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Sample records for included repeated measures

  1. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  2. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction and.......1 mmol/L), was 0.3 mmol/L, and the recovery of a certified reference material was 97%. The relative precision at 3.15 mmol/L was 2.3%. It was concluded that the method is appropriate for measurement of urinary creatinine....

  3. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  4. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  5. Lumbar spine and pelvic posture between standing and sitting: a radiologic investigation including reliability and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Diana E; Soave, David; Ross, Kim; Callaghan, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Sitting has been identified as a cause of mechanical low back pain. The purpose of this study was to use plain film x-rays to measure lumbar spine and pelvic posture differences between standing and sitting. Eight male subjects were radiographed standing and sitting in an automobile seat. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral disk angles, lumbosacral angle, lumbosacral lordosis, and sacral tilt were completed. One-way analysis of variance (alpha = .05) was conducted on the variables stated above. A Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis angle using 2 raters. Lumbar lordosis values in standing (average, 63 degrees +/- 15 degrees ) and sacral inclination (average, 43 degrees +/- 10 degrees ) decreased by 43 degrees and 44 degrees , respectively, in sitting. Intervertebral joint angles in sitting underwent substantial flexion (L1/L2-5 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L2/L3-7 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L3/L4-8 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L4/L5-13 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], and L5/S1-4 degrees [+/-10 degrees ]). Measures of lumbar lordosis; intervertebral disk angles between L2/L3, L3/L4, and L4/L5; lumbosacral lordosis; lumbosacral angle; and sacral tilt were significantly decreased between standing and sitting (P sitting further emphasize the range of motion experienced at vertebral levels in sitting. Based on the results of this study, interventions to return motion segments to a less flexed posture should be investigated because they may play a role in preventing injury and low back pain. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads to s...

  7. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads to s...... method involving differences between orthogonal projections onto subspaces generated by within-subject models....

  8. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  9. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  10. Repeatability and validity of Zywave aberrometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hament, Willem J; Nabar, Vaisjaly A; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2002-12-01

    To study the repeatability of Zywave aberrometer (Bausch & Lomb) measurements and compare the measurements with those of subjective refraction and noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefractions in a clinical setting. Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Subjective manifest refraction, noncycloplegic autorefraction, cycloplegic autorefraction, and Zywave aberrometer measurements were performed in 20 eyes of 20 myopic patients. Three consecutive Zywave measurements were performed with and without dilation of the pupil. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement among the measurement methods were determined for dilated and 3.5 mm pupils. The repeatability coefficient of the Zywave aberrometer measurements was determined. The mean differences in spherical equivalent (SE), sphere, and cylinder between subjective refraction and Zywave predicted phoropter refraction (PPR) with a dilated pupil were -1.10 diopters (D) +/- 0.46 (SD) (P <.001), -1.08 +/- 0.44 D (P <.001), and -0.02 +/- 0.37 D (P =.87), respectively (paired Student t test). After the data were converted to a 3.5 mm pupil, the mean differences were -0.55 +/- 0.48 D (P <.001), -0.50 +/- 0.49 D (P <.001), and -0.16 +/- 0.50 D (P =.15), respectively. The mean difference in SE between autorefraction and cycloplegic autorefraction versus subjective refraction was +0.18 +/- 0.71 D (P =.27) and +0.35 +/- 0.62 D (P =.02), respectively. The mean difference in SE between cycloplegic autorefraction and Zywave PPR with a dilated pupil was -1.44 +/- 0.79 D (P <.001). The repeatability coefficient of Zywave PPR was +/-0.25 D for SE, +/-0.29 D for sphere, and +/-0.29 D for cylinder. Subjective refraction measurements are slightly more myopic than cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. With a dilated pupil, the Zywave measurements were significantly more myopic than subjective refractions and even more myopic than cycloplegic autorefractions. Zywave measurements and

  11. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  12. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  13. Stability of parameters in repeated TVA measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the limitations of human visual short-term memory or VSTM (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Usually researchers agree that VSTM is limited to a capacity of about 3 to 4 objects at any given moment (Cowan, 2001......). Capacity of short-term memory is measured in a range of studies often using the change detection paradigm (CD). However, the whole report paradigm (WR) may be a more reliable paradigm (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). Moreover, each individual WR trial yield more information compared to a CD...

  14. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Bathrellou, Eirini; Zazpe, Itziar; Ezquer, Leyre; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-12-01

    Accuracy of measurement is a cornerstone of research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of consumption responses (the coding used to measure the frequency of consumption) included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, mean age 37 +/- 13 years, 34% males, and 150 from Spain, mean age 39 +/- 17 years, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/ no) responses, a diet index with 11 items and 6-scale responses, and 36-item and 76-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) with 6-scale responses. The participants completed these tools twice, with 15 days between the two administrations of the tools. The Spearman-Brown coefficient (r(sb)), Kendall's tau coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method were applied to answer the research hypothesis. The highest repeatability coefficient was observed for the diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/no) responses (r(sb) = 0.948, p tools (p > .23), whereas these three tools had significantly higher repeatability coefficients than the 76-item FFQ (p = .002). Subgroup analyses by sex, education, smoking, and clinical status confirmed these results. Repeatability was found for all food frequency assessment tools used, irrespective of the number of items or the number of responses included.

  15. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included

    OpenAIRE

    Bountziouka, V. (Vassiliki); Bathrellou, E. (Eirini); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Ezquer, L. (Leyre); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Panagiotakos, D.B. (Demosthenes B.)

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of a measurement is a cornerstone in research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. Objective: To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of responses of consumption included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. Methods: During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, 37±13 yrs, 34% males and 150 participants from Spain, 39±17 yrs, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11-items a...

  16. An occlusal plaque index. Measurements of repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Nourallah, Abduhl W

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate a new, computerized method of measuring dental plaque on occlusal surfaces which exhibit the highest caries prevalence. In 16 patients (6-9 years of age), plaque on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars was stained (Mira-2-Tone) and photographed with an intra-oral camera. In a conventional picture editing program (PC/Adobe PhotoShop 6.0), the occlusal surface and plaque were measured in pixels and the relative proportion of occlusal plaque was calculated (ANALYSIS 3.0). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were analyzed by re-taking and analyzing four images by two examiners four times via intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients and by re-analyzing 10 images. Sensitivity was tested by re-taking and analyzing the images of the same occlusal surfaces in all patients after instructed brushing with an electric toothbrush. Intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients for repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis were excellent (ICC> 0.997 and ICC=0.98, resp.; 95% confidence interval: 0.955-0.995). The inter- and intra-examiner coefficients for the whole procedure including the re-taking of images were also high (ICC > 0.90). The method was also highly sensitive, proving a statistically significant plaque reduction after brushing (before: mean 29.2% plaque, after: 14.7% plaque; t-test, P= 0.025).

  17. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  18. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  19. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  20. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Repeatability and agreement in the measurement of horizontal fusional vergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E; Sanchez, I

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the repeatability of fusional vergence ranges measured using the rotary prisms in the phoropter and in free space using the prism bar. The level of agreement between the two methods was also investigated. In two separate sessions, negative and positive fusional vergence ranges (NFV and PFV, respectively) were measured at distance and near in 61 young adults (mean age 19.74, S.D. 2.5 years) who were unfamiliar with the methods used. Base-in and base-out blur, break and recovery points were sequentially determined. Both sets of measurements were obtained by the same examiner. At each distance, NFV was determined first and then PFV. The repeatability of the tests and agreement between measurements made with the phoropter rotary prisms and the prism bar were estimated by the Bland and Altman method. For both the phoropter rotary prisms and prism bar, NFV measurements showed better repeatability than PFV at both near and distance. Mean differences recorded for the NFV break and recovery points were non-significant (under 0.5Delta), while those observed for PFV were generally greater than 2Delta. When agreement between the two tests was assessed, it was found that break points were higher when determined using the phoropter rotary prisms, while recovery points were generally higher for the prism bar method. In clinical terms, according to the expected values of the NFV and PFV, agreement between the two techniques can be described as fair, because although mean differences were never greater than 5.5Delta, 95% agreement intervals were as wide as +/-8.00Delta for NFV and +/-13.19Delta for PFV. The two methods used to measure fusional vergences showed fairly good inter-session repeatability for measuring NFV but repeatability was reduced for PFV measurements. The level of agreement observed between the two methods was such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  2. A study of repeated measures of softest and loudest phonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvo, M; Laippala, P; Sala, E

    2000-06-01

    One common way to describe one's voice in an objective way is to measure the sound levels of the softest (pianissimo) and loudest possible (fortissimo) phonations at given pitches (voice range profile measurement). However, the reliability of the measurement has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to describe the repeatability and reproducibility of the sound level measurement in statistical terms, focusing on five target frequencies within the estimated speaking pitch range. Ten healthy female university students volunteered as test subjects. The voice range profiles within the speaking pitch range were defined 10 times in succession and in five sample sessions between 45-minute-long oral readings. Our study followed the ideas of the Gage repeatability and reproducibility design. The results showed that the method used was reliable in fortissimo phonations at four of the measured frequencies. Better reliability can be achieved by measuring three successive phonations at each pitch prior to the next target tone.

  3. On Entropy Production of Repeated Quantum Measurements I. General Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, T.; Jakšić, V.; Pautrat, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2018-01-01

    We study entropy production (EP) in processes involving repeated quantum measurements of finite quantum systems. Adopting a dynamical system approach, we develop a thermodynamic formalism for the EP and study fine aspects of irreversibility related to the hypothesis testing of the arrow of time. Under a suitable chaoticity assumption, we establish a Large Deviation Principle and a Fluctuation Theorem for the EP.

  4. Repeated Measures Analysis of Means in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Ackerman, Lee

    1985-01-01

    Notes assumptions for analyzing treatment means in repeated measures designs. The traditional F test has been shown to have limitations, given violations of the assumption of sphericity. This assumption is probably infrequently satisfied in clinical applications. Discusses analytic alternatives based on a three-step Geisser-Greenhouse approach.…

  5. Estimation of individual growth trajectories when repeated measures are missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Clements, Christopher; Pemberton, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    growth trajectories. We show that state-space models (SSMs), fit using R package growmod, are far less biased than LMMs when fit to simulated data sets with missing repeated measures and observation error. This method is much faster than Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, allowing more models to be tested...... in a shorter time. For the scenarios we simulated, SSMs gave estimates with little bias when up to 87.5% of repeated measures were missing. We use this method to quantify growth of Soay sheep, using data from a long-term mark-recapture study, and demonstrate that growth decreased with age, population density......, weather conditions, and when individuals are reproductive. The method improves our ability to quantify how growth varies among individuals in response to their attributes and the environments they experience, with particular relevance for wild populations....

  6. Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hershberger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    This book examines how individuals behave across time and to what degree that behavior changes, fluctuates, or remains stable.It features the most current methods on modeling repeated measures data as reported by a distinguished group of experts in the field. The goal is to make the latest techniques used to assess intraindividual variability accessible to a wide range of researchers. Each chapter is written in a ""user-friendly"" style such that even the ""novice"" data analyst can easily apply the techniques.Each chapter features:a minimum discussion of mathematical detail;an empirical examp

  7. Repeatability and agreement in the measurement of horizontal fusional vergences

    OpenAIRE

    Antona Peñalba, Beatriz; Barrio de Santos, Ana Rosa; Barra Lázaro, Francisco; González Díaz-Obregón, Enrique; Sánchez Pérez, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the repeatability of fusional vergence rangesmeasured using the rotary prisms in the phoropter and in free space using the prism bar. The level of agreement between the two methods was also investigated.. Methods: In two separate sessions, negative and positive fusional vergence ranges (NFV and PFV, respectively) were measured at distance and near in 61 young adults (mean age 19.74, S.D. 2.5 years) who were unfamiliar with the methods used. Bas...

  8. Measurement System Analyses - Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepova, Lenka; Kovacikova, Andrea; Cep, Robert; Klaput, Pavel; Mizera, Ondrej

    2018-02-01

    The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

  9. Analysis of repeated measurement data in the clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15 th day, 30 th day, and 45 th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha.

  10. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Analysis of binary classification repeated measurement data with GEE and GLMMs using SPSS software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shengli; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    To analyze binary classification repeated measurement data with generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) using SPSS19.0. GEE and GLMMs models were tested using binary classification repeated measurement data sample using SPSS19.0. Compared with SAS, SPSS19.0 allowed convenient analysis of categorical repeated measurement data using GEE and GLMMs.

  12. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  13. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  14. SCA8 Repeat Expansion: Large CTA/CTG Repeat Alleles Are More Common in Ataxic Patients, Including Those with SCA6

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Yuishin; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Oda, Masaya; Morino, Hiroyuki; Okada, Takayuki; Ito, Hidefumi; Sasaki, Iwao; Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Komure, Osamu; Udaka, Fukashi; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the SCA8 CTA/CTG repeat in a large group of Japanese subjects. The frequency of large alleles (85–399 CTA/CTG repeats) was 1.9% in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), 0.4% in Parkinson disease, 0.3% in Alzheimer disease, and 0% in a healthy control group; the frequency was significantly higher in the group with SCA than in the control group. Homozygotes for large alleles were observed only in the group with SCA. In five patients with SCA from two families, a large SCA8 CTA/CTG repeat an...

  15. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  16. Acute caffeine effect on repeatedly measured P300

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingbo; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2000-01-01

    The acute effect of a single-dose of caffeine on the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was assessed in a study using a repeatedly presented auditory oddball button-press task. A dose (5mg/kg body-weight) of either caffeine or placebo lactose, dissolved in a cup of decaffeinated coffee, was administered double-blindly to coffee drinkers who had abstained from coffee for 24hrs, with the presentation order of the sessions counterbalanced and separated by 2–4 weeks. The caffeine-treatment ...

  17. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getchell Thomas V

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease or absence (Control of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB or cerebellum (CER. In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. Results In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the α-level (αnew = 0.0033 determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD procedure at the level of αnew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER for each gene examined. Conclusions A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  18. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  19. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability.......It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability....

  20. Intra- and Intersession Repeatability of an Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Measurement System in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    Full Text Available To evaluate intra- and intersession repeatability of objective optical quality and intraocular scattering measurements with a double-pass system in children.Forty-two eyes of 42 children were included in the study. An optical quality analysis system (OQAS was used to measure optical quality parameters, including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff, Strehl ratio (SR, OQAS values (OV at 3 different contrasts and objective scatter index (OSI. Three measurement sessions with 10-min intervals were operated by the same technician, and in each session four consecutive measurements were obtained.Mean values for MTFcutoff, SR and OSI were 46.85 ± 7.45cpd, 0.27 ± 0.06 and 0.34 ± 0.22 respectively. 1 The intraclass correlation coefficients were ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 and coefficients of variation from 0.06 to 0.16 for all the parameters in the first session; the relative repeatability were 11.1% (MTFcutoff, 22.5% (SR, 10.9% (OV100%, 16.6% (OV2%, 22.4% (OV9% and 56.3% (OSI. Similar results were found in the second and third sessions. 2 Bland-Altman analysis showed that narrow 95% confidence intervals (compared between the first and second sessions ranged from -5.42 to 5.28 (MTFcutoff, -0.05 to 0.07 (SR, -0.18 to 0.18 (OV100%, -0.26 to 0.29 (OV20%, -0.33 to 0.39 (OV9% and -0.11 to 0.09 (OSI; the comparison between any two of the three sessions showed similar results.Measurements of optical quality and intraocular scattering in children by the double-pass system showed good intra- and intersession repeatability. Retinal image quality is high and intraocular scattering is low in children.

  1. Repeatability of Lucas chamber measurements; Powtarzalnosc pomiarow za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    Results of investigations concerning the repeatability of the measurements carried out with Lucas chamber are presented in the report. The Lucas chamber is used for determination of radon concentration in air, and the Lucas chamber itself is measured in a laboratory stand. The repeatability of measurements is {+-}5.4% relative. The error due to instability of measuring channel gain is estimated to be 2-3% relative. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs.

  2. High precision measurement of the micro-imaging system to check repeatability of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Song Li; Ma Chuntao; Luo Hongxin; Wang Jie

    2010-01-01

    The beamlines slits of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) are required to have a repeatability of better than 1 μm. Before the slits installation, the off-line and/or on-line repeatability measurements must be conducted. A machine vision measuring system based on high resolution CCD and adjustable high magnification lens was used in this regard. A multi-level filtering method was used to treat the imaging data. After image binarization, the imaging noises were depressed effectively by using of algebraic mean filtering, statistics median filtering,and the least square filtering. Using the subtracted image between the images before and after slit movement, an average displacement of slit blades could be obtained, and the repeatability of slit could be measured, with a resolution of 0.3 μm of the measurement system. The experimental results show that this measurement system meets the requirements for non-contact measurements to the repeatability of slits. (authors)

  3. Off-target effects of sulforaphane include the derepression of long terminal repeats through histone acetylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Scott R; Zbasnik, Richard; Schlegel, Vicki; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylases, leading to the transcriptional activation of genes including tumor suppressor genes. The compound has attracted considerable attention in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Here we tested the hypothesis that sulforaphane is not specific for tumor suppressor genes but also activates loci such as long terminal repeats (LTRs), which might impair genome stability. Studies were conducted using chemically pure sulforaphane in primary human IMR-90 fibroblasts and in broccoli sprout feeding studies in healthy adults. Sulforaphane (2.0 μM) caused an increase in LTR transcriptional activity in cultured cells. Consumption of broccoli sprouts (34, 68 or 102 g) by human volunteers caused a dose dependent elevation in LTR mRNA in circulating leukocytes, peaking at more than a 10-fold increase. This increase in transcript levels was associated with an increase in histone H3 K9 acetylation marks in LTR 15 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects consuming sprouts. Collectively, this study suggests that sulforaphane has off-target effects that warrant further investigation when recommending high levels of sulforaphane intake, despite its promising activities in chemoprevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sound level variation findings for pianissimo and fortissimo phonations in repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvo, M; Sala, E

    1996-09-01

    Ten vocally untrained female university students vocalized /a:/ at five given pitches within the average female speaking range (196, 220, 262, 330, and 396 Hz) as softly as possible (pianissimo) and as loudly as musically acceptable (fortissimo). To study the repeatability of voice range profile (sound level) measurement, the procedure was repeated 10 times in each of the five sample sessions during the day, in connection with vocal loading that included five oral readings (45 min each), 15-min pauses, and a lunch break (45 min). A sound level meter specially designed for voice range profile measurement was used. The effect of the loading was seen on the mean sound level changes and intraindividual variation on SDs. The difference between the first phonation and best performance indicates significance of the repetition of the measurement. The sound level averaged across the pitches rose significantly during loading. The intraindividual SD varied between 3 and 4 dBA according to pitch and loudness, and the sound level difference between the first phonation and best performance was approximately 5 dBA in pianissimo and approximately 7 dBA in fortissimo.

  5. The potential benefits of repeated measure experiments for fish disease-challenge host-pathogen investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L Malcolm; Collins, Catherine; Collet, Bertrand

    2018-02-02

    The utility of molecular response data arising from in-vivo single and repeated measure fish disease-challenge experiments is compared. An in-silico 'experiment' involving the generation of two imaginary immune-molecule quantity response profiles over time for individual animals was carried out. Daily 'observed' molecule quantities were drawn from the 'known' individual response profiles to mimic the results of single and repeated measurement. The results indicate that repeated measure experiments are required to infer individual level response profiles, and that these experiments also provide more accurate summary statistics and data more suited to inferring the dependent ordering of the molecular response. Additionally repeated measure experiments utilise fewer animals than single measure experiments. These results are described alongside a discussion of experimental methodological issues pertinent to the adoption of aquatic animal repeated measure experimental designs. We conclude that investigators need to take particular care when making inferences from single measure experiments and that serious consideration should be given to using repeated measure experiments for in-vivo fish disease-challenge investigations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Benefits of including methane measurements in selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Oddy, V H

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of genetic/phenotypic covariances and economic values for slaughter weight, growth, feed intake and efficiency, and three potential methane traits were compiled to explore the effect of incorporating methane measurements in breeding objectives for cattle and meat sheep. The cost of methane emissions was assumed to be zero (scenario A), A$476/t (based on A$14/t CO equivalent and methane's 100-yr global warming potential [GWP] of 34; scenario B), or A$2,580/t (A$30/t CO equivalent combined with methane's 20-yr GWP of 86; scenario C). Methane traits were methane yield (MY; methane production divided by feed intake based on measurements over 1 d in respiration chambers) or short-term measurements of methane production adjusted for live weight (MPadjWt) in grazing animals, e.g., 40-60 min measurements in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) on 1 or 3 occasions, or measurements for 1 wk using a GreenFeed Emissions Monitor (GEM) on 1 or 3 occasions. Feed costs included the cost of maintaining the breeding herd and growth from weaning to slaughter. Sheep were assumed to be grown and finished on pasture (A$50/t DM). Feed costs for cattle included 365 d on pasture for the breeding herd and averages of 200 d postweaning grow-out on pasture and 100 d feedlot finishing. The greatest benefit of including methane in the breeding objective for both sheep and cattle was as a proxy for feed intake. For cattle, 3 GEM measurements were estimated to increase profit from 1 round of selection in scenario A (no payment for methane) by A$6.24/animal (from A$20.69 to A$26.93) because of reduced feed costs relative to gains in slaughter weight and by A$7.16 and A$12.09/animal, respectively, for scenarios B and C, which have payments for reduced methane emissions. For sheep, the improvements were more modest. Returns from 1 round of selection (no methane measurements) were A$5.06 (scenario A), A$4.85 (scenario B), and A$3.89 (scenario C) compared to A$5.26 (scenario A), A$5

  7. Multiple imputation of cognitive performance as a repeatedly measured outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Andreea Monica; Sang, Yingying; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Coresh, Josef; Griswold, Michael; Kucharska-Newton, Anna Maria; Palta, Priya; Wruck, Lisa Miller; Gross, Alden Lawrence; Deal, Jennifer Anne; Power, Melinda Carolyn; Bandeen-Roche, Karen Jean

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of cognitive performance are sensitive to dropout, as participants experiencing cognitive deficits are less likely to attend study visits, which may bias estimated associations between exposures of interest and cognitive decline. Multiple imputation is a powerful tool for handling missing data, however its use for missing cognitive outcome measures in longitudinal analyses remains limited. We use multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) to impute cognitive performance scores of participants who did not attend the 2011-2013 exam of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We examined the validity of imputed scores using observed and simulated data under varying assumptions. We examined differences in the estimated association between diabetes at baseline and 20-year cognitive decline with and without imputed values. Lastly, we discuss how different analytic methods (mixed models and models fit using generalized estimate equations) and choice of for whom to impute result in different estimands. Validation using observed data showed MICE produced unbiased imputations. Simulations showed a substantial reduction in the bias of the 20-year association between diabetes and cognitive decline comparing MICE (3-4 % bias) to analyses of available data only (16-23 % bias) in a construct where missingness was strongly informative but realistic. Associations between diabetes and 20-year cognitive decline were substantially stronger with MICE than in available-case analyses. Our study suggests when informative data are available for non-examined participants, MICE can be an effective tool for imputing cognitive performance and improving assessment of cognitive decline, though careful thought should be given to target imputation population and analytic model chosen, as they may yield different estimands.

  8. Repeatability of vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in normal and glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Jayasree P; Rao, Harsha L; Weinreb, Robert N; Pradhan, Zia S; Dasari, Srilakshmi; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Puttiah, Narenda K; Rao, Dhanraj A S; Devi, Sathi; Mansouri, Kaweh; Webers, Carroll Ab

    2018-03-01

    To compare the intrasession repeatability of peripapillary and macular vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal and glaucoma eyes, and to evaluate the effect of signal strength of OCTA scans on the repeatability. In a cross-sectional study, three optic nerve head scans each of 65 eyes (30 normal, 35 glaucoma eyes) and three macular scans each of 69 eyes (35 normal, 34 glaucoma eyes) acquired in the same session with OCTA were analysed. Repeatability was assessed using within-subject coefficient of repeatability (CRw) and variation (CVw). Effect of signal strength index (SSI) on repeatability was evaluated with repeated-measures mixed-effects models. CRw (%) and CVw (%) of peripapillary measurements in normal eyes ranged between 3.3 and 7.0, and 2.5 and 4.4 respectively, and that in glaucoma eyes between 3.5 and 7.1, and 2.6 and 6.6. For the macular, these measurements ranged between 4.1 and 6.0, and 3.3 and 4.7 in normal eyes and 4.3 and 6.9, and 3.7 and 5.6 in glaucoma eyes. Repeatability estimates of most measurements were similar in normal and glaucoma eyes. Vessel densities of both peripapillary and macular regions significantly increased with increase in SSI of repeat scans (coefficients ranging from 0.15 to 0.38, pnormal eyes and eyes with glaucoma. SSI values of the scans had a significant effect on the repeatability of OCTA with the vessel density values increasing in scans with higher SSI values. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  10. Remote sensing and photogrammetric studies: Part D: repeatability of elevation measurements--Apollo photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherman S.C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Nakata, Gary M.; Jordan, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    Stereoscopic photographs of the Moon taken by the metric and panoramic cameras on board the service module of Apollo spacecraft provide a source for quantitative data on lunar topography. The accuracy of the topographic data depends, in part, on the repeatability of elevation measurements. The repeatability depends on contrast in the stereoscopic image and is affected by many factors, such as photographic quality, the photogrammetric instrument used, and illumination conditions. For the Moon, illumination conditions are important so that repeatability of elevation measurements may be statistically related to Sun elevation angles, local slopes, and albedos of surfaces. We have examined the effect of Sun elevation angle on repeatability, using Apollo 15 photographs (Wu, unpublished data), and extended the results to slope-related effects.

  11. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  12. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...... encompassing 1962-2014) with more than 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction models using cumulative mean values of repeated measurements and summary...... improvements were 0.0369 (95% CI: 0.0303, 0.0436) for the cumulative-means model and 0.0177 (95% CI: 0.0110, 0.0243) for the longitudinal model. In conclusion, incorporating repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol into CVD risk prediction models slightly improves risk prediction....

  13. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  14. Accuracy and repeatability of a new tono-pachymeter for measuring central corneal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Resua, Carlos; Blanco, Antia; Miñones, Mercedes; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Jesus Giraldez, Maria

    2012-05-01

    The recently developed noncontact tonopachymeter Tonopachy NT-530 P provides intraocular pressure values corrected for central corneal thickness (CCT). The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and repeatability of its CCT measurements. The CCT measurements were obtained in 64 right eyes of 64 young healthy subjects using the Orbscan corneal topography system followed by the Tonopachy and then by ultrasound pachymetry (UP). Another sample of 31 subjects was used to test the repeatability of the tonopachy measurements in 2 separate sessions 1 week apart. To compare the tonometers and determine intersession repeatability for the tonopachymeter, differences in the readings provided by pairs of the instruments or obtained in the two sessions were plotted against mean differences. The hypothesis of zero bias was examined by a paired t-test. The coefficient of repeatability was calculated as the 95% limits of agreement (LoAs) of differences between the 2 sessions. Measurements made using the three instruments were significantly correlated (P<0.001). Mean CCTs (±SD) measured using the Tonopachy, Orbscan (acoustic factor set at 0.92) and ultrasound pachymeter were 530.42 ± 34.96, 526.73 ± 39.53, and 550.69 ± 37.26 μm, respectively. The differences between modalities (±95% LoAs) were -3.68 ± 24.36 for Orbscan versus Tonopachy, 20.66 ± 14.69 for UP versus Tonopachy, and 23.95 ± 24.21 for UP versus Orbscan. The coefficient of repeatability for the tonopachymeter was ±15.11 μm. The Tonopachy offers similar CCT measurements to those provided by conventional pachymeters with good repeatability.

  15. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  16. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: a repeated-measures clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Isabella; Stuff, Janice; Liu, Yan; Brewton, Christie; Dovi, Allison; Kleinman, Ronald; Nicklas, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychological functioning of healthy school-aged children after an overnight fast. The study was conducted in a clinical research center with the use of a counterbalanced repeated-measures design among children who either consumed breakfast or were fasting. The administered neuropsychological tests included measures of attention, impulsivity, short-term memory, cognitive processing speed, and verbal learning. The sample consisted of children aged 8-10 y (n = 128), of whom 52% were female, 38% were African American, 31% were Hispanic, 28% were white, and 3% were of another race/ethnicity. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.004) differences between breakfast meal consumption and fasting for any of the neuropsychological measures administered. Breakfast consumption had no short-term effect on neuropsychological functioning in healthy school-aged children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01943604. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Repeatability and reproducibility of characteristic features measured by laser Doppler vibrometry for on-line diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, G.; Paone, N.

    2008-06-01

    It is analyzed the statistical dispersion of characteristic features measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) in on-line diagnostic applications, with reference to on-line detection of mechanical defects of washing machines. The paper presents two complementary approaches: a) experimental evaluation of repeatability of measured features according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement-GUM; b) Montecarlo simulation of uncertainty propagation across the on-line test station. Experiments consist in a test bench which simulates the vibration of a washing machine, by playing back on a shaker a real signal acquired on-line and taking repeated measurements, so that a statistical analysis is performed about dispersion of diagnostic features. The analysis is repeated by varying the scattering characteristics of the vibrating surface, so to evaluate the effect of signal quality. The Montecarlo approach consists in modeling the propagation of uncertainty across the various elements of the measurement chain, up to the computation of features. The influence of LDV, Data Acquisition device (DAQ) and processing software have been taken into account. Results allow to estimate Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) of a typical set of characteristic features used in industrial diagnostics and to discuss uncertainty of similar diagnostic procedures.

  18. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  19. Comparing Dynamic Treatment Regimes Using Repeated-Measures Outcomes: Modeling Considerations in SMART Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Kasari, Connie; Lynch, Kevin G.; Oslin, David W.; Pelham, William E.; Fabiano, Gregory; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic treatment regime (DTR) is a sequence of decision rules, each of which recommends a treatment based on a patient’s past and current health status. Sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials (SMARTs) are multi-stage trial designs that yield data specifically for building effective DTRs. Modeling the marginal mean trajectories of a repeated-measures outcome arising from a SMART presents challenges, because traditional longitudinal models used for randomized clinical trials do not take into account the unique design features of SMART. We discuss modeling considerations for various forms of SMART designs, emphasizing the importance of considering the timing of repeated measures in relation to the treatment stages in a SMART. For illustration, we use data from three SMART case studies with increasing level of complexity, in autism, child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and adult alcoholism. In all three SMARTs we illustrate how to accommodate the design features along with the timing of the repeated measures when comparing DTRs based on mean trajectories of the repeated-measures outcome. PMID:26638988

  20. Use of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms 62 (CCAPS-62) as a Repeated Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Rieder Bennett, Sara; Martin, Juanita K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this initial, exploratory study was to examine the utility of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) as a repeated measure tool at one university counseling center. This study investigated whether clients engaged in individual counseling changed in symptomology while in treatment and when (e.g.,…

  1. Cross-trimester repeated measures testing for Down's syndrome screening: an assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wright, D

    2010-07-01

    To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.

  2. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa; Sweeting, Michael; Willeit, Peter; Angelantonio, Di Emanuele; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Goldbourt, Uri; Best, Lyle G.; Assmann, Gerd; Salonen, Jukka T.; Nietert, Paul J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Brunner, Eric J.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Bakker, Stephan L.J.; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Sato, Shinichi; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Willeit, Johann; Onat, Altan; La Cámara, De Agustin Gómez; Roussel, Ronan; Völzke, Henry; Dankner, Rachel; Tipping, Robert W.; Meade, Tom W.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kuller, Lewis H.; Peters, Annette; Gallacher, John; Kromhout, Daan; Iso, Hiroyasu; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Casiglia, Edoardo; Kavousi, Maryam; Palmieri, Luigi; Sundström, Johan; Davis, Barry R.; Njølstad, Inger; Couper, David; Danesh, John; Thompson, Simon G.; Wood, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data

  3. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  4. A generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in randomized blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cabilio, Paul

    2013-05-10

    Focusing on statistical methods in patient-reported outcomes, we propose and develop a generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in a randomized block design. We derive its asymptotic null distribution properties and describe methods for estimating the null distribution for testing the hypothesis. We present a numerical example to illustrate the test procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Accuracy and repeatability of anthropometric facial measurements using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of linear anthropometric measurements on the soft tissue surface model generated from cone beam computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The accuracy and

  6. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  7. Repeatability and agreement of five imaging systems for measuring anterior segment parameters in healthy eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the repeatability and agreement of five imaging devices, namely, the Pentacam (Oculus, Sirius (CSO, Orbscan IIz (Bausch and Lomb, Corvis (Oculus, and ultrasound pachymetry (UP, Tomey in measuring steep keratometry (sKm, flat keratometry (fKm, central corneal thickness (CCT, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT, and anterior chamber depth (ACD in healthy individuals. Design: This was prospective, comparative study. Subjects: Forty-six healthy Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Forty-six eyes of 46 healthy participants underwent three consecutive scans on each device by a single examiner. Within-subject standard deviation, test–retest repeatability (TRT, and coefficient of variation (COV for assessing repeatability and Bland–Altman plots for the agreement between the mean measurements of each machine were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: The repeatability and agreement between the five devices for the measurements of sKm, fKm, CCT, TCT, and ACD. Results: The TRT of sKm measurements ranged between 0.23 diopter (D (with Pentacam and 0.83 D (with Orbscan. The same of fKm, TCT, ACD, and CCT measurements ranged between 0.28 D (with Pentacam and 0.74 D (with Sirius, 7.78 μm (Sirius and 19.81 μm (Orbscan, 0.05 mm (Orbscan and 0.07 (Sirius, and 7.36 μm (Sirius and 18.02 μm (Orbscan, respectively. The TRT of sKm and fKm measurements with Pentacam was significantly lower than those with Orbscan and Sirius. The TRT of TCT measurement with Sirius was significantly lower than that with Pentacam (4.53 μm and Orbscan (7.15 μm. There were statistically significant differences in the mean measurements of all parameters between the devices. The 95% limit of agreement on the Bland–Altman analysis was wide for the measurement pairs with all the devices. Significant proportional bias in the agreement was detected for TCT measurements with all the device pairs and for the ACD measurements between Sirius and

  8. Status of a UAVSAR designed for repeat pass interferometry for deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Paul, Rose

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently implementing a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data, also known as differential interferometric measurements. Differential interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for the scientific studies of Earthquakes and volcanoes. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar wilI be designed to operate on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a minimally piloted vehicle (MPV), such as the Proteus buitt by Scaled Composites or on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar design is a fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and 16 km range swath. The antenna is an electronically steered along track to assure that the actual antenna pointing can be controlled independent of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include an elevation monopulse option and a pulse-to-pulse resteering capability that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began out as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  9. Repeatability of junctional zone measurements using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in healthy, fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch

    2016-01-01

    -observer repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: Using 3D-TVS we visualised a thin and regular JZ in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median (interquartile range; iqr) value of JZmax (5.2 (iqr 3.8-6.5)mm. Ten out....... Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of JZ thickness. Conclusions: The JZ has an indistinct outline by 3D-TVS resulting in an error of JZ measurement within a broad range of ±2-4 mm, but reduced by average measurements. The thickness of JZ varied within a narrow range of this healthy......, fertile population and reliability measurements of JZ thickness has to be evaluated in women with a wider range of JZ thickness....

  10. A repeated measures model for analysis of continuous outcomes in sequential parallel comparison design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doros, Gheorghe; Pencina, Michael; Rybin, Denis; Meisner, Allison; Fava, Maurizio

    2013-07-20

    Previous authors have proposed the sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) to address the issue of high placebo response rate in clinical trials. The original use of SPCD focused on binary outcomes, but recent use has since been extended to continuous outcomes that arise more naturally in many fields, including psychiatry. Analytic methods proposed to date for analysis of SPCD trial continuous data included methods based on seemingly unrelated regression and ordinary least squares. Here, we propose a repeated measures linear model that uses all outcome data collected in the trial and accounts for data that are missing at random. An appropriate contrast formulated after the model has been fit can be used to test the primary hypothesis of no difference in treatment effects between study arms. Our extensive simulations show that when compared with the other methods, our approach preserves the type I error even for small sample sizes and offers adequate power and the smallest mean squared error under a wide variety of assumptions. We recommend consideration of our approach for analysis of data coming from SPCD trials. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antarctic Ice Sheet Slope and Aspect Based on Icesat's Repeat Orbit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Xie, S.; Xiao, F.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  12. Comparability and repeatability of three commonly used methods for measuring endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James; Mühlenhaupt, Max; Whiting, Martin J

    2018-02-19

    Measures of endurance (time to exhaustion) have been used to address a wide range of questions in ecomorphological and physiological research, as well as being used as a proxy for survival and fitness. Swimming, stationary (circular) track running, and treadmill running are all commonly used methods for measuring endurance. Despite the use of these methods across a broad range of taxa, how comparable these methods are to one another, and whether they are biologically relevant, is rarely examined. We used Australian water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii), a species that is morphologically adept at climbing, swimming, and running, to compare these three methods of endurance and examined if there is repeatability within and between trial methods. We found that time to exhaustion was not highly repeatable within a method, suggesting that single measures or a mean time to exhaustion across trials are not appropriate. Furthermore, we compared mean maximal endurance times among the three methods, and found that the two running methods (i.e., stationary track and treadmill) were similar, but swimming was distinctly different, resulting in lower mean maximal endurance times. Finally, an individual's endurance rank was not repeatable across methods, suggesting that the three endurance trial methods are not providing similar information about an individual's performance capacity. Overall, these results highlight the need to carefully match a measure of performance capacity with the study species and the research questions being asked so that the methods being used are behaviorally, ecologically, and physiologically relevant. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ANTARCTIC ICE SHEET SLOPE AND ASPECT BASED ON ICESAT’S REPEAT ORBIT MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  14. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  15. Formatting data files for repeated-measures analyses in SPSS: Using the Aggregate and Restructure procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Gyslain Giguère; Guy L. Lacroix

    2006-01-01

    In this tutorial, we demonstrate how to use the Aggregate and Restructure procedures available in SPSS (versions 11 and up) to prepare data files for repeated-measures analyses. In the first two sections of the tutorial, we briefly describe the Aggregate and Restructure procedures. In the final section, we present an example in which the data from a fictional lexical decision task are prepared for analysis using a mixed-design ANOVA. The tutorial demonstrates that the presented method is the ...

  16. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  17. High-Dimensional Multivariate Repeated Measures Analysis with Unequal Covariance Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Solomon W.; Kong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, test statistics for repeated measures design are introduced when the dimension is large. By large dimension is meant the number of repeated measures and the total sample size grow together but either one could be larger than the other. Asymptotic distribution of the statistics are derived for the equal as well as unequal covariance cases in the balanced as well as unbalanced cases. The asymptotic framework considered requires proportional growth of the sample sizes and the dimension of the repeated measures in the unequal covariance case. In the equal covariance case, one can grow at much faster rate than the other. The derivations of the asymptotic distributions mimic that of Central Limit Theorem with some important peculiarities addressed with sufficient rigor. Consistent and unbiased estimators of the asymptotic variances, which make efficient use of all the observations, are also derived. Simulation study provides favorable evidence for the accuracy of the asymptotic approximation under the null hypothesis. Power simulations have shown that the new methods have comparable power with a popular method known to work well in low-dimensional situation but the new methods have shown enormous advantage when the dimension is large. Data from Electroencephalograph (EEG) experiment is analyzed to illustrate the application of the results. PMID:26778861

  18. Context matters! sources of variability in weekend physical activity among families: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family involvement is an essential component of effective physical activity (PA interventions in children. However, little is known about the PA levels and characteristics of PA among families. This study used a repeated measures design and multiple data sources to explore the variability and characteristics of weekend PA among families. Methods Families (including a ‘target’ child aged 9–11 years, their primary caregiver(s and siblings aged 6–8 years were recruited through primary schools in Liverpool, UK. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 16 weekend days. ActiGraph.csv files were analysed using the R-package GGIR version 1.1–4. Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA for each weekend of measurement were calculated using linear mixed models, and variance components were estimated for participant (inter-individual, weekend of measurement, and residual error (intra-individual. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated from the proportion of total variance accounted for by inter-individual sources, and used as a measure of reliability. Diary responses were summed to produce frequency counts. To offer contextual insight into weekend PA among family units, demographic, accelerometer, and diary data were combined to form two case studies representative of low and high active families. Results Twenty-five participants from 7 families participated, including 7 ‘target’ children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 4 boys, 6 siblings (mean age 7.2 ± 0.7 years; 4 boys and 12 adults (7 mothers and 5 fathers. There was a high degree of variability in target children’s (ICC = 0.55, siblings (ICC = 0.38, and mothers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.58, but not in fathers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.83. Children’s weekend PA was mostly unstructured in nature and undertaken with friends, whereas a greater proportion of parents’ weekend

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  20. Repeatability and Comparison of Keratometry Values Measured with Potec PRK-6000 Autorefractometer, IOLMaster, and Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To research the repeatability and intercompatibility of keratometry values measured with Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, IOL Master, and Pentacam. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, consecutive measurements were performed in two different sessions with the mentioned three devices on 110 eyes of 55 subjects who had no additional ocular pathology except for refraction error. The consistency of flat and steep keratometry, average keratometry, and corneal astigmatism values obtained in both sessions was compared by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The measurement differences between the devices were statistically compared as well. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 23.05±3.01 (18-30 years. ICC values of average keratometry measurements obtained in the sessions were 0.996 for Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, 0.997 for IOL Master, and 0.999 for Pentacam. There was high compatibility between the three devices in terms of average keratometry values in Bland-Altman analysis. However, there were statistically significant differences between the devices in terms of parameters other than corneal astigmatism. Conclusion: The repeatability of the three devices was found considerably high in keratometry measurements. However, it is not appropriate for these devices to be substituted for each other in keratometry measurements. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 179-83

  1. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    found in for the pressure station approach. Walker and Dickerhoff also included estimates of DeltaQ test repeatability based on the results of field tests where two houses were tested multiple times. The two houses were quite leaky (20-25 Air Changes per Hour at 50Pa (0.2 in. water) (ACH50)) and were located in the San Francisco Bay area. One house was tested on a calm day and the other on a very windy day. Results were also presented for two additional houses that were tested by other researchers in Minneapolis, MN and Madison, WI, that had very tight envelopes (1.8 and 2.5 ACH50). These tight houses had internal duct systems and were tested without operating the central blower--sometimes referred to as control tests. The standard deviations between the multiple tests for all four houses were found to be about 1% of the envelope air flow at 50 Pa (0.2 in. water) (Q50) that led to the suggestion of this as a rule of thumb for estimating DeltaQ uncertainty. Because DeltaQ is based on measuring envelope air flows it makes sense for uncertainty to scale with envelope leakage. However, these tests were on a limited data set and one of the objectives of the current study is to increase the number of tested houses. This study focuses on answering two questions: (1) What is the uncertainty associated with changes in weather (primarily wind) conditions during DeltaQ testing? (2) How can these uncertainties be reduced? The first question is addressing issues of repeatability. To study this five houses were tested as many times as possible over a day. Weather data was recorded on-site--including the local windspeed. The result from these five houses were combined with the two Bay Area homes from the previous studies. The variability of the tests (represented by the standard deviation) is the repeatability of the test method for that house under the prevailing weather conditions. Because the testing was performed over a day a wide range of wind speeds was achieved following

  2. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroner, E; Arzt, E; Maboudian, R

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  3. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  4. Repeatability of Foveal Measurements Using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Segmentation Software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ctori

    Full Text Available To investigate repeatability and reproducibility of thickness of eight individual retinal layers at axial and lateral foveal locations, as well as foveal width, measured from Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT scans using newly available retinal layer segmentation software.High-resolution SD-OCT scans were acquired for 40 eyes of 40 young healthy volunteers. Two scans were obtained in a single visit for each participant. Using new Spectralis segmentation software, two investigators independently obtained thickness of each of eight individual retinal layers at 0°, 2° and 5° eccentricities nasal and temporal to foveal centre, as well as foveal width measurements. Bland-Altman Coefficient of Repeatability (CoR was calculated for inter-investigator and inter-scan agreement of all retinal measurements. Spearman's ρ indicated correlation of manually located central retinal thickness (RT0 with automated minimum foveal thickness (MFT measurements. In addition, we investigated nasal-temporal symmetry of individual retinal layer thickness within the foveal pit.Inter-scan CoR values ranged from 3.1 μm for axial retinal nerve fibre layer thickness to 15.0 μm for the ganglion cell layer at 5° eccentricity. Mean foveal width was 2550 μm ± 322 μm with a CoR of 13 μm for inter-investigator and 40 μm for inter-scan agreement. Correlation of RT0 and MFT was very good (ρ = 0.97, P 0.05; however this symmetry could not be found at 5° eccentricity.We demonstrate excellent repeatability and reproducibility of each of eight individual retinal layer thickness measurements within the fovea as well as foveal width using Spectralis SD-OCT segmentation software in a young, healthy cohort. Thickness of all individual retinal layers were symmetrical at 2°, but not at 5° eccentricity away from the fovea.

  5. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  6. Repeatability and interdevice reliability of two portable color selection devices in matching and measuring tooth color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Fougia, Aggeliki G; Diamantopoulou, Sofia A; Polyzois, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    There is a need to know how shade selection devices perform in matching and measuring tooth color, since these functions are usually evaluated independently and may present significant discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 devices which offer both functions to test the null hypothesis that they present no differences in their repeatability and interdevice reliability relating to the 2 functions. Thirty-one extracted anterior human teeth were measured twice, with each of the devices (ShadeEye NCC and VITA EasyShade), by one investigator experienced and calibrated with both devices. L*a*b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. Paired t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to statistically analyze the data (alpha=.05). The results showed that L*a*b* values with VITA EasyShade were significantly higher than those with ShadeEye NCC (PL*a*b* parameters, while interdevice matching reliability ranged from 0.189 to 0.430, with no significant differences between shade systems (P>.05). All tooth color parameters were higher with the VITA EasyShade device. Measuring repeatability of the VITA EasyShade was higher than the ShadeEye NCC only for the L* parameter. Matching repeatability of the ShadeEye NCC was higher than the VITA EasyShade for the VITA Classical system. Interdevice measuring reliabilities were not different for the color parameters, but matching reliability of the VITA Classical system was higher than that of the Vitapan 3D-Master.

  7. Direct and Repeated Clinical Measurements of pO2 for Enhancing Cancer Therapy and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Schaner, Philip E; Ali, Arif; Gallez, Bernard; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Flood, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic multi-center study of the clinical use of EPR oximetry has begun, with funding as a PPG from the NCI. Using particulate oxygen sensitive EPR, materials in three complementary forms (India Ink, "OxyChips", and implantable resonators) the clinical value of the technique will be evaluated. The aims include using repeated measurement of tumor pO2 to monitor the effects of treatments on tumor pO2, to use the measurements to select suitable subjects for the type of treatment including the use of hyperoxic techniques, and to provide data that will enable existing clinical techniques which provide data relevant to tumor pO2 but which cannot directly measure it to be enhanced by determining circumstances where they can give dependable information about tumor pO2.

  8. Repeatability, reproducibility, agreement characteristics of 2 SD-OCT devices for anterior chamber angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Handan; Dastiridou, Anna; Marion, Kenneth; Francis, Brian; Chopra, Vikas

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the agreement, reproducibility, and repeatability of 2 spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices in Schwalbe's line (SL)-based anterior chamber angle parameters. The inferior anterior chamber angle of 65 eyes from 65 participants (33 right eyes and 32 left eyes) were scanned twice with the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT and Cirrus SD-OCT. SL angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and SL trabecular-iris-space area (SL-TISA) were graded by masked certified graders at the Doheny Image Reading Center. The mean SL-AOD/SL-TISA was 617.3 ± 237.9 µm/0.211 ± 0.086 mm 2 for the Cirrus and 633.7 ± 219.3 µm/0.218 ± 0.080 mm 2 for the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT. The repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] >0.936) and intergrader reproducibility (ICCs >0.915) in SL-AOD and SL-TISA with Cirrus OCT were excellent. The repeatability (ICCs >0.948) and intergrader reproducibility (ICCs >0.709) in SL-AOD and SL-TISA with the Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT were moderate to good. Moderate agreement between the 2 devices was also documented with a mean difference of -15.3 (limits of agreement [LoA] -246.5 to 277.1) mm for SL-AOD and 0.006 (LoA -0.096 to 0.108) mm in SL-TISA. Both devices were able to provide consistent angle measurements, but repeatability and reproducibility were better in Cirrus SD-OCT than in Nidek RS 3000 Advanced SD-OCT. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproducibility of repeated measurements with the Kikuhime pressure sensor under pressure garments in burn scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerckhove, Eric; Fieuws, Steffen; Massagé, Patrick; Hierner, Robert; Boeckx, Willy; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Laperre, Jan; Anthonissen, Mieke

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the reproducibility of repeated measurements with the Kikuhime pressure sensor under two different types of pressure garments used in the treatment and prevention of scars after burns. Also efficiency of garments was assessed in clinical circumstances by assessing pressure loss and residual pressure after 1 month. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and repeated measurements with 1-month time lapse were examined on 55 sites in 26 subjects by means of intra-class correlation coefficients and standard error of measurements. Results showed good to excellent ICC and low SEMs in the two conditions. There was a significant difference in pressure after 1 month between elastic tricot and weft knit garments, although evolution of pressure loss after 1 month was similar. Concerning different locations, there was a significant difference in pressure loss after 1 month between gloves and sleeves with the largest pressure loss for sleeves. Considering these results we concluded that the Kikuhime pressure sensor provides valid and reliable information and can be used in comparative clinical trials to evaluate pressure garments used in burn scar treatment. Secondly, elastic tricot garments in our study tended to have higher clinical pressures but both types of garments had similar pressure loss over time.

  10. Repeated absolute gravity measurements for monitoring slow intraplate vertical deformation in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Scherneck, H.; Hinzen, K. G.; Williams, S. D.; Lecocq, T.; Quinif, Y.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2011-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, ground surface movements are at the limit of the noise level and close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques. Absolute gravity measurements are valuable to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument is drift free and, unlike GPS, independent of the terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformation in the area. The AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve elusive gravity changes with a precision better than 3.7 nm/s2/yr (95% confidence interval) after 11 years, even in difficult conditions. After 8-15 years (depending on the station), we find that the gravity rates of change lie in the [-3.1, 8.1] nm/s2/yr interval and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. After correcting for the GIA, the inferred gravity rates and consequently, the vertical land movements, reduce to zero within the uncertainty level at all stations except Jülich (due to man-induced subsidence) and Sohier (possibly, an artefact due to the shortness of the time series at that station).

  11. Integrating terrestrial laser scanning and repeat field measurements to quantify habitat changes during baseflow recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfle-Erskine, C. A.; Thompson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding stream habitat heterogeneity is essential for evaluating stream habitat quality for salmonids, but the variability in pool sizes, groundwater sources, and the associated water quality makes characterization of habitat challenging. Habitat volume and stream connectivity are key drivers of ecosystem processes in spatially-intermittent streams, and strongly influence survival of juvenile salmonids in coastal California. Stream disconnection creates heterogeneous habitats, as disconnected pools are fed by distinct groundwater and hyporheic sources of water containing different concentrations of carbon, oxygen and nutrients. These distinct biogeochemical regimes drive production of benthic macroinvertebrates (salmonids' primary food source) and dissolved oxygen levels, which in turn govern salmonid metabolism. In this study, we use terrestrial laser scans of the streambed, topographic surveys of wetted pools, and repeat field measurements of pool depth to develop a timeseries of finely resolved pool volumes and dry riffle lengths. We overlay repeat water quality measurements onto this surface to visualize how cessation of flow creates heterogeneous habitats influenced by groundwater flux and geomorphic setting. By coupling terrestrial laser scans with traditional surveys, we create high-resolution facies surfaces that can be integrated with timeseries measurements of other biogeochemical data to characterize changes in habitat conditions during baseflow recession. Compared with traditional survey methods, this method yields improved qualitative descriptions of habitat fragmentation via visualizations and spatially and temporally explicit quantification of aquatic and riparian habitat characteristics that drive salmonid over-summer survival.

  12. Analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups: accounting for dynamic group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Dean, Danielle; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Researchers commonly collect repeated measures on individuals nested within groups such as students within schools, patients within treatment groups, or siblings within families. Often, it is most appropriate to conceptualize such groups as dynamic entities, potentially undergoing stochastic structural and/or functional changes over time. For instance, as a student progresses through school, more senior students matriculate while more junior students enroll, administrators and teachers may turn over, and curricular changes may be introduced. What it means to be a student within that school may thus differ from 1 year to the next. This article demonstrates how to use multilevel linear models to recover time-varying group effects when analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups that evolve over time. Two examples are provided. The 1st example examines school effects on the science achievement trajectories of students, allowing for changes in school effects over time. The 2nd example concerns dynamic family effects on individual trajectories of externalizing behavior and depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  14. Tectonic, Climatic and Anthropogenic Vertical Land Movements in Western Europe by Repeated Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Lecocq, T.; Hinzen, K. G.; Quinif, Y.; Williams, S. D.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2010-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, tectonic deformations are small and the associated ground surface movements remain close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques, and at the limit of the noise level. An absolute gravimeter is an appropriate tool to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument, based on length and time standards, is drift free and does not depend on any terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformations in the area. After 7-13 years (depending on the station), we find evidence that the movements are no larger than a few millimeter per year and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. This demonstrates the importance of precisely modeling the GIA effects in order to investigate intraplate tectonic deformations at the sub-millimeter level. This study also shows that AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve vertical velocities at the 1.0 mm/yr level after 10 years, even in difficult conditions, provided that the gravimeter is carefully maintained.

  15. Tracking Quantum Jumps of Light with Repeated Single-Shot Parity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyan; Petrenko, Andrei; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Sliwa, Katrina; Narla, Anirudh; Hatridge, Michael; Shankar, Shyam; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. A measurement-based QEC requires the measurement of error syndromes in a quantum non-demolition way and at a rate which is faster than errors occur. In a 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, we realize a parity measurement of a microwave field with about 90% fidelity by mapping its parity onto an ancilla qubit. The projective nature of the parity measurement onto a degenerate parity eigenspace, the cat states, is confirmed by Wigner tomography after a single parity measurement, showing 84% fidelity to ideal cats. The parity can therefore serve as an error syndrome for a recently proposed QEC scheme [Leghtas et.al. PRL (2013)]. We then demonstrate a tracking of quantum jumps of this error syndrome by repeated parity measurements. We will also discuss a quantum filter developed to mitigate the imperfections during the parity measurement for a best estimate of the photon state parity. The demonstrated extraction of error syndromes without perturbing the encoded information is essential for QEC. Current address: CQI, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

  16. ±25ppm repeatable measurement of trapezoidal pulses with 5MHz bandwidth

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    High-quality measurements of pulses are nowadays widely used in fields such as radars, pulsed lasers, electromagnetic pulse generators, and particle accelerators. Whilst literature is mainly focused on fast systems for nanosecond regime with relaxed metrological requirements, in this paper, the high-performance measurement of slower pulses in microsecond regime is faced. In particular, the experimental proof demonstration for a 15 MS/s,_25 ppm repeatable acquisition system to characterize the flat-top of 3 ms rise-time trapezoidal pulses is given. The system exploits a 5MHz bandwidth circuit for analogue signal processing based on the concept of flat-top removal. The requirements, as well as the conceptual and physical designs are illustrated. Simulation results aimed at assessing the circuit performance are also presented. Finally, an experimental case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystrons modulators of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN is reported. In ...

  17. Repeated measurement of the intermountain risk score enhances prognostication for mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Horne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Intermountain Risk Score (IMRS, composed of the complete blood count (CBC and basic metabolic profile (BMP, predicts mortality and morbidity in medical and general populations. Whether longitudinal repeated measurement of IMRS is useful for prognostication is an important question for its clinical applicability. METHODS: Females (N = 5,698 and males (N = 5,437 with CBC and BMP panels measured 6 months to 2.0 years apart (mean 1.0 year had baseline and follow-up IMRS computed. Survival analysis during 4.0±2.5 years (maximum 10 years evaluated mortality (females: n = 1,255 deaths; males: n = 1,164 deaths and incident major events (myocardial infarction, heart failure [HF], and stroke. RESULTS: Both baseline and follow-up IMRS (categorized as high-risk vs. low-risk were independently associated with mortality (all p<0.001 in bivariable models. For females, follow-up IMRS had hazard ratio (HR = 5.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.11, 6.64 and baseline IMRS had HR = 3.66 (CI = 2.94, 4.55. Among males, follow-up IMRS had HR = 4.28 (CI = 3.51, 5.22 and baseline IMRS had HR = 2.32 (CI = 1.91, 2.82. IMRS components such as RDW, measured at both time points, also predicted mortality. Baseline and follow-up IMRS strongly predicted incident HF in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated measurement of IMRS at baseline and at about one year of follow-up were independently prognostic for mortality and incident HF among initially hospitalized patients. RDW and other CBC and BMP values were also predictive of outcomes. Further research should evaluate the utility of IMRS as a tool for clinical risk adjustment.

  18. Repeated measurements for assessment of urinary 2-naphthol levels in individuals exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Diawara, Norou; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2011-01-01

    A repeated measurement cohort study was conducted to determine whether 2-napthol can be a suitable biomarker for evaluating the magnitude of exposure to PAHs from coke oven emissions. Time-course patterns of urinary 2-naphthol levels in coke-oven workers were examined. Also, the correlation between urinary 2-naphthol levels and PAHs from personal breathing zone samples was analyzed while examining and adjusting possible confounding factors, such as smoking alcohol consumption, and age of human subjects. A total of 8 spot urine samples were collected from each high-exposure group (topside-oven workers, n = 17) and low-exposure group (side-oven workers, n = 25) during the whole working cycle, which consists of six consecutive working days followed by 2 days off. Personal breathing zone samples were collected to quantify PAH intake. A questionnaire was distributed and collected from each worker for assessment of demographic parameters. Our results confirmed that the topside-oven area contained significantly higher PAH levels than the side-oven area. Urinary 2-naphthol levels correlated with the levels of PAH species, including pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benezo[g,h,i]pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and total PAHs. During the working cycle, urinary 2-naphthol levels remained stable at around 46-97 ng/mg creatinine during the working days and dramatically increased during the off days. After stratification of data based on smoking status, smokers had significantly higher urinary 2-naphthol levels than non-smokers, and 2-naphthol levels positively correlated with smoking status. Coke-oven emissions are a source of exposure to naphthalene. Also, smoking is a significant source of exposure to naphthalene and served as a confounder factor. Due to its abundance, positive association with total PAHs and certain carcinogenic PAH compounds, and slower elimination kinetics, urinary 2-naphthol may have the potential

  19. Predicting out-of-office blood pressure level using repeated measurements in the clinic: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P.; Holder, Roger; Nichols, Linda; Bray, Emma; Hobbs, F.D. Richard; Mant, Jonathan; Little, Paul; Williams, Bryan; Greenfield, Sheila; McManus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Identification of people with lower (white-coat effect) or higher (masked effect) blood pressure at home compared to the clinic usually requires ambulatory or home monitoring. This study assessed whether changes in SBP with repeated measurement at a single clinic predict subsequent differences between clinic and home measurements. Methods: This study used an observational cohort design and included 220 individuals aged 35–84 years, receiving treatment for hypertension, but whose SBP was not controlled. The characteristics of change in SBP over six clinic readings were defined as the SBP drop, the slope and the quadratic coefficient using polynomial regression modelling. The predictive abilities of these characteristics for lower or higher home SBP readings were investigated with logistic regression and repeated operating characteristic analysis. Results: The single clinic SBP drop was predictive of the white-coat effect with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 50%, positive predictive value of 56% and negative predictive value of 88%. Predictive values for the masked effect and those of the slope and quadratic coefficient were slightly lower, but when the slope and quadratic variables were combined, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the masked effect were improved to 91, 48, 24 and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Characteristics obtainable from multiple SBP measurements in a single clinic in patients with treated hypertension appear to reasonably predict those unlikely to have a large white-coat or masked effect, potentially allowing better targeting of out-of-office monitoring in routine clinical practice. PMID:25144295

  20. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a large number of repetitions on the most comfortable level (MCL) when doing the acceptable noise level (ANL) test, and explore if MCL variability is related to central cognitive processes. DESIGN: Twelve MCL repetitions were measured within the ANL test using...... interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. STUDY SAMPLE: Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used...... to assess the repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA and CR indicated poor agreement between the two first repetitions. After excluding the first repetition, analyses showed that the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A negative association was found between PWM and MCL variability indicating that subjects...

  1. Toona ciliata genotype selection with the use of individual BLUP with repeated measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulfe Tavares Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for raw material for multiple uses of forest products and by-products has attracted the interest for fast growing species, such as the Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata, which presents high productive and economic potential. This study aimed at estimating genotypic parameters and values for the species through the use of the BLUP procedure, at individual level, with repeated measures, by means of the conventional evaluation procedures and the introduction of innovative digitalization of the measurements by digital camera with the images provided by the Imagej software system. The main objective is to subsidize the beginning of a breeding program for the species. The assays were carried out in private properties, in plantations located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results generated by three evaluations revealed that the image digital analysis is adequate to quantify characteristics of Toona ciliata. It is also an effective and accurate alternative to minimize the costs of data collection in evaluations with the species. There was high accuracy for the characters plant height, diameter at breast height and cylindrical volume. Out of the 90 genotypes evaluated, 38 expressed genotypic values predicted for the diameter at breast height higher than the general average of this character, 33 for the cylindrical volume and 49 for height, allowing gains of up to 24.9 % in average for cylindrical volume. The method of mixed models (REML/BLUP applied via the SELEGEN software system, using the BLUP procedure at individual level and repeated measures in each individual proved to be adequate to estimate the genetic parameters and predict genotypic values in situations of unbalanced data. Therefore, it is very useful and practical for Toona ciliata genetic breeding programs.

  2. Evaluating task modification as an objective measure of functional limitation: repeatability and comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Todd M; Cook, Summer B; VanArnam, Tom; Marko, Moshe; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2006-07-01

    Modification of everyday tasks in older adults is associated with risk of deleterious health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop a task modification scale to examine its reliability and comparability to timed performance and common measures of physical function and impairment. Eighty-two (21 men, 61 women) older adults (74.4 +/- 8.2 years) were observed performing a chair rise (sitting heights: 43 cm, 38 cm, and 30 cm), stair ascent/descent, and kneel and supine rise tasks. Six hierarchically ranked categories (0-5) of modification were created for each task and then summed across tasks (summary modification [MOD] score: range 0-35). Comparisons were made with timed performance, knee extension strength, single-leg balance, self-reported function, five chair stands, and gait speed. Inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.98) and participant repeatability (intra-class correlation = 0.92) of the MOD score were excellent. Ninety-six percent of participants modified at least one task (MOD score: 10.5 +/- 7.51, range 0-27). After adjusting for task modification, timed performance showed a lower association with gait speed (time vs MOD score, semipartial r2 = 0.31 vs 0.68), strength (semipartial r2 = 0.14 vs 0.65), and single-leg balance (semipartial r2 = 0.10 vs 0.40) than did the MOD score. The MOD score showed higher correlations with muscle strength and balance impairment than did other measures of functional limitation such as gait speed, time to complete five chair stands, and self-reported physical function. Documentation of task modification is reliable across raters and repeatable within participants; in addition, it compares well with other measures of physical function and impairment. Task modification reveals important and intuitive information regarding physical limitation, and deserves greater attention.

  3. Comparison of repeated measurements of methane production in sheep over 5 years and a range of measurement protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Hegarty, R S; Oddy, V H

    2015-10-01

    Emissions of 710 ewes at pasture were measured for 1 h (between 09:00-16:30 h) in batches of 15 sheep in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) after an overnight fast continuing until 2 h before measurement, when the sheep had access to baled hay for 1 h. The test was used to identify a group of 104 low emitters (I-Low) and a group of 103 high emitters (I-Hi) for methane emissions adjusted for liveweight (CHawt). The 207 ewes selected at the initial study were remeasured in 5 repeat tests from 2009 through 2014 at another location. The first repeat used the original measurement protocol. Two modified protocols, each used in 2 yr, drafted unfasted sheep on the morning of the test into a yard or holding paddock until measurement. Emissions of the I-Hi sheep were higher (102-112%) than I-Low sheep in all subsequent PAC tests, with statistical significance ( sheep were measured in respiration chambers (RC); 10 high (Hi-10) and 10 low (Low-10) sheep were chosen, representing extremes (top and bottom 6.25%) for methane yield (MY; g CH/kg DMI). The Hi-10 group emitted 14% more methane (adjusted for feed intake) in a follow-up RC test, but Low-10 and Hi-10 sheep differed in only 1 of the 5 PAC tests, when Hi-10 sheep emitted less CHawt than Low-10 sheep ( = 0.002) and tended to eat less in the feeding opportunity ( = 0.085). Compared with their weight on good pasture, Low-10 sheep were proportionately lighter than Hi-10 sheep in the relatively poor pasture conditions of the initial test. Sheep identified as low emitters by PAC tests using the initial protocol did not produce less CH (mg/min) when fed a fixed level of intake in RC. Correlations between estimates of an animal's CHawt measured in PAC and CH adjusted for feed intake in RC were quite low ( = 0-19%) and significant ( sheep. With moderate repeatability over the 5 yr, PAC tests of CHawt could be a viable way to select for reduced emissions of grazing sheep. As well as exploiting any variation in MY, selecting for

  4. Assessing the test–retest repeatability of insulin resistance measures: Homeostasis model assessment 2 and oral glucose insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A.P. Crofts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance is commonly assessed using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA variants. HOMA is potentially insensitive to change because of its high coefficient of variation. The repeatability coefficient is an alternative means of assessing test repeatability. To be confident of clinical change, rather than biological variation, a subsequent test needs to differ from the former by more than the repeatability coefficient using the equation. Test 1 = Test 2 ± repeatability coefficient. The repeatability coefficients for measures of insulin resistance are unknown. Aim: To compare the repeatability coefficient of HOMA2 variants (Beta-cell function [%B], insulin sensitivity [%S], insulin resistance [IR] to a dynamic measure of insulin resistance, and the oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS test. Setting: The raw data from a previously used data set were reanalysed. Methods: Glycaemic and insulinaemic tests were performed on 32 men and women both with (n = 10 and without type 2 diabetes (n = 22. From these data, eight fasting tests and three 50-g oral glucose tolerance tests were used to calculate HOMA2 and OGIS. The methods of Bland and Altman assessed repeatability. Results: Repeatability coefficients for all participants for the HOMA2 %B, %S and IR variants were 72.91, 189.75 and 0.9, which equates to 89%, 135% and 89% of their respective grand means. By contrast, OGIS had a repeatability coefficient of 87.13, which equates to 21% of the grand mean. Conclusion: Because of the high repeatability coefficient relative to the grand mean, use of HOMA2 measures for assessing insulin resistance in small population studies should be reconsidered.

  5. Joint modelling of repeated measurements and event time: Application to performance traits and survival of lambs bred in sub-humid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Didier

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We considered the analysis of a study for Dorper, Red Maasai and crossbred lambs born over a period of 6 years at the Diani Estate, Kenya. The study was designed to compare survival and performance traits of genotypes with differing susceptibilities to helminthiasis. The available data include information on time to death and repeated measurements of body weight, packed cell volume (PCV and faecal egg count (FEC of the animals. In the paper, we consider joint modelling of the survival time and the repeated measurements. Such an approach allows to account for the possible association between the survival and repeated measurement processes. The advantages and limitations of the joint modelling are discussed and illustrated using the Diani Estate study data.

  6. Validation of Repeated Endothelial Function Measurements Using EndoPAT in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aina S; Butt, Jawad H; Holm-Yildiz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    amplitude tonometry technology in acute stroke patients. Similarly, reliability was tested in healthy subjects devoid of vascular disease to estimate reactivity and reliability in a younger non-stroke population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EF was assessed using the EndoPAT2000 in 20 healthy volunteers (men 50......BACKGROUND: Decreased endothelial function (EF) may be a prognostic marker for stroke. Measuring pharmacological effects on EF may be of interest in the development of personalized medicine for stroke prevention. In this study, we assessed the reliability of repeated EF measurements using a pulse......%, mean age 35.85 ± 3.47 years) and 21 stroke patients (men 52%, mean age 66.38 ± 2.85 years, and mean NIHSS 4.09 ± 0.53) under standardized conditions. EF was measured as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), logarithm of RHI (lnRHI), and Framingham RHI (fRHI). Measurements were separated by 1.5 and 24 h...

  7. Distribution and Repeatability of Corneal Astigmatism Measurements (Magnitude and Axis) Evaluated With Color Light Emitting Diode Reflection Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate and investigate the distribution and repeatability of anterior corneal surface astigmatism measurements (axis and magnitude) using a novel corneal topographer. Anterior corneal surface astigmatism was investigated in a total of 195 eyes using a novel multicolored spot reflection topographer (Cassini; i-Optics). Two patient groups were studied, a younger-age group A and an older-age group B. Three consecutive acquisitions were obtained from each eye. The repeatability of measurement was assessed using Bland-Altman plot analysis and is reported as the coefficient of repeatability. Group A (average age 34.3 years) had on average with-the-rule astigmatism, whereas the older-age group B (average age 72.3 years) had on average against-the-rule astigmatism. Average astigmatism magnitude measurement repeatability in group A was 0.4 diopters (D) and in group B 0.4 D. Average astigmatism axis measurement repeatability in group A was 5.4 degrees and in group B 5.5 degrees. The axis measurement repeatability improved with increasing magnitude of astigmatism: in the subgroups with astigmatism between 3.0 and 6.0 D, the axis repeatability was 1.4 degrees (group A) and 1.2 degrees (group B), whereas in the subgroups with astigmatism larger than 6.0 D, the repeatability was 1.1 and 0.6 degrees, respectively. This novel corneal topography device seems to offer high precision in reporting corneal astigmatism. This study reaffirms the established trend of a corneal astigmatism shift from an average "with-the-rule" to "against-the-rule" with aging.

  8. The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: an evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäper, Michael; Seeber, Andreas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during 5 years and started with 333 male workers. Lifetime weighted average exposures (LWAE) to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings; recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study (toluene, active sampling; noise, stationary measurements). Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 kHz. Mean LWAE exposures to toluene and noise were 45+/-17 ppm plus 82+/-7 dB(A) for high toluene exposed and 10+/-7 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A) for low toluene exposed subjects, mean current exposures were 26+/-20 ppm plus 81+/-4 dB(A) and 3+/-3 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A). Mean exposure duration was 21.3+/-6.5 years for long exposed and 5.9+/-2.2 years for short exposed subjects. Repeated measurement analyses of variance did not reveal effects of toluene intensity, exposure duration and interactions between toluene intensity and noise intensity. Noise intensity [79+/-3 dB(A) vs. 84+/-1 dB(A)] was significant for auditory thresholds. A case concept utilising developments of individual auditory thresholds did not reveal significant toluene effects. Logistic models including age, exposure duration, toluene in ambient air, current noise and either hippuric acid or ortho-cresol (o-cresol) found only age to be significant for elevated OR of high frequency hearing loss. Due to missing toluene effects, it was concluded that the threshold level for developing hearing loss as a result of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise might be above the current limit of 50 ppm toluene.

  9. Pachymetric measurements with a new Scheimpflug photography-based system: intraobserver repeatability and agreement with optical coherence tomography pachymetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Myriam; Piñero, David P; Amparo, Francisco; Alió, Jorge L

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the intraobserver repeatability of pachymetric measurements obtained with a new Scheimpflug photography-based system and the agreement of the measurements with those obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vissum Corporation, Alicante, Spain. Evaluation of diagnostic technology. Corneal thickness was measured at different locations (center; 2.5 mm and 4.0 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior) in 18 eyes of 18 patients with no ocular pathology or previous surgery with a Scheimpflug photography-based system (Sirius). Three consecutive measurements at each location were obtained with the system to evaluate intraobserver repeatability. Afterward, pachymetric measurements were obtained at the same locations with an OCT system (Visante) to evaluate the agreement between techniques using the Bland-Altman method. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeated measures ranged from 0.990 to 0.997. The coefficient of variation was lower than 1% and the standard deviations of the repeated measurements (S(w)) were below 6 μm at all corneal locations. Statistically significant differences were found between the coefficient of variation and S(w) values of the repeated measurements corresponding to the 2.5 mm and 4.0 mm locations (P ≤ .037). The agreement with OCT pachymetric measurements was poor, with ranges of agreement larger than 20 μm at all corneal locations. Statistically significant differences were found between standard deviations of the differences between the 2 devices at the 2.5 mm and 4.0 mm locations (P ≤ .017). Scheimpflug photography-based technology provided repeatable pachymetric measurements that were not equivalent to those obtained with OCT. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Phypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  12. Hepatic 18F-FDG Uptake Measurements on PET/MR: Impact of Volume of Interest Location on Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Domachevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate same day 18F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose PET (Positron Emission Tomography/MR (Magnetic Resonance test-retest repeatability of Standardized Uptake Value measurements normalized for body weight (SUV and lean body mass (SUL in different locations in the liver. Methods. This prospective study was IRB approved with written informed consent obtained. 35 patients (20 women and 15 men, 61±11.2 years that performed a whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MR followed by liver-dedicated contrast-enhanced 18F-FDG PET/MR were included. SUV/L max, mean, and peak were measured inferior to, superior to, and at the right portal vein and in the left lobe of the liver. The coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were obtained. Results. The variability for SUV/L’s measurements was lowest inferior to the portal vein (<9.2% followed by measurements performed at the level of the portal vein (<14.6%. Conclusion. The area inferior to the portal vein is the most reliable location for hepatic 18F-FDG uptake measurements on PET/MR.

  13. Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Petrenko, A.; Leghtas, Z.; Vlastakis, B.; Kirchmair, G.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Blumoff, J.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat

  14. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    technique allowing multiple measurements of the lower limbs. This study investigated the repeatability of duplicate volume and regional body composition measurements of the lower limb using the GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner Prodigy (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI). Twenty...

  15. Analyzing repeated measures semi-continuous data, with application to an alcohol dependence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Strawderman, Robert L; Johnson, Bankole A; O'Quigley, John M

    2016-02-01

    Two-part random effects models (Olsen and Schafer,(1) Tooze et al.(2)) have been applied to repeated measures of semi-continuous data, characterized by a mixture of a substantial proportion of zero values and a skewed distribution of positive values. In the original formulation of this model, the natural logarithm of the positive values is assumed to follow a normal distribution with a constant variance parameter. In this article, we review and consider three extensions of this model, allowing the positive values to follow (a) a generalized gamma distribution, (b) a log-skew-normal distribution, and (c) a normal distribution after the Box-Cox transformation. We allow for the possibility of heteroscedasticity. Maximum likelihood estimation is shown to be conveniently implemented in SAS Proc NLMIXED. The performance of the methods is compared through applications to daily drinking records in a secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial of topiramate for alcohol dependence treatment. We find that all three models provide a significantly better fit than the log-normal model, and there exists strong evidence for heteroscedasticity. We also compare the three models by the likelihood ratio tests for non-nested hypotheses (Vuong(3)). The results suggest that the generalized gamma distribution provides the best fit, though no statistically significant differences are found in pairwise model comparisons. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Testing Mean Differences among Groups: Multivariate and Repeated Measures Analysis with Minimal Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathke, Arne C; Friedrich, Sarah; Pauly, Markus; Konietschke, Frank; Staffen, Wolfgang; Strobl, Nicolas; Höller, Yvonne

    2018-03-22

    To date, there is a lack of satisfactory inferential techniques for the analysis of multivariate data in factorial designs, when only minimal assumptions on the data can be made. Presently available methods are limited to very particular study designs or assume either multivariate normality or equal covariance matrices across groups, or they do not allow for an assessment of the interaction effects across within-subjects and between-subjects variables. We propose and methodologically validate a parametric bootstrap approach that does not suffer from any of the above limitations, and thus provides a rather general and comprehensive methodological route to inference for multivariate and repeated measures data. As an example application, we consider data from two different Alzheimer's disease (AD) examination modalities that may be used for precise and early diagnosis, namely, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electroencephalogram (EEG). These data violate the assumptions of classical multivariate methods, and indeed classical methods would not have yielded the same conclusions with regards to some of the factors involved.

  17. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  18. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  19. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  20. Repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume measurements using 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shinichi; Kawana, Keisuke; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements using swept-source 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (CAS-OCT) and dual Scheimpflug imaging. Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Nonrandomized clinical trial. Measurements were taken in normal eyes (subject group) and in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC) (patient group). In the subject group, the entire ACV and the central 8.0 mm diameter ACV were measured using CAS-OCT and dual Scheimpflug imaging. In the patient group, the entire ACV and 8.0 mm ACV were measured using CAS-OCT. The coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility, and the correlation between the 2 devices was assessed. In the subject group, the mean 8.0 mm ACV was 110.14 mm(3) ± 12.57 (SD) using CAS-OCT and 114.51 ± 14.69 mm(3) using Scheimpflug imaging; there was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.878, P ACV on CAS-OCT was 165.15 ± 29.29 mm(3). The ICCs of the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements were greater than 0.94. The coefficients of repeatability and reproducibility of the 8.0 mm ACV and entire ACV measurements were less than 5%. In the patient group, the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements showed good reproducibility and repeatability. The CAS-OCT method allowed noninvasive measurement of the entire ACV with sufficient repeatability and reproducibility. The 8.0 mm ACV measurements with CAS-OCT and Scheimpflug imaging were comparable. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  2. Heart failure re-admission: measuring the ever shortening gap between repeat heart failure hospitalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Bakal

    Full Text Available Many quality-of-care and risk prediction metrics rely on time to first rehospitalization even though heart failure (HF patients may undergo several repeat hospitalizations. The aim of this study is to compare repeat hospitalization models. Using a population-based cohort of 40,667 patients, we examined both HF and all cause re-hospitalizations using up to five years of follow-up. Two models were examined: the gap-time model which estimates the adjusted time between hospitalizations and a multistate model which considered patients to be in one of four states; community-dwelling, in hospital for HF, in hospital for any reason, or dead. The transition probabilities and times were then modeled using patient characteristics and number of repeat hospitalizations. We found that during the five years of follow-up roughly half of the patients returned for a subsequent hospitalization for each repeat hospitalization. Additionally, we noted that the unadjusted time between hospitalizations was reduced ∼40% between each successive hospitalization. After adjustment each additional hospitalization was associated with a 28 day (95% CI: 22-35 reduction in time spent out of hospital. A similar pattern was seen when considering the four state model. A large proportion of patients had multiple repeat hospitalizations. Extending the gap between hospitalizations should be an important goal of treatment evaluation.

  3. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas; Kastberg, Tobias; Ibertsson, Tina

    2014-11-01

    To study the effect of a large number of repetitions on the most comfortable level (MCL) when doing the acceptable noise level (ANL) test, and explore if MCL variability is related to central cognitive processes. Twelve MCL repetitions were measured within the ANL test using interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used to assess the repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA and CR indicated poor agreement between the two first repetitions. After excluding the first repetition, analyses showed that the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A negative association was found between PWM and MCL variability indicating that subjects with higher PWM show less variability. The findings suggest that, after excluding the first repetition, the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A single repetition of the MCL in the ANL test should be avoided. If an interleaved methodology is used, a single ANL repetition should be added prior to the actual testing. The findings also suggest that MCL variability is associated to PWM but not VSWM.

  4. The effects of repeated-sprint training on field-based fitness measures: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Macpherson, Tom; Spears, Iain; Weston, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. counter-movement jump, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint, repeated-sprint ability and high-intensity intermittent running performance. The SPORTDiscus, PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched for original research articles. Search terms included 'repeated-sprint training', 'sprint training', 'aerobic endurance', 'repeated-sprint ability', 'counter-movement jump' and 'sprint performance'. Inclusion criteria included intervention consisting of a series of ≤10 s sprints with ≤60 s recovery; trained participants; intervention duration of 2-12 weeks; field-based fitness measures; running- or cycling-based intervention; published up to, and including, February 2014. Our final dataset included six trials for counter-movement jump (two controlled trials), eight trials for 10 m sprint, four trials for 20 m sprint (three controlled trials), two trials for 30 m sprint, eight trials for repeated-sprint ability and three trials for high-intensity intermittent running performance. Analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Uncertainty in the meta-analysed effect of repeated-sprint training was expressed as 95% confidence limits (CL), along with the probability that the true value of the effect was trivial, beneficial or harmful. Magnitude-based inferences were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 standard deviations, respectively. Repeated-sprint training had a likely small beneficial effect in non-controlled counter-movement jump trials (effect size 0.33; 95% CL ±0.30), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect in controlled

  5. Pilot study: Assessing repeatability of the EcoWalk platform resistive pressure sensors to measure plantar pressure during barefoot standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zequera, Martha; Perdomo, Oscar; Wilches, Carlos; Vizcaya, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, and force were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4% for all parameters considered.

  6. Pilot study: Assessing repeatability of the EcoWalk platform resistive pressure sensors to measure plantar pressure during barefoot standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequera, Martha; Perdomo, Oscar; Wilches, Carlos; Vizcaya, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, and force were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4% for all parameters considered.

  7. The anxiety severity interview for children and adolescents : an individualized repeated measure of anxiety severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; de Haan, Else; Wolters, Lidewij H; Vervoort, Leentje; Prins, Pier J M; de Bourgraaf, Annika; Scheerman, Nicolien A C; Nauta, Maaike H; Hartman, Catharina A; Boer, Frits; Goodman, Wayne K

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The Anxiety Severity Interview for Children and Adolescents (ASICA) was developed for the repeated assessment of the impact of anxiety and control over anxiety symptoms. The ASICA incorporates three main components of anxiety: physical response, avoidant behaviour and anxious thoughts.

  8. Estimates of repeatability coefficients and the number of the optimum measure to select superior genotypes in Annona muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchéz, C F B; Alves, R S; Garcia, A D P; Teodoro, P E; Peixoto, L A; Silva, L A; Bhering, L L; Resende, M D V

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate repeated measures over the years to estimate repeatability coefficient and the number of the optimum measure to select superior genotypes in Annona muricata L. The fruit production was evaluated over 16 years in 71 genotypes without an experimental design. The estimation of variance components and the prediction of the permanent phenotypic value were performed using REML/BLUP proceedings. The coefficient of determination, accuracy, and selective efficiency increased when measures increased. The coefficient of determination of 80% was reached beyond 8 crop seasons with high accuracy and selective efficiency. Thus, the evaluation of 8 crop seasons can be suitable to select superior genotypes in the A. muricata L. breeding program. Predicted selection gain had a high magnitude for fruit production indicating that it is possible to take a progressive genetic advance for this trait over cycle breeding.

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic floor ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe

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    Maria Magdalena Dresler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implants used to treat patients with urogynecological conditions are well visible in US examination. The position of the suburethral tape (sling is determined in relation to the urethra or the pubic symphysis. Aim of the study: The study was aimed at assessing the accuracy of measurements determining suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic US examination performed with a transvaginal probe. Material and methods: The analysis covered the results of sonographic measurements obtained according to a standardized technique in women referred for urogynecological diagnostics. Data from a total of 68 patients were used to analyse the repeatability and reproducibility of results obtained on the same day. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient for the repeatability and reproducibility of the sonographic measurements of suburethral tape location obtained with a transvaginal probe ranged from 0.6665 to 0.9911. The analysis of the measurements confirmed their consistency to be excellent or good. Conclusions: Excellent and good repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in a pelvic ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe confirm the test’s validity and usefulness for clinical and academic purposes.

  10. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  11. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  12. Are diagnostic criteria for acute malnutrition affected by hydration status in hospitalized children? A repeated measures study

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    Fegan Gregory

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dehydration and malnutrition commonly occur together among ill children in developing countries. Dehydration (change in total body water is known to alter weight. Although muscle tissue has high water content, it is not known whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC may be altered by changes in tissue hydration. We aimed to determine whether rehydration alters MUAC, MUAC Z score (MUACz, weight-for-length Z-score (WFLz and classification of nutritional status among hospitalised Kenyan children admitted with signs of dehydration. Study procedure We enrolled children aged from 3 months to 5 years admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital with clinical signs compatible with dehydration, and without kwashiorkor. Anthropometric measurements were taken at admission and repeated after 48 hours of treatment, which included rehydration by WHO protocols. Changes in weight observed during this period were considered to be due to changes in hydration status. Results Among 325 children (median age 11 months the median weight gain (rehydration after 48 hours was 0.21 kg, (an increase of 2.9% of admission body weight. Each 1% change in weight was associated with a 0.40 mm (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.44 mm, p Conclusion MUAC is less affected by dehydration than WFLz and is therefore more suitable for nutritional assessment of ill children. However, both WFLz and MUAC misclassify SAM among dehydrated children. Nutritional status should be re-evaluated following rehydration, and management adjusted accordingly.

  13. Repeatability of intraocular pressure measurements with Icare PRO rebound, Tono-Pen AVIA, and Goldmann tonometers in sitting and reclining positions.

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    Schweier, Caterina; Hanson, James V M; Funk, Jens; Töteberg-Harms, Marc

    2013-09-05

    Icare PRO (ICP) is a new Rebound tonometer that is able to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in both sitting and reclining positions. In this study, the gold standard Goldmann tonometer (GAT) was compared to ICP and Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA). Hypothesis was that repeatability of GAT is superior to ICP and TPA. 36 eyes of 36 healthy caucasian individuals, 13 male and 26 females, 17 right and 19 left eyes have been included in this prospective, randomized, cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a single site (Dept. of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). Primary outcome measures were Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (COV) and test-retest repeatability as visualized by Bland-Altman analysis. Secondary outcome measures were IOP in sitting (GAT, ICP and TPA) and in reclining (ICP and TPA) position. Mean IOP measured by GAT was 14.9 ± 3.5 mmHg. Mean IOP measured by ICP was 15.6 ± 3.1 mmHg (with TPA 14.8 ± 2.7 mmHg) in sitting and 16.5 ± 3.5 mmHg (with TPA 17.0 ± 3.0 mmHg) in reclining positions. COVs ranged from 2.9% (GAT) to 6.9% (ICP reclining) and ICCs from 0.819 (ICP reclining) to 0.972 (GAT). Repeatability is good with all three devices. GAT has higher repeatability compared to the two tested hand-held devices with lowest COVs and highest ICCs. IOP was higher in the reclining compared to the sitting position. The study was registered to the Clinical Trials Register of the US National Institute of Health, NCT01325324.

  14. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

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    Sierink, Joanne C; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve Mm; Schep, Niels Wl; Goslings, J Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be expected. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the repeated Hb measurement (r-Hb) within 2 h in adult trauma patients without evidence of haemodynamic instability. The local trauma registry was used to identify all trauma patients without evidence of haemodynamic instability from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients in whom no initial blood Hb measurement (i-Hb) was done on admission, referrals, and patients without risk for traumatic injuries or haemorrhage based upon mechanism of injury (e.g. inhalation or drowning injury) were excluded. A total of 1,537 patients were included in the study, 1,246 of which did not present with signs of haemodynamic instability. Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 13), 22% of the patients were multitrauma patients (ISS > 15). A normal i-Hb was found in 914 patients (73%). Of the 914 patients with a normal i-Hb, 639 (70%) had a normal r-Hb, while in 127 patients (14%), an abnormal r-Hb was found. In none of these patients, the abnormal r-Hb led to new diagnoses. In 148 patients (16%), no repeated Hb measurement was done without clinical consequences. We conclude that repeated blood Hb measurement within 2 h after admission in stable, adult trauma patients with a normal initial Hb concentration does not add value to a trauma patient's evaluation.

  15. Repeated measures of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.

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    Ferguson, Kelly K; Meeker, John D; McElrath, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Cantonwine, David E

    2017-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent and enigmatic disease, in part characterized by poor remodeling of the spiral arteries. However, preeclampsia does not always clinically present when remodeling has failed to occur. Hypotheses surrounding the "second hit" that is necessary for the clinical presentation of the disease focus on maternal inflammation and oxidative stress. Yet, the studies to date that have investigated these factors have used cross-sectional study designs or small study populations. In the present study, we sought to explore longitudinal trajectories, beginning early in gestation, of a panel of inflammation and oxidative stress markers in women who went on to have preeclamptic or normotensive pregnancies. We examined 441 subjects from the ongoing LIFECODES prospective birth cohort, which included 50 mothers who experienced preeclampsia and 391 mothers with normotensive pregnancies. Participants provided urine and plasma samples at 4 time points during gestation (median, 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks) that were analyzed for a panel of oxidative stress and inflammation markers. Oxidative stress biomarkers included 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Inflammation biomarkers included C-reactive protein, the cytokines interleukin-1β, -6, and -10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We created Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios based on time of preeclampsia diagnosis in association with biomarker concentrations at each of the 4 study visits. In adjusted models, hazard ratios of preeclampsia were significantly (Pinflammation biomarkers that were measured at visit 2 (median, 18 weeks; hazard ratios, 1.31-1.83, in association with an interquartile range increase in biomarker). Hazard ratios at this time point were the most elevated for C-reactive protein, for interleukin-1β, -6, and -10, and for the oxidative stress biomarker 8-isoprostane (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.48) compared to other time points. Hazard ratios for

  16. The interoccasion repeatability of intraocular pressure measurement using the Tono-Pen in a sample of school-aged children.

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    Khamees, K M; Zadnik, K

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the interoccasion repeatability of the Tono-Pen XL portable applanation tonometer in school-aged children. Thirty-one normal children were recruited from The Ohio State College of Optometry Pediatric Clinic. They ranged in age from 6 to 14 years. Intraocular pressure was measured using the Tono-Pen XL in both eyes of all subjects on two different occasions within a median of 9 days. Refractive error was measured by noncycloplegic autorefraction. Data from right eyes only are presented. There was no average difference in the intraocular pressure between occasions. The 95% limits of agreement between occasions were -5.58 to 4.87 mm Hg. The Tono-Pen XL gives reasonably repeatable readings between occasions in school-aged children.

  17. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

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    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels with Markers for Metabolic Syndrome in the Elderly: A Repeated Measure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Yin; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Oh, Se-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of current study was to investigate associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OHVD) levels with markers for metabolic syndrome in elderly Koreans. We conducted a panel study on 301 individuals over 60 yr old in Seoul, Korea, and repeatedly measured serum OHVD, glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Mixed effect model and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate relationships between serum OHVD levels with marker levels for metabolic syndrome and each of its categori...

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  20. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

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    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  1. Effects of repeated use of the American Osteopathic Association's Clinical Assessment Program on measures of care for patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubrook, Jay H; Snow, Richard J; McGill, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    The American Osteopathic Association developed its Clinical Assessment Program (AOA-CAP) for Residencies to provide a mechanism for osteopathic residency programs to measure and improve their quality of patient care. To compare program performance in processes of care and intermediate outcomes for patients with diabetes mellitus in residency programs that contributed data to the AOA-CAP for the first time vs residency programs that contributed data repeatedly. Osteopathic family medicine residency programs that entered data into the AOA-CAP diabetes registry between July 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, were included in the present study. Residency programs were separated into those that entered data into the registry for the first time during the 2005-2007 cycle (ie, first-time programs) and those that also entered data into the registry during the previous cycle (2003-2005) (ie, repeat programs). Measures of processes of care were annual foot examination, annual referral for ophthalmologic examination, annual microalbuminuria screening, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) if albuminuria is present, use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs if hypertension is present, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test in the previous year, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) test in the previous year. Measures of intermediate outcomes were control of blood pressure, HbA(1c), and LDL-C. Processes of care and outcome composite scores were also computed. Data from 52 osteopathic family medicine residency programs consisting of 2568 patient cases were analyzed. Twenty-three first-time programs with 992 cases and 29 repeat programs with 1576 cases entered data into the registry in the 2005-2007 cycle. Repeat programs had statistically significant better performance than first-time programs in the composite measure of processes of care (P=.0023)-largely the result of increased use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in patients with

  2. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Neuronal and Axonal Measures on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

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    Edwin Hong-Teck Loh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWith increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, it is important to evaluate whether the SD-OCT measurements are repeatable and reproducible in these patients.MethodsThis is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI with no change in global clinical dementia rating (CDR score at 1-year follow-up were eligible to be included. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters were measured with SD-OCT at baseline, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up visits. At baseline, SD-OCT scans were repeated to access intra-visit repeatability of the SD-OCT measurement. SD-OCT measurement over three visits was used to access inter-visit reproducibility. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and coefficients of variation (CoVs.ResultsWe included 32 patients with stable AD and 29 patients with stable MCI in the final analysis. For GC-IPL measures, the average intra-visit ICC was 0.969 (range: 0.948–0.985, and CoV was 1.81% (range: 1.14–2.40; while the average inter-visit ICC was 0.968 (0.941–0.985, and CoV was 1.91% (range: 1.24–2.32. The average ICC and CoV of intra-visit RNFL measured were 0.965 (range: 0.937–0.986 and 2.32% (range: 1.34–2.90%, respectively. The average ICC and CoV of inter-visit RNFL measures were 0.927 (range: 0.845–0.961 and 3.83% (range: 2.71–5.25%, respectively.ConclusionBoth GC-IPL and RNFL measurements had good intra-visit repeatability and inter-visit reproducibility over 1 year in elderly patients with no decline in cognitive function, suggesting that SD-OCT is a reliable tool to assess neurodegenerative process over time.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

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    Kai Spiegelhalder

    Full Text Available Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years. The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate/glutamine (Glx, were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  4. The Repeated Administration of Resveratrol Has Measurable Effects on Circulating T-Cell Subsets in Humans

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    J. Luis Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that resveratrol exerts immunomodulatory effects with potential clinical value in the amelioration of autoimmune disorders and cancer prevention; however, little is known about the in vivo effects of this naturally occurring polyphenol on human immune cells. We assessed the effects of repeated doses of resveratrol (1000 mg/day for 28 days on circulating immune cells in healthy Japanese individuals. Resveratrol was safe and well tolerated and was associated with significant increases in the numbers of circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells and resulted in small, yet significant, decreases in the plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1 and a significant increase in the plasma antioxidant activity compared with the corresponding antioxidant baseline activity and with that in four control individuals. In in vitro studies, resveratrol significantly improved the growth of γδ T cells and regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol has some clear biological effects on human circulating immune cells. Further studies are necessary to interpret the long-term immunological changes associated with resveratrol treatment.

  5. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

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    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  6. A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures

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    Karahalios Amalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007; Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007 and the guidelines proposed by Sterne et al. (BMJ, 338:b2393, 2009 recommend that cohort studies report on the amount of missing data, the reasons for non-participation and non-response, and the method used to handle missing data in the analyses. We have conducted a review of publications from cohort studies in order to document the reporting of missing data for exposure measures and to describe the statistical methods used to account for the missing data. Methods A systematic search of English language papers published from January 2000 to December 2009 was carried out in PubMed. Prospective cohort studies with a sample size greater than 1,000 that analysed data using repeated measures of exposure were included. Results Among the 82 papers meeting the inclusion criteria, only 35 (43% reported the amount of missing data according to the suggested guidelines. Sixty-eight papers (83% described how they dealt with missing data in the analysis. Most of the papers excluded participants with missing data and performed a complete-case analysis (n = 54, 66%. Other papers used more sophisticated methods including multiple imputation (n = 5 or fully Bayesian modeling (n = 1. Methods known to produce biased results were also used, for example, Last Observation Carried Forward (n = 7, the missing indicator method (n = 1, and mean value substitution (n = 3. For the remaining 14 papers, the method used to handle missing data in the analysis was not stated. Conclusions This review highlights the inconsistent reporting of missing data in cohort studies and the continuing

  7. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H; Dijkstra, P U; Vissink, A; van Oort, R P; Roodenburg, J L N

    2009-01-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening measurements in patients treated for head and neck cancer, with and without trismus. Maximal mouth opening was measured in 120 patients in two sessions of three repeated measurements by one observer. To analyse the influence of interobserver variation on mouth-opening measurements a subgroup of 30 patients was measured by a second observer. The standard deviation of the six measurements per patient was used as the variation in measurements of maximal mouth opening. No significant difference was found in maximal mouth opening in patients with (n=33) or without (n=87) trismus. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Intraobserver ICC and intersession ICC reliabilities both were 0.99. The variation in the mean values of the three measurements was only slightly smaller than the variation of the single measurements. Variation in maximal mouth opening in patients with trismus does not differ from variation in maximal mouth opening in patients without trismus. Interobserver variation is limited.

  8. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  9. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

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    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  10. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Attrition from Web-Based Cognitive Testing: A Repeated Measures Comparison of Gamification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus

    2017-11-22

    The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies

  12. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  13. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah V Wilson

    Full Text Available The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG has not been published.To investigate the; (1 reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm, (2 effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude and contraction time (Tc, (3 the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc.Within subject, repeated measures.10 participants for each objective.Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG.The coefficient of variance (CV and the intra-class correlation (ICC of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively.Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles.

  14. On the reproducibility and repeatability of laser absorption spectroscopy measurements for δ2H and δ18O isotopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bonazza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the reproducibility of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS-derived δ2H and δ18O measurements on a set of 35 water samples by comparing the performance of four laser spectroscopes with the performance of a conventional mass spectrometer under typical laboratory conditions. All samples were analysed using three different schemes of standard/sample combinations and related data processing to assess the improvement of results compared with mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the four OA-ICOS instruments was further investigated by multiple analyses of a sample subset to evaluate the stability of δ2H and δ18O measurements. Results demonstrated an overall agreement between OA-ICOS-based and mass spectrometry-based measurements for the entire dataset. However, a certain degree of variability existed in precision and accuracy between the four instruments. There was no evident bias or systematic deviations from the mass spectrometer values, but random errors, which were apparently not related to external factors, significantly affected the final results. Our investigation revealed that analytical precision ranged ±from ±0.56‰ to ±1.80‰ for δ2H and from ±0.10‰ to ±0.27‰ for δ18O measurements, with a marked variability among the four instruments. The overall capability of laser instruments to reproduce stable results with repeated measurements of the same sample was acceptable, and there were general differences within the range of the analytical precision for each spectroscope. Hence, averaging the measurements of three identical samples led to a higher degree of accuracy and eliminated the potential for random deviations.

  15. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Predicting seed yield in perennial ryegrass using repeated canopy reflectance measurements and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    reflectance measurements was from approximately 600 cumulative growing degree-days (CGDD) to approximately 900 CGDD. This is the period just before and at heading of the seed crop. Furthermore, regression coefficients showed that information about N and water is important. The results support the development...

  17. Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone

  18. Extended fluctuation theorems for repeated measurements and feedback within Hamiltonian framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Sourabh, E-mail: sourabhlahiri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Théorique, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris (France); Jayannavar, A.M. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2016-04-29

    We derive the extended fluctuation theorems in presence of multiple measurements and feedback, when the system is governed by Hamiltonian dynamics. We use only the forward phase space trajectories in the derivation. However, to obtain an expression for the efficacy parameter, we must necessarily use the notion of reverse trajectory. Our results show that the correction term appearing in the exponent of the extended fluctuation theorems is non-unique, whereas the physical meaning of the efficacy parameter is unique. - Highlights: • Extended Fluctuation Theorems under multiple measurements and feedback have been derived using Hamiltonian dynamics. • We prove the theorems without using the notion of reverse trajectory. • We show that the correction terms are not unique. • The efficacy parameter is shown to have a unique physical meaning.

  19. Are exhaled nitric oxide measurements using the portable NIOX MINO repeatable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Abid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation and a portable analyser, the NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden, is now available. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the NIOX MINO measurements across age, sex and lung function for both absolute and categorical exhaled nitric oxide values in two distinct groups of children and teenagers. Methods Paired exhaled nitric oxide readings were obtained from 494 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, enrolled in an unselected birth cohort and 65 young people, aged 6-17 years, with asthma enrolled in an interventional asthma management study. Results The birth cohort participants showed a high degree of variability between first and second exhaled nitric oxide readings (mean intra-participant difference 1.37 ppb, 95% limits of agreement -7.61 to 10.34 ppb, although there was very close agreement when values were categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high (kappa = 0.907, p Conclusions The reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide is poor for absolute values but acceptable when values are categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high in children and teenagers. One measurement is therefore sufficient when using categorical exhaled nitric oxide values to direct asthma management but a mean of at least two measurements is required for absolute values.

  20. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS e......, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637....

  1. Commentary on guidelines for radiation measurement and treatment of substances including naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Naoyuki; Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    Study group on safety regulation on research reactors in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reported the guidelines of 'Guidelines on radiation measurement and treatment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)' on 6 February 2006. RANDEC made the website contents 'Study on use and safety of the substances including uranium or thorium', based on the contract with MEXT to make theirs contents. This paper describes the outline of the website in MEXT homepage, background and contents of NORM guidelines in order to understand easily and visually the NORM guidelines, adding in some flowcharts and figures. (author)

  2. Using Repeated Measures of Sleep Disturbances to Predict Future Diagnosis-Specific Work Disability: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Sjösten, Noora; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability. Study Objective: o examine sleep disturbance patterns over time as a risk marker for diagnosis-specific work disability. Design: rospective cohort study linking repeatedly measured self-reported sleep disturbances with records of physician-certified work disability (sickness absence) from a national register. Participants responded to surveys in 2000–2002, and 2004, and were followed up for 12 mo. Setting: Public sector employees in Finland. Participants: 25,639 participants (mean age 45.6 yr, 82% female). Main Outcome Measure: Incident diagnosis-specific sickness absence of > 9 days. Results: During a mean follow-up of 323 days, 4,975 employees (19%) had a new episode of sickness absence. In multivariable-adjusted models corrected for multiple testing, stable severe sleep disturbances, in comparison with no sleep disturbances, were associated with an increased risk of sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (hazard ratio (HR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45–1.95), and injuries and poisonings (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23–2.18). Increases in sleep disturbances predicted subsequent sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.91), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27–1.64) According to net reclassification improvement analyses, measurement of sleep disturbance patterns rather than the level of sleep disturbances at one point in time improved prediction of all-cause sickness absence by 14%, and diagnosis-specific sickness absences up to 17% (P for improvement sleep disturbances mark an increased risk of diagnosis-specific work disability. Citation: Salo P; Vahtera J; Hall M; Rod NH; Virtanen M; Pentti J; Sjösten N; Oksanen T; Kivimäki M. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work

  3. Repeatability of n-octanol/water partition coefficient values between liquid chromatography measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranjampour, Parichehr; Armbrust, Kevin

    2018-03-20

    The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K OW ) is a physical/chemical property that is extensively used for regulatory and environmental risk and exposure assessments. The K OW value can estimate various chemical properties such as water solubility, bioavailability, and toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationships which demands an accurate knowledge of this property. The present investigation aims to compare outcomes of three commonly cited methods of K OW measurement in the literature for six hydrophobic chemicals with insecticidal functions as well as highly volatile petroleum constituents. This measurement has been difficult to obtain for the selected pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin, and bifenthrin and is a novel measurement for the latter: polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and three of its alkyl derivatives except for DBT. The K OW values were obtained using two liquid chromatographic methods with isocratic and gradient programming, and the slow-stirring method following OECD 117 and 123 guidelines, respectively. The mean log K OW values of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, DBT, methyl-DBT, dimethyl-DBT, and diethyl-DBT were 8.4 ± 0.1, 6.0 ± 0.3, 4.8 ± 0.0, 5.4 ± 0.1, 6.0 ± 0.1, and 6.8 ± 0.0 using the HPLC method with gradient programing. The K OW values were significantly reproducible within a method, however, not between the methods. Results suggest assessing a chemical's property and environmental risk and exposure solely based on the K OW value should be practiced with caution.

  4. Repeatability of Contour Method Residual Stress Measurements for a Range of Material, Process, and Geometry (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    stainless steel plate with a dissimilar metal slot-filled weld, a stainless steel forging, a titanium plate with an electron beam slot-filled weld, and a...stress 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 27 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a...include: an aluminum T-section, a stainless steel plate with a dissimilar metal slot-filled weld, a stainless steel forging, a titanium plate with an

  5. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  6. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  7. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière's Disease - A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière's disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004-2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future.

  8. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  9. Stability enhanced, repeatability improved Parylene-C passivated on QCM sensor for aPTT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchen; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Zhiqi; Zhu, Hongnan; Yan, Ruhong; Zhou, Lianqun

    2017-12-15

    Determination of blood clotting time is essential in monitoring therapeutic anticoagulants. In this work, Parylene-C passivated on quartz crystal microbalance (P-QCM) was developed for the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measurement. Compared with typical QCM, P-QCM possessed a hydrophobic surface and sensitive frequency response to viscoelastic variations on electrode surface. Fibrin could be adsorbed effectively, due to the hydrophobicity of the P-QCM surface. Comparing with typical QCM, the peak-to-peak value (PPV) of P-QCM was increased by 1.94% ± 0.63%, which indicated enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio. For P-QCM, the coefficient of variation (CV) of frequency decrease and aPTT were 2.58% and 1.24% separately, which demonstrated improvement of stability and reproducibility. Moreover, compared with SYSMEX CS 2000i haematology analyzer, clinical coefficient index (R 2 ) was 0.983. In conclusion, P-QCM exhibited potential for improving stability, reproducibility and linearity of piezoelectric sensors, and might be more promising for point of care testing (POCT) applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Martha; Semkovska, Maria; Carton, Mary; Dunne, Ross; Horgan, John-Paul; O'Kane, Breige; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2014-01-01

    Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  11. Repeatability, reproducibility and agreement of intraocular pressure measurement in rabbits by the TonoVet and Tono-Pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Di; Chen, Chong-Bo; Liang, Jiajian; Lu, Zhihao; Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-10-12

    Tono-Pen and TonoVet have been used in rabbits to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) and investigate the effect of IOP lowering therapies. Therefore, their reliability and accuracy are very important and deserve careful evaluation. Our results showed that the with-subject deviation (S w ) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the TonoVet and Tono-Pen were 0.61 mmHg/0.83 mmHg and 0.97/0.94, respectively for intrasession repeatability. For intersession reproducibility, the Sw and ICC of TonoVet and Tono-Pen were 1.42 mmHg/1.66 mmHg and 0.73/0.67, respectively. For interoperator reproducibility, the S w and ICC of the TonoVet and Tono-Pen were 0.72 mmHg/1.11 mmHg and 0.91/0.82 respectively. Both TonoVet and Tono-Pen underestimated the IOP measured by manometry. The regression function was: y = 0.8249x + 0.1011 and y =0.6881x + 2.2290 for TonoVet and Tono-Pen, respectively. Our study suggests that both TonoVet and Tono-Pen had excellent intrasession repeatability and inter-operator reproducibility, but good intersession reproducibility. Both TonoVet and Tono-Pen correlated well with manometry, but underestimated the manometric IOP with presence of fixed and proportional biases. These factors should be considered when measuring IOP with Tono-Pen or TonoVet in rabbit eyes.

  12. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  13. Repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors changed the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Groeniger, Joost; Kamphuis, Carlijn B; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether using repeatedly measured material and behavioral factors contributed differently to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality compared to one baseline measurement. Data from the Dutch prospective GLOBE cohort were linked to mortality register data (1991-2013; N = 4,851). Socioeconomic position was measured at baseline by educational level and occupation. Material factors (financial difficulties, housing tenure, health insurance) and behavioral factors (smoking, leisure time physical activity, sports participation, and body mass index) were self-reported in 1991, 1997, and 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression and bootstrap methods were used to examine the contribution of baseline-only and time-varying risk factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Men and women in the lowest educational and occupational groups were at an increased risk of dying compared to the highest groups. The contribution of material factors to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality was smaller when multiple instead of baseline-only measurements were used (25%-65% vs. 49%-93%). The contribution of behavioral factors was larger when multiple measurements were used (39%-51% vs. 19%-40%). Inclusion of time-dependent risk factors contributes to understanding socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, but careful examination of the underlying mechanisms and suitability of the model is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeatability of goniometer measurements of the knee in patients wearing an Ilizarov external fixator: a clinic-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K L; Lamb, S E; Burns, M; Simpson, A H

    1999-04-01

    To examine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of three different methods of measurement of knee range of motion in patients undergoing limb reconstruction with the Ilizarov external fixator. Twenty-five patients had the passive range of motion of their knee measured by 13 physiotherapists who were experienced in the use of goniometry. The testers were assigned into random pairs, each tester measured three or four patients who were allocated to them using the three different methods. These were: (1) a universal goniometer aligned against anatomical landmarks, (2) a universal goniometer aligned against the Ilizarov frame and (3) a modified universal goniometer. Orthopaedic limb reconstruction outpatient clinics. Twenty-five patients undergoing limb reconstruction using an Ilizarov external fixator on both the femur and tibia. Comparison of the three different goniometry methods showed that using a modified goniometer there was enhanced reliability compared with other methods. This method demonstrated good repeatability for both intra-tester and inter-tester measurements. When serial measurements of knee range of motion are taken in patients wearing an Ilizarov external fixator the modified model of goniometer should be used.

  15. Repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T or C-reactive protein do not predict future allograft rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Caliskan, Kadir; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Constantinescu, Alina A; Robertus, Jan L; Akkerhuis, Martijn; Manintveld, Olivier C; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the prognostic value of serial biomarker assays for future occurrence of allograft rejection (AR) are scarce. We examined whether repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T (TropT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict AR. From 2005 to 2010, 77 consecutive heart transplantation (HTx) recipients were included. The NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP were measured at 16 ± 4 (mean ± standard deviation) consecutive routine endomyocardial biopsy surveillance visits during the first year of follow-up. Allograft rejection was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade 2R or higher at endomyocardial biopsy. Joint modeling was used to assess the association between repeated biomarker measurements and occurrence of future AR. Joint modeling accounts for dependence among repeated observations in individual patients. The mean age of the patients at HTx was 49 ± 9.2 years, and 68% were men. During the first year of follow-up, 1,136 biopsies and concurrent blood samples were obtained, and 56 patients (73%) experienced at least one episode of AR. All biomarkers were elevated directly after HTx and achieved steady-state after ∼ 12 weeks, both in patients with or without AR. No associations were present between the repeated measurements of NT-proBNP, TropT, or CRP and AR both early (weeks 0-12) and late (weeks 13-52) in the course after HTx (hazard ratios for weeks 13-52: 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.68), 0.67 (0.27-1.69), and 1.44 (0.90-2.30), respectively, per ln[unit]). Combining the three biomarkers in one model also rendered null results. The temporal evolution of NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP before AR did not predict occurrence of acute AR both in the early and late course of the first year after HTx.

  16. Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone metabolism. The experiment had a Latin square design. Each feeding period lasted 42 d, and there were 2 balance trials (ECP1 and ECP2) within each feeding period. Each balance trial lasted 10 d (ECP1: d 11 to 21; ECP2: d 33 to 42). Six ponies aged 2.5 to 7 yr were fed a control diet that provided P and Ca according to the requirement (Control diet: 54 mg Ca·kg BW(-1) · d(-1); 36 mg P · kg BW(-1) · d(-1)), a diet high in Ca and P (HCaHP diet: 146 mg Ca · kg BW(-1) · d(-1); 121 mg P · kg BW(-1) · d(-1)), and a diet with a high P level only and Ca fed to the requirement (HP diet: 54 mg Ca · kg BW(-1) · d(-1); 122 mg P · kg BW(-1) · d(-1)). When fed the Control diet, the ponies showed a zero P and Ca balance over the 42-d period. The HCaHP diet resulted in both P and Ca retention (about 2 g Ca and P/d; P Phosphorus retention (about 2 g P/d) alone was observed when ponies were fed the HP diet, but P retention was only different (P urine was reduced by greater Ca intake (P < 0.05), and Mg absorption was reduced by high P intake (P < 0.05). Plasma P concentration was raised by high P intake. Plasma Ca levels were not affected by dietary treatment. The greater (P < 0.05) P retentions observed for the HCaHP diet during ECP1 and ECP2 and HP diet during ECP1 could not be explained by processes that could have been indicated by the bone markers or PTH values. It was concluded that dietary-P-induced retention of P in ponies does not seem to be associated with altered bone metabolism in this study.

  17. Constraints on inflation revisited. An analysis including the latest local measurement of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui-Yun [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    We revisit the constraints on inflation models by using the current cosmological observations involving the latest local measurement of the Hubble constant (H{sub 0} = 73.00 ± 1.75 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}). We constrain the primordial power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations with the observational data including the Planck 2015 CMB full data, the BICEP2 and Keck Array CMB B-mode data, the BAO data, and the direct measurement of H{sub 0}. In order to relieve the tension between the local determination of the Hubble constant and the other astrophysical observations, we consider the additional parameter N{sub eff} in the cosmological model. We find that, for the ΛCDM+r+N{sub eff} model, the scale invariance is only excluded at the 3.3σ level, and ΔN{sub eff} > 0 is favored at the 1.6σ level. Comparing the obtained 1σ and 2σ contours of (n{sub s},r) with the theoretical predictions of selected inflation models, we find that both the convex and the concave potentials are favored at 2σ level, the natural inflation model is excluded at more than 2σ level, the Starobinsky R{sup 2} inflation model is only favored at around 2σ level, and the spontaneously broken SUSY inflation model is now the most favored model. (orig.)

  18. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case.

  19. Reproducibility of volume and densitometric measures of emphysema on repeat computed tomography with an interval of 1 week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Daniel; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Guzman, Laura; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Coy, Heidi; Yang, Katherine; Jung, Yongha; Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    The reproducibilities of CT lung volume and densitometric measures of emphysema were assessed over 1 week. The influence of breathhold on reproducibility was assessed. HRCT was performed on 44 subjects at inspiration on two visits with a 7-day interval. CT lung volume, relative area below -950HU (RA950-raw), and 15th percentile density (PD15-raw) were computed. Volume correction was used to obtain RA950-adj and PD15-adj. Reproducibilities between visits were assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and repeatability coefficient (RC). Reproducibilities were compared between raw and adjusted measures. Differences between visits were computed for volume and density measures. Correlations were computed for density differences versus volume difference. Subgroup analysis was performed using a 0.25 L volume difference threshold. High CCC were observed for all measures in full group (CCC > 0.97). Reproducibilities of volume (RC = 0.67 L), RA950-raw (RC = 2.3%), and PD15-raw (RC = 10.6HU) were observed. Volume correction significantly improved PD15 (RC = 3.6HU) but not RA950 (RC = 1.7%). RA950-raw and PD15-raw had significantly better RC in 2 > 0.71), but not RA950-adj or PD15-adj (R 2 < 0.11). Good breathhold and RA950 reproducibilities were achieved. PD15 was less reproducible but improved with volume correction or superior breathhold reproduction. (orig.)

  20. GEEORD: A SAS macro for analyzing ordinal response variables with repeated measures through proportional odds, partial proportional odds, or non-proportional odds models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Schwartz, Todd A; Preisser, John S; Perin, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    A SAS macro, GEEORD, has been developed for the analysis of ordinal responses with repeated measures through a regression model that flexibly allows the proportional odds assumption to apply (or not) separately for each explanatory variable. Previously utilized in an analysis of a longitudinal orthognathic surgery clinical trial by Preisser et al. [1,2], the basis of GEEORD is the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for cumulative logits models described by Lipsitz et al. [3]. The macro extends the capabilities for modeling correlated ordinal data of GEECAT, a SAS macro that allows the user to model correlated categorical response data [4]. The macro applies to independent ordinal responses as a special case. Examples are provided to demonstrate the convenient application of GEEORD to two different datasets. The macro's features are illustrated in fitting models to ordinal response variables in univariate and repeated measures settings; this includes the capacity to fit the non-proportional odds model, the partial proportional odds model, and the proportional odds model. The macro additionally provides relevant tests of the proportional odds assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toward a simple, repeatable, non-destructive approach to measuring stable-isotope ratios of water within tree stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulerson, S.; Volkmann, T.; Pangle, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional methodologies for measuring ratios of stable isotopes within the xylem water of trees involve destructive coring of the stem. A recent approach involves permanently installed probes within the stem, and an on-site assembly of pumps, switching valves, gas lines, and climate-controlled structure for field deployment of a laser spectrometer. The former method limits the possible temporal resolution of sampling, and sample size, while the latter may not be feasible for many research groups. We present results from initial laboratory efforts towards developing a non-destructive, temporally-resolved technique for measuring stable isotope ratios within the xylem flow of trees. Researchers have used direct liquid-vapor equilibration as a method to measure isotope ratios of the water in soil pores. Typically, this is done by placing soil samples in a fixed container, and allowing the liquid water within the soil to come into isotopic equilibrium with the headspace of the container. Water can also be removed via cryogenic distillation or azeotropic distillation, with the resulting liquid tested for isotope ratios. Alternatively, the isotope ratios of the water vapor can be directly measured using a laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer. Well-established fractionation factors and the isotope ratios in the vapor phase are then used to calculate the isotope ratios in the liquid phase. We propose a setup which would install a single, removable chamber onto a tree, where vapor samples could non-destructively and repeatedly be taken. These vapor samples will be injected into a laser-based isotope analyzer by a recirculating gas conveyance system. A major part of what is presented here is in the procedure of taking vapor samples at 100% relative humidity, appropriately diluting them with completely dry N2 calibration gas, and injecting them into the gas conveyance system without inducing fractionation in the process. This methodology will be helpful in making

  2. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    -2050. Service sector in India accounts for about 50% of GDP which will continue to increase further and will provide more jobs and better paid jobs than core industries and there will be continued shift of choice of employment towards service sector creating deep gap of manpower resource requirement in basic and core industries. There are reports that some countries may have to abandon some future projects because of non availability skilled manpower in core industries. The installed capacity of nuclear power in India in the year 2052 will be about 200 G We from the present about 4 G We which will be a manifold increase. This will need about estimated 1,30,000 skilled manpower from the present about 12,000 persons in nuclear industries. Moreover, the need for competent persons in nuclear industries because of high safety requirements of nuclear installations will further add to the problem. The following short-term strategies to retain and attract new employees in nuclear industries may be envisaged amongst others: - Recruit employees prior to the departure of experienced technical staff to facilitate knowledge transfer in time. - Increase compensation and the number of higher level positions. - Increase permanent entry-level intake of skilled manpower taking into account historical turn-over rate. - Implement attractive student loan repayment programs by tying up with banks and financial institutions. - Implement well researched strategies and measures including reassessing the practical capacity which nations including India can achieve in power generation in future taking practical aspects of manpower shortage. - Implement advanced technology which requires lesser manpower. - Implement higher level of automation in nuclear industries. The paper aims to highlight the acute problems of future manpower shortages in nuclear industries globally with special reference to India and discusses some remedial measures which may be taken to address the issue. (author)

  3. Influence of kinesio tape application direction on peak force of biceps brachii muscle: A repeated measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Elisha; Oved, Liron; Zilberg, Daniel; Kalichman, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    According to the kinesio tape (KT) method, proximal-to-distal (P-to-D) application of KT should facilitate muscle activity (increase strength), distal-to- proximal (D-to-P) should decrease muscle activity (decrease strength) and applications in other directions should not influence muscle strength. To evaluate the influence of KT application direction on peak force of biceps brachii in healthy subjects. 16 students participated in a single group repeated measurements study. KT was applied randomly on both anterior arms as follows: no KT; P-to-D; D-to-P; or two horizontal stripes. Peak force of biceps was measured after each application by a blinded investigator. No difference in biceps peak force was found after evaluating no KT, P-to-D and D-to-P. After the horizontal application, peak force was found statistically significantly higher than in the other conditions. Traditional assumptions of the KT method, suggesting that P-to-D application stimulates muscle and D-to-P relaxes the muscle, seem to be false. However, we do confirm that applying KT in various directions differently effects muscle strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Repeated assessment of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site EPR oximetry: A technique with the potential to guide therapeutic optimization by repeated measurements of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia plays a vital role in therapeutic resistance. Consequently, measurements of tumor pO2 could be used to optimize the outcome of oxygen-dependent therapies, such as, chemoradiation. However, the potential optimizations are restricted by the lack of methods to repeatedly and quantitatively assess tumor pO2 during therapies, particularly in gliomas. We describe the procedures for repeated measurements of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. This oximetry approach provides simultaneous measurements of pO2 at more than one site in the glioma and contralateral cerebral tissue. The pO2 of intracerebral 9L, C6, F98 and U251 tumors, as well as contralateral brain, were measured repeatedly for five consecutive days. The 9L glioma was well oxygenated with pO2 of 27 - 36 mm Hg, while C6, F98 and U251 glioma were hypoxic with pO2 of 7 - 12 mm Hg. The potential of multi-site EPR oximetry to assess temporal changes in tissue pO2 was investigated in rats breathing 100% O2. A significant increase in F98 tumor and contralateral brain pO2 was observed on day 1 and day 2, however, glioma oxygenation declined on subsequent days. In conclusion, EPR oximetry provides the capability to repeatedly assess temporal changes in orthotopic glioma pO2. This information could be used to test and optimize the methods being developed to modulate tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, EPR oximetry could be potentially used to enhance the outcome of chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increase in glioma pO2. PMID:22079559

  5. Assembly of a phased diploid Candida albicans genome facilitates allele-specific measurements and provides a simple model for repeat and indel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzey, Dale; Schwartz, Katja; Weissman, Jonathan S; Sherlock, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen that afflicts immunocompromised human hosts. With rare and transient exceptions the yeast is diploid, yet despite its clinical relevance the respective sequences of its two homologous chromosomes have not been completely resolved. We construct a phased diploid genome assembly by deep sequencing a standard laboratory wild-type strain and a panel of strains homozygous for particular chromosomes. The assembly has 700-fold coverage on average,allowing extensive revision and expansion of the number of known SNPs and indels. This phased genome significantly enhances the sensitivity and specificity of allele-specific expression measurements by enabling pooling and cross-validation of signal across multiple polymorphic sites. Additionally, the diploid assembly reveals pervasive and unexpected patterns in allelic differences between homologous chromosomes. Firstly, we see striking clustering of indels, concentrated primarily in the repeat sequences in promoters. Secondly, both indels and their repeat-sequence substrate are enriched near replication origins. Finally, we reveal an intimate link between repeat sequences and indels, which argues that repeat length is under selective pressure for most eukaryotes. This connection is described by a concise one-parameter model that explains repeat-sequence abundance in C. albicans as a function of the indel rate,and provides a general framework to interpret repeat abundance in species ranging from bacteria to humans. The phased genome assembly and insights into repeat plasticity will be valuable for better understanding allele-specific phenomena and genome evolution.

  6. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  7. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B

    2018-03-01

    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  8. A manual on methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments: including a chapter on bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vollenweider, Richard A; Talling, J. F; Westlake, D. F

    1969-01-01

    The present manual starts from methods used to assess standing crops of phytoplankton, periphyton and higher aquatic, and proceeds to techniques of rate measurement currently available for these three...

  9. PDF uncertainties in precision electroweak measurements, including the W mass, in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Now that the Higgs mass is known all the parameters of the SM are known- but with what accuracy? Precision EW measurements test the self-consistency of the SM- and thus can give hints of BSM physics. Precision measurements of $sin^2\\theta _W$ and the W mass are limited by PDF uncertainties This contribution discusses these uncertainties and what can be done to improve them.

  10. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reconstruction of 6 MV photon spectra from measured transmission including maximum energy estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C R; Peck, K K

    1997-11-01

    Photon spectra from a nominally 6 MV beam under standard clinical conditions and at higher and lower beam qualities have been derived from narrow-beam transmission measurements using a previously published three-parameter reconstruction model. Estimates of the maximum photon energy present in each spectrum were derived using a reduced number of model parameters. An estimate of the maximum contribution of background, or room, scatter to transmission measurements has been made for this study and is shown to be negligible in terms of the quality index and percentage depth-dose of the derived spectra. Percentage depth-dose data for standard beam conditions derived from the reconstructed spectrum were found to agree with direct measurements to within approximately 1% for depths of up to 25 cm in water. Quality indices expressed in terms of TPR10(20) for all spectra were found to agree with directly measured values to within 1%. The experimental procedure and reconstruction model are therefore shown to produce photon spectra whose derived quality indices and percentage depth-dose values agree with direct measurement to within expected experimental uncertainty.

  12. Very long Detection Times after High and repeated intake of Heroin and Methadone, measured in Oral Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindenes V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs are important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection times of opioids in oral fluid. 25 patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid and urine were collected daily and, if the patient gave consent, a blood sample was drawn during the first five days after admission. Morphine, codeine and/or 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM were found in oral fluid and/or urine from 20 patients. The maximum detection times in oral fluid for codeine, morphine and 6-MAM were 1, 3 and 8 days, respectively. Positive oral fluid samples were interspersed with negative samples, mainly for concentrations around cut off. Elimination curves for methadone in oral fluid were found for two subjects, and the detection times were 5 and 8 days. Oral fluid is likely to become a good method for detection of drug abuse in the future

  13. Heat and hydration status: Predictors of repeated measures of urine specific gravity among Tsimane' adults in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher

    2015-12-01

    Hydration status is critical to physiological and cognitive health, yet it is unclear how populations living in hot-humid environments experiencing lifestyle transitions manage this underexplored facet of heat adaptation. This study assesses the predictors of repeated measures of hydration status for adults from two villages (close and distant from a market town) in the Bolivian Amazon. Interviews and focal follows were conducted with 36 Tsimane' (50% male). Urine samples, temperature, activity levels, and anthropometrics were measured pre-interview and post-follow and yielded a small panel (72 observations). Urine samples were analyzed for urine specific gravity (USG), a biomarker of hydration, with a refractometer. The mean USG was 1.020 g/ml (SD ± 0.008) with men (1.022 ± 0.008) slightly more dehydrated than women (1.018 ± 0.007). Using 1.020 as the criteria for clinical dehydration, 42% of the participants were dehydrated at both intervals and 21% were extremely dehydrated. Controlling for activity level, village membership, and covariates in random-effects linear regression models, each degree centigrade increase was associated with a USG increase of 0.0008 g/ml (P = 0.000). Adults from the village closer to the market town had significantly higher USG (B = 0.0041; P = 0.04) than those in the distant village. Dehydration was predicted to occur at 29°C, just above the thermoneutral range, and extreme dehydration at 37°C. These findings suggest that hotter temperatures coupled with lifestyle transitions may create conditions that increase vulnerability to dehydration among rural populations through landscape modifications and diet changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Including Pressure Measurements in Supervision of Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Pump Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Arensman, Mareike; Nerup-Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    energy). This article presents a method for a continuous supervision of the performance of both the pump and the pipeline in order to maintain the initial specific energy consumption as close as possible to the original value from when the system was commissioned. The method is based on pressure...... measurements only. The flow is determined indirectly from pressure fluctuations during pump run-up....

  15. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...... traditionally used in finance, to bound the risk on constraint violation. We propose a reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) algorithm to solve the underlying optimization problem. This algorithm exploits the structure of the coherent risk measures, thus a large set of constraints are solved within...... sub-problems. Moreover, a variable elimination procedure allows solving the optimization problem in a reduced space and an iterative active-set method helps to handle a large set of inequality constraints. Finally, we demonstrate the application of constraints to bound the risk of water production...

  16. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery

    OpenAIRE

    HOEFFELIN, Harry; JACQUEMIN, Denise; Defaweux, Valérie; NIZET, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. Materials and methods. - We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings ("in situ" in cadaveric di...

  17. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hoeffelin; D. Jacquemin; V. Defaweux; J L. Nizet

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prosthese...

  18. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fibrinogen measurement in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: analysis of repeatability and agreement of Clauss method within and between six different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, C; Baryshnikova, E; Tripodi, A; Schlimp, C J; Schöchl, H; Cadamuro, J; Winstedt, D; Asmis, L; Ranucci, M

    2014-07-03

    Plasma fibrinogen concentration is important for coagulopathy assessment, and is most commonly measured using the Clauss method. Several factors, including device type and reagent, have been shown to affect results. The study objective was to evaluate performance and repeatability of the Clauss method and to assess differences between measurements performed during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), by testing plasma samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Samples were collected from 30 patients before surgery, approximately 20 minutes before weaning from CPB, and 5 minutes after CPB and protamine. Fibrinogen concentration was determined using the Clauss method at six quality-controlled specialised laboratories, according to accredited standard operating procedures. Regarding within-centre agreement for Clauss measurement, mean differences between duplicate measurements were between 0.00 g/l and 0.15 g/l, with intervals for 95% limits of agreement for mean Bland-Altman differences up to 1.3 g/l. Regarding between-centre agreement, some mean differences between pairs of centres were above 0.5 g/l. Differences of up to ~2 g/l were observed with individual samples. Increased variability was observed between centres, with inter-class correlation values below 0.5 suggesting only fair agreement. There were no significant differences in fibrinogen concentration before weaning from CPB and after CPB for most centres and methods. In conclusion, considerable differences exist between Clauss-based plasma fibrinogen measured using different detection methods. Nevertheless, the similarity between measurements shortly before weaning from CPB and after CPB within centres suggests that on-pump measurements could provide an early estimation of fibrinogen deficit after CPB and thus guidance for haemostatic therapy.

  20. INSECTS INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK OF MOLDOVA: LIMITATION FACTORS AND PROTECTION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of insect species in Moldova with a rarity status: vulnerable, critically endangered and endangered, officially included in the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova", in two editions: 37 species in the 2nd edition (2001 and 80 species in the 3rd edition (2015. The 80 insects of the 3rd edition of the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova" belong to 8 orders (Odonatoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera. These species are classified according to the rarity status: vulnerable (VU – 33 species, critically endangered (CR – 39 species and endangered (EN – 8 species. The third edition also contains 35 species not included in the previous editions, which for the first time obtained a rarity status: VU – 16 species, CR – 17 and EN – 2 (2 species of the order Odonatoptera, 1 of Mantodea, 1 of Orthoptera, 10 of Coleoptera, 18 of Lepidoptera, and 3 of Hymenoptera.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of work function and H‒ density including caesiation of a converter surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, S.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources rely on the surface conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen and positive hydrogen ions to H-. The efficiency of this process depends on the actual work function of the converter surface. By introducing caesium into the source the work function decreases, enhancing the negative ion yield. In order to study the impact of the work function on the H- surface production at similar conditions to the ones in ion sources for fusion devices like ITER and DEMO, fundamental investigations are performed in a flexible laboratory experiment. The work function of the converter surface can be absolutely measured by photoelectric effect, while a newly installed cavity ring-down spectroscopy system (CRDS) measures the H- density. The CRDS is firstly tested and characterized by investigations on H- volume production. Caesiation of a stainless steel sample is then performed in vacuum and the plasma effect on the Cs layer is investigated also for long plasma-on times. A minimum work function of (1.9±0.1) eV is reached after some minutes of plasma treatment, resulting in a reduction by a value of 0.8 eV compared to vacuum measurements. The H- density above the surface is (2.1±0.5)×1015 m-3. With further plasma exposure of the caesiated surface, the work function increases up to 3.75 eV, due to the impinging plasma particles which gradually remove the Cs layer. As a result, the H- density decreases by a factor of at least 2.

  2. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  3. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  4. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoeffelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes’ principle under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  5. Repeated Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated? • What treatment is available if I have antiphospholipid syndrome? • What are my chances of having a successful ... may have an increased risk of repeated miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder in which a ...

  6. Novel Likelihood Ratio Tests for Screening Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions with Unbalanced Repeated-Measures Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yi-An; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Park, Sung Kyun; Vokonas, Pantel Steve; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-01-01

    There has been extensive literature on modeling gene-gene interaction (GGI) and gene-environment interaction (GEI) in case-control studies with limited literature on statistical methods for GGI and GEI in longitudinal cohort studies. We borrow ideas from the classical two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) literature to address the issue of robust modeling of interactions in repeated-measures studies. While classical interaction models proposed by Tukey and Mandel have interaction structures as a function of main effects, a newer class of models, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models, do not have similar restrictive assumptions on the interaction structure. AMMI entails a singular value decomposition of the cell residual matrix after fitting the additive main effects and has been shown to perform well across various interaction structures. We consider these models for testing GGI and GEI from two perspectives: likelihood ratio test based on cell means and a regression based approach using individual observations. Simulation results indicate that both approaches for AMMI models lead to valid tests in terms of maintaining the type I error rate, with the regression approach having better power properties. The performance of these models was evaluated across different interaction structures and 12 common epistasis patterns. In summary, AMMI model is robust with respect to misspecified interaction structure and is a useful screening tool for interaction even in the absence of main effects. We use the proposed methods to examine the interplay between the hemochromatosis gene and cumulative lead exposure on pulse pressure in the Normative Aging Study. PMID:23798480

  7. Common mental disorder and obesity: insight from four repeat measures over 19 years: prospective Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin J; Nabi, Hermann; Sabia, Séverine; Marmot, Michael G; Jokela, Markus

    2009-10-06

    To examine potential reciprocal associations between common mental disorders and obesity, and to assess whether dose-response relations exist. Prospective cohort study with four measures of common mental disorders and obesity over 19 years (Whitehall II study). Civil service departments in London. 4363 adults (28% female, mean age 44 years at baseline). Common mental disorder defined as general health questionnaire "caseness;" overweight and obesity based on Word Health Organization definitions. In models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index at baseline, odds ratios for obesity at the fourth screening were 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.77), 1.64 (1.13 to 2.36), and 2.01 (1.21 to 3.34) for participants with common mental disorder at one, two, or three preceding screenings compared with people free from common mental disorder (P for trendmental health and exclusion of participants who were obese at baseline. In addition, obesity predicted future risk of common mental disorder, again with evidence of a dose-response relation (P for trend=0.02, multivariable model). However, this association was lost when people with common mental disorder at baseline were excluded (P for trend=0.33). These findings suggest that in British adults the direction of association between common mental disorders and obesity is from common mental disorder to increased future risk of obesity. This association is cumulative such that people with chronic or repeat episodes of common mental disorder are particularly at risk of weight gain.

  8. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA. The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI volumes-of-interest (VOI during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex

  9. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  10. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  11. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...... in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents....

  12. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-01-01

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 in the presence of potentially volatile [ 14 C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [ 14 C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate

  13. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  14. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  15. Hygroscopic growth of common organic aerosol solutes, including humic substances, as derived from water activity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Idania R.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Golden, David M.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that organic matter often constitutes up to 50% by mass of tropospheric aerosols. These organics may considerably affect the water uptake properties of these aerosols, impacting Earth's climate and atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainties still exist about hygroscopic properties of organic carbon (OC) in particles. In this study, we have assembled an apparatus to measure equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions. We used these results to calculate the hygroscopic growth curve and deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of representative compounds in three OC categories: saccharides, mono/dicarboxylic acids, and HULIS (Humic-Like Substances). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the hygroscopic growth of HULIS by means of a bulk method on representative compounds such as fulvic and humic acids. We also explored the temperature effect on hygroscopic growth within the 0°C-30°C temperature range and found no effect. The DRH and hygroscopic growth obtained were in excellent agreement with published tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA), electrodynamic balance, and bulk data for sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, d-glucose, levoglucosan, succinic acid, and glutaric acid. However, we found a hygroscopic growth factor of 1.0 at a relative humidity of 90% for phthalic, oxalic, humic, and two fulvic acids; these results disagree with various TDMA studies. The TDMA is used widely to study water uptake of organic particles but can be affected by particle microstructural arrangements before the DRH and by the inability to fully dry particles. Thus, in the future it will be important to confirm TDMA data for nondeliquescent organic particles with alternate methods.

  16. Predictors and Variability of Repeat Measurements of Urinary Phenols and Parabens in a Cohort of Shanghai Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Yang, Gong; Liao, Linda M.; Satagopan, Jaya; Calafat, Antonia M.; Matthews, Charles E.; Cai, Qiuyin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Wolff, Mary S.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    , under certain circumstances, among women. Citation: Engel LS, Buckley JP, Yang G, Liao LM, Satagopan J, Calafat AM, Matthews CE, Cai Q, Ji BT, Cai H, Engel SM, Wolff MS, Rothman N, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO, Gao YT, Chow WH. 2014. Predictors and variability of repeat measurements of urinary phenols and parabens in a cohort of Shanghai women and men. Environ Health Perspect 122:733–740; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306830 PMID:24659570

  17. Repeated Measurements of Cardiac Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation and Validation of the ABC Stroke Score Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindahl, Bertil; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindbäck, Johan; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars

    2017-06-23

    Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short-term risk estimate. According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1.8 years in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression. C indices and calibration plots were used to evaluate the ABC stroke score at 2 months. The average changes in biomarker levels during 2 months were small (median change cardiac troponin T +2.8%, troponin I +2.0%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide +13.5%) and within-subject correlation was high (all ≥0.82). Repeated measurement of cardiac biomarkers provided some incremental prognostic value for mortality but not for stroke when combined with clinical risk factors and baseline levels of the biomarkers. Based on 8702 person-years of follow-up and 96 stroke/systemic embolic events, the ABC stroke score at 2 months achieved a similar C index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76) as compared with 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) at baseline. The ABC stroke score remained well calibrated using predefined risk classes. In patients with stable atrial fibrillation, the variability of the cardiac biomarkers and the biomarker-based ABC stroke score during 2 months are small. The prognostic information by the ABC stroke score remains consistent and well calibrated with

  18. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...

  19. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, Joanne C.; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be

  20. The Effects of Group Leader Learning Style on Student Knowledge Gain in a Leadership Camp Setting: A Repeated-Measures Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many state FFA associations conduct summer camps focusing on leadership and personal development for FFA members. Interestingly, little research has been conducted on the impact or outcomes of these common activities. The purpose of this split-plot factorial repeated-measures experiment was to assess the level of campers' learning of the…

  1. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction : An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa; Sweeting, Michael; Willeit, Peter; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Goldbourt, Uri; Best, Lyle G; Assmann, Gerd; Salonen, Jukka T.; Nietert, Paul J; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Brunner, Eric J.; Kronmal, Richard A; Salomaa, Veikko; Bakker, Stephan JL; Dagenais, Gilles R; Sato, Shinichi; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Willeit, Johann; Onat, Altan; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Roussel, Ronan; Völzke, Henry; Dankner, Rachel; Tipping, Robert W; Meade, Tom W; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kuller, Lewis H; Peters, Annette; Gallacher, John; Kromhout, Daan; Iso, Hiroyasu; Knuiman, Matthew W; Casiglia, Edoardo; Kavousi, Maryam; Palmieri, Luigi; Sundström, Johan; Davis, Barry R.; Njølstad, Inger; Couper, David J; Danesh, John; Thompson, Simon G.; Wood, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has not been rigorously assessed. We used data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration on 191,445 adults (38 cohorts from across 17

  2. Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs: testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used. This article surveys current practice in the analysis of designs incorporating different factors in research articles published in three optometric journals, namely Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), and Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CXO), and provides advice to authors regarding the analysis of repeated-measures designs. Of the total sample of articles, 66% used a repeated-measures design. Of those articles using a repeated-measures design, 59% and 8% analysed the data using RM-anova or manova respectively and 33% used MMA. The use of MMA relative to RM-anova has increased significantly since 2009/10. A further search using terms to select those papers testing and correcting for sphericity ('Mauchly's test', 'Greenhouse-Geisser', 'Huynh and Feld') identified 66 articles, 62% of which were published from 2012 to the present. If the design is balanced without missing data then manova should be used rather than RM-anova as it gives better protection against lack of sphericity. If the design is unbalanced or with missing data then MMA is the method of choice. However, MMA is a more complex analysis and can be difficult to set up and run, and care should be taken first, to define appropriate models to be tested and second, to ensure that sample sizes are adequate. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  3. Feasibility of repeated self-measurements of maximum step length and gait speed by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, K.T.; Schoon, Y.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Self-management of mobility and fall risk can be important in fall prevention; however, it remains unstudied. Therefore, the current study assessed whether community-dwelling older persons were able to repeatedly self-assess maximum step length (MSL) and gait speed (GS) in their own home

  4. Repeated Measurement of the Components of Attention with Young Children Using the Attention Network Test: Stability, Isolability, Robustness, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Yoko; Klein, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the robustness, stability, reliability, and isolability of the attention network scores (alerting, orienting, and executive control) when young children experienced repeated administrations of the child version of the Attention Network Test (ANT; Rueda et al., 2004). Ten test sessions of the ANT were administered to 12…

  5. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  6. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level) and individual (lower level) exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure). More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure). In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models. Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure. Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions. When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation, particularly

  7. Cerebral histamine H1 receptor binding potential measured with PET under a test dose of olopatadine, an antihistamine, is reduced after repeated administration of olopatadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Michio; Kubo, Nobuo; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shimizu, Keiji; Tominaga, Hideyuki

    2009-06-01

    Some antihistamine drugs that are used for rhinitis and pollinosis have a sedative effect as they enter the brain and block the H(1) receptor, potentially causing serious accidents. Receptor occupancy has been measured with PET under single-dose administration in humans to classify antihistamines as more sedating or as less sedating (or nonsedating). In this study, the effect of repeated administration of olopatadine, an antihistamine, on the cerebral H(1) receptor was measured with PET. A total of 17 young men with rhinitis underwent dynamic brain PET with (11)C-doxepin at baseline, under an initial single dose of 5 mg of olopatadine (acute scan), and under another 5-mg dose after repeated administration of olopatadine at 10 mg/d for 4 wk (chronic scan). The H(1) receptor binding potential was estimated using Logan graphical analysis with cerebellum as reference region input. The acute scan showed a slight decrease in H(1) receptor binding potential across the cerebral cortex (by 15% in the frontal cortex), but the chronic scan showed a marked decrease (by 45% from the acute scan in the frontal cortex). Behavioral data before and after the PET scans did not reveal any sedative effect. The results may be interpreted as either intracerebral accumulation of olopatadine or H(1) receptor downregulation due to repeated administration. The study shows feasibility and potential value for PET in evaluating the pharmacologic effect of a drug not only after a single dose but also after repeated administration.

  8. Associations between maternal phenol and paraben urinary biomarkers and maternal hormones during pregnancy: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Amira M; Johns, Lauren; McElrath, Thomas F; Cantonwine, David E; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Meeker, John D

    2018-01-20

    A number of phenols and parabens are added to consumer products for a variety of functions, and have been found at detectable levels in the majority of the U.S. Among other functions, thyroid hormones are essential in fetal neurodevelopment, and could be impacted by the endocrine disrupting effects of phenols and parabens. The present study investigated the association between ten maternal urinary phenol and paraben biomarkers (bisphenol S, triclosan, triclocarban, benzophenone-3, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and ethyl, butyl, methyl and propyl paraben) and four plasma thyroid hormones in 439 pregnant women in a case-control sample nested within a cohort study based in Boston, MA. Urine and blood samples were collected from up to four visits during pregnancy (median weeks of gestation at each visit: Visit 1: 9.64, Visit 2: 17.9, Visit 3: 26.0, Visit 4: 35.1). Linear mixed models were constructed to take into account the repeated measures jointly, followed by multivariate linear regression models stratified by gestational age to explore potential windows of susceptibility. We observed decreased total triiodothyronine (T3) in relation to an IQR increase in benzophenone-3 (percent change [%Δ] = -2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.16, 0.01), butyl paraben (%Δ = -2.76; 95% CI = -5.25, -0.26) and triclosan (%Δ = -2.53; 95% CI = -4.75, -0.30), and triclocarban at levels above the LOD (%Δ = -5.71; 95% CI = -10.45, -0.97). A 2.41% increase in T3 was associated with an IQR increase in methyl paraben (95% CI = 0.58, 4.24). We also detected a negative association between free thyroxine (FT4) and propyl paraben (%Δ = -3.14; 95% CI = -6.12, -0.06), and a suggestive positive association between total thyroxine (T4) and methyl paraben (%Δ = 1.19; 95% CI = -0.10, 2.47). Gestational age-specific multivariate regression analyses showed that the magnitude and direction of some of the observed associations were

  9. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Deployment repeatability Olive Stohlman (NASA Langley), Mark Silver (Lincoln Labs), and Dave Waller (Ball Aerospace) Abstract Every time a...of motors or deployment drivers  Loss or redistribution of lubrication Hysteresis errors  Material creep due to time in storage and time in the...controlled or where friction changes unreliably in vacuum or thermal conditions (where these affect the deployment, and not only postdeployment stability

  10. The use of linear mixed models for analysis of repeated measurements applied to water-soluble carbohydrates in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte; Zhang, Xia

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measurements of a response variable in crops or plants receiving different treatments are widely used in agricultural science. In this paper we analyse repeated measurements of the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates in stem and ear of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L....... The estimates of the water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations within the stem and ear datasets were similar for all three covariance structures, while the smallest standard errors were obtained using the compound symmetry covariance structure. As it was the goal to do parsimonious modelling more weight...... was given to the Bayesian information criteria than to the Akaike information criteria. Accordingly, the compound symmetry structure was chosen for the stem data and the unstructured structure was found to be the best structure for the ear data. A model check of the residuals showed...

  11. Investigation of the language tasks to include in a short-language measure for children in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matov, Jessica; Mensah, Fiona; Cook, Fallon; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-02-18

    The inaccurate estimation of language difficulties by teachers suggests the benefit of a short-language measure that could be used to support their decisions about who requires referral to a speech-language therapist. While the literature indicates the potential for the development of a short-language measure, evidence is lacking about which combination of language tasks it should include. To understand the number and nature of components/language tasks that should be included in a short-language measure for children in the early school years. Eight language tasks were administered to participants of the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) at ages 5 (n = 995) and 7 (n = 1217). These included six language tasks measured by an omnibus language measure (which comprised a direction-following, morphological-completion, sentence-recall, sentence-formation, syntactic-understanding and word-association task) and a non-word repetition and a receptive vocabulary task, measured by two task-specific language measures. Scores were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), the Bland and Altman method, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. PCA revealed one main component of language that was assessed by all language tasks. The most effective combination of two tasks that measured this component was a direction-following and a sentence-recall task. It showed the greatest agreement with an omnibus language measure and exceeded the criterion for good discriminant accuracy (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, accuracy = 91%, at 1 SD (standard deviation) below the mean). Findings support the combination of a direction-following and a sentence-recall task to assess language ability effectively in the early school years. The results could justify the future production of a novel short-language measure comprising a direction-following and a sentence-recall task to use as a screening tool in schools and to assess language ability in research

  12. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axén Iben

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. Methods A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions and analytic approaches were illustrated and discussed, as well as the handling of missing data. In the applications the weekly outcome “number of days with pain” was analyzed in relation to the patients’ “previous duration of pain” (categorized as more or less than 30 days in the previous year. Research questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants “recovered” at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor variables? This question was answered using generalized Estimating Equations, Poisson regression and Mixed linear models analyses. 5: Are there subgroups of patients with similar courses of pain

  13. Reproducibility and repeatability of measuring the electrical impedance of the pregnant human cervix-the effect of probe size and applied pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Brian H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of cervical electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as a diagnostic tool is being investigated in clinical trials. We sought to assess the reliability of two different sizes of tetrapolar probes used in measuring cervical impedance. Methods Cervical transfer impedance was measured at 14 frequencies between 76 and 625 000 Hz from 11 pregnant subjects at term. Repeated measurements were taken with two probes (3 mm and 12 mm diameter applied softly (approximately 0.7 Newton of force, and firmly (approximately 2.2 Newton to the surface of the cervix by two observers. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV and repeatability standard deviations (SD were derived from these measurements and compared. Results Measurements taken by one observer were highly repeatable for both probes as demonstrated by high ICC and low CV values. Probe performance was improved further by firm application. Firm application of the 3 mm probe resulted in ICC values that ranged from 0.936 to 0.986 (p = 0.0001 and CV values between 1.0 and 3.4%. Firm pressure with the 12 mm probe resulted in ICC values that ranged between 0.914 and 0.988 (p = 0.0001 with CV values between 0.7 and 2.1%. In addition, the repeatability SD was low across all frequencies implying that there was low intra-observer variability. Measurements taken by 2 observers with firm application of the 12 mm probe demonstrated moderate reproducibility between 9.8 and 156 kHz, the frequency range in which previous clinical studies have shown predictive association between high cervical resistivity and vaginal delivery: ICC values ranged between 0.528 and 0.638 (p Conclusion Measuring cervical resistivity by a single observer with both the 3 and 12 mm probes is highly repeatable whilst inter-observer reproducibility is poor with the 3 mm probe but moderately good when the 12 mm probe is firmly applied to the cervix in the frequency range 9.8 to 156 k

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Imputation in Missing Data Analysis: An Application on Repeated Measurement Data in Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazel Ser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of multiple imputation method in case that missing observation structure is at random and completely at random from the approach of general linear mixed model. The application data of study was consisted of a total 77 heads of Norduz ram lambs at 7 months of age. After slaughtering, pH values measured at five different time points were determined as dependent variable. In addition, hot carcass weight, muscle glycogen level and fasting durations were included as independent variables in the model. In the dependent variable without missing observation, two missing observation structures including Missing Completely at Random (MCAR and Missing at Random (MAR were created by deleting the observations at certain rations (10% and 25%. After that, in data sets that have missing observation structure, complete data sets were obtained using MI (multiple imputation. The results obtained by applying general linear mixed model to the data sets that were completed using MI method were compared to the results regarding complete data. In the mixed model which was applied to the complete data and MI data sets, results whose covariance structures were the same and parameter estimations and standard estimations were rather close to the complete data are obtained. As a result, in this study, it was ensured that reliable information was obtained in mixed model in case of choosing MI as imputation method in missing observation structure and rates of both cases.

  15. Tolerability of the Oscar 2 ambulatory blood pressure monitor among research participants: a cross-sectional repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinderliter Alan L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is increasingly used to measure blood pressure (BP in research studies. We examined ease of use, comfort, degree of disturbance, reported adverse effects, factors associated with poor tolerability, and association of poor tolerability with data acquisition of 24-hour ABPM using the Oscar 2 monitor in the research setting. Methods Sixty adults participating in a research study of people with a history of borderline clinic BP reported on their experience with ABPM on two occasions one week apart. Poor tolerability was operationalized as an overall score at or above the 75th percentile using responses to questions adapted from a previously developed questionnaire. In addition to descriptive statistics (means for responses to Likert-scaled "0 to 10" questions and proportions for Yes/No questions, we examined reproducibility of poor tolerability as well as associations with poor tolerability and whether poor tolerability was associated with removal of the monitor or inadequate number of BP measurements. Results The mean ambulatory BP of participants by an initial ABPM session was 148/87 mm Hg. After wearing the monitor the first time, the degree to which the monitor was felt to be cumbersome ranged from a mean of 3.0 to 3.8, depending on whether at work, home, driving, or other times. The most bother was interference with normal sleeping pattern (mean 4.2. Wearers found the monitor straightforward to use (mean 7.5. Nearly 67% reported that the monitor woke them after falling asleep, and 8.6% removed it at some point during the night. Reported adverse effects included pain (32%, skin irritation (37%, and bruising (7%. Those categorized as having poor tolerability (kappa = 0.5 between sessions, p = 0.0003 were more likely to report being in fair/poor health (75% vs 22%, p = 0.01 and have elevated 24-hour BP average (systolic: 28% vs 17%, p = 0.56; diastolic: 30% vs 17%, p = 0.37. They were

  16. Estimated effects of air pollution and space-time-activity on cardiopulmonary outcomes in healthy adults: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; de Nazelle, Audrey; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Kubesch, Nadine; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Matt, Florian; Foraster, Maria; Martínez, Tania; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Belmonte, Jordina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to air pollution is known to affect both short and long-term outcomes of the cardiopulmonary system; however, findings on short-term outcomes have been inconsistent and often from isolated and long-term rather than coexisting and short-term exposures, and among susceptible/unhealthy rather than healthy populations. We aimed to investigate separately the annual, daily and daily space-time-activity-weighted effect of ambient air pollution, as well as confounding or modification by other environmental (including noise) or space-time-activity (including total daily physical activity) exposures, on cardiopulmonary outcomes in healthy adults. Participants (N=57: 54% female) had indicators of cardiopulmonary outcomes [blood pressure (BP), pulse (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV {SDNN}), and lung function (spirometry {FEV 1 , FVC, SUM})] measured on four different mornings (at least five days apart) in a clinical setting between 2011 and 2014. Spatiotemporal ESCAPE-LUR models were used to estimate daily and annual air pollution exposures (including PM 10 , PM Coarse , but not Ozone {derived from closest station}) at participant residential and occupational addresses. Participants' time-activity diaries indicated time spent at either address to allow daily space-time-activity-weighted estimates, and capture total daily physical activity (total-PA {as metabolic-equivalents-of-task, METs}), in the three days preceding health measurements. Multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (using either annual or daily estimates) were adjusted for possible environmental confounders or mediators including levels of ambient noise and greenness. Causal mediation analysis was also performed separately considering these factors as well as total-PA. All presented models are controlled by age, height, sex and season. An increase in 5μg/m 3 of daily space-time-activity-weighted PM Coarse exposure was statistically significantly associated with a 4.1% reduction in total

  17. Effect of exposure to evening light on sleep initiation in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis for repeated measurements in home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nezu, Satoko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated associations of sleep-onset insomnia with a variety of diseases, including depression, dementia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep initiation is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and endogenous melatonin, both of which are influenced by environmental light. Exposure to evening light is hypothesized to cause circadian phase delay and melatonin suppression before bedtime, resulting in circadian misalignment and sleep-onset insomnia; however, whether exposure to evening light disturbs sleep initiation in home settings remains unclear. In this longitudinal analysis of 192 elderly individuals (mean age: 69.9 years), we measured evening light exposure and sleep-onset latency for 4 days using a wrist actigraph incorporating a light meter and an accelerometer. Mixed-effect linear regression analysis for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of evening light exposure on subsequent sleep-onset latency. The median intensity of evening light exposure and the median sleep-onset latency were 27.3 lux (interquartile range, 17.9-43.4) and 17 min (interquartile range, 7-33), respectively. Univariate models showed significant associations between sleep-onset latency and age, gender, daytime physical activity, in-bed time, day length and average intensity of evening and nighttime light exposures. In a multivariate model, log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure was significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency independent of the former potential confounding factors (regression coefficient, 0.133; 95% CI, 0.020-0.247; p = 0.021). Day length and nighttime light exposure were also significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, exposure to evening light in home setting prolongs subsequent sleep-onset latency in the elderly.

  18. Performance Analysis of Measurement Inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on Airborne Repeat-pass Interferometric SAR in the Presence of Squint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach to airborne repeat-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based on motion measurement data, the measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target, which may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors, affect the imaging result and interferometric measurement. Considering the effects of the two types of error, this paper builds a mathematical model of residual motion errors in presence of squint, and analyzes the effects on the residual motion errors induced by the measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target. In particular, the effects of various measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on interferometric SAR image quality, interferometric phase, and digital elevation model precision are disscussed. Moreover, the paper quantitatively researches the effects of residual motion errors on airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR through theoretical and simulated analyses and provides theoretical bases for system design and signal processing.

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (COV, and test-retest variability (TRT were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. Results. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946 in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982 and inferior average (0.978 yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43% in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. Conclusions. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  20. Repeatability, consistency, and accuracy of hand-held dynamometry with and without fixation for measuring ankle plantarflexion strength in healthy adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Phillip R; McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Burns, Joshua; Pareyson, Davide; Rose, Kristy J

    2017-11-01

    Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) is commonly used to measure ankle plantarflexion strength but has variable reliability measuring higher forces. Fixed HHD is suggested to improve reliability. We, therefore, compared the reliability, consistency, and accuracy of measuring plantarflexion strength. Plantarflexion strength was measured in 25 healthy individuals with fixed HHD and HHD alone. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,2 ), SEM, minimal detectable change, and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to assess inter-trial repeatability, consistency, agreement, and accuracy. Both methods were repeatable (ICC 2,2 0.96 to 0.98) and highly correlated (Spearman rho = 0.815; P < 0.01). Fixed HHD produced significantly higher force outputs. HHD alone provided more consistent force values. Both methods of measuring ankle plantarflexion force were reliable. Force measured with fixed HHD will likely be more accurate for adults and individuals with greater strength, while HHD alone will be more consistent for individuals with lower strength. Muscle Nerve 56: 896-900, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  2. Age-related decline in AMH is assay dependent limiting clinical interpretation of repeat AMH measures across the reproductive lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plociennik, Lukasz; Nelson, Scott M; Lukaszuk, Aron; Kunicki, Michal; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Meczekalski, Blazej; Lukaszuk, Krzysztof

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the assays exhibit an interaction with age and exhibit heterogeneous age related declines in AMH. Apart of chronological age, AMH variation was investigated with relation to menstrual cycle day (MCD). The goal implicates two questions: Are distributions of AMH concentrations homogenous after adjustment for the specific AMH assay? Does age-assay product has an effect on AMH depletion? The study was conducted by examining results of AMH tests performed for 12,917 women with four types of AMH assays: Immunotech I generation kit (IMI, 4016 samples), Beckman Coulter II generation kit RUO (BCII RUO, 3430 samples), Beckman Coulter II generation kit with IVD certificate (BCII IVD, 830 samples), and Ansh Labs I generation kit (AnshLabs, 4641 samples). Statistical analysis included ACNOVA and least square regression technique. Menstrual cycle day has no effect on AMH measurements. On the other hand, AMH values differed substantially between the four assays, with a marked discordance in the rate of age-related AMH decline for the four assays (ranging from -8.16% (95% CI: -8.79, -7.54) to -11.53% (95% CI -12.20, -10.87), with a significant interaction between age and assay. (1) The distribution of AMH concentration is heterogeneous after controlling the age across assays; (2) the rate of AMH decline as a function of age is different for the four manual AMH ELISA assays.

  3. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T 1 -weighted images (3D-T 1 WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  4. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  5. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  6. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1994-11-01

    To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity." From approximately 800 children referred to the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) for assessment of suspected hyperactivity, 200 were included in a 6-week open trial of a diet free of synthetic food coloring. The parents of 150 children reported behavioral improvement with the diet, and deterioration on the introduction of foods noted to contain synthetic coloring. A 30-item behavioral rating inventory was devised from an examination of the clinical histories of 50 suspected reactors. Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

  7. Measuring impacts of community forestry program through repeat photography and satellite remote sensing in the Dolakha district of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rabin Raj; Gilani, Hammad; Pokharel, Bharat Kumar; Qamer, Faisal Mueen

    2013-09-15

    During the 1990's community-based forest management gained momentum in Nepal. This study systematically evaluates the impacts that this had on land cover change and other associated aspects during the period 1990-2010 using repeat photography and satellite imagery in combination with interviews with community members. The results of the study clearly reflect the success of community-based forest management in the Dolakha district of the mid-hills of Nepal: during the study period, the rate of conversion of sparse forest into dense forest under community-based management was found to be between 1.13% and 3.39% per year. Similarly, the rate of conversion of non-forest area into forest was found to be between 1.11% and 1.96% per year. Community-based forest management has resulted in more efficient use of forest resources, contributed to a decline in the use of slash-and-burn agricultural practices, reduced the incidence of forest fires, spurred tree plantation, and encouraged the conservation and protection of trees on both public and private land. The resulting reclamation of forest in landside areas and river banks and the overall improvement in forest cover in the area has reduced flash floods and associated landslides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusako Fujimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17±1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg for IOP, −0.93±4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P=0.010.3. The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r=−0.4883, P=0.0006. The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.0285, P=0.8509. Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness.

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements using a NT-530P noncontact tono/pachymeter and correlation of central corneal thickness with intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Fusako; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Fujiwara, Kazuko; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P) and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were -0.17 ± 1.42 mmHg (range: -2.95 to 2.61 mmHg) for IOP, -0.93 ± 4.37  μ m (range: -9.50 to 7.64  μm) for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P = 0.010.3). The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r = -0.4883, P = 0.0006). The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r = -0.0285, P = 0.8509). NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness.

  10. Repeated-Sprint Cycling Does Not Induce Respiratory Muscle Fatigue in Active Adults: Measurements from The Powerbreathe® Inspiratory Muscle Trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Minahan, Beth Sheehan, Rachel Doutreband, Tom Kirkwood, Daniel Reeves, Troy Cross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined respiratory muscle strength using the POWERbreathe® inspiratory muscle trainer (i.e., ‘S-Index’ before and after repeated-sprint cycling for comparison with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP values obtained during a Mueller maneuver. The S-Index was measured during six trials across two sessions using the POWERbreathe® and MIP was measured during three trials in a single session using a custom-made manometer in seven recreationally active adults. Global respiratory muscle strength was measured using both devices before and after the performance of sixteen, 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the POWERbreathe® S-index indicated excellent (p 0.99 and during the Mueller maneuver (p > 0.99. The POWERbreathe® S-Index is a moderately reliable, but not equivalent, measure of MIP determined during a Mueller maneuver. Furthermore, repeated-sprint cycling does not induce globalized respiratory muscle fatigue in recreationally-active adults.

  11. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  12. Repeated Measurements of Arm Joint Passive Range of Motion After Stroke : Interobserver Reliability and Sources of Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Stewart, Roy E.; Postema, Klaas

    Background. Goniometric measurements of hemiplegic arm joints must be reliable to draw proper clinical and scientific conclusions. Previous reliability studies were cross-sectional and based on small samples. Knowledge about the contributions of sources of variation to these measurement results is

  13. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Haverkamp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN, MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes (n = 20 and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement

  14. The reliability of a portable clinical force plate used for the assessment of static postural control: repeated measures reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golriz, Samira; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Foreman, K Bo; Walker, Bruce F

    2012-05-23

    Force plates are frequently used for postural control assessments but they are expensive and not widely available in most clinical settings. Increasingly, clinicians are using this technology to assess patients, however, the psychometric properties of these less sophisticated force plates is frequently unknown. The purposes of the study were to examine the test-retest reliability of a force plate commonly used by clinicians and to explore the effect of using the mean value from multiple repetitions on reliability. Thirty healthy volunteer adults were recruited. Postural control measures were obtained using the Midot Posture Scale Analyzer (MPSA). Data were collected in 2 sessions. Five successive repetitions each of 60 seconds duration were obtained from each participant in each session. The reliability coefficients obtained using single measures were low (ICC3,1 = 0.06 to 0.53). The average of two measures allowed for reliable measurements of COP mean velocity and average location of COP. The average of three and five measures was required to obtain acceptable reliability (ICC ≥ 0.70) of relative weight bearing on legs and sway area, respectively. Higher measurement precision values were seen by averaging four or five repetitions for all variables. Single measures did not provide reliable estimates of postural sway, and the averaging of multiple repetitions was necessary to achieve acceptable levels of measurement error. The number of repetitions required to achieve reliable data ranged from 2 to 5. Clinicians should be wary of using single measures derived from similar equipment when making decisions about patients.

  15. Adult dyslipidemia prediction is improved by repeated measurements in childhood and young adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Joel; Oikonen, Mervi; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jula, Antti; Thomson, Russell; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies. The sample comprised 1912 subjects (54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had fasting lipid and lipoprotein measurements collected at three time-points in childhood/young adulthood and had at least one follow-up in later adulthood. Childhood/young adult dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) or triglycerides (TG) in the highest quintile, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the lowest quintile. Adult dyslipidemia was defined according to European cut-points (TC > 5.0 mmol/L, LDL-C >3 mmol/L, Non-HDL-C >3.8 mmol/L, HDL-C  1.7 mmol/L). With the exception of triglycerides, Pearson correlation coefficients for predicting adult levels significantly improved when two lipid or lipoprotein measurements in childhood/young adulthood were compared with one measurement (all P dyslipidemia levels in adulthood for non-HDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG compared with one measurement (P dyslipidemia in adulthood grew according to the number of times a person had been at risk in childhood. Based on these results, it seems that compared to a single measurement two lipid measures in childhood/early adulthood significantly improve prediction of adult dyslipidemia. A lack of dyslipidemia in childhood does not strongly exclude later development of dyslipidemia. Multiple measurements increase the prediction accuracy, but the incremental prognostic/diagnostic accuracy of especially third measurement is modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    functional target. For a membrane RF reflector, a secondary measurement could be dot projection photogrammetry [3]. Or for RF mesh reflectors, Digital ...Tracking and Pointing XII, 1998. [29] R. S. Figliola and D. E. Beasley, Theory and Deisng for Mechanical Measurements, Third Edition , New York: John

  18. Repeated measurement of MO2in small aquatic organisms: a manual intermittent flow respirometer using off-the-shelf components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel W; Hudson, Michael E; Frost, Emily J; Sewell, Mary A

    2017-12-06

    Measurement of rates of oxygen consumption (M O2 ) in small aquatic embryos or larvae (sensor (POS) chamber with Nitex filters. We then demonstrate the use of the MIFR by exposing larval echinoderms (Fellaster zelandiae, Evechinus chloroticus, Centrostephanus rodgersii) to seawater equilibrated with elevated CO 2 , and measured M O2 during acute and chronic exposure to hypercapnia. This MIFR method will allow investigators to address questions regarding the respiratory physiology of small aquatic animals, such as the thresholds for metabolic depression in embryonic and larval forms.

  19. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Vissink, A.; van Oort, R. P.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this Study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening

  20. Repeated measurements of in vitro fermentation of fibre-rich substrates using large intestinal microbiota of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, M.A.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, G.; Sundrum, A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrous ingredients for pig diets can be characterized by in vitro fermentation. In vitro fermentation methods often use a one-time measurement of gas production during the incubation of test substrates with one faecal inoculum. The representativeness of this approach can be questioned

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation index of noise barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garai, M.; Schoen, E.; Behler, G.; Bragado, B.; Chudalla, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Demizieux, P.; Glorieux, C.; Guidorzi, P.

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation of noise barriers are usually done according to CEN/TS 1793-5. This method has been improved substantially during the EU funded QUIESST collaborative project. Within the same framework, an inter-laboratory test has

  2. Simulated Conversations With Virtual Humans to Improve Patient-Provider Communication and Reduce Unnecessary Prescriptions for Antibiotics: A Repeated Measure Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Albright, Glenn; Hibbard, Judith; Goldman, Ron

    2017-04-19

    Despite clear evidence that antibiotics do not cure viral infections, the problem of unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in ambulatory care persists, and in some cases, prescribing patterns have increased. The overuse of antibiotics for treating viral infections has created numerous economic and clinical consequences including increased medical costs due to unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic resistance, disruption of gut bacteria, and obesity. Recent research has underscored the importance of collaborative patient-provider communication as a means to reduce the high rates of unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics. However, most patients and providers do not feel prepared to engage in such challenging conversations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the ability of a brief 15-min simulated role-play conversation with virtual humans to serve as a preliminary step to help health care providers and patients practice, and learn how to engage in effective conversations about antibiotics overuse. A total of 69 participants (35 providers and 34 patients) completed the simulation once in one sitting. A pre-post repeated measures design was used to assess changes in patients' and providers' self-reported communication behaviors, activation, and preparedness, intention, and confidence to effectively communicate in the patient-provider encounter. Changes in patients' knowledge and beliefs regarding antibiotic use were also evaluated. Patients experienced a short-term positive improvement in beliefs about appropriate antibiotic use for infection (F 1,30 =14.10, P=.001). Knowledge scores regarding the correct uses of antibiotics improved immediately postsimulation, but decreased at the 1-month follow-up (F 1,30 =31.16, Pchange in patient activation and shared decision-making (SDM) scores in the total sample of patients (P>.10) Patients with lower levels of activation exhibited positive, short-term benefits in increased intent and confidence to discuss their

  3. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Biometric Measurements Using the Visante Omni and a Rabbit Experimental Model of Post-Surgical Corneal Ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Konstantopoulos, Aris; Riau, Andri K.; Bhayani, Raj; Lwin, Nyein C.; Teo, Ericia Pei Wen; Yam, Gary Hin Fai; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Visante Omni topography in obtaining topography measurements of rabbit corneas and to develop a post-surgical model of corneal ectasia. Methods: Eight rabbits were used to study the repeatability and reproducibility by assessing the intra- and interobserver bias and limits of agreement. Another nine rabbits underwent different diopters (D) of laser in situ keratosmileusis (LASIK) were used for the development of ectasia model. All eyes were examined with the Visante Omni, and corneal ultrastructure were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: There was no significant intra- or interobserver difference for mean steep and flat keratometry (K) values of simulated K, anterior, and posterior elevation measurements. Eyes underwent −5 D LASIK had a significant increase in mean amplitude of astigmatism and posterior surface elevation with time (P for trend corneal ectasia that was gradual in development and simulated the human condition. Translational Relevance: The results provide the foundations for the future evaluation of novel treatment modalities for post-surgical ectasia and keratoconus. PMID:25938004

  4. A test of the validity of range of motion studies of fossil archosaur elbow mobility using repeated-measures analysis and the extant phylogenetic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2012-06-15

    Recent studies have presented range of motion (ROM) data in degrees for dinosaur forelimb joints, usually via physical manipulation of one individual. Using these data, researchers have inferred limb orientations, postures, gaits, ecological functions and even phylogenetic trends within clades. However, important areas of concern remain unaddressed; for example, how does ROM at a forelimb joint change after soft tissues are lost in archosaurs? And are fossil ROM methodologies amenable to reproducibility and statistical analysis? Here, we investigated these questions using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Repeated measures of elbow joint ROM from Struthio camelus and Alligator mississippiensis forelimbs were statistically analyzed as they were sequentially dissected through five levels of tissue removal treatment. Our data indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in repeated measures of ROM between observers who use the same techniques. Extrinsic soft tissues, such as integument, muscles and ligaments were found to impede ROM at the elbow joint. Intrinsic soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, may increase ROM. The hypothesis that the articular surfaces of the bones within the elbow joints of archosaurs provide a general approximation of mobility is supported. Final ROMs were less than the initial ROMs in both taxa, which suggests that prior reports of elbow joint ROMs in degrees for nonavian dinosaurs may represent conservative estimates. We conclude that if observer bias and other variables are controlled for, ROM studies of fossil archosaur limbs can obtain useful degree data for inferring joint mobility in vivo.

  5. Dynamic Pain Phenotypes are Associated with Spinal Cord Stimulation-Induced Reduction in Pain: A Repeated Measures Observational Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Raja, Srinivasa N; Kiley, Kasey B; Swedberg, Lauren J; Wacnik, Paul W; Cohen, Steven P; Erdek, Michael A; Williams, Kayode A; Christo, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. Methods A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent running test. Results The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P < 0.001). Sedentary time was higher and total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sleep duration (boys only) were lower during weekends at all seasons (P ≤ 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficients between seasons ranged from 0.47-0.74, leaving 45-78% to seasonal variation. Conclusions Overall, sedentary time was higher and physical activity lower during winter and during weekends. The most accurate and unbiased estimates of physical activity came from autumn; however, the considerable intra-individual variation suggests that a single measurement may not adequately characterise children’s habitual sleep and activity. PMID:24010811

  7. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8-11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim; Astrup, Arne; Tetens, Inge; Sjödin, Anders

    2013-09-08

    Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8-11 year-old children. A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent running test. The children had 5% more sedentary time, 23% less time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 2% longer sleep duration during winter compared to spring and cardio-respiratory fitness was 4% higher during spring compared to autumn (P < 0.001). Sedentary time was higher and total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sleep duration (boys only) were lower during weekends at all seasons (P ≤ 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficients between seasons ranged from 0.47-0.74, leaving 45-78% to seasonal variation. Overall, sedentary time was higher and physical activity lower during winter and during weekends. The most accurate and unbiased estimates of physical activity came from autumn; however, the considerable intra-individual variation suggests that a single measurement may not adequately characterise children's habitual sleep and activity.

  8. Monitoring the regional ocean circulation around New Caledonia from a combination of repeated glider measurements and other in situ observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Frédéric; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Durand, Fabien; Terre, Thierry; Panché, Jean-Yves; Mahiouz, Karim; Béguery, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The South-West Pacific basin is a key region for the ocean circulation and the climate system of the tropical Pacific. First it is the region where a broad westward-flowing current - the South Equatorial Current - encounters a large number of islands and subdivides into multiple intense zonal jets. Second it is the region where thermocline waters of subtropical origin transit in their route towards the equator, giving to this area a potential role for the low-frequency modulation of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The main objective of the present poster is to describe a multi-observational program (AltiGlidEx) to monitor two major currents of the South-West Pacific ocean - the East Caledonian Current and the South Caledonian Jet - that flow respectively along the East coast of New Caledonia (167°E-168°E, 22°S-17°S) and South of New Caledonia (27°S-23°S). One expected achievement of the AltiGlidEx program is to provide a platform of multiple in situ observations, including repeated sections with SLOCUM and SPRAY gliders, a long-term subsurface current mooring and dedicated cruises, to ultimately assess the performance of the new AltiKa altimeter - that will be embarked on the SARAL satellite in 2013 - to observe swift boundary currents near the coast of New Caledonia in 2013-2014. This program takes full advantage of the potential of gliders to estimate (i) the geostrophic component of the velocity from the surface down to 1000 meters from hydrological measurements and (ii) the depth-averaged currents during each dive through the GPS-derived dead-reckoning of the vehicle (based on the comparison of the total horizontal distance during each dive that can be computed from the GPS positions of the diving/surfacing points with the one that would be expected in the absence of ocean currents from a flight model, once an adequate flight model is known for the glider). In this presentation, the preliminary results of the first 3 glider experiments (2010, 2011

  9. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  10. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  11. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  12. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière’s Disease - A Repeated Measures Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière’s disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Methods Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004–2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. Results A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Conclusions Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future. PMID:27096752

  14. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, ppoverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to reduce high concentrations of neighbourhood poverty as well as

  15. Test–retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, James T.; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Kemp, Robert A. de; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DaSilva, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine analogue 11 C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test–retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Methods: Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7 days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. Conclusion: The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration

  16. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  17. Consistency of maternal telephone administration of the asthma control test using postpartum recall compared to repeated measures during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghui; Li, Mofei; Johnson, Diana L; Luo, Yunjun; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-05-01

    Suboptimal asthma control during pregnancy may impact perinatal outcomes. U.S. guidelines recommend questionnaires to assess asthma control including the Asthma Control Test (ACT). It is unknown in a research setting to what extent recall differs by the time between symptom occurrence and the administration of the questionnaire. Between 2009-2014, 196 pregnant asthmatic women were recruited by the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies. Participants were administered the ACT at enrollment, gestational weeks 20 and 32, and shortly after delivery. The same women were also administered the ACT retrospectively at approximately 6 months postpartum. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the in-pregnancy and retrospective continuous ACT scores for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.74), 0.61 (0.52, 0.70) and 0.65 (0.56, 0.72), respectively. When dichotomized into well-controlled asthma (ACT score ≥ 20) versus otherwise, the chi-square test for all three trimesters resulted in p values pregnancy (recall bias) influenced postpartum responses. The retrospectively recalled ACT score obtained postpartum was substantially different compared to in-pregnancy administration of the same questionnaire which could reflect test-retest variability as well as attenuation of recall. Documentation of the magnitude and direction of these differences could be useful in interpretation of the impact of asthma control when the ACT is used in retrospective case-control studies for pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  19. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Repeatable Protocol to Uniformly Coat Internal Complex Geometries of Fine Featured 3D Printed Objects with Ceramic Material, including Determination of Viscosity Limits to Properly Coat Certain Pore Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-18

    HEPA filters are commonly used in air filtration systems ranging in application from simple home systems to the more advanced networks used in research and development. Currently, these filters are most often composed of glass fibers with diameter on the order of one micron with polymer binders. These fibers, as well as the polymers used, are known to be fragile and can degrade or become extremely brittle with heat, severely limiting their use in high temperature applications. Ceramics are one promising alternative and can enhance the filtration capabilities compared to the current technology. Because ceramic materials are more thermally resistant and chemically stable, there is great interest in developing a repeatable protocol to uniformly coat fine featured polymer objects with ceramic material for use as a filter. The purpose of this experiment is to determine viscosity limits that are able to properly coat certain pore sizes in 3D printed objects, and additionally to characterize the coatings themselves. Latex paint was used as a surrogate because it is specifically designed to produce uniform coatings.

  1. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... comment on Industrial/ Business licensees' usage of mobile repeaters. Telemetry Channels We seek comment... mobile repeater applications, e.g., by listing active, co-channel incumbent call signs and associated... Rulemaking, including this IRFA, to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration (SBA...

  2. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  3. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements obtained via two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the left atrium and time-left atrial area curve analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Lim, Sue Yee; Tamura, Yu; Kumara, Wickramasekara Rajapakshage Bandula; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs by means of 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography with time-left atrial area curve analysis and to assess repeatability and reproducibility of obtained measurements. 6 healthy Beagles. Each dog underwent echocardiography twice on different days (3 nonconsecutive examinations/d). Images were analyzed with offline software; area of the left atrium was automatically calculated in each frame throughout the cardiac cycle to derive time-left atrial area curves. Variables used to assess left atrial phasic function (total, passive, and active emptying area and emptying fractions and mean active and total emptying rates) were calculated. Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and a manual tracing method was assessed with modified Bland-Altman analysis. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were determined. Mean ± SD total, passive, and active emptying fractions of the left atrium were 49.8 ± 3.5%, 277 ± 4.0%, and 30.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. Mean ± SD total and active emptying rates were 16.0 ± 2.5 cm(2)/s and 25.1 ± 4.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were canine patients.

  4. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  5. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  6. Measuring evapotranspiration: comparison of in situ micrometeorological methods including eddy covariance, scintillometer, Bowen ratio, and surface renewal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznikova, G.; Fischer, M.; Orsag, M.; Trnka, M.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) is a challenging task as different methods can induce large discrepancies. Comparisons of various techniques are not rare, however it is demanding to maintain several in situ measurements for longer time. In our study, we aimed to compare four micrometeorological methods measuring ET at relatively large homogeneous area. The study took place on a winter wheat field in Polkovice, the Czech Republic (49°23'42.8"N 17°14'47.3"E) from Jul 1st 2015 until Sep 15th 2015. In the centre of 26-ha experimental field we deployed the eddy covariance (EC) system, the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system, thermocouples for surface renewal technique, and the surface layer scintillometer with 106 m path length. Additionally, we installed the large aperture scintillometer with 617 m path length across the field. Our results showed good agreement of compared methods during the wetter periods of the measurements with slight overestimation of the scintillometry. The BREB method agreed the best with EC. Both scintillometers gave very consistent results throughout the whole measurement period. The EC tended to underestimate other methods. One of potential reasons is energy balance disclosure which reached 27.4 % for the measured period. The surface renewal method showed good potential however, need to be further tested in our conditions. Our experimental locality is one of several we are running as a part of ground based measurement network for ET estimation. Gained results helped us to enhance and optimise our network to ensure effective and reliable data acquisition for future validation of airborne images (satellite based drought monitoring).

  7. Repeatability of diffusion-weighted imaging in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intven, Martijn; Reerink, Onne; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2014-07-01

    Serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of rectal tumors are used for rectal cancer response evaluation after neo-adjuvant treatment. In this study, we determined the repeatability of DW-MRI to distinguish therapy-related response from measurement variations. In 18 patients with rectal cancer on five consecutive days, 1.5 Tesla (T) MR imaging was performed including two identical DW-MRI sequences. The repeatability of the tumor ADC measurements and the intraobserver ADC variation were depicted in a Bland-Altman plot. The repeatability coefficient was calculated as the range of ADC values of two identical DWI measurements for 95% of subjects. It was expressed as percentage of the mean ADC value. Three females and 15 males were included. The mean tumor ADC value was 1.15 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (SD 0.07 × 10(-3) mm(2)). The repeatability coefficient of the ADC value was 9.8% and for the intraobserver repeatability 4.7%. In serial DW-MRI for rectal cancer treatment response evaluation, a repeatability coefficient of 9.8% has to be considered to account for measurement variations in rectal tumor ADC. These variations represent observer judgement and patient and MR spectrometer induced variations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Validation of the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) against the Rasch Measurement Model Including Differences by Gender, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Riley, Barth B.; Conrad, Karen M.; Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing criminality, researchers have used counts of crimes, arrests, and so on, because interval measures were not available. Additionally, crime seriousness varies depending on demographic factors. This study examined the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) regarding psychometric quality using item response theory (IRT) and invariance of the…

  9. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... academic skills; (2) One or more measures of the following: (i) Student competency attainment. (ii) Job or... secondary school or its equivalent. (iv) Placement into additional training or education, military service...) Procedures for using existing resources and methods developed in other programs receiving Federal assistance...

  10. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  11. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2013-01-15

    Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs.

  12. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (Pweight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  13. Measured Properties of Turbulent Premixed Flames for Model Assessment, Including Burning Velocities, Stretch Rates, and Surface Densities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent burning velocity of Bunsen flames depends...burning velocity of Bunsen flames are inadequate because they should include two additional parameters: mean velocity Ū and burner width W. These...corru- gated) flame with well-defined boundary conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent

  14. Quality assessment and consistency check of measured nuclear data up to 20 MeV including the range of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedy, Z.T.

    1984-09-01

    This is the final report of a research contract with the IAEA. The object is the compilation and evaluation of all the data on (n,t) and (n,3He) reactions cross-sections, respectively. The main results of the research are given (some discrepancies in the experimental data; analytic formulas for an empirical description of the data, separately for the even and odd nuclei with z>20; methods to extrapolate to energies where measurements are missing; mass regions where data are needed), and publications by the authors with the detailed results are quoted

  15. A Repeat Look at Repeating Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    A "repeating pattern" is a cyclical repetition of an identifiable core. Children in the primary grades usually begin pattern work with fairly simple patterns, such as AB, ABC, or ABB patterns. The unique letters represent unique elements, whereas the sequence of letters represents the core that is repeated. Based on color, shape,…

  16. Repeatability of self-report measures of physical activity, sedentary and travel behaviour in Hong Kong adolescents for the iHealt(H) and IPEN - Adolescent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Huang, Ya-Jun; Barnett, Anthony; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Wong, Stephen S H

    2014-06-06

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are important contributors to adolescents' health. These behaviours may be affected by the school and neighbourhood built environments. However, current evidence on such effects is mainly limited to Western countries. The International Physical Activity and the Environment Network (IPEN)-Adolescent study aims to examine associations of the built environment with adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour across five continents.We report on the repeatability of measures of in-school and out-of school physical activity, plus measures of out-of-school sedentary and travel behaviours adopted by the IPEN - Adolescent study and adapted for Chinese-speaking Hong Kong adolescents participating in the international Healthy environments and active living in teenagers-(Hong Kong) [iHealt(H)] study, which is part of IPEN-Adolescent. Items gauging in-school physical activity and out-of-school physical activity, and out-of-school sedentary and travel behaviours developed for the IPEN - Adolescent study were translated from English into Chinese, adapted, and pilot tested. Sixty-eight Chinese-speaking 12-17 year old secondary school students (36 boys; 32 girls) residing in areas of Hong Kong differing in transport-related walkability were recruited. They self-completed the survey items twice, 8-16 days apart. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the whole sample and by gender using one-way random effects intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Test-retest reliability of items with restricted variability was assessed using percentage agreement. Overall test-retest reliability of items and scales was moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.47-0.92). Items with restricted variability in responses had a high percentage agreement (92%-100%). Test-retest reliability was similar in girls and boys, with the exception of daily hours of homework (reliability higher in girls) and number of school-based sports teams or after-school physical

  17. Validation of Measured Damping Trends for Flight-Like Vehicle Panel/Equipment including a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Fulcher, Clay W.; Jones, Douglas C.; Waldon, James M.; Craigmyle, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that leverages a finite element model of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. While the full test series is not yet complete, the first configuration of cable bundles that was assessed effectively increased the viscous critical damping fraction of the system by as much as 0.02 in certain frequency ranges.

  18. Safety of a novel parenteral formulation of diclofenac after major orthopedic or abdominal/pelvic surgery in a population including anticoagulated, elderly or renally insufficient patients: an open-label, multiday, repeated dose clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelly, Jacques E; Singla, Sonia K; Melson, Timothy I; Lacouture, Peter G; Paadre, Susan; Carr, Daniel B

    2013-05-01

    Decisions to use or avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for postsurgical pain are often influenced by concerns about bleeding and renal adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel parenteral NSAID, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) diclofenac, in a large postsurgical patient population, with particular focus on bleeding and renal effects. This was a large open-label study in adult patients with acute moderate-to-severe pain following major surgery. Patients received ≥2 days of continuous treatment with HPβCD diclofenac, administered as a small-volume bolus injection every 6 hours. Few exclusion criteria were applied in order to reflect surgical patient populations commonly managed in clinical practice. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The incidences of bleeding- and renal-related AEs were examined in patient subpopulations with known risk factors for NSAID-induced complications: advanced age, pre-existing renal insufficiency, concomitant anticoagulant use, prolonged exposure, elevated dosage, and major surgeries. Of the total 971 patients studied, 38% were ≥65 years old (12% >75 years), 62% received concomitant anticoagulants, and 6% had pre-existing renal insufficiency. HPβCD diclofenac was well tolerated by the patient population. AE rates are presented by risk factor to enable clinicians to better describe renal- or bleeding-related AEs. In addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy, this study provides evidence of HPβCD diclofenac's safety in a large postsurgical population including anticoagulated, elderly or renally insufficient patients. Because study exclusion criteria were minimal, these findings may be broadly generalizable to populations commonly treated in clinical practice. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  20. BER-3.2 report: Methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures including a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Sinkko, K.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Salo, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report is a part of the Nordic BER-3 project's work to propose and harmonize Nordic intervention levels for countermeasures in case of nuclear accidents. This report focuses on the methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures in case of a reactor accident situation with a large release of fission products to the environment. The down-wind situation is very complicated. The dose to the exposed society is almost unpredictable. The task of the radiation protection experts: To give advice to the decision makers on averted doses by the different actions at hand in the situation - is complicated. That of the decision makers is certainly more: On half of the society they represent, they must decide if they wish to follow the advices from their radiation protection experts or if they wish to add further arguments - economical or political (or personal) - into their considerations before their decisions are taken. Two analysis methods available for handling such situations: cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis are described in principle and are utilized in a case study: The impacts of a Chernobyl-like accident on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea are analyzed with regard to the acute consequences. The use of the intervention principles found in international guidance (IAEA 91, ICRP 91), which can be summarized as the principles of justification, optimization and avoidance of unacceptable doses, are described. How to handle more intangible factors of a psychological or political character is indicated. (au) (6 tabs., 3 ills., 17 refs.)

  1. Elucidating the functional relationship between working memory capacity and psychometric intelligence: a fixed-links modeling approach for experimental repeated-measures designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Rammsayer, Thomas; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies reported a strong link between working memory capacity (WMC) and fluid intelligence (Gf), although views differ in respect to how close these two constructs are related to each other. In the present study, we used a WMC task with five levels of task demands to assess the relationship between WMC and Gf by means of a new methodological approach referred to as fixed-links modeling. Fixed-links models belong to the family of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and are of particular interest for experimental, repeated-measures designs. With this technique, processes systematically varying across task conditions can be disentangled from processes unaffected by the experimental manipulation. Proceeding from the assumption that experimental manipulation in a WMC task leads to increasing demands on WMC, the processes systematically varying across task conditions can be assumed to be WMC-specific. Processes not varying across task conditions, on the other hand, are probably independent of WMC. Fixed-links models allow for representing these two kinds of processes by two independent latent variables. In contrast to traditional CFA where a common latent variable is derived from the different task conditions, fixed-links models facilitate a more precise or purified representation of the WMC-related processes of interest. By using fixed-links modeling to analyze data of 200 participants, we identified a non-experimental latent variable, representing processes that remained constant irrespective of the WMC task conditions, and an experimental latent variable which reflected processes that varied as a function of experimental manipulation. This latter variable represents the increasing demands on WMC and, hence, was considered a purified measure of WMC controlled for the constant processes. Fixed-links modeling showed that both the purified measure of WMC (β = .48) as well as the constant processes involved in the task (β = .45) were related to Gf. Taken

  2. Exploring the role of quantitative feedback in inhaler technique education: a cluster-randomised, two-arm, parallel-group, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumas-Shehata, Mariam; Price, David; Basheti, Iman Amin; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2014-11-13

    Feedback is a critical component of any educational intervention. When it comes to feedback associated with inhaler technique education, there is a lack of knowledge on its role or its potential to solve the major issue of poor inhaler technique. This study aims to explore the role of feedback in inhaler technique education and its impact on the inhaler technique of patients over time. A parallel-group, repeated-measures study was conducted in the community pharmacy in which the effectiveness of current best practice inhaler technique education utilising qualitative visual feedback (Group 1) was compared with a combination of qualitative and quantitative visual feedback (Group 2). The impact of these two interventions on inhaler technique maintenance was evaluated. Community pharmacists were randomly allocated to recruit people with asthma who were using a dry powder inhaler. At Visit 1 their inhaler technique was evaluated and education delivered and they were followed up at Visit 2 (1 month later). Both educational interventions resulted in an increase in the proportion of patients with correct inhaler technique: from 4% to 51% in Group 1 and from 6% to 83% in Group 2 (Pearson's Chi-Squared, P=0.03, n=49, and Pearson's Chi-Squared, P=0.01, n=48, respectively). The magnitude of improvement was statistically significantly higher for Group 2 compared with Group 1 (n=97, P=0.02, Pearson's Chi-Square test). The nature of feedback has an impact on the effectiveness of inhaler technique education with regard to correct inhaler technique maintenance over time.

  3. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  4. Repeated Measurement of Absolute and Relative Judgments of Loudness: Clinical Relevance for Prescriptive Fitting of Aided Target Gains for soft, Comfortable, and Loud, But Ok Sound Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Payne, JoAnne; Yang, Xin; Wu, Delphanie; Parton, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    This study was undertaken with the purpose of streamlining clinical measures of loudness growth to facilitate and enhance prescriptive fitting of nonlinear hearing aids. Repeated measures of loudness at 500 and 3,000 Hz were obtained bilaterally at monthly intervals over a 6-month period from three groups of young adult listeners. All volunteers had normal audiometric hearing sensitivity and middle ear function, and all denied problems related to sound tolerance. Group 1 performed judgments of soft and loud, but OK for presentation of ascending sound levels. We defined these judgments operationally as absolute judgments of loudness. Group 2 initially performed loudness judgments across a continuum of seven loudness categories ranging from judgments of very soft to uncomfortably loud for presentation of ascending sound levels per the Contour Test of Loudness; we defined these judgments as relative judgments of loudness. In the same session, they then performed the absolute judgments for soft and loud, but OK sound levels. Group 3 performed the same set of loudness judgments as did group 2, but the task order was reversed such that they performed the absolute judgments initially within each test session followed by the relative judgments. The key findings from this study were as follows: (1) Within group, the absolute and relative tasks yielded clinically similar judgments for soft and for loud, but OK sound levels. These judgments were largely independent of task order, ear, frequency, or trial order within a given session. (2) Loudness judgments increased, on average, by ∼3 dB between the first and last test session, which is consistent with the commonly reported acclimatization effect reported for incremental changes in loudness discomfort levels as a consequence of chronic bilateral hearing aid use. (3) Measured and predicted comfortable judgments of loudness were in good agreement for the individual listener and for groups of listeners. These comfortable

  5. Effects of Recent Stress and Variation in the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Depressive Symptoms: A Repeated-Measures Study of Adults Age 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Lee, Jinkook; Phillips, Drystan F; Crimmins, Eileen M; Levine, Morgan E; Prescott, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Depending on genetic sensitivity to it, stress may affect depressive symptomatology differentially. Applying the stress-diathesis hypothesis to older adults, we postulate: (1) recent stress will associate with increased depressive symptom levels and (2) this effect will be greater for individuals with at least one short allele of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Further, we employ a design that addresses specific limitations of many prior studies that have examined the 5-HTTLPR × SLE relation, by: (a) using a within-person repeated-measures design to address fluctuations that occur within individuals over time, increase power for detecting G × E, and address GE correlation; (b) studying reports of exogenous stressful events (those unlikely to be caused by depression) to help rule out reverse causation and negativity bias, and in order to assess stressors that are more etiologically relevant to depressive symptomatology in older adults. The sample is drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a U.S. population-based study of older individuals (N = 28,248; mean age = 67.5; 57.3 % female; 80.7 % Non-Hispanic White, 14.9 % Hispanic/Latino, 4.5 % African American; genetic subsample = 12,332), from whom measures of depressive symptoms and exogenous stressors were collected biannually (1994-2010). Variation in the 5-HTTLPR was characterized via haplotype, using two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ordered logit models were constructed to predict levels of depressive symptoms from 5-HTTLPR and stressors, comparing results of the most commonly applied statistical approaches (i.e., comparing allelic and genotypic models, and continuous and categorical predictors) used in the literature. All models were stratified by race/ethnicity. Overall, results show a main effect of recent stress for all ethnic groups, and mixed results for the variation in 5-HTTLPR × stress interaction, contingent upon statistical model used. Findings

  6. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  7. Association of Repeatedly Measured High-Sensitivity-Assayed Troponin I with Cardiovascular Disease Events in a General Population from the MORGAM/BiomarCaRE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Maria F; Ojeda, Francisco; Saarela, Olli

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentrations reflect myocardial stress. The role of hs-cTnI in predicting long-term changes in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations is not clearly defined. METHODS: We investigated whether the change in 3 repeated meas...

  8. Reproducibility of repeated measures of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl-D2) binding in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; MacGregor, Robert R.; Shea, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) using deuterium-substituted [ 11 C]L-deprenyl ([ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2) in normal subjects and to validate the method used for estimating the kinetic constants from the irreversible 3-compartment model applied to the tracer binding. Five normal healthy subjects (age range 23-73 years) each received two PET scans with [ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2. The time interval between scans was 7-27 days. Time-activity data from eight regions of interest and an arterial plasma input function was used to calculate λk 3 , a model term proportional to MAO B, and K 1 , the plasma to brain transfer constant that is related to blood flow. Linear (LIN) and nonlinear least-squares (NLLSQ) estimation methods were used to calculate the optimum model constants. A comparison of time-activity curves for scan 1 and scan 2 showed that the percent of change for peak uptake varied from -18.5 to 15.0% and that increases and decreases in uptake on scan 2 were associated with increases and decreases in the value of the arterial input of the tracer. Calculation of λk 3 showed a difference between scan 1 and scan 2 in the global value ranging between -6.97 and 4.5% (average -2.1±4.7%). The average percent change for eight brain regions for the five subjects was -2.84±7.07%. Values of λk 3 for scan 1 and scan 2 were highly correlated (r 2 =0.98; p 1 showed a significant correlation between scan 1 and scan 2 (r 2 =0.61; p 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2 varied between scan 1 and scan 2, driven by the differences in arterial tracer input. Application of a 3-compartment model to regional time-activity data and arterial input function yielded λk 3 values for scan 1 and scan 2 with an average difference of -2.84 ± 7.07%. Linear regression applied to values of λk 3 from the LIN and NLLSQ methods validated the use of the linear method for calculating λk 3

  9. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  10. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  11. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  12. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p implant/abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Método para estimar o tamanho amostral em análises de medidas repetidas Method to estimate sample size in repeated measurement analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO RIBEIRO DE FREITAS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar um método para estimar o número de indivíduos (n a ser utilizado em experimentos que envolvam análises multivariadas de medidas repetidas no tempo, avaliadas sobre a mesma unidade experimental. O método foi testado com dados de produção de leite com 10 controles mensais (t = 1, 2, ... , 10 ou condições de avaliação de vacas da raça Holandesa. As estimativas de n foram obtidas por meio de um programa desenvolvido no Statistical Analysis System (SAS, considerando distribuição normal t variada, vetor de média zero e matriz de covariância sigma, estatística T² de Hotelling e distribuição F com parâmetro de não-centralidade delta²delta. A ligação dos dados observados com o método é feita por meio da matriz de variância-covariância. Para t > 2 condições de avaliação, o método estima o valor de n que permite detectar diferença mínima significativa (delta entre médias de condições de avaliação, considerando diferentes níveis de erros do tipo I (alfa, poder do teste F (1-beta e delta. Para as 10 condições de avaliação consideradas, as estimativas de n variaram de 11 a 89, sendo mais influenciadas por variações na delta, seguidas de alfa e beta.The objective of this work was to evaluate a method to estimate the number of individuals (n to be used in experiments involving multivariate analyses of repeated measurements over time on the same experimental unit. The method was tested with data from milk production taken monthly up to complete 10 controls (t = 1, 2, ... , 10 or evaluation conditions of Holstein cows. The estimates of n were obtained by a SAS program considering a t-variate normal distribution, zero mean vector, and covariance matrix sigma, Hotelling T² statistical, F-distribution with noncentrality parameter delta²delta. The link of the observed data with the method is made by means of the variance-covariance matrix. The method estimates the value of n required

  14. Burnout as a risk factor for antidepressant treatment - a repeated measures time-to-event analysis of 2936 Danish human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Lange, Theis; Borritz, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is a state of emotional exhaustion, feelings of reduced personal accomplishment, and withdrawal from work thought to occur as a consequence of prolonged occupational stress. The condition is not included in the diagnostic classifications, but is considered likely to develop into depressive...... disorder in some cases. We examined the prospective association between burnout and antidepressant treatment, as an indicator of clinically significant mental disorder. We further investigated potential effect-modifiers of the association, to identify factors that may prevent this progression of burnout...... modeling, examining the risk of entering antidepressant treatment in relation to the level of work-related burnout measured by the Copenhagen Burnout inventory. As effect-modifiers we examined both sociodemographic factors and a range of psychosocial work environment factors. The level of burnout predicted...

  15. Career Oriented Mathematics, Student's Manual. [Includes Owning an Automobile and Driving as a Career; Retail Sales; Measurement; and Area-Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This volume includes student manuals for four units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program, which was developed to improve computational abilities and attitudes of secondary students by presenting the material in a job-relevant context. The units are titled: (1) Owning an Automobile and Driving as a Career, (2) Retail Sales, (3) Measurement,…

  16. Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  18. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  19. Calculated and measured stresses in simple panels subject to intense random acoustic loading including the near noise field of a turbojet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W

    1958-01-01

    Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.

  20. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  1. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  2. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  3. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  4. Change in income and change in self-rated health: Systematic review of studies using repeated measures to control for confounding bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Fiona Imlach; Carter, Kristie; Blakely, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that income is strongly and positively associated with health. However, much of the evidence supporting this assumption comes from cross-sectional data or analyses that have not fully accounted for biases from confounding and health selection (the reverse pathway from health to income). This paper reports results of a systematic review of panel and longitudinal studies investigating whether changes in income led to changes in self-rated health (SRH) in adults. A variety of electronic databases were searched, up until January 2010, and thirteen studies were included, using data from five different panel or longitudinal studies. The majority of studies found a small, positive and statistically significant association of income with SRH, which was much reduced after controlling for unmeasured confounders and/or health selection. Residual bias, particularly from measurement error, probably reduced this association to the null. Most studies investigated short-term associations between income and SRH or the effect of temporary (usually one year) income changes or shocks, so did not rule out possibly stronger associations between health and longer-term average income or income lagged over longer time periods. Nevertheless, the true causal short-term relationship between income and health, estimated by longitudinal studies of income change and SRH that control for confounding, may be much smaller than that suggested by previous, mostly cross-sectional, research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...... to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass......, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess...

  6. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  7. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  8. Measurement of area and personal breathing zone concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) during oil and gas extraction operations, including hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Eric J; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Snawder, John; Breitenstein, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing), and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four-year period from 2008-2012. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m 3 ; measurements ranged from 0.1-52 µg/m 3 . The geometric mean (GM) for the PBZ samples was 7 µg/m 3 . The AM of the TWA area measurements was 17 µg/m 3 and ranged from 0.1-68 µg/m 3 . The GM for the area measurements was 9.5 µg/m 3 . Differences between the GMs of the PBZ samples and area samples were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), NIOSH, nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established occupational exposure limits (OEL) for DPM. However, the State of California, Department of Health Services lists a time-weighted average (TWA) OEL for DPM as elemental carbon (EC) exposure of 20 µg/m 3 . Five of 49 (10.2%) PBZ TWA measurements exceeded the 20 µg/m 3 EC criterion. These measurements were collected on Sandmover and Transfer Belt (T-belt) Operators, Blender and Chemical Truck Operators, and Water Transfer Operators during hydraulic fracturing operations. Recommendations to minimize DPM exposures include elimination (locating diesel-driven pumps away from well sites), substitution, (use of alternative fuels), engineering controls using advanced emission control

  9. Prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: development of a multivariable model including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mheen, Lidewij; Schuit, Ewoud; Lim, Arianne C; Porath, Martina M; Papatsonis, Dimitri; Erwich, Jan J; van Eyck, Jim; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Hummel, Piet; Duvekot, Johannes J; Hasaart, Tom H M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Moons, Karl G M; de Groot, Christianne J M; Bruinse, Hein W; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-04-01

    To develop a multivariable prognostic model for the risk of preterm delivery in women with multiple pregnancy that includes cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and other variables. We used data from a previous randomized trial. We assessed the association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and time to delivery using multivariable Cox regression modelling. Performance of the final model was assessed for the outcomes of preterm and very preterm delivery using calibration and discrimination measures. We studied 507 women, of whom 270 (53%) delivered models for preterm and very preterm delivery had a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.75), respectively, and showed good calibration. In women with a multiple pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery can be assessed with a multivariable model incorporating cervical length and other predictors.

  10. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  11. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  12. Measuring synovial fluid procalcitonin levels in distinguishing cases of septic arthritis, including prosthetic joints, from other causes of arthritis and aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, K; Dryden, M; Sitjar, A; White, G

    2013-08-01

    Differentiating septic arthritis from non-septic arthritis can be challenging as the clinical pictures are similar and an efficacious diagnostic test is not yet available. Our objectives in this study were to establish if procalcitonin (PCT) could be reproducibly measured from synovial fluid, if there is a difference in synovial procalcitonin values between patients with septic and non-septic arthritis, respectively, including those with implants and to determine cut-off levels that could be used as a practical tool in the management of these conditions. Using a standard serum assay, synovial fluid PCT levels were measured retrospectively in 26 septic and 50 non-septic predefined arthritis cases. The reproducibility of synovial PCT was also assessed at various concentrations. Synovial PCT can be measured and is reproducible. In this cohort, statistically significant higher synovial PCT levels were found in cases of septic arthritis than in non-septic arthritis. Sensitivities, specificities and positive and negative predictive values varied at different cut-off levels. The test could be added to other microbiological and biochemical tests and may be used to supplement other clinical, radiological and laboratory findings in the assessment of patients with acute painful joints. In our cohort, findings of very high synovial PCT levels supported an infection process, including in prosthesis-related infections. The high negative predictive value of low synovial PCT levels could exclude infection in both native and prosthetic joints. Larger prospective studies are needed to further validate these results and to examine the cost effectiveness of synovial PCT.

  13. Effect on using repeated measurements of a Mediterranean style diet on the strength of the association with cadiovascular disease during 12 years: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In cohort studies, often only one baseline measurement of dietary intake is available. This may underestimate the strength of the association with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The main objective is to compare the strength of the association of a Mediterranean style diet with CVD using one baseline

  14. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (≥25-...Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...

  15. A Vignette (User’s Guide) for “An R Package for Statistical Analysis of Chemistry, Histopathology, and Reproduction Endpoints Including Repeated Measures and Multi-Generation Studies (StatCharrms).”

    Science.gov (United States)

    StatCharrms is a graphical user front-end for ease of use in analyzing data generated from OCSPP 890.2200, Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) and OCSPP 890.2300, Larval Amphibian Gonad Development Assay (LAGDA). The analyses StatCharrms is capable of perfor...

  16. Changing the size of a mirror-reflected hand moderates the experience of embodiment but not proprioceptive drift: a repeated measures study on healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G; Lloyd, Donna M; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-06-01

    Mirror visual feedback is used for reducing pain and visually distorting the size of the reflection may improve efficacy. The findings of studies investigating size distortion are inconsistent. The influence of the size of the reflected hand on embodiment of the mirror reflection is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of magnifying and minifying mirror reflections of the hand on embodiment measured using an eight-item questionnaire and on proprioceptive drift. During the experiment, participants (n = 45) placed their right hand behind a mirror and their left hand in front of a mirror. Participants watched a normal-sized, a magnified and a minified reflection of the left hand while performing synchronised finger movements for 3 min (adaptive phase). Measurements of embodiment were taken before (pre) and after (post) synchronous movements of the fingers of both hands (embodiment adaptive phase). Results revealed larger proprioceptive drift post-adaptive phase (p = 0.001). Participants agreed more strongly with questionnaire items associated with location, ownership and agency of the reflection of the hand post-adaptive phase (p embodiment of the reflection of the hand. Magnifying and minifying the reflection of the hand has little effect on proprioceptive drift, but it weakens the subjective embodiment experience. Such factors need to be taken into account in future studies using this technique, particularly when assessing mirror visual feedback for pain management.

  17. Repetibilidade e número mínimo de medições para caracteres de cacho de bacabi (Oenocarpus mapora Repeatability and minimum number of measurements for characters of bacabi palm (Oenocarpus mapora racemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    potential for commercial and food uses, but has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to estimate the repeatability coefficients, determine predictability and the number of measurements needed for raceme characters of this palm. 27 individuals of bacabi that belong to the Germplasm Bank of Oenocarpus/Jessenia at Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belém, PA, Brazil were evaluated. Three fully matured racemes from each plant were sampled to measure six characters: total weight of raceme (TWR and fruit weight per raceme (FWR, number of rachillae per raceme (NRR, rachis length per raceme (RLR, weight of 100 fruits (WHF and fruit yield per raceme (FER. The repeatability estimates were obtained by three statistical methods: analysis of variance; principal components; and structural analysis. For all characters, the estimates of repeatability coefficients presented values with very similar magnitudes in the three methods. The estimates of repeatability coefficients and determination coefficients were relatively high (r 0.60 and R2 81.7% for the characters FER and NRR, showing genotype regularity for these raceme measurements. For these characters, the minimum number of racemes necessary to estimate the true character value of the genotypes was thirteen (FER and five (NRR, with 95% reliability. The remaining characters showed repeatabilities and determination coefficients with medium to low values, indicating the need for better environmental control to make the measurements.

  18. Numerical efficiency calibration of in vivo measurement systems. Monte Carlo simulations of in vivo measurement scenarios for the detection of incorporated radionuclides, including validation, analysis of efficiency-sensitive parameters and customized anthropomorphic voxel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbart, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Detector efficiency calibration of in vivo bioassay measurements is based on physical anthropomorphic phantoms that can be loaded with radionuclides of the suspected incorporation. Systematic errors of traditional calibration methods can cause considerable over- or underestimation of the incorporated activity and hence the absorbed dose in the human body. In this work Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport problem are used. Virtual models of the in vivo measurement equipment used at the Institute of Radiation Research, including detectors and anthropomorphic phantoms have been developed. Software tools have been coded to handle memory intensive human models for the visualization, preparation and evaluation of simulations of in vivo measurement scenarios. The used tools, methods, and models have been validated. Various parameters have been investigated for their sensitivity on the detector efficiency to identify and quantify possible systematic errors. Measures have been implemented to improve the determination of the detector efficiency in regard to apply them in the routine of the in vivo measurement laboratory of the institute. A positioning system has been designed and installed in the Partial Body Counter measurement chamber to measure the relative position of the detector to the test person, which has been identified to be a sensitive parameter. A computer cluster has been set up to facilitate the Monte Carlo simulations and reduce computing time. Methods based on image registration techniques have been developed to transform existing human models to match with an individual test person. The measures and methods developed have improved the classic detector efficiency methods successfully. (orig.)

  19. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Effect of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haixia; Xu, Guihua; Gao, Honglian; Dong, Rongzhi; Fu, Hongjie; Wang, Danwen; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Preterm infants' repeated exposure to painful procedures may lead to negative consequences. Thus, non-pharmacological pain management is essential due to medication side effects. Kangaroo Mother Care, which aims at offering human care to neonates, has been established for the treatment of a single painful procedure, but the effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care across repeated painful procedures is unknown. To test the effectiveness of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated heel-stick pain in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at a large teaching hospital in northeast China. Preterm infants (gestational age less than 37 weeks) (n=80) were recruited and randomly assigned using a random table format to either an incubator group (n=40) or Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=40). Pain assessments were carried out during four routine heel stick procedures. For the first heel stick, preterm infants in each group received no intervention (routinely stayed in incubator). During the next three heel sticks, the infants in Kangaroo Mother Care group received heel sticks during Kangaroo Mother Care, while infants in the incubator group received heel sticks in incubator. The procedure of each heel stick included 3 phases: baseline, blood collection and recovery. Crying, grimacing and heart rate in response to pain were evaluated at each phase across four heel sticks by three trained independent observers who were blinded to the purpose of the study. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), with repeated measures at different evaluation phases of heel stick. 75 preterm infants completed the protocol. Between-group comparison revealed that preterm infants' heart rate was significantly lower, and the duration of crying and facial grimacing were both significantly shorter in the Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=38) than the incubator group (n=37) from the blood collection phase to recovery phase during repeated heel sticks. No

  1. Uncertainty in Measurement: A Review of Monte Carlo Simulation Using Microsoft Excel for the Calculation of Uncertainties Through Functional Relationships, Including Uncertainties in Empirically Derived Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more ‘constants’, each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived ‘constants’ must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional

  2. Uncertainty in measurement: a review of monte carlo simulation using microsoft excel for the calculation of uncertainties through functional relationships, including uncertainties in empirically derived constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more 'constants', each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived 'constants' must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional relationship

  3. Multiple imputation of completely missing repeated measures data within person from a complex sample: application to accelerometer data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benmei; Yu, Mandi; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P; Schenker, Nathaniel

    2016-12-10

    The Physical Activity Monitor component was introduced into the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to collect objective information on physical activity including both movement intensity counts and ambulatory steps. Because of an error in the accelerometer device initialization process, the steps data were missing for all participants in several primary sampling units, typically a single county or group of contiguous counties, who had intensity count data from their accelerometers. To avoid potential bias and loss in efficiency in estimation and inference involving the steps data, we considered methods to accurately impute the missing values for steps collected in the 2003-2004 NHANES. The objective was to come up with an efficient imputation method that minimized model-based assumptions. We adopted a multiple imputation approach based on additive regression, bootstrapping and predictive mean matching methods. This method fits alternative conditional expectation (ace) models, which use an automated procedure to estimate optimal transformations for both the predictor and response variables. This paper describes the approaches used in this imputation and evaluates the methods by comparing the distributions of the original and the imputed data. A simulation study using the observed data is also conducted as part of the model diagnostics. Finally, some real data analyses are performed to compare the before and after imputation results. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Unusual Structures Are Present in DNA Fragments Containing Super-Long Huntingtin CAG Repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzdevich, Daniel; Li, Jinliang; Whang, Jhoon; Takahashi, Hirohide; Takeyasu, Kunio; Dryden, David T. F.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD), expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM). As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I. Conclusions/Significance “Super-long” CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD. PMID:21347256

  5. Unusual structures are present in DNA fragments containing super-long Huntingtin CAG repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duzdevich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD, expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene.We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM. As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I."Super-long" CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD.

  6. Association of androgen receptor gene CAG and GGN repeat polymorphism with cryptorchidism: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Ge, Xing; Wang, Heng-Xue; Shi, Qiao-Mei; Ding, Zhen; Xu, Li-Chun

    2018-04-01

    Researches on association between variations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene repeat polymorphisms and cryptorchidism (CO) had conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyse the potential effects of AR CAG and/or GGN repeat polymorphism on CO. Studies were independently appraised by two investigators on PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO databases and Foreign Medical Retrieval System. Case-control studies with measurement of CAG and/or GGN repeat length were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the CAG or GGN repeat polymorphism and CO were calculated. Five reports were included in this analysis. Overall, no difference was identified between patients and fertile men in CAG repeat length. However, when the CO was divided into unilateral and bilateral, longer CAG repeat region was significantly associated with CO in bilateral group (WMD = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.01-1.47; p < .05). In addition, GGN lengths were significantly higher in patients compared with those in controls (WMD = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.28-2.06; p < .05). No obvious effect was found in the GGN length when compared unilateral or bilateral group with control respectively. The results in this meta-analysis indicated that AR CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms may be an important pathogenesis of CO. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  8. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  9. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El Sawy, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  11. NMR measurement system including two synchronized ring buffers, with 128 rf coils for in situ water monitoring in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Masaru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Morisaka, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Seitaro

    2017-01-01

    A small radio-frequency (rf) coil inserted into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) can be used to acquire nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the water in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) or in oxygen gas channels in the PEFC. Measuring the spatial distribution of the water in a large PEFC requires using many rf probes, so an NMR measurement system which acquires NMR signals from 128 rf probes at intervals of 0.5 s was manufactured. The system has eight rf transceiver units with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for modulation of the excitation pulse and quadrature phase detection of the NMR signal, and one control unit with two ring buffers for data control. The sequence data required for the NMR measurement were written into one ring buffer. The acquired NMR signal data were then written temporarily into the other ring buffer and then were transmitted to a personal computer (PC). A total of 98 rf probes were inserted into the PEFC that had an electrical generation area of 16 cm × 14 cm, and the water generated in the PEFC was measured when the PEFC operated at 100 A. As a result, time-dependent changes in the spatial distribution of the water content in the MEA and the water in the oxygen gas channels were obtained.

  12. Análise de medidas repetidas na avaliação de clones de café 'Conilon' Repeated measure analysis in the clonal evaluation in 'Conilon' coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cecon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produção de 50 clones de café 'Conilon' (Coffea canephora, por meio da análise de medidas repetidas, para identificá-los e agrupá-los para a formação de variedades mais produtivas e, simultaneamente, modelar possíveis oscilações da produção ao longo do tempo. A influência de ciclos produtivos foi considerada, tendo-se modelado as correlações existentes entre anos subseqüentes, de forma eficiente, por meio da metodologia de análise de medidas repetidas, para avaliar produções dos materiais genéticos em cinco safras (1997 a 2001, o que possibilitou captar oscilações anuais na produção, ao longo do ciclo produtivo de C. canephora, relacionadas às maiores produções no terceiro e quarto anos. Além disso, a análise de grupo classificou os 50 materiais avaliados em apenas 10 grupos, de acordo com o padrão de oscilação da produção identificado pelo modelo de regressão adotado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of fifty clonal varieties coffee 'Conilon' (Coffea canephora, through the repeated measure methodology in order to identify and cluster them to obtain more productive genetic materials and to model, simultaneously, the correlation between subsequent years. The influence of productive cycles was efficiently regarded in the analysis by modeling the correlations between successive records of the genetic materials of five years (1997 to 2001, through this statistical methodology. The repeated measure analysis showed annual oscillations over the cycles of C. canephora, related to the largest productions in the third and forth years. Moreover, the cluster analysis grouped the 50 clones into 10 groups, according to standard production oscillations identified through the adopted regression model.

  13. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  14. REPEAT KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney transplantation is the best approach of renal replacement therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease that significantly improves the quality and length of life. Advances in the field of organ donation, immunosuppression, transplant surgery and immunology have improved short-term graft and patient survival. But the long-term graft survival remains static over last two decades. The disparity between low graft and high patient long-term survival led to increasing number of transplant recipients with failed grafts. Repeat renal transplant is presumed to be a good option for many patients losing their grafts, but it is associated with higher complication rates. Unfortunately, there are no evidence-based recommendations or guidelines for renal retransplantation procedure. This review is based on 100 scientifi c publications related to various aspects of the kidney retransplantation and provides the recent data on this matter.

  15. Subjective and objective measurement of the intelligibility of synthesized speech impaired by the very low bit rate STANAG 4591 codec including packet loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Počta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the intelligibility of speech coded by the STANAG 4591 standard codec, including packet loss, using synthesized speech input. Both subjective and objective assessments are used. It is shown that this codec significantly degrades intelligibility when compared to a standard

  16. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  17. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  19. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  20. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40 K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40 K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40 K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system for 12-24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems. (author)

  1. Assessment of the Variation Associated with Repeated Measurement of Gastrointestinal Transit Times and Assessment of the Effect of Oral Ranitidine on Gastrointestinal Transit Times Using a Wireless Motility Capsule System in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Lidbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the variation associated with repeated measurement of gastrointestinal (GI transit times and the effect of oral ranitidine on GI transit times in healthy dogs using a wireless motility capsule (WMC system. Eight privately owned healthy adult dogs were enrolled, and one developed diarrhea and was removed from the study. For the first 3 repetitions, each dog was fed a standard meal followed by oral administration of a WMC. For the 4th repetition, each dog was given ranitidine hydrochloride (75 mg PO every 12 hours prior to and during assessment of GI transit times. Mean between-subject coefficients of variation for gastric emptying time (GET, small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT, and total transit time (TTT were 26.9%, 32.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. Mean within-subject coefficients of variation for GET, SLBTT, and TTT were 9.3%, 19.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT without ranitidine were 719, 1,636, and 2,735 minutes, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT with ranitidine were 757, 1,227, and 2,083 minutes, respectively. No significant differences in GI transit times were found between any of the 4 repetitions. Under these experimental conditions, no significant effects of oral ranitidine on GI transit times were observed.

  2. Sorption of Sr, Co and Zn on illite: Batch experiments and modelling including Co in-diffusion measurements on compacted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental investigations on the uptake of divalent cations (Sr, Co and Zn) onto illite (Illite du Puy, Le-Puy-en-Velay, France) were carried out by three different international research groups (Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, KIT (Germany), Group Waste & Disposal, SCK-CEN, (Belgium) and Laboratory for Waste Management, PSI (Switzerland)) in the framework of the European FP7 CatClay project. The dependence of solid-liquid distribution ratios (Rd values) on pH at trace metal conditions (sorption edges) and on the metal ion concentration (sorption isotherms) was determined in dilute suspensions of homo-ionic Na-illite (Na-IdP) under controlled N2 atmosphere. The experimental results were modelled using the 2 Site Protolysis Non Electrostatic Surface Complexation and Cation Exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model. The sorption of Sr depends strongly on ionic strength, while a rather weak pH dependence is observed in a pH range between 3 and 11. The data were modelled with cation exchange reactions, taking into account competition with H, K, Ca, Mg and Al, and surface complexation on weak amphotheric edge sites at higher pH values. The sorption of Co on Na-IdP, however, is strongly pH dependent. Cation exchange on the planar sites and surface complexation on strong and weak amphoteric edge sites were used to describe the Co sorption data. Rd values for Co derived from in-diffusion measurements on compacted Na-IdP samples (bulk-dry density of 1700 kg m-3) between pH 5.0 and 9.0 are in good agreement with the batch sorption data. The equivalence of both approaches to measure sorption was thus confirmed for the present test system. In addition, the results highlight the importance of both major and minor surface species for the diffusive transport behaviour of strongly sorbing metal cations. While surface complexes at the edge sites determine largely the Rd value, the diffusive flux may be governed by those species bound to the planar sites, even at low fractional

  3. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  4. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  5. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  6. Digital genotyping of macrosatellites and multicopy genes reveals novel biological functions associated with copy number variation of large tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachary, Manisha; Guilmatre, Audrey; Quilez, Javier; Hasson, Dan; Borel, Christelle; Warburton, Peter; Sharp, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    Tandem repeats are common in eukaryotic genomes, but due to difficulties in assaying them remain poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Nanostring technology as a targeted approach to perform accurate measurement of tandem repeats even at extremely high copy number, and apply this technology to genotype 165 HapMap samples from three different populations and five species of non-human primates. We observed extreme variability in copy number of tandemly repeated genes, with many loci showing 5-10 fold variation in copy number among humans. Many of these loci show hallmarks of genome assembly errors, and the true copy number of many large tandem repeats is significantly under-represented even in the high quality 'finished' human reference assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that most large tandem repeat variations are not tagged by nearby SNPs, and are therefore essentially invisible to SNP-based GWAS approaches. Using association analysis we identify many cis correlations of large tandem repeat variants with nearby gene expression and DNA methylation levels, indicating that variations of tandem repeat length are associated with functional effects on the local genomic environment. This includes an example where expansion of a macrosatellite repeat is associated with increased DNA methylation and suppression of nearby gene expression, suggesting a mechanism termed "repeat induced gene silencing", which has previously been observed only in transgenic organisms. We also observed multiple signatures consistent with altered selective pressures at tandemly repeated loci, suggesting important biological functions. Our studies show that tandemly repeated loci represent a highly variable fraction of the genome that have been systematically ignored by most previous studies, copy number variation of which can exert functionally significant effects. We suggest that future studies of tandem repeat loci will lead to many novel insights into their role in modulating

  7. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Izumida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m and post-flood (resolution: 1 m aerial light detection and ranging (lidar data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10−1 m – including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works – were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300–500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  8. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  9. Striatal and extrastriatal atrophy in Huntington's disease and its relationship with length of the CAG repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Ruocco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects the striatum most severely. However, except for juvenile forms, relative preservation of the cerebellum has been reported. The objective of the present study was to perform MRI measurements of caudate, putamen, cerebral, and cerebellar volumes and correlate these findings with the length of the CAG repeat and clinical parameters. We evaluated 50 consecutive patients with HD using MRI volumetric measurements and compared them to normal controls. Age at onset of the disease ranged from 4 to 73 years (mean: 43.1 years. The length of the CAG repeat ranged from 40 to 69 (mean: 47.2 CAG. HD patients presented marked atrophy of the caudate and putamen, as well as reduced cerebellar and cerebral volumes. There was a significant correlation between age at onset of HD and length of the CAG repeat, as well as clinical disability and age at onset. The degree of basal ganglia atrophy correlated with the length of the CAG repeat. There was no correlation between cerebellar or cerebral volume and length of the CAG repeat. However, there was a tendency to a positive correlation between duration of disease and cerebellar atrophy. While there was a negative correlation of length of the CAG repeat with age at disease onset and with striatal degeneration, its influence on extrastriatal atrophy, including the cerebellum, was not clear. Extrastriatal atrophy occurs later in HD and may be related to disease duration.

  10. Learning in repeated visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-07-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embedded among repeated distractors. To make the task more challenging, some participants performed search for multiple targets, increasing demands on visual working memory (WM). Following search, memory for search distractors was assessed using a surprise two-alternative forced choice recognition memory test with semantically matched foils. Search performance was facilitated by distractor object learning and by spatial memory; it was most robust when object identity was consistently tied to spatial locations and weakest (or absent) when object identities were inconsistent across trials. Incidental memory for distractors was better among participants who searched under high WM load, relative to low WM load. These results were observed when visual search included exhaustive-search trials (Experiment 1) or when all trials were self-terminating (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, stimulus exposure was equated across WM load groups by presenting objects in a single-object stream; recognition accuracy was similar to that in Experiments 1 and 2. Together, the results suggest that people incidentally generate memory for nontarget objects encountered during search and that such memory can facilitate search performance.

  11. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. A path-following driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics, including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering angle overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David J.

    2012-04-01

    An existing driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha-gamma co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver's reflex response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance. The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input. Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results highlight the significance of a driver's neuromuscular dynamics in determining the vehicle response to disturbances.

  14. Constraining carbonaceous aerosol sources in a receptor model by including 14C data with redox species, organic tracers, and elemental/organic carbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Offenberg, John H.; Olson, David A.; Jaoui, Mohammed; Krug, Jonathan; Lewandowski, Michael; Turlington, John M.; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.

    2013-12-01

    Sources of carbonaceous PM2.5 were quantified in downtown Cleveland, OH and Chippewa Lake, OH located ∼40 miles southwest of Cleveland during the Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS). PM2.5 filter samples were collected daily during July-August 2009 and February 2010 to establish the seasonal emission patterns from local and regional sources. Radiocarbon (14C), redox species (NOx, SO2 and ozone), 28 primary and secondary organic aerosol tracers, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) measurements were analyzed using the EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. Five sources were identified at each site: mobile sources, fossil fuel combustion from fuels containing sulfur, local biomass combustion, other combustion (regional biomass, waste, meat, coal), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). 14C data were incorporated in the PMF analysis as a novel method to obtain the modern carbon fraction (fmod) of each source individually which aided all factor interpretations. SOA was the principal carbon source during summer as shown by the PMF analysis and a separate tracer based mass fraction method while biomass burning and other combustion sources were dominant in winter. Elevated levels of EC and fossilized carbon in downtown Cleveland are primarily attributed to increased mobile source and coal combustion emissions.

  15. LHCb: Measurements of the relative branching fractions of the decay channel $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ including charmonium contributions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The study of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel at LHCb is of great interest since it gives the possibility to study different aspects of the Standard Model and possibly Beyond Standard Model physics. A measurement of the direct CP asymmetry can be performed. Moreover intermediate states such as charmonium and "charmonium-like" resonances in the $p \\bar{p}$ final state can be observed and studied along with their characteristics. A multivariate selection has been implemented to select the interesting events using kinematic and topological variables and the particle identification information using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The selection has a high signal efficiency and high background rejection capability. The ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel, of the charmless component with $M_{p \\bar{p}} < 2.85 \\,{\\rm GeV/}c^{2}$ and of the charmonium contribution $\\eta_{c}$, ${\\mathcal B} (B^{\\pm}\\to \\eta_{c} K^{\\pm})\\times {\\mathcal B} (\\eta...

  16. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 are reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  18. The repeatability of automated and clinician refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, M A; Fusaro, R E; Adams, C W

    1998-08-01

    Auto-refractors are used as a starting point for clinicians' refractions and in studies of refractive error. We investigated the repeatability of the Hoya AR-570 and clinician refraction. Eighty-six subjects, aged 11 to 60 years, were recruited by mailing inquiries to 500 randomly selected patients who had received recent examinations at the University of California Optometric Eye Center. Contact lens wearers, patients with best corrected visual acuity worse than 20/30 in either eye, and patients with a history of diabetes were excluded. Each subject was examined by two clinicians during one visit. The first clinician obtained five auto-refractor readings for each eye (which were later averaged), performed a balanced subjective refraction (with spherical masking lenses in the phoropter), and repeated the automated refractor measurements. This protocol was then repeated by the second clinician. Clinicians were randomized with regard to testing order and masked to automated refractor results, each other's refractions, and previous spectacle prescriptions. To quantify repeatability, we used mixed model analyses of variance to estimate the appropriate variance components while accounting for the correlation among, for example, repeated measurements of the same eye. Astigmatic data were analyzed by converting into Fourier form: two cross-cylinders at axis 0 degrees (J0) and axis 45 degrees (J45). For mean spherical equivalent, the average difference between five averaged automated refractor readings, taken by two different optometrists, was +0.02 D (95% limits of agreement = -0.36 to +0.40 D). The average difference between the two optometrists' subjective refractions was -0.12 D (95% limits of agreement = -0.90 to +0.65 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the automated refractor were about half those of the clinician for both astigmatic terms (J0 and J45) and for all comparisons. Automated refraction is more repeatable than subjective refraction and therefore more

  19. Repeatability of Standardized and Normalized Relative CBV in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, M A; Stufflebeam, S M; Paulson, E S; Kalpathy-Cramer, J; Gerstner, E R; Batchelor, T T; Barboriak, D P; Rosen, B R; Schmainda, K M

    2015-09-01

    For more widespread clinical use advanced imaging methods such as relative cerebral blood volume must be both accurate and repeatable. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of relative CBV measurements in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme by using several of the most commonly published estimation techniques. The relative CBV estimates were calculated from dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging in double-baseline examinations for 33 patients with treatment-naïve and pathologically proved glioblastoma multiforme (men = 20; mean age = 55 years). Normalized and standardized relative CBV were calculated by using 6 common postprocessing methods. The repeatability of both normalized and standardized relative CBV, in both tumor and contralateral brain, was examined for each method with metrics of repeatability, including the repeatability coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation. The minimum sample size required to detect a parameter change of 10% or 20% was also determined for both normalized relative CBV and standardized relative CBV for each estimation method. When ordered by the repeatability coefficient, methods using postprocessing leakage correction and ΔR2*(t) techniques offered superior repeatability. Across processing techniques, the standardized relative CBV repeatability in normal-appearing brain was comparable with that in tumor (P = .31), yet inferior in tumor for normalized relative CBV (P = .03). On the basis of the within-subject coefficient of variation, tumor standardized relative CBV estimates were less variable (13%-20%) than normalized relative CBV estimates (24%-67%). The minimum number of participants needed to detect a change of 10% or 20% is 118-643 or 30-161 for normalized relative CBV and 109-215 or 28-54 for standardized relative CBV. The ΔR2* estimation methods that incorporate leakage correction offer the best repeatability for relative CBV, with standardized relative CBV being less variable and

  20. Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Hackel, Josh; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Nicholls, Mathew

    2018-01-31

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commonly prescribed intra-articular (IA) therapy for knee osteoarthritis (OA). While a single series of IA-HA has been well studied, the efficacy and safety of repeated courses of IA-HA injection therapy in knee OA patients have not been evaluated as frequently. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed databases. The primary outcome measure was knee pain reduction after each treatment course and/or last reported follow-up visit. Secondary outcomes were treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). A total of 17 articles (7 RCTs and 10 cohort studies) met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Of the RCTs, six were double-blind with two trials including open label extension studies, and one was single-blind. Studies ranged from investigating a single reinjection cycle to four repeat injection cycles. Eleven studies evaluated one reinjection, five studies evaluated ≥2 repeated courses of IA-HA, and one study allowed either one or two repeated courses. All studies reported pain reduction from baseline in the IA-HA treatment group throughout the initial treatment cycle, and either sustained or further reduced pain throughout the repeated courses of treatment. The study with the longest follow-up repeated IA-HA injection every 6 months for 25 months. Pain decreased after the first course and continued to decrease until the end of the study, with an approximate 55% reduction in pain compared to baseline. Common AEs were joint swelling and arthralgia; there were no reported SAEs. All repeated courses were well tolerated, and the number of documented AEs and SAEs was similar to the primary injection regimens. Repeated courses of IA-HA injections are an effective and safe treatment for knee OA. Repeat courses were demonstrated to maintain or further improve pain reduction while introducing no increased safety risk. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  2. Repeatability of a Commercially Available Adaptive Optics Visual Simulator and Aberrometer in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Kochar, Shruti; Grover, Tushar; Khamar, Pooja; Kusumgar, Pallak; Sainani, Kanchan; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of aberration measurement obtained by a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer combined with a visual adaptive optics simulator in normal and keratoconic eyes. One hundred fifteen normal eyes and 92 eyes with grade I and II keratoconus, as per the Amsler-Krumeich classification, were included in the study. To evaluate the repeatability, three consecutive measurements of ocular aberrations were obtained by a single operator. Zernike analyses up to the 5th order for a pupil size of 4.5 mm were performed. Statistical analyses included the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject standard deviation (SD). For intrasession repeatability, the ICC value for sphere and cylinder was 0.94 and 0.93 in normal eyes and 0.98 and 0.97 in keratoconic eyes, respectively. The ICC for root mean square of higher order aberrations (HOA RMS ) was 0.82 in normal and 0.98 in keratoconic eyes. For 3rd order aberrations (trefoil and coma), the ICC values were greater than 0.87 for normal eyes and greater than 0.92 for keratoconic eyes. The ICC for spherical aberration was 0.92 and 0.90 in normal and keratoconic eyes, respectively. Visual adaptive optics provided repeatable aberrometry data in both normal and keratoconic eyes. For most of the parameters, the repeatability in eyes with early keratoconus was somewhat better than that for normal eyes. The repeatability of the Zernike terms was acceptable for 3rd order (trefoil and coma) and spherical aberrations. Therefore, visual adaptive optics was a suitable tool to perform repeatable aberrometric measurements. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):769-772.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  4. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic...

  5. 重複觀測量數之分析:多群體多變項線性成長模式的估計Data Analysis of Repeated Measures: Estimating a Multi-Group Multivariate Linear Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    溫福星 Fur-Hsing Wen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用「台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫」的一般分析能力與數學分析能力的四波調查結果,配合男、女學生樣本進行多群體多條追蹤資料的線性成長模式估計。在考慮重複觀測資料誤差項在不同時點的變異數非同質與不同時點間的共變數非獨立情況下,以及男、女學生的不同成長軌跡,將誤差項結構設為無限制結構,利用虛擬變項交互項法與虛擬變項多樣本法同時估計不同性別、不同能力的線性成長軌跡變化。由於全部追蹤資料樣本存在遺失值的情形,本研究以階層線性模式(hierarchical linear modeling, HLM)軟體對完整資料2,806位學生進行分析,其估計結果發現,在完整資料的兩條成長軌跡模式中,男、女學生誤差項共變異數矩陣結構相同,但線性成長軌跡不恆等。除此之外,本文並對競爭模式比較的結果在文章最後進行討論並提出相關的建議。 This paper demonstrates the data analysis of the repeated measures from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. Based on the four data waves on the TEPS, we consider two abilities (general and mathematic and two population groups (male and female students to construct a multi-group multivariate linear growth model. Because the two-group multivariate repeated measures belong to the different populations and the different research variables, the residual terms of linear growth models may imply heterogeneity of the error covariance structure. We treat the error covariance structure as an unrestricted structure to compare the various types of models. The results from the HLM on the complete data (2,806 students reveal that the male and female students in this study have the same error covariance structure but have distinct linear growth trajectories. In addition, comparisons of the competitive models and related suggestions are discussed in the results and conclusion

  6. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel David; Hutson, Kelda Nadine

    2014-07-01

    A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. Anat Rec, 297:1228-1249, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  8. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  9. Validity, reliability and utility of the Irish Nursing Minimum Data Set for General Nursing in investigating the effectiveness of nursing interventions in a general nursing setting: A repeated measures design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roisin; Matthews, Anne; Scott, Anne P

    2014-04-01

    Internationally, nursing professionals are coming under increasing pressure to highlight the contribution they make to health care and patient outcomes. Despite this, difficulties exist in the provision of quality information aimed at describing nursing work in sufficient detail. The Irish Minimum Data Set for General Nursing is a new nursing data collection system aimed at highlighting the contribution of nursing to patient care. The objectives of this study were to investigate the construct validity and internal reliability of the Irish Nursing Minimum Data Set for General Nursing and to assess its usefulness in measuring the mediating effects of nursing interventions on patient well-being for a group of short stay medical and surgical patients. This was a quantitative study using a repeated measures design. Participants sampled came from both general surgery and general medicine wards in 6 hospitals throughout the Republic of Ireland. Nurses took on the role of data collectors. Nurses participating in the study were qualified, registered nurses engaged in direct patient care. Because the unit of analysis for this study was the patient day, patient numbers were considered in estimations of sample size requirements. A total of 337 usable Nursing Minimum Data Set booklets were collected. The construct validity of the tool was established using exploratory factor analysis with a Promax rotation and Maximum Likelihood extraction. Internal reliability was established using the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Path analysis was used to assess the mediating effects of nursing interventions on patient well-being. The results of the exploratory factor analysis and path analysis met the criteria for an appropriate model fit. All Cronbach Alpha scores were above .7. The overall findings of the study inferred that the Irish Nursing Minimum Data for General Nursing possessed construct validity and internal reliability. The study results also inferred the potential of the tool in

  10. Coding repeats and evolutionary "agility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburet, Sandrine; Cocquet, Julie; Vaiman, Daniel; Veitia, Reiner A

    2005-06-01

    The rapid generation of new shapes observed in the living world is the result of genetic variation, especially in "morphological" developmental genes. Many of these genes contain coding tandem repeats. Fondon and Garner have shown that expansions and contractions of these repeats are associated with the great diversity of morphologies observed in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. In particular, they found that the repeat variations in two genes were significantly associated with changes in limb and skull morphology. These results open the possibility that such a mechanism contributes to the diversity of life.

  11. Thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy: which nodules should be considered for repeat biopsy or surgery rather than follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Na Lae; Chang, Hang Seok; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Jun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi Ri [Dept. of Radiology, Dongjak Kyunghee Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ah Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the “number of suspicious findings” between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of “two or more suspicious findings” can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.

  12. Fine-Resolution Repeat Topographic Surveying of Dryland Landscapes Using UAS-Based Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry: Assessing Accuracy and Precision against Traditional Ground-Based Erosion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aircraft system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and hig...

  13. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  14. Thermal stability of chicken brain α-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Annette K.; Kieffer, Bruno; Travé, Gilles; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Raae, Arnt J.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin α-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of ∆G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, 15 N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  15. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  16. Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease: dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    alternative to double-stranded DNA (table 2). These include single-stranded hairpins, triplex and quadruplex. DNA, and slipped-strand DNA. Studies have also con- firmed that the formation of alternative structures occurs in trinucleotide repeat sequences. Linear DNA molecules containing triplet repeats have unusual ...

  17. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  18. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  19. Avaliação do desempenho zootécnico de genótipos de frangos de corte utilizando-se a análise de medidas repetidas Performance evaluation of broiler genotypes by repeated measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar genótipos de frangos de corte por meio do desempenho zootécnico utilizando-se medidas repetidas. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro genótipos (A, B, C e D e dois sexos avaliados em seis idades (7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo médio de alimento (CONS, peso vivo médio (PV e conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos incompletos desbalanceados, em esquema fatorial 4x2 nas parcelas experimentais, com seis medidas realizadas no decorrer do experimento. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do procedimento MIXED do SAS®, sendo testadas cinco estruturas de variância e covariância do erro. As médias foram estimadas por quadrados mínimos e comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer. Foram estimadas funções de resposta quadrática para CONS e CA e Gompertz para PV e seus respectivos coeficientes de determinação, pelo procedimento NLIN do SAS®. Detectaram-se efeitos de algumas interações triplas ou duplas para todas as variáveis. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre genótipos dentro de cada idade e sexo para CONS e PV e para CA entre genótipos e sexos, dentro de cada idade, apenas aos 42 e a partir dos 21 dias, respectivamente. Constatou-se que o genótipo D, apesar de apresentar maiores médias de CONS e PV, não mostrou menor CA, que foi verificada nos genótipos C e B. As funções de resposta estimadas explicaram adequadamente cada variável em função da idade, constatando-se que o CONS e PV dos machos do genótipo D foram maiores a partir dos 14 dias e dos 28 aos 42 dias, distinguindo este tratamento dos demais. A melhor CA foi verificada nos machos e no genótipo C. É possível avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte por medidas repetidas, sendo que os genótipos B e C apresentaram melhor desempenho zootécnico.The objetive of this study was to evaluate the performance of broiler genotypes using repeated measurements

  20. Repeatability of pachymetric mapping using fourier domain optical coherence tomography in corneas with opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy El Gendy, Nehal M; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) pachymetric mapping in patients with corneal opacities and to assess the reliability of Fourier domain OCT with 830 nm wavelength as a pachymetric measurement tool in opaque corneas. A Fourier domain OCT system was used to map the corneal thickness of patients with corneal scars or dystrophy. A retrospective study of a consecutive series was conducted. The repeatability was measured using pooled standard deviation of repeated measurements. A slit-scanning tomography device provided pachymetric mapping for comparison. Seventeen eyes of 12 patients with corneal scars (7 trauma and 3 post infection) or dystrophy (2 Reis-Bucklers and 5 granular dystrophy) were included. The posterior corneal boundary was detectable in all cases. The average corneal thickness measured by OCT was 536 ± 89 μm in central 2 mm area, 553 ± 76 μm in pericentral 2- to 5-mm area, and 508 ± 93 μm for the minimum corneal thickness. The slit-scanning tomography central corneal thickness, 433 ± 111 μm, was significantly lower than OCT readings (mean difference -91.1 ± 33.3 μm, P = 0.002). Repeatability of the OCT measurements was 2.1 μm centrally and 1.2 μm pericentrally. Pachymetric mapping with Fourier domain OCT was highly repeatable. Fourier domain OCT is a reliable pachymetric tool in opaque corneas. In comparison, corneal thickness measured by the slit-scanning tomography is significantly thinner than those measured by the Fourier domain OCT in the presence of corneal opacities.

  1. R-loops: targets for nuclease cleavage and repeat instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2018-01-11

    R-loops form when transcribed RNA remains bound to its DNA template to form a stable RNA:DNA hybrid. Stable R-loops form when the RNA is purine-rich, and are further stabilized by DNA secondary structures on the non-template strand. Interestingly, many expandable and disease-causing repeat sequences form stable R-loops, and R-loops can contribute to repeat instability. Repeat expansions are responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and several types of ataxias. Recently, it was found that R-loops at an expanded CAG/CTG repeat tract cause DNA breaks as well as repeat instability (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Two factors were identified as causing R-loop-dependent breaks at CAG/CTG tracts: deamination of cytosines and the MutLγ (Mlh1-Mlh3) endonuclease, defining two new mechanisms for how R-loops can generate DNA breaks (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Following R-loop-dependent nicking, base excision repair resulted in repeat instability. These results have implications for human repeat expansion diseases and provide a paradigm for how RNA:DNA hybrids can cause genome instability at structure-forming DNA sequences. This perspective summarizes mechanisms of R-loop-induced fragility at G-rich repeats and new links between DNA breaks and repeat instability.

  2. Postural and dynamic masseter and anterior temporalis muscle EMG repeatability in serial assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvinen, T I; Malmberg, J; Forster, C; Kemppainen, P

    2009-11-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) assessment has been used as a non-invasive tool to objectively assess muscle function, although with controversial research and clinical potential. The aim of this study was to assess within-, inter-subject and between-day repeatability of serial EMG recordings. The study sample included 10 asymptomatic subjects with no history of temporomandibular disorders or muscle parafunctions. Bilateral masseter and anterior temporalis muscle EMG parameters were assessed in two standardized serial recordings (day 1 to day 2) using a portable EMG equipment (ME 6000 recorder, Mega Electronics, Kuopio, Finland). The functional tasks included postural/resting activities as pre- and post-recording series of 30 s each and jaw opening/closing, intercuspal and maximal voluntary clenching activities of 5 s, repeated three times. The assessed EMG parameters included the mean amplitude, s.d. and error. In addition, the power spectrum EMG parameter assessment included the median power frequencies and the averaged EMG spectrum data values. The results of the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis indicated reliability for nearly all of the intercuspal and all clenching EMG amplitude and power spectrum parameters. This was complemented by the repeated measures anova and post hoc analyses that indicated non-significant differences between day 1 and 2 in task- and muscle-related analyses. Most variability was noted in postural and some in opening/closing tasks. In conclusion this study assessed the reliability, repeatability and limitations of postural and various dynamic masseter and temporalis EMG recordings for serial assessment.

  3. Chromosomal rearrangements occurred repeatedly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, molecular and/or chromosomal data indicate that Paroedura is a monophyletic genus, in which chromosome rearrangements occurred repeatedly and independently during the specific diversification. Moreover both P. bastardi and P. gracilis in current definitions are paraphyletic assemblages of several ...

  4. Sequencing Games with Repeated Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Calleja, P.; Hamers, H.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of one machine sequencing situations are considered in which each job corresponds to exactly one player but a player may have more than one job to be processed, so called RP(repeated player) sequencing situations. In max-RP sequencing situations it is assumed that each player's cost

  5. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  6. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  7. The Beast of Aggregating Cognitive Load Measures in Technology-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Jimmie; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing part of cognitive load research in technology-based learning includes a component of repeated measurements, that is: participants are measured two or more times on the same performance, mental effort or other variable of interest. In many cases, researchers aggregate scores obtained from repeated measurements to one single sum or…

  8. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  9. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  10. What Can We Learn From Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Values Deleted and Repeated by Nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corl, Dawn; Yin, Tom; Ulibarri, May; Lien, Heather; Tylee, Tracy; Chao, Jing; Wisse, Brent E

    2018-03-01

    Hospitals rely on point-of-care (POC) blood glucose (BG) values to guide important decisions related to insulin administration and glycemic control. Evaluation of POC BG in hospitalized patients is associated with measurement and operator errors. Based on a previous quality improvement (QI) project we introduced an option for operators to delete and repeat POC BG values suspected as erroneous. The current project evaluated our experience with deleted POC BG values over a 2-year period. A retrospective QI project included all patients hospitalized at two regional academic medical centers in the Pacific Northwest during 2014 and 2015. Laboratory Medicine POC BG data were reviewed to evaluate all inpatient episodes of deleted and repeated POC BG. Inpatient operators choose to delete and repeat only 0.8% of all POC BG tests. Hypoglycemic and extreme hyperglycemic BG values are more likely to be deleted and repeated. Of initial values values (18% of all values) are errors. Of values >400 mg/dL, 40% of deleted values (5% of all values) are errors. Not all repeated POC BG values are first deleted. Optimal use of the option to delete and repeat POC BG values values that are measurement/operator errors. Eliminating these errors significantly reduces documented rates of severe hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and has the potential to improve patient safety.

  11. Disease-associated repeat instability and mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monika H M; Pearson, Christopher E

    2016-02-01

    Expanded tandem repeat sequences in DNA are associated with at least 40 human genetic neurological, neurodegenerative, and neuromuscular diseases. Repeat expansion can occur during parent-to-offspring transmission, and arise at variable rates in specific tissues throughout the life of an affected individual. Since the ongoing somatic repeat expansions can affect disease age-of-onset, severity, and progression, targeting somatic expansion holds potential as a therapeutic target. Thus, understanding the factors that regulate this mutation is crucial. DNA repair, in particular mismatch repair (MMR), is the major driving force of disease-associated repeat expansions. In contrast to its anti-mutagenic roles, mammalian MMR curiously drives the expansion mutations of disease-associated (CAG)·(CTG) repeats. Recent advances have broadened our knowledge of both the MMR proteins involved in disease repeat expansions, including: MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, and MLH3, as well as the types of repeats affected by MMR, now including: (CAG)·(CTG), (CGG)·(CCG), and (GAA)·(TTC) repeats. Mutagenic slipped-DNA structures have been detected in patient tissues, and the size of the slip-out and their junction conformation can determine the involvement of MMR. Furthermore, the formation of other unusual DNA and R-loop structures is proposed to play a key role in MMR-mediated instability. A complex correlation is emerging between tissues showing varying amounts of repeat instability and MMR expression levels. Notably, naturally occurring polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can have dramatic effects upon the levels of repeat instability, which may explain the variation in disease age-of-onset, progression and severity. An increasing grasp of these factors holds prognostic and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  13. Enhancing Motivation through Repeated Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Listening in a foreign language is difficult. Previous research has identified a number of strategies that can result in increased comprehension. One such is repeated listening. The present article describes a study in which 98 Japanese college students of English as a foreign language viewed five videos, rating their comprehension of each video after an initial viewing and again after a second viewing. Self-reported comprehension was found to be significantly better after the second viewing....

  14. Learning in repeated visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embe...

  15. Preventing repeat pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Dona; Glasier, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is on a decline, but there are wide inequalities in those who are still becoming pregnant at an early age. Teenage pregnancy remains a public health concern. Numbers of repeat pregnancy in adolescence are small but contribute to poor health outcomes for young women and their children. A number of studies have demonstrated the impact that low levels of educational attainment, lack of aspiration, low socioeconomic status, dislike of school, lack of family connectedness and poor parental monitoring can have on early sexual activity and, in some cases, pregnancy among adolescents. Risks for repeat pregnancy in adolescence would appear to be linked to whether the pregnancy was intended or not, and what incentives or motivations, if any, existed to prevent subsequent early pregnancies. There would appear to be two options available to those who wish to reduce the negative health outcomes associated with repeat pregnancy in adolescence. First, to increase the life choices available to young women, which improve their social and economic circumstances. Secondly, to develop a clear understanding of pregnancy intentions within this group to ensure the provision of appropriate services which deliver the best possible outcomes for them and their child.

  16. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pareja-Blanco Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs, a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30, an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery, a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1 and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT. The mean (RSAmean, the fastest (RSAbest, each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82 and with all single sprints (p < 0.05, showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05 relationships with body mass (r = .44, adiposity (r = .59 and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62, increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Repeated mobility testing for later artificial visual function evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikay-Parel, M.; Ivastinovic, D.; Koch, M.; Hornig, R.; Dagnelie, G.; Richard, G.; Langmann, A.

    2007-03-01

    The study investigates the utility of a newly designed mobility test for repeated testing of visual function in patients with severe visual impairment and future application in evaluating functional progress in patients with artificial vision. Ten subjects divided into three groups based on visual acuity (VA) ranging from light perception to 20/200 and reduced visual field (VF) were included in the study. The mobility test consisted of using a set of four different but structurally similar and relatively short mazes having a constant number of obstacles of various sizes. The subjects, divided into three groups by acuity, passed through each course several times. In general, the patients with better VA had a larger extent of VF. Average speed and number of contacts were recorded as measures of performance. The average passing times of the groups through the courses were significantly different (p = 0.03), which was influenced by VA and VF. There was no significant difference in average number of contacts between the groups (p = 0.15). The mobility test proved to be appropriate for gaining statistically relevant results in repeated individual testing of patients with severe vision impairment. Results show promise for use this mobility test as a tool for assessing visual function of patients undergoing implantation of a visual prosthesis for artificial vision.

  20. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  2. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall. PMID:23202816

  3. Valuation of green walls and green roofs as soundscape measures: including monetised amenity values together with noise-attenuation values in a cost-benefit analysis of a green wall affecting courtyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-10-24

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  4. The metabolic consequences of repeated anoxic stress in the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Daniel E; Jackson, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    The painted turtle is known for its extreme tolerance to anoxia, but it is unknown whether previous experience with anoxic stress might alter physiological performance during or following a test bout of anoxia. Repeatedly subjecting 25°C-acclimated painted turtles to 2h of anoxic stress every other day for 19days (10 submergence bouts total) caused resting levels of liver glycogen to decrease by 17% and liver citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome oxidase (COX) activities to increase by 33% and 112%, respectively. When the repeatedly submerged turtles were studied during a subsequent anoxic stress test, liver COX and CS activities decreased during anoxia to the same levels of naïve turtles, which were unchanged, and remained there throughout metabolic recovery. There were no effects of the repeated anoxia treatment on any of the other measured variables, which included lactate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase activities in liver, skeletal muscle, and ventricle, blood acid-base status, hemoglobin, hematocrit and plasma ion (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl) and metabolite concentrations (lactate, glucose, free-fatty acids), before, during, or after the anoxic stress test. We conclude that although painted turtles can show a physiological reaction to repeated anoxic stress, the changes appear to have no measurable effect on anaerobic physiological performance or ability to recover from anoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of MIP2, a novel WD-repeat protein, promotes proliferation of H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: weixing22@163.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, University of South China, 28 Changsheng Xi Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Song, Lan; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Guiliang; Luo, Xinjing; Zhang, Bin [Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Xiao, Xianzhong, E-mail: xianzhongxiao@hotmail.com [Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China)

    2010-03-19

    WD40 repeat proteins have a wide range of diverse biological functions including signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, RNA splicing, and transcription. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning up-regulated protein 2 (MIP2) is a novel member of the WD40 repeat proteins superfamily that contains five WD40 repeats. Little is known about its biological role, and the purpose of this study was to determine the role of MIP2 in regulating cellular proliferation. Transfection and constitutive expression of MIP2 in the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 results in enhanced growth of those cells as measured by cell number and is proportional to the amount of MIP2 expressed. Overexpression of MIP2 results in a shorter cell cycle, as measured by flow cytometry. Collectively, these data suggest that MIP2 may participate in the progression of cell proliferation in H9c2 cells.

  6. Repeatability of subjective and objective refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, M; Chiu, N N

    1995-08-01

    Although several studies have examined the repeatability of objective refraction, data concerning the repeatability of subjective refraction under masked conditions, i.e., where the examiner is unaware of the refractive results, are limited. Accordingly, the present study compared the variability of both subjective and objective refractive techniques. Refractive error was measured in 12 subjects on 5 separate occasions. Conventional subjective procedures were used, with the exception that the sphere power scale on the phoropter was covered so that the examiner was unaware of the final result. Objective measurements were obtained using a Canon Autoref R-1 infrared autorefractor. The standard deviation (SD) of the five examinations was calculated for each individual and the mean values for the population sample determined. The mean SD's for the subjective and objective techniques were +/- 0.14 and +/- 0.18 D, indicating 95% confidence limits of +/- 0.27 and +/- 0.35 D, respectively. It is concluded that with either assessment technique, a change in refractive error of at least +/- 0.50 D should be adopted as the minimum significant shift in refractive status.

  7. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  9. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  10. NOR activity and repeat sequences of the paternal sex ratio chromosome of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Joke J F A; de Nooijer, Silvester; Stouthamer, Richard; de Jong, Hans

    2005-12-01

    Part of the male population of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai carries a B chromosome that manipulates its host sex ratio in favour of males. The only known repeat on this paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is the 45S rDNA, which includes here five different internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. In this report, we describe that only part of these ITS2 sequences is transcribed. The absence of transcription of some ITS2 sequences might explain the presence of multiple ITS2 sequences on the PSR chromosome since homogenization of rDNA spacers is thought to occur only in transcribed regions. Analysis of the only other known tandem repeat in Trichogramma, the EcoRI repeat, showed that it is absent from the PSR chromosome, and that the T. kaykai EcoRI repeat has 98 and 77% DNA sequence homology with the T. deion and T. brassicae EcoRI repeats, respectively. The size of the PSR chromosome measures 9 Mbp and is equal to 3.9% of the haploid T. kaykai genome. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization with a pool of high and moderate repetitive T. kaykai DNA (C0t-50) revealed only a very few major tandem repeats on the Trichogramma genome and only 45S rDNA on the PSR chromosome.

  11. Repeatability of Cerebral Perfusion Using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI in Glioblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Emblem, Kyrre E; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Bjørnerud, Atle; Vangel, Mark G; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Paynabar, Kamran; Wu, Ona; Wen, Patrick Y; Batchelor, Tracy; Rosen, Bruce; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the repeatability of brain perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a variety of post-processing methods. Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were recruited. On a 3-T MRI using a dual-echo, gradient-echo spin-echo DSC-MRI protocol, the patients were scanned twice 1 to 5 days apart. Perfusion maps including cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were generated using two contrast agent leakage correction methods, along with testing normalization to reference tissue, and application of arterial input function (AIF). Repeatability of CBV and CBF within tumor regions and healthy tissues, identified by structural images, was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeatability coefficients (RCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) were reported for selected methods. CBV and CBF were highly repeatable within tumor with ICC values up to 0.97. However, both CBV and CBF showed lower ICCs for healthy cortical tissues (up to 0.83), healthy gray matter (up to 0.95), and healthy white matter (WM; up to 0.93). The values of CV ranged from 6% to 10% in tumor and 3% to 11% in healthy tissues. The values of RC relative to the mean value of measurement within healthy WM ranged from 22% to 42% in tumor and 7% to 43% in healthy tissues. These percentages show how much variation in perfusion parameter, relative to that in healthy WM, we expect to observe to consider it statistically significant. We also found that normalization improved repeatability, but AIF deconvolution did not. DSC-MRI is highly repeatable in high-grade glioma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeatability of Cerebral Perfusion Using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI in Glioblastoma Patients12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Bjørnerud, Atle; Vangel, Mark G.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.; Paynabar, Kamran; Wu, Ona; Wen, Patrick Y.; Batchelor, Tracy; Rosen, Bruce; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study evaluates the repeatability of brain perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a variety of post-processing methods. METHODS Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were recruited. On a 3-T MRI using a dual-echo, gradient-echo spin-echo DSC-MRI protocol, the patients were scanned twice 1 to 5 days apart. Perfusion maps including cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were generated using two contrast agent leakage correction methods, along with testing normalization to reference tissue, and application of arterial input function (AIF). Repeatability of CBV and CBF within tumor regions and healthy tissues, identified by structural images, was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeatability coefficients (RCs). Coefficients of variation (CVs) were reported for selected methods. RESULTS CBV and CBF were highly repeatable within tumor with ICC values up to 0.97. However, both CBV and CBF showed lower ICCs for healthy cortical tissues (up to 0.83), healthy gray matter (up to 0.95), and healthy white matter (WM; up to 0.93). The values of CV ranged from 6% to 10% in tumor and 3% to 11% in healthy tissues. The values of RC relative to the mean value of measurement within healthy WM ranged from 22% to 42% in tumor and 7% to 43% in healthy tissues. These percentages show how much variation in perfusion parameter, relative to that in healthy WM, we expect to observe to consider it statistically significant. We also found that normalization improved repeatability, but AIF deconvolution did not. CONCLUSIONS DSC-MRI is highly repeatable in high-grade glioma patients. PMID:26055170

  13. Off-Ice Anaerobic Power Does Not Predict On-Ice Repeated Shift Performance in Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ben J; Fitzgerald, John S; Dietz, Calvin C; Ziegler, Kevin S; Baker, Sarah E; Snyder, Eric M

    2016-09-01

    Peterson, BJ, Fitzgerald, JS, Dietz, CC, Ziegler, KS, Baker, SE, and Snyder, EM. Off-ice anaerobic power does not predict on-ice repeated shift performance in hockey. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2375-2381, 2016-Anaerobic power is a significant predictor of acceleration and top speed in team sport athletes. Historically, these findings have been applied to ice hockey although recent research has brought their validity for this sport into question. As ice hockey emphasizes the ability to repeatedly produce power, single bout anaerobic power tests should be examined to determine their ability to predict on-ice performance. We tested whether conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests could predict on-ice acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift performance. Forty-five hockey players, aged 18-24 years, completed anthropometric, off-ice, and on-ice tests. Anthropometric and off-ice testing included height, weight, body composition, vertical jump, and Wingate tests. On-ice testing consisted of acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift fatigue tests. Vertical jump (VJ) (r = -0.42; r = -0.58), Wingate relative peak power (WRPP) (r = -0.32; r = -0.43), and relative mean power (WRMP) (r = -0.34; r = -0.48) were significantly correlated (p ≤ 0.05) to on-ice acceleration and top speed, respectively. Conversely, none of the off-ice tests correlated with on-ice repeated shift performance, as measured by first gate, second gate, or total course fatigue; VJ (r = 0.06; r = 0.13; r = 0.09), WRPP (r = 0.06; r = 0.14; r = 0.10), or WRMP (r = -0.10; r = -0.01; r = -0.01). Although conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests predict single bout on-ice acceleration and top speed, they neither predict the repeated shift ability of the player, nor are good markers for performance in ice hockey.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  15. Repeatable assessment protocol for electromagnetic trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidegger, Tamas; Sirokai, Beáta; Fenyvesi, Gábor; Kovács, Levente; Benyó, Balázs; Benyó, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    In the past decades, many new trends appeared in interventional medicine. One of the most groundbreaking ones is Image-Guided Surgery (IGS). The main benefit of IGS procedures is the reduction of the patient's pain and collateral damage through improved accuracy and targeting. Electromagnetic Tracking (EMT) has been introduced to medical applications as an effective tool for navigation. However, magnetic fields can be severely distorted by ferromagnetic materials and electronic equipment, which is a major barrier towards their wider application. The focus of the study is to determine and compensate the inherent errors of the different types of EMTs, in order to improve their accuracy. Our aim is to develop a standardized, simple and repeatable assessment protocol; to determine tracking errors with sub-millimeter accuracy, hence increasing the measurement precision and reliability. For initial experiments, the NDI Aurora and the Ascension medSAFE systems were used in a standard laboratory environment. We aim to advance to the state-of-the art by describing and disseminating an easily reproducible calibration method, publishing the CAD files of the accuracy phantom and the source of the evaluation data. This should allow the wider spread of the technique, and eventually lead to the repeatable and comparable assessment of EMT systems.

  16. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 32(1), January 2007. The list of microsatellite rich as well as poor regions in the five mycobacterial genomes. Local GC%. Repeat rich(+)/. Repeat poor(-). Total ORFs. Number of ... Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes. VATTIPALLY .... heat shock protein (grpE) (15839737), heat shock protein (dnaJ) ...

  17. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  18. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  19. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  20. The range of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc parameters in children aged up to but not including 18 years of age, as measured by optical coherence tomography: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creavin, Alexandra L; Williams, Cathy; Tilling, Kate; Timpson, Nicholas; Higgins, Julian P T

    2016-04-30

    The parameters of the optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) in children may vary with disease processes that contribute to visual impairment and blindness and so could be useful as an objective measure in at-risk children. There is no standardised reference for the normal parameters of the optic disc and pRNFL in children; however, there are a large number of small individual studies that have been undertaken to look at these measures. A systematic review of current literature on the range of pRNFL and optic disc parameters in children aged less than 18 years will be performed. Studies will be considered for review if they report numerical data on optic disc and pRNFL parameters, measured using optical coherence tomography. Outcome measures will include mean pRNFL thickness and cup-disc ratio. The bibliographic databases Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science will be systematically searched from 1991. Screening of search results will be conducted by two authors working independently, as will extraction of primary and secondary outcome data. Ten per cent of all other data extraction will be checked by a second author. Results will be compiled and presented in evidence tables. Where possible and appropriate, study-specific estimates will be combined to obtain an overall summary estimate of pRNFL thickness and cup-disc ratio across studies and results will be presented by age of population. Subgroup analyses will be undertaken for children of different ethnicities. This review aims to provide an overview of the parameters of the optic disc and pRNFL in children of different ages in order to identify gaps in knowledge and to improve understanding of what might be considered within/outside the range of normality. The findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented at conferences. PROSPERO CRD42016033068.

  1. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif sur Yvette (France); Johansson, L.; Keightley, J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of {sup 99m}Tc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  2. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  3. Underway measurements of surface partial pressure of CO2 during the R/V Roger Revelle Cruise in the Indian Ocean on CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Section I06S_2008 (Feb. 5 - March 14, 2008). (NCEI Accession 0163185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163185 includes chemical, meteorological, optical, physical and surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE CLIVAR Cruise in the Indian Ocean...

  4. Repeatability of Monocular Acuity Testing in Adults with and without Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Benoit, Julia S; Morrison, Kelsie B; Marsack, Jason D; Anderson, Heather A

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome may experience greater difficulty reliably performing visual acuity (VA) tests because of intellectual disability and limitations in visual quality. This study evaluated the repeatability of acuity (Bailey-Lovie [BL] and HOTV) in subjects with and without Down syndrome. High-contrast VA was measured in both eyes of 30 subjects with Down syndrome (mean, 30 years; range, 18 to 50 years) and 24 control subjects without Down syndrome (mean, 29 years; range, 18 to 50 years). In the Down syndrome group, 23 subjects performed BL, and 7 subjects performed HOTV. All control subjects performed both BL and HOTV, but for HOTV analysis, only seven age-matched control subjects were included. For each eye, subjects performed VA three times on different charts (computer controlled, single-line display) until five total letters were missed on each chart. A repeated-measure ANOVA was used to compare the acuity measures between groups. The average logMAR VA for subjects with Down syndrome was approximately six lines worse than the control subjects (BL: Down syndrome = right eye: 0.51 ± 0.16, left eye: 0.53 ± 0.18; control = right eye: -0.06 ± 0.06, left eye: -0.06 ± 0.08, P Down syndrome = right eye: 0.47 ± 0.19, left eye: 0.46 ± 0.16; control: right eye = -0.11 ± 0.09, left eye: -0.07 ± 0.07, P Down syndrome and 0.09 logMAR (4.5 letters) for control subjects. HOTV VA repeatability was 0.16 logMAR (eight letters) for both Down syndrome and control subjects. Despite poorer acuity in individuals with Down syndrome, repeatability of VA measurements was comparable to control subjects for both BL and HOTV techniques.

  5. A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.

  6. Poisson process approximation for sequence repeats, and sequencing by hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, R; Martin, D; Reinert, G; Waterman, M S

    1996-01-01

    Sequencing by hybridization is a tool to determine a DNA sequence from the unordered list of all l-tuples contained in this sequence; typical numbers for l are l = 8, 10, 12. For theoretical purposes we assume that the multiset of all l-tuples is known. This multiset determines the DNA sequence uniquely if none of the so-called Ukkonen transformations are possible. These transformations require repeats of (l-1)-tuples in the sequence, with these repeats occurring in certain spatial patterns. We model DNA as an i.i.d. sequence. We first prove Poisson process approximations for the process of indicators of all leftmost long repeats allowing self-overlap and for the process of indicators of all left-most long repeats without self-overlap. Using the Chen-Stein method, we get bounds on the error of these approximations. As a corollary, we approximate the distribution of longest repeats. In the second step we analyze the spatial patterns of the repeats. Finally we combine these two steps to prove an approximation for the probability that a random sequence is uniquely recoverable from its list of l-tuples. For all our results we give some numerical examples including error bounds.

  7. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  8. Instability of repeated DNAs during transformation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Vera I; Klysik, Elzbieta A; Rosche, William A; Sinden, Richard R

    2002-05-22

    Escherichia coli has provided an important model system for understanding the molecular basis for genetic instabilities associated with repeated DNA. Changes in triplet repeat length during growth following transformation in E. coli have been used as a measure of repeat instability. However, very little is known about the molecular and biological changes that may occur on transformation. Since only a small proportion of viable cells become competent, uncertainty exists regarding the nature of these transformed cells. To establish whether the process of transformation can be inherently mutagenic for certain DNA sequences, we used a genetic assay in E. coli to compare the frequency of genetic instabilities associated with transformation with those occurring in plasmid maintained in E. coli. Our results indicate that, for certain DNA sequences, bacterial transformation can be highly mutagenic. The deletion frequency of a 106 bp perfect inverted repeat is increased by as much as a factor of 2 x 10(5) following transformation. The high frequency of instability was not observed when cells stably harboring plasmid were rendered competent. Thus, the process of transformation was required to observe the instability. Instabilities of (CAG).(CTG) repeats are also dramatically elevated upon transformation. The magnitude of the instability is dependent on the nature and length of the repeat. Differences in the methylation status of plasmid used for transformation and the methylation and restriction/modification systems present in the bacterial strain used must also be considered in repeat instability measurements. Moreover, different E. coli genetic backgrounds show different levels of instability during transformation.

  9. ESTRUS PERFORMANCE AND STEROID LEVEL OF REPEAT BREEDING ACEH CATTLE SYNCHRONIZED WITH PGF2α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Nila Thasmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the estrous performance and steroid level of repeat breeding in Aceh cattle. This research included 17 female Aceh cattle, aged 3-5 years, who had been pregnant at least once. The cows were divided into two groups, fertile cows (n=7 and repeat breeding cows (n=10. All cows were estrous synchronized by 5 ml PGF2α intramuscularly (LutalyseTM, Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, Pfizer Inc. via double injection pattern, with 11 days interval. Estrous detection to measure the intensity, heat onset and heat duration after PGF2α injection was conducted twice a day at 08.00 and 16.00, each for 30 minutes. Blood collection for progesterone measurement began on the day of the last PGF2α injection, while the blood sample for estradiol was collected during standing heat. Steroid analysis was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA. Injection of the second PGF2 in both treatment groups managed to induce estrus in 5 cows (71.4% in fertile cow group, and 9 cows (90.0% in repeat breeding cow group. Intensity, onset, and duration between fertile cows group vs. repeat breeding cows group were 4.0±1.0 vs. 2.9±1.1, 46.4±29.1 vs. 49.8±28.0 hours, and 59.2±34.7 vs. 64.4±42.1 hours, respectively (P>0.05. Estradiol level showed insignificant differences (P>0.05 between fertile cows (110.4±20.1 pg/ml and repeat breeding cows (101.6±17.4 pg/ml. Progesterone level showed significant difference (P<0.05 on Day 5 after PGF2α injection, with 2.88±2.14 ng/ml (fertile cows and 1.13±0.68 ng/ml (repeat breeding cows. Repeat breeding Aceh cattle have lower heat intensity and progesterone level on Day 5 after PGF2α injection compared to fertile cows.

  10. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  11. Factors influencing repeated teenage pregnancy: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Joemer C; Betts, Kim S; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Existing evidence of predictors of repeated teenage pregnancy has not been assessed rigorously. This systematic review provides a comprehensive evaluation of protective and risk factors that are associated with repeated teenage pregnancy through a metaanalytical consensus. We used PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 1997-2015 and the reference list of other relevant research papers and related reviews. Eligibility criteria included (1) epidemiologic studies that analyzed factors associated with repeated pregnancy or birth among adolescents pregnancy, and (2) experimental studies with an observational component that was adjusted for the intervention. We performed narrative synthesis of study characteristics, participant characteristics, study results, and quality assessment. We also conducted random-effects and quality-effects metaanalyses with meta-regression to obtain pooled odds ratios of identified factors and to determine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-six eligible epidemiologic studies, most from the United States (n=24), showed >47 factors with no evidence of publication bias for each metaanalysis. Use of contraception (pooled odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.02), particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives (pooled odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.45), considerably reduced repeated teenage pregnancy risk. Among studies about contraception, the number of follow-up visits (adjusted coefficient, 0.72; P=.102) and country of study (unadjusted coefficient, 2.57; permuted P=.071) explained between-study heterogeneity. Education-related factors, which included higher level of education (pooled odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.91) and school continuation (pooled odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.84), were found to be protective. Conversely, depression (pooled odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1

  12. Repeats and EST analysis for new organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat masking is an important step in the EST analysis pipeline. For new species, genomic knowledge is scarce and good repeat libraries are typically unavailable. In these cases it is common practice to mask against known repeats from other species (i.e., model organisms. There are few studies that investigate the effectiveness of this approach, or attempt to evaluate the different methods for identifying and masking repeats. Results Using zebrafish and medaka as example organisms, we show that accurate repeat masking is an important factor for obtaining a high quality clustering. Furthermore, we show that masking with standard repeat libraries based on curated genomic information from other species has little or no positive effect on the quality of the resulting EST clustering. Library based repeat masking which often constitutes a computational bottleneck in the EST analysis pipeline can therefore be reduced to species specific repeat libraries, or perhaps eliminated entirely. In contrast, substantially improved results can be achived by applying a repeat library derived from a partial reference clustering (e.g., from mapping sequences against a partially sequenced genome. Conclusion Of the methods explored, we find that the best EST clustering is achieved after masking with repeat libraries that are species specific. In the absence of such libraries, library-less masking gives results superior to the current practice of using cross-species, genome-based libraries.

  13. Repeat attendance as a function of liminality, communitas and team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to empirically explore the linkages among liminality, communitas, team identification, and repeat attendance intention. Due to the lack of scales with which to measure liminality, this study developed a scale to represent liminality in spectator sports, using Churchill's suggested procedure for ...

  14. The Vestibular Effects of Repeated Low-Level Blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Philip D; Pinto, Robin L; Burrows, Holly L; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a prospective cohort of United States Marine Corps (USMC) instructors to identify any acute or long-term vestibular dysfunction following repeated blast exposures during explosive breaching training. They were assessed in clinic and on location during training at the USMC Methods of Entry School, Quantico, VA. Subjects received comprehensive baseline vestibular assessments and these were repeated in order to identify longitudinal changes. They also received shorter assessments immediately following blast exposure in order to identify acute findings. The main outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, vestibular Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of subjective vestibular function, videonystagmography (VNG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), rotary chair (including the unilateral centrifugation test), computerized dynamic posturography, and computerized dynamic visual acuity. A total of 11 breachers and 4 engineers were followed for up to 17 months. No acute effects or longitudinal deteriorations were identified, but there were some interesting baseline group differences. Upbeat positional nystagmus was common, and correlated (p<0.005) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several instructors had abnormally short low-frequency phase leads on rotary chair testing. This study evaluated breaching instructors over a longer test period than any other study, and the results suggest that this population appears to be safe from a vestibular standpoint at the current exposure levels. Upbeat positional nystagmus correlated with a history of mTBI in this population, and this has not been described elsewhere. The data trends also suggest that this nystagmus could be an acute blast effect. However, the reasons for the abnormally short phase leads seen in rotary chair testing are unclear at this time. Further investigation seems warranted.

  15. Clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Noriaki Murata, Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Yamazaki, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanBackground: In this paper, we report our experience of the clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty.Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of single and repeated globe ruptures following keratoplasty in eight eyes from seven consecutive patients referred to Kanazawa University Hospital over a 10-year period from January 2002 to March 2012. We analyzed their ophthalmic and demographic data, including age at time of globe rupture, incidence, time interval between keratoplasty and globe rupture, cause of rupture, complicated ocular damage, and visual outcome after surgical repair.Results: Five patients (71.4% experienced a single globe rupture and two patients (28.6% experienced repeated globe ruptures. Patient age at the time of globe rupture was 75.4 ± 6.8 (range 67–83 years. Four of the patients were men and three were women. During the 10-year study period, the incidence of globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty was 2.8%. The time interval between penetrating keratoplasty and globe rupture was 101 ± 92 months (range 7 months to 23 years. The most common cause of globe rupture in older patients was a fall (n = 5, 79.8 ± 3.7 years, all older than 67 years. Final best-corrected visual acuity was .20/200 in three eyes (37.5%. In all except one eye, globe rupture involved the graft-host junction; in the remaining eye, the rupture occurred after disruption of the extracapsular cataract extraction wound by blunt trauma.Conclusion: Preventative measures should be taken to avoid single and repeated ocular trauma following penetrating keratoplasty.Keywords: repeated globe ruptures, penetrating keratoplasty, postoperative complications, ocular trauma

  16. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  17. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  18. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among never smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an area of high incidence of esophageal cancer – a cross-sectional study with repeated measurement of urinary 1-OHPG in two seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad eIslami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG, a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly-selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference= 0.40. In winter, red meat intake (β= 0.208; P= 0.03, processed meat intake (β= 0.218; P= 0.02 and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (null genotype: β= 0.228; P= 0.02 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA+GA genotypes: β= –0.256; P= 0.008 showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (>weekly versus never: β= 0.203; P= 0.04, second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β= 0.254; P= 0.01, and GSTM1-02 null genotype (β= 0.198; P= 0.04 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT+TT versus CC: β= –0.218; P= 0.03 showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.

  19. Blood pressure and heart rate response to posteriorly directed pressure applied to the cervical spine in young, pain-free individuals: a randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Emmanuel; Wong, Michael; Williams, Haddie; Mache, Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of healthy volunteers to posteriorly directed (anterior-to-posterior [AP]) pressure applied to the cervical spine versus placebo. Manual therapists employ cervical spine AP mobilizations for various cervical-shoulder pain conditions. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the procedure, cardiovascular response, and safety profile. Thirty-nine (25 female) healthy participants (mean ± SD age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a placebo, consisting of light touch applied to the right C6 costal process. Group 2 received AP pressure at the same location. Blood pressure and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of AP pressure. One-way analysis of variance and paired-difference statistics were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and mean HR (P >.05) for all time points. Within-group comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between baseline and post-AP pressure HR (-2.8 bpm; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -1.1) and between baseline and post-AP pressure systolic BP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.0) in the AP group, and between baseline and postplacebo systolic BP (-2.6 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -4.2, -1.0) in the placebo group. No participants reported any adverse reactions or side effects within 24 hours of testing. AP pressure caused a statistically significant physiologic response that resulted in a minor drop in HR (without causing asystole or vasodepression) after the procedure, whereas this cardiovascular change did not occur for those in the placebo group. Within both groups, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in systolic BP following the procedure.

  20. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  1. Specific tandem repeats are sufficient for paramutation-induced trans-generational silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L Belele

    Full Text Available Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1 are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2 do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutation, and 3 is there an association between the ability to mediate paramutation and repeat DNA methylation levels? Paramutation was achieved using multiple transgenes containing the b1 tandem repeats, including events with tandem repeats of only one half of the repeat unit (413 bp, demonstrating that these sequences are sufficient for paramutation and an allelic position is not required for the repeats to communicate. Furthermore, the transgenic tandem repeats increased the expression of a reporter gene in maize, demonstrating the repeats contain transcriptional regulatory sequences. Transgene-mediated paramutation required the mediator of paramutation1 gene, which is necessary for endogenous paramutation, suggesting endogenous and transgene-mediated paramutation both require an RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing pathway. While all tested repeat transgenes produced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, not all transgenes induced paramutation suggesting that, as with endogenous alleles, siRNA production is not sufficient for paramutation. The repeat transgene-induced silencing was less efficiently transmitted than silencing induced by the repeats of endogenous b1 alleles, which is always 100% efficient. The variability in the strength of the repeat transgene-induced silencing enabled testing whether the extent of DNA methylation within the repeats correlated with differences in efficiency of paramutation. Transgene-induced paramutation does not require extensive

  2. Occupational COPD and HMOX1 repeats in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Steffensen, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dinucleotide repeats (GT)n in the 5’prime promoter region of the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene modulate the gene expression. Long repeats might affect occurrence of COPD. We aimed to investigate associations of the HMOX1 polymorphism of (GT)n repeats to occurrence of COPD.......Methods: This population based cohort included 4703 Danes aged 45-84 of Northern European descents. COPD was defined by LLN: 2.5th FEV1/FVC and FEV1 centiles. The occupational exposures were defined as years with vapour, gas, dust or fume (VGDF) exposure. The HMOX1 repeat was genotyped by fragment analysis and capillary......, analyses are attempted replicated in a younger Danish cohort aged 20-44.Results: A HMOX1 (GT)n genotype was present in 4423 participants and distributed as S/S 12%, S/M 42%, M/M 35%, S/L 4%, M/L 7% and L/L 0.1%. The crude association between COPD and at least one long GT repeat (S/L, M/L, L/L) GT genotype...

  3. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  4. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  5. (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, they were washed 3 to 4 times with sterile distilled water and inoculated aseptically on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium free hormones. Single nodes resulted from seedlings cultured as explants. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers used produced different ...

  6. Methodology for repeated load analysis of composite structures with embedded magnetic microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Semrád

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article processes issue of strength of cyclically loaded composite structures with the possibility of contactless stress measuring inside a material. For this purpose a contactless tensile stress sensor using improved induction principle based on the magnetic microwires embedded in the composite structure has been developed. The methodology based on the E-N approach was applied for the analysis of the repeated load of the wing hinge connection, including finite element method (FEM fatigue strength analysis. The results proved that composites in comparison with the metal structures offer significant weight reduction of the small aircraft construction, whereas the required strength, stability and lifetime of the components are remained.

  7. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.)