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Jy; Kung, Kuo-Luon; Chen, Chi-Jen; Yeh, Yi-Shian; Chen, Dem-Lion; Tang, Yao-Mao

    2012-03-01

    Lhermitte's phenomenon (LP) is a rare manifestation, which is defined when a sudden electric-shock sensation transmitted down the spine induced by neck flexion; however, the reverse LP is defined when symptoms are induced by neck extension, not flexion. Because reports of LP are limited in the Taiwan literature, we report this case. A 74-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with sudden onset of right neck pain when extending the neck. The pain mimicked an electric shock and radiated to the left shoulder. Imaging showed spondylosis and spondylolisthesis without any spinal canal stenosis. A neck collar was recommended, and the strange phenomenon did not recur over the following year. However, long-term follow-up and aggressive workup are recommended to rule in or rule out the possibility of multiple sclerosis in the future. Although LP represents spinal demyelination disorders, reverse LP is induced by extrinsic compression of the cervical cord, and neck collar immobilization rather than intravenous or oral medication is recommended.

  19. Quinolone Resistance Reversion by Targeting the SOS Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Recacha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of the SOS response has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy for potentiating antimicrobial agents. We aimed to evaluate the impact of its suppression on reversing resistance using a model of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli representing multiple levels of quinolone resistance. E. coli mutants exhibiting a spectrum of SOS activity were constructed from isogenic strains carrying quinolone resistance mechanisms with susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Changes in susceptibility were evaluated by static (MICs and dynamic (killing curves or flow cytometry methodologies. A peritoneal sepsis murine model was used to evaluate in vivo impact. Suppression of the SOS response was capable of resensitizing mutant strains with genes encoding three or four different resistance mechanisms (up to 15-fold reductions in MICs. Killing curve assays showed a clear disadvantage for survival (Δlog10 CFU per milliliter [CFU/ml] of 8 log units after 24 h, and the in vivo efficacy of ciprofloxacin was significantly enhanced (Δlog10 CFU/g of 1.76 log units in resistant strains with a suppressed SOS response. This effect was evident even after short periods (60 min of exposure. Suppression of the SOS response reverses antimicrobial resistance across a range of E. coli phenotypes from reduced susceptibility to highly resistant, playing a significant role in increasing the in vivo efficacy.

  20. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.