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Sample records for included remove fecal

  1. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  2. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  3. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  4. Predictive Power of Clean Bed Filtration Theory for Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal in Stormwater Biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E.; Rippy, M.; Mehring, A.; Winfrey, B.; Ambrose, R. F.; Levin, L. A.; Grant, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. Here we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%). Our analysis suggests that, with the exception of shrubs, plants affect FIB removal indirectly by changing the infiltration rate, not directly by changing the FIB removal mechanisms or altering filtration rates in ways not already accounted for by CBFT. The analysis presented here represents a significant step forward in our understanding of how physicochemical theories (such as CBFT) can be melded with hydrology, engineering design, and ecology to improve the water quality benefits of green infrastructure.

  5. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  6. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II and fluoride from a real flue gas desulfurization wastewater by electrocoagulation using Fe/C/Al electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinian Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of anions and heavy metals coexist in flue gas desulfurization (FGD wastewater originating from coal-fired power plants, which cause serious environmental pollution. Electrocoagulation (EC with Fe/C/Al hybrid electrodes was investigated for the separation of fluoride and nickel ions from a FGD wastewater. The study mainly focused on the technology parameters including anode electrode type, time, inter-electrode distance (5–40 mm, current density (1.88–6.25 mA/cm2 and initial pH (4–10. The results showed that favorable nickel and fluoride removal were obtained by increasing the time and current density, but this led to an increase in energy consumption. Eighty-six percent of fluoride and 98% of Ni(II were removed by conducting the Fe/C/Al EC with a current density of 5.00 mA/cm2 and inter-electrode distance of 5 mm at pH 4 for 25 min and energy consumption was 1.33 kWh/m3. Concomitant pollutants also achieved excellent treatment efficiency. The Hg, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, SS and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 90%, 89%, 92%, 88%, 98%, 99.9% and 89%, respectively, which met stringent environmental regulations.

  7. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Sheludchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP with (n = 1 and without (n = 3 baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  8. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faruk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14, mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P<0.05. The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P=0.017. Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.”

  9. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Sani; Adamu, Ahmed; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini Hassan; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Iliyasu, Yawale; Adamu, Abdullahi; Aminu, Surajo Mohammed; Shehu, Mohammed Sani; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Mohammed, Abdullahi; Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Idoko, John; Ntekim, Atara; Suleiman, Aishatu Maude; Shah, Khalid Zahir; Adoke, Kasimu Umar

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls ( P fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans "today."

  10. Coliphages as fecal pollution and removal bacterial indicators in the drinking water process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paz-y-Miño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work compare the efficiency of water treatment from Rimac river. Samples from different phases of water treatment (decanted, filtered and chlorinated were compared with not treated samples. Coliphages quantification was made by Simple Layer and Membrane Filter methods. Most Probable Number (NMP and Membrane Filter methods were used to assessment of Total Coliforms, Coliforms Thermotolerants and Heterotrophic Bacteria. The standard strain of E. coli C ATCC 13706 was used as coliphages host. The averages of quantified coliphages were of 2267,25 UFP/100 mL in samples with out treatment; 2,11, 2,04 and 1,07 UFP/100 mL in the water samples from decanted, filtered and chlorinated treatment respectively. Total Coliforms and Coliforms Thermotolerants were not detected in samples of chlorinated water. The correlation between coliphages and Total Coliforms in samples of decanted and filtered water (r = 0,3793 and r = 0,3629 respectively were significant (p <0,05 Samples with out treatment don’t were significant (r = 0,3048, p>0,05. Correlations between coliphages and the Coliforms Thermotolerants were significant with water samples from treatment decanted, filtered and chlorinated (r = 0,7129; 0,5326 and 0,4612, p <0,05. The microbial removal percentages were 99,95 % for the coliphages, 99,99 % for the BH and >99,99 % for the CT and CTT.

  11. Methods to remove inhibitors in sewage and other fecal wastes for enterovirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Y S; Wait, D; Tai, L; Sobsey, M D

    1995-07-01

    Typical environmental sample concentration procedures developed to purify virions are not always compatible with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The processing steps of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration were found to enrich not only virions but also certain RT-PCR inhibitors. Inhibitors were eliminated by a single-step guanidinium isothiocyanate (GIT) extraction to purify and precipitate viral genomic RNAs immediately prior to RT-PCR. The detection sensitivity of GIT extraction--RT-PCR was found to be 0.6-0.003 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) for 9 enteroviruses in infected cell extracts. When sewage, concentrated up to 385,000-fold and seeded with 1-3 plaque-forming units of poliovirus, was extracted with GIT solution, viruses were detectable in samples originally judged negative by direct RT-PCR without GIT extraction. Eleven waste samples (3 sewage, 5 latrine solids, 2 gauze pads extracts and 1 stool) processed by a series of steps that included PEG precipitation, solvent extractions, and Sephadex G-200 chromatography were examined for enteroviruses by RT-PCR, both with and without GIT extraction. GIT extraction eliminated sample inhibitory substances and increased the proportion of enterovirus positive samples from 3 to 7 of 11. GIT extraction in conjunction with virion concentration improves RT-PCR detection of viruses in sewage and other fecal wastes.

  12. Analyses of fecal and hair glucocorticoids to evaluate short- and long-term stress and recovery of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) removed from bile farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, K D; McShea, W J; Van Deelen, T R; Bacon, H J; Liu, F; Putman, S; Zhu, X; Brown, J L

    2013-05-01

    Demand for traditional Chinese medicines has given rise to the practice of maintaining Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in captivity to harvest bile. We evaluated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in Asiatic black bears on a bile farm in China by measuring cortisol in hair. We also monitored hair and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites as bears acclimated to improved husbandry at the Animals Asia Foundation China Bear Rescue Center (CBRC) after removal from other bile farms. Fecal samples were collected twice weekly for ~1 year, and hair was obtained from bears upon arrival at the CBRC and again ≥163 days later. Paired hair samples showed declines in cortisol concentrations of 12-88% in 38 of 45 (84%, pbears after arrival and acclimation at the rehabilitation facility. Concentrations of cortisol in hair from bears on the bile farm were similar to initial concentrations upon arrival at the CBRC but were higher than those collected after bears had been at the CBRC for ≥163 days. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations varied across months and were highest in April and declined through December, possibly reflecting seasonal patterns, responses to the arrival and socialization of new bears at the CBRC, and/or annual metabolic change. Data from segmental analysis of hair supports the first of these explanations. Our findings indicate that bears produced elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids on bile farms, and that activity of the HPA axis declined following relocation. Thus, hair cortisol analyses are particularly well suited to long-term, retrospective assessments of glucocorticoids in ursids. By contrast, fecal measures were not clearly associated with rehabilitation, but rather reflected more subtle endocrine changes, possibly related to seasonality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  14. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, Ryan A., E-mail: rblauste@ufl.edu [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hill, Robert L. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Micallef, Shirley A. [Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A. [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h{sup −1} of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff

  15. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaustein, Ryan A.; Hill, Robert L.; Micallef, Shirley A.; Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A.

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h −1 of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff/soil.

  16. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  17. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Hill, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A; Shelton, Daniel R; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9cmh(-1) of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A probiotic mixture including galactooligosaccharides decreases fecal β-glucosidase activity but does not affect serum enterolactone concentration in men during a two-week intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Holma, Reetta; Hatakka, Katja; Suomalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2011-05-01

    A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 × 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal β-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased β-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal β-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal β-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone.

  19. Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut

    2017-11-16

    Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.

  20. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  1. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  2. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  3. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P......This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting...

  4. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries

  5. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  6. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...

  7. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  8. 20 CFR 408.809 - What happens to your SVB payments if you are removed (including deported) from the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... removed (including deported) from the United States? 408.809 Section 408.809 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Suspension § 408.809 What happens to your SVB payments if you are removed (including deported) from the... that you have been removed (including deported) from the United States under section 237(a) or 212(a)(6...

  9. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... experiments performed in 5 liter bottles indicated that the denitrification rate can be instantaneously increased through the addition of either carbon source. The amount by which the rate was increased depended on the amount of carbon added. In the main experiments performed in a pilot scale alternating...... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  10. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    of the machinery system. The wet sulphuric acid process has shown to be an effective way of removing sulphur oxides from flue gas of land-based coal fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper is aimed at designing...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two......-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...

  11. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1727 - What information must I include in my final application to remove a platform or other facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Month/Year); and (5) Water depth. (c) Description of the structure you are removing including: (1... description of soil composition and condition; (7) The sizes and weights of the jacket, topsides (by module... the structure. (d) A description, including anchor pattern, of the vessel(s) you will use to remove...

  13. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  14. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  15. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/26344412 . Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ. Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  17. [Successful Removal of Hard Sigmoid Fecaloma Using Endoscopic Cola Injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal fecaloma is hardening of feces into lumps of varying size that is much harder in consistency than a fecal impaction. Complications of colorectal fecaloma include ulceration, bleeding, perforation and obstruction of the colon. Most fecalomas are successfully removed by conservative treatment with laxatives, enemas and rectal evacuation to relieve fecal impaction. When conservative treatments have failed, a surgical intervention may be needed. Herein, we report a case of 4.7 cm sized sigmoid fecaloma showing no response to conservative treatments that was successfully removed by endoscopic fragmentation with Coca-Cola injection instead of surgery.

  18. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  20. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228

  1. New fecal method for plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Fauth, D.J.; Nichols, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin R (Eichrom Technologies), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin R , which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as 228 Th. (author)

  2. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  3. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Collignon, A; Butel, M-J; Bourlioux, P

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained an increasing medical interest, since the recognition of the role of disturbed microbiota in the development of various diseases. To date, FMT is an established treatment modality for multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), despite lack of standardization of the procedure. Persisting normalization of the disturbed colonic microbiota associated with RCDI seems to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of FMT. For other diseases, FMT should be considered strictly experimental, only offered to patients in an investigational clinical setting. Although the concept of FMT is appealing, current expectations should be damped until future evidence arises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Fecal microbiota composition and frailty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, SP; Slaets, JPJ; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between fecal microbiota composition and frailty in the elderly was studied. Fecal samples from volunteers with high frailty scores showed a significant reduction in the number of lactobacilli (26-fold). At much higher population levels, both the Bacteroides/Prevotella (threefold)

  5. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Bojanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool. Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool, archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool, viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool, fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool, protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component.

  6. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  7. Fecal 13C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; MacLean, W.C. Jr.; Watkins, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Use of 14 CO 2 breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of radioisotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and geriatric subjects. Here we report a fecal 13 C analysis that can be used in conjunction with 14 CO 2 breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. Simultaneous cholyglycine 13 CO 2 breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis

  8. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  9. Rapid fusion method for determination of actinides in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, B.K.; Hutchison, J.B.; Spencer, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of actinides in fecal samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory that can be used for emergency response or routine bioassay analyses. If a radiological dispersive device, improvised nuclear device or nuclear accident occur, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of environmental, food and bioassay matrices. If an inhalation event occurs and there is confirmed radionuclide activity present via urine analyses of individuals, fecal analyses will typically be required to determine the soluble/insoluble fraction of actinides present as a result of the event to allow a more reliable estimate of radiological dose. The new method for actinides in fecal samples uses accelerated furnace heating, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA resin cartridges. The rapid fusion method provides rugged digestion of any refractory particles present, essential for reliable analysis of actinides in fecal samples. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the actinide isotopes, but this method can be adapted for assay by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for actinide isotopes with longer half-lives that have sufficient mass to allow measurement. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in fecal samples can be performed in less than 12 h in an emergency with excellent quality for emergency samples. The new method, which is much less tedious and time-consuming than other reported methods, can be used for emergency or routine fecal sample analyses. This enables more timely estimates of radiological dose to be performed that utilize soluble/insoluble actinide ratios. (author)

  10. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  11. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  12. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  13. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Methods Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM, and their sum (total estrogens were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences, high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. Results In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003. These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57−0.70, P=0.03−0.002. Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with

  14. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  15. Delayed gastric emptying in children with chronic constipation and fecal impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, M.L.C.M.; Daher, S.F.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pinto, E.A.L.C.; Silva, J.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms such as nausea, fullness and early satiety in constipated children may be associated with delayed gastric emptying. Aim: To evaluate the gastric emptying in children with post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying studies were performed in 12 children with functional constipation (mean age 9 years; mean duration of symptoms: 5.5 years), fecal impaction and soiling. In 12 of them the studies were performed only before fecal impaction removal and in 7 of them the study was repeated after impaction removal and recovery from constipation. After an overnight fast, the patients received 300 ml/m 2 of water added to 37 MBq of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system with a low energy all purpose collimator. Images were acquired at 1 minute per frame for 30 minutes. When gastric emptying was delayed for more than 30 minutes, additional static images with 500,000 counts were performed for no more than 1 hour until a T1/2 was obtained. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed (21.4 ± 7 minutes; normal 12 ± 3 minutes) in 10/12 patients studied prior to fecal impaction removal. In the group of seven patients who repeated the study after fecal impaction removal, gastric emptying remained prolonged (22 ±7.9 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the gastric emptying time before and after fecal impaction removal (p 0,612; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: The gastric emptying time of a liquid test meal was delayed in constipated children before and after fecal impaction removal. Maintenance of prolonged emptying time after impaction removal and recovery from constipation may indicate an alteration in gastrointestinal motility

  16. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Pain with bowel movements Hard stool Constipation Refusal to go to the bathroom Soiled underpants Signs ... whenever a health problem arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal ...

  17. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  18. Gut microbiota composition modifies fecal metabolic profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Wu, Junfang; Li, Jia V; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2013-06-07

    The gut microbiome is known to be extensively involved in human health and disease. In order to reveal the metabolic relationship between host and microbiome, we monitored recovery of the gut microbiota composition and fecal profiles of mice after gentamicin and/or ceftriaxone treatments. This was performed by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint of gut microbiota. The common features of fecal metabolites postantibiotic treatment include decreased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), amino acids and primary bile acids and increased oligosaccharides, d-pinitol, choline and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid). This suggests suppressed bacterial fermentation, protein degradation and enhanced gut microbial modification of bile acids. Barnesiella, Prevotella, and Alistipes levels were shown to decrease as a result of the antibiotic treatment, whereas levels of Bacteroides, Enterococcus and Erysipelotrichaceae incertae sedis, and Mycoplasma increased after gentamicin and ceftriaxone treatment. In addition, there was a strong correlation between fecal profiles and levels of Bacteroides, Barnesiella, Alistipes and Prevotella. The integration of metabonomics and gut microbiota profiling provides important information on the changes of gut microbiota and their impact on fecal profiles during the recovery after antibiotic treatment. The correlation between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites provides important information on the function of bacteria, which in turn could be important in optimizing therapeutic strategies, and developing potential microbiota-based disease preventions and therapeutic interventions.

  19. Use of an absorbent dressing specifically for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Use of an absorbent product is a self-care strategy for managing fecal incontinence that protects against visible soiling. The purpose of this study was to examine use of a small surgical dressing that can be placed between the buttocks to absorb leaked feces. Cross-sectional survey. A survey was mailed to 75 randomly selected community-living people in 25 states and the District of Columbia, who ordered the dressing more than once within the past year. Thirty-six people (age = 55 +/- 16 years mean +/- SD), 57% men and 94% white responded. A 48-question survey that included questions asked about demographics and general health, emotional states (eg, anxiety and depression), bowel pattern and incontinence, quality of life, and use of an anorectal dressing was developed for this study. The survey also contained 2 tools, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument. The Fecal Incontinence Severity Index is a tool that enables valid assessment of fecal incontinence severity using patient recall of symptoms of frequency and type of bowel leakage. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument results in a valid and reliable evaluation of fecal incontinence-specific quality of life using 4 domains of lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment. The fecal incontinence severity score was 28 +/- 14 (mean +/- SD); 79% leaked loose/liquid feces, 50% leaked daily, and leaked feces remained between the buttocks in 64%; 21% also leaked urine. Eighty-five percent experienced incontinence-associated dermatitis. Of those who used the dressing, 50% were men. The anorectal dressing was preferred to a pad by 92%, prevented soiling in 88%, and its ability to stay in place was rated very good or good by 76%. Eighty percent of respondents rated the dressing's comfort very good or good; 85% rated its overall effectiveness very good or good. Use of the dressing lessened anxiety about fecal soiling in 81% and

  20. The DNA Repair Repertoire of Mycobacterium smegmatis FenA Includes the Incision of DNA 5' Flaps and the Removal of 5' Adenylylated Products of Aborted Nick Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uson, Maria Loressa; Ghosh, Shreya; Shuman, Stewart

    2017-09-01

    We characterize Mycobacterium smegmatis FenA as a manganese-dependent 5'-flap endonuclease homologous to the 5'-exonuclease of DNA polymerase I. FenA incises a nicked 5' flap between the first and second nucleotides of the duplex segment to yield a 1-nucleotide gapped DNA, which is then further resected in dinucleotide steps. Initial FenA cleavage at a Y-flap or nick occurs between the first and second nucleotides of the duplex. However, when the template 3' single strand is eliminated to create a 5'-tailed duplex, FenA incision shifts to between the second and third nucleotides. A double-flap substrate with a mobile junction (mimicking limited strand displacement synthesis during gap repair) is preferentially incised as the 1-nucleotide 3'-flap isomer, with the scissile phosphodiester shifted by one nucleotide versus a static double flap. FenA efficiently removes the 5' App(dN) terminus of an aborted nick ligation reaction intermediate, thereby highlighting FenA as an agent of repair of such lesions, which are formed under a variety of circumstances by bacterial NAD + -dependent DNA ligases and especially by mycobacterial DNA ligases D and C. IMPORTANCE Structure-specific DNA endonucleases are implicated in bacterial DNA replication, repair, and recombination, yet there is scant knowledge of the roster and catalytic repertoire of such nucleases in Mycobacteria This study identifies M. smegmatis FenA as a stand-alone endonuclease homologous to the 5'-exonuclease domain of mycobacterial DNA polymerase 1. FenA incises 5' flaps, 5' nicks, and 5' App(dN) intermediates of aborted nick ligation. The isolated N-terminal domain of M. smegmatis Pol1 is also shown to be a flap endonuclease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  2. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of the Ferret Fecal Viral Flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Oduber (Minoushka); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFerrets are widely used as a small animal model for a number of viral infections, including influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus. To further analyze the microbiological status of ferrets, their fecal viral flora was studied using a metagenomics approach. Novel viruses from the families

  4. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to ...

  5. Physical Therapy for Fecal Incontinence in Children with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddasani, Swathi; Moe, Amanda; Semmelrock, Caitlin; Gilbert, Caroyl Luan; Enemuo, Valentine; Chiou, Eric Howard; Chumpitazi, Bruno Pedro

    2017-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of physical therapy (PT) for fecal incontinence in children with pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD). Retrospective chart review of children with PFD completing >1 PT session for fecal incontinence at a quaternary children's hospital. The frequency of fecal incontinence (primary outcome), constipation-related medication use, number of bowel movements (in those with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function were captured at baseline and at the final PT visit. Outcomes were categorized as excellent (complete continence), good (>50% decrease in fecal incontinence frequency), fair (not worsening but Pelvic floor PT is effective in the majority of children with fecal incontinence related to PFD. Factors associated with PT efficacy include improved PFM functioning, good compliance with PT, and history of tethered cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct fecal and oral microbiota composition in human type 1 diabetes, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Pieter F; Belzer, Clara; Aydin, Ömrüm; Levin, Evgeni; Levels, Johannes H; Aalvink, Steven; Boot, Fransje; Holleman, Frits; van Raalte, Daniël H; Scheithauer, Torsten P; Simsek, Suat; Schaap, Frank G; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Roep, Bart O; Hoekstra, Joost B; de Vos, Willem M; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking. We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI. Oral and fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma SCFA levels, markers of intestinal inflammation (fecal IgA and calprotectin) and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation were measured. Oral microbiota were markedly different in T1D (eg abundance of Streptococci) compared to HC. Fecal analysis showed decreased butyrate producing species in T1D and less butyryl-CoA transferase genes. Also, plasma levels of acetate and propionate were lower in T1D, with similar fecal SCFA. Finally, fecal strains Christensenella and Subdoligranulum correlated with glycemic control, inflammatory parameters and SCFA. We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels. Future research should disentangle cause and effect and whether supplementation of SCFA-producing bacteria or SCFA alone can have disease-modifying effects in T1D.

  7. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  8. Estimation of 239Pu in fecal sample using simulant matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Sundararajan, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Estimation of 239 Pu in faeces following accidental exposure to insoluble aerosols like plutonium oxide is the best means of obtaining an indirect assessment of the intake. As part of providing radiological surveillance to plutonium handling workers, a technique has been developed and standardised for analysis of 239 Pu in fecal sample. For developing the technique cow dung and simulant fecal matrices spiked with 239 Pu have been used. The sample was ashed and the silica was eliminated by treating with HF-HNO 3 mixture. 239 Pu was separated on anion exchange and electrodeposited. The interfering elements such as Fe, Si were removed by washing the column. The percent recovery of 239 Pu by this method was 86.14±3% with a minimum detectable activity of 12.6 mBq. Experiments were repeated with a matrix which simulates fecal matter. The percent recoveries and the minimum detectable activities in both cow dung and simulant faeces were comparable. This method can detect activity less than one derived investigation level even on tenth day following exposure of 239 Pu due to inhalation. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Effect of Coexisting Pelvic Floor Disorders on Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scores: A Prospective, Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianou, Liliana; Hicks, Caitlin W; Olariu, Adriana; Savitt, Lieba; Pulliam, Samantha J; Weinstein, Milena; Rockwood, Todd; Sylla, Patricia; Kuo, James; Wakamatsu, May

    2015-11-01

    The association between an objective measure of fecal incontinence severity and patient-reported quality of life is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with various degrees of fecal incontinence to determine whether their quality of life as measured by the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale is affected by coexisting pelvic floor disorders. This was a prospective, survey-based study. The study was conducted at a tertiary pelvic floor disorders center. Included patients were all of those presenting between January 2007 and March 2014. Survey data were analyzed to determine the association between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, as well as scores from the Constipation Severity Instrument, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Pelvic Organ Distress Inventory, and Urinary Distress Inventory. A total of 585 patients reported fecal incontinence ranging from none (n = 191) to mild/moderate (n = 159) to severe (n = 235). As expected, patients with severe fecal incontinence have worse scores on all fecal incontinence quality-of-life subscales (lifestyle, coping/behavior, depression/self-perception, and embarrassment) and worse colorectal/anal symptoms than those with mild/moderate or no fecal incontinence (p Pelvic organ prolapse and constipation symptoms were similar between groups (p ≥ 0.61). After correcting for baseline differences in patient comorbidities and bladder/urinary symptoms, a significant association persisted between Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and all of the subscales of the fecal incontinence quality-of-life instrument (p measuring both fecal and urinary incontinence. This underscores the importance of quantifying the presence or absence of coexistent urinary leakage in studies where a drop in fecal incontinence quality of life is considered a primary end point.

  10. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Girón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33. It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1 UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis; and (2 UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis. Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

  11. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Microbial Fecal Indicator Paradigm: Tools in the Toolbox Applications in Recreational Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of ORD’s recent research to develop tools for assessing microbial water quality in recreational waters. Methods discussed include the development of health associations between microbial fecal indicators and the development of culture, and molecular methods for fec...

  13. Fecal Carriage of Extended‑spectrum Beta‑lactamase and AmpC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems were 31.2%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The relative high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL‑producing bacteria in community warrants further study in this field including developing policies ...

  14. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Laurel R; Brown, Jeanette S; Creasman, Jennifer M; Subak, Leslee L; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Thom, David H; Varma, Madhulika G; Huang, Alison J

    2012-10-01

    The impact of anal incontinence on women's sexual function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. This is a cross-sectional study. This investigation was conducted in a community-based integrated health care delivery system. Included were 2269 ethnically diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the previous 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p = 0.06). In comparison with women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR: 1.41 (CI: 1.10-1.82)), low sexual satisfaction (OR: 1.56 (CI: 1.14-2.12)), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR: 1.65 (CI: 1.19-2.28)) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR: 2.66 (CI: 1.76-4.00)), pain (OR: 2.44 (CI: 1.52-3.91)), and orgasm (OR: 1.68 (CI: 1.12-2.51)). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported sexual functioning similar to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. The cross

  15. Escherichia coli is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by otters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in aquatic environments is extremely relevant in terms of public health. As these laboratorial methodologies are usually difficult, expensive and time-consuming, they are frequently replaced by the assessment of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. This study aimed to assess the presence of E. coli in fecal samples from Neotropical otters, to evaluate its potential as fecal indicator to be applied to the determination of water microbiological quality in areas where otters’ populations are high. Twenty-six otter fecal samples, collected in Alto Paranapanema river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, using conventional bacteriological methods. Only 8 scat samples (30% were E. coli positive, indicating that this microorganism is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by Neotropical otters, and should not be used to infer the presence of otter related pathogens in waters.

  16. Scat removal: A source of bias in feces-related studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, T.R.; Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Sanchez, D.M.; Krausman, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of feces (coprophagy) may alter findings of dietary studies and population estimates based on fecal analyses, but its magnitude is poorly understood. We investigated seasonal incidence of scat removal on Fort Riley, Kansas, from January through December 2000. We placed feces from captive bobcats (Lynx rufus), captive coyotes (Canis latrans), and free-ranging coyotes randomly on tracking stations in forest and prairie landscapes to determine rates of scat removal by local wildlife. Rates of removal of feces from captive bobcats, captive coyotes, and free-ranging coyotes varied from 7% during spring to 50% during summer. We identified opossums (Didelphis virginiana) as the most common species present at stations where scat removal occurred. Feces may be an important seasonal source of food for opossums and may provide seasonal dietary supplements for other species. Other factors responsible for disturbance of feces included a woodrat (Neotoma floridana) caching coyote feces, removal of captive coyote feces by free-ranging coyotes accompanied by deposition of fresh feces, a bobcat burying a captive bobcat sample and depositing fresh feces, and rain storms. Dietary studies based on fecal analyses could be biased by scat removal, assuming that contents in feces are representative of the proportion of foods consumed.

  17. Escherichia coli is not a suitable fecal indicator to assess water fecal contamination by otters

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oliveira; D. Freire; N. M. Pedroso

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in aquatic environments is extremely relevant in terms of public health. As these laboratorial methodologies are usually difficult, expensive and time-consuming, they are frequently replaced by the assessment of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. This study aimed to assess the presence of E. coli in fecal samples from Neotropical otters, to evaluate its potential as fecal indicator to be applied to the determination of water...

  18. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  19. Marine and Freshwater Fecal Indicators and Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicators are organisms or chemical constituents found in fecal material or wastewater that can be measured to demonstrate the presence of fecal pollution. Fecal waste from humans and other animals can contaminant surface waters and pose a serious threat to the environmen...

  20. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  1. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  2. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  3. Establishment of fecal bioassay facility at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, H.; Yuvaraj, Ramani; Mohanty, B.N.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an unusual occurrence, occupational radiation workers employed in fuel reprocessing/fuel fabrication facilities have potential risk of acquiring internal contamination, in spite of implementation of efficient engineering and administrative control measures. Quantification of internally deposited radionuclides is achieved either by (i) direct methods and/or (ii) indirect methods. In general, urinalysis is preferred for moderately absorbing (Type M-compounds of Americium) compounds, while analysis of fecal samples are preferred for slow absorption (Type S - Oxides of Plutonium) compounds. The predicted clearance of Type S and Type M compounds deposited in respiratory tract via fecal is about three to five orders higher than urinary excretion. In view of this, a facility for ashing fecal samples was established and standardization of radioanalytical procedure for quantification of Pu/Am using synthetic fecal (SF) samples was carried out

  4. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C. Kennedy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals.

  5. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...

  6. Sticholonche zanclea (Protozoa, Actinopoda in fecal pellets of copepods and Euphausia sp. in Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eskinazi-Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Fecal pellets produced by mesozooplanktonic copepods (Centropages velificatus and Paracalanus parvus and macrozooplanktonic Euphausiacea (Euphausia sp. were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Fragments of the protozoan Sticholonche zanclea were found in both copepod and in Euphausia sp. fecal pellets, even when the abundance of the protozoan in the water was low. The results suggest that S. zanclea is an important food resource for different trophic levels, including meso- and macrozooplankton, in Brazilian coastal waters.

  7. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  8. Fecal Matters: Fate and transport of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets in septic drainfields

    OpenAIRE

    Billian, Hannah Ellyse

    2016-01-01

    Between 1970 and 2010 almost one-third of drinking water related waterborne disease outbreaks reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were associated with systems dependent on untreated groundwater (i.e., most commonly, household wells). This is unsurprising, given that numerous past efforts to monitor household well water quality have indicated a high prevalence of fecal coliforms and/or E. coli at the point of use. Non-point sources of pollution, including septic tank ...

  9. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: a video demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotouras, Alexander; Allison, Marion; Currie, Ann; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L; Thaha, Mohamed A

    2012-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is an increasingly common condition with significant negative impact on quality on life and health care resources. It frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Emerging evidence suggests that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence with the added benefit of being minimally invasive and cost effective. Pursuant to the preliminary report of our early experience of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence published in this journal in 2010, in this dynamic article, we now describe and demonstrate the actual technique that can be performed in a nurse-led clinic or outpatient or community setting. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a technically simple procedure that can potentially be performed in an outpatient or community setting. The overall early success rate of 68% following its use reported by our unit compares favorably with the success rate following other forms of neuromodulation, including sacral nerve stimulation. When completed, our long-term outcome data will provide further information on the efficacy of tibial nerve stimulation in a larger cohort of patients (n > 100). Future studies, including our currently planned randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sham stimulation, will provide controlled efficacy data and may provide information on its exact mechanism of action.

  11. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-14

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  12. Fecal calprotectin levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Rehab; Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Kamel, Noha; Elsharqawy, Sonia Elsharqawy

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study group including 26 neonates who met inclusion criteria and a control group including 26 neonates for comparison. Fecal calprotectin levels ranged from 3.9μg/g to 971.8μg/g, and there was a significant increase in fecal calprotectin in the study group when compared to the control group (334.3±236.6μg/g vs. 42.0±38.2μg/g, respectively) with moderate inverse significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and birth weight. Furthermore, there was moderate, significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and duration of breastfeeding range. On the other hand, there was no correlation between fecal calprotectin and post-natal age, gestational age, or volume of feeding. A cut-off at the 67.0μg/g level, with 100.0% sensitivity and 76.9% specificity, was considered. Fecal calprotectin level increased significantly in neonates with feeding intolerance; it can be used to detect early cases with necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, but this subject still needs more investigations on more patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Ink remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  15. Fecal microbiome analysis as a diagnostic test for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, L; Budding, A E; de Korte, N; Eck, A; Bogaards, J A; Stockmann, H B; Consten, E C; Savelkoul, P H; Boermeester, M A

    2014-11-01

    Disease-specific variations in intestinal microbiome composition have been found for a number of intestinal disorders, but little is known about diverticulitis. The purpose of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of diverticulitis patients with control subjects from a general gastroenterological practice and to investigate the feasibility of predictive diagnostics based on complex microbiota data. Thirty-one patients with computed tomography (CT)-proven left-sided uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were included and compared with 25 control subjects evaluated for a range of gastrointestinal indications. A high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling technique (IS-pro) was performed on DNA isolates from baseline fecal samples. Differences in bacterial phylum abundance and diversity (Shannon index) of the resulting profiles were assessed by conventional statistics. Dissimilarity in microbiome composition was analyzed with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on cosine distance measures. To develop a prediction model for the diagnosis of diverticulitis, we used cross-validated partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios and Proteobacteria load were comparable among patients and controls (p = 0.20). The Shannon index indicated a higher diversity in diverticulitis for Proteobacteria (p Diverticulitis patients have a higher diversity of fecal microbiota than controls from a mixed population, with the phylum Proteobacteria defining the difference. The analysis of intestinal microbiota offers a novel way to diagnose diverticulitis.

  16. [Pancreatic exocrine function in diabetes mellitus. Determination of fecal elastase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla A, Carla; Hurtado H, Carmen; Tobar A, Eduardo; Orellana N, Ivonne; Pineda B, Pedro; Castillo M, Iván; Ledezma R, Rodrigo; Berger F, Zoltán

    2006-04-01

    One of the complications of diabetes mellitus is the development of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. To study pancreatic exocrine function in diabetics patients. Seventy two diabetic patients were included in the protocol, but two were withdrawn because an abdominal CAT scan showed a chronic calcified pancreatitis, previously undiagnosed. Fecal elastase was measured by ELISA and the presence of fat in feces was assessed using the steatocrit. Mean age was 60+/-12 years and 67 (96%) patients had a type 2 diabetes. Fecal elastase was normal (elastase >200 microg/g) in 47 (67%) patients, mildly decreased (100-200 microg/g) in 10 (14%) and severely decreased in 13 (19%). There was a significant association between elastase levels and time of evolution of diabetes (p=0.049) and between lower elastase levels and the presence of a positive steatocrit (p=0.042). No significant association was found between elastase levels and other chronic complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy or with insulin requirement. One third of this group of diabetic patients had decreased levels of fecal elastase, that was associated with the time of evolution of diabetes. Patients with lower levels of elastase have significantly more steatorrhea. Among diabetics it is possible to find a group of patients with non diagnosed chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Analisis Kandungan Bakteri Fecal Coliform pada Sungai Kuin Kota Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy Ari Santy

    2017-12-01

    , it aimed to determine the strategies for dealing with the resultant water quality deterioration. The research data was obtained directly from Kuin River, i.e., 3.909 m in length. The river was divided into 20 segments (10 segments on each side of the river; hence, the length of each segment was 390 m. Afterwards, five segments were selected to represent the river. The research used laboratory analysis and, then, compared the analysis results with the Governor Regulation No. 5/2007 and other references, i.e., selected catalogs containing information of healthy lavatories. The results showed that the physical appearance of Kuin River included brownish color and foul-smelling water, especially during rainfall. The average concentration of fecal coliform bacteria in Kuin River was 210/100 ml during high tides and 780/100 ml during low tides. The water quality did not meet the standard for drinking water because the bacteria found in the river was above the allowed concentration, i.e., 100/100 ml. Water quality deterioration can be decelerated by constructing lavatories that are suitable for tidal environment.

  18. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations.

  19. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Shira R; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  20. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  1. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séraphin C. Atidégla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot. Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens.

  2. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecal calprotectin as a biomarker of inflammatory lesions of the small bowel seen by videocapsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Egea-Valenzuela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule endoscopy in study for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. All of them had a determination of fecal calprotectin and had been sent to colonoscopy with no findings. Patients have been divided in groups: A, fecal calprotectin 100 µg/g, and we have analyzed which of them presented inflammatory lesions in capsule endoscopy studies. Results: The rate of patients with signi ficative lesions was 1 out of 10 (10% in group A, 6 out of 24 (25% in group B, and 21 out of 34 (62% in group C. If we consider levels over 50 µg/g pathologic, fecal calprotectin presents sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 23%, NPV: 90% and PPV: 56%. If we consider levels over 100 µg/g pathologic these values are sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 67%, NPV: 79% and PPV: 62%. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin has high sensitivity but not so good specificity for predicting small bowel lesions after a normal colonoscopy. In daily practice it will be more useful to establish in 100 µg/g the limit to indicate capsule endoscopy studies.

  4. Hands, water, and health: fecal contamination in Tanzanian communities with improved, non-networked water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Walters, Sarah P; Horak, Helena M; Keymer, Daniel P; Mushi, Douglas; Strickfaden, Rachelle; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Liu, Jessie; Blum, Annalise; Rogers, Kirsten; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-05-01

    Almost half of the world's population relies on non-networked water supply services, which necessitates in-home water storage. It has been suggested that dirty hands play a role in microbial contamination of drinking water during collection, transport, and storage. However, little work has been done to evaluate quantitatively the association between hand contamination and stored water quality within households. This study measured levels of E. coli, fecal streptococci, and occurrence of the general Bacteroidales fecal DNA marker in source water, in stored water, and on hands in 334 households among communities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where residents use non-networked water sources. Levels of fecal contamination on hands of mothers and children were positively correlated to fecal contamination in stored drinking water within households. Household characteristics associated with hand contamination included mother's educational attainment, use of an improved toilet, an infant in the household, and dissatisfaction with the quantity of water available for hygiene. In addition, fecal contamination on hands was associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms within a household. The results suggest that reducing fecal contamination on hands should be investigated as a strategy for improving stored drinking water quality and health among households using non-networked water supplies.

  5. Temperature-Controlled Delivery of Radiofrequency Energy in Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Arjan P; Lam, Tze J; Meurs-Szojda, Maria M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2017-08-01

    Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. Forty patients with fecal incontinence in whom maximal conservative management had failed were randomly assigned to receiving either radiofrequency energy or sham procedure. Fecal incontinence was measured using the Vaizey incontinence score (range, 0-24). The impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life was measured by using the fecal incontinence quality-of-life score (range, 1-4). Measurements were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Anorectal function was evaluated using anal manometry and anorectal endosonography at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline, Vaizey incontinence score was 16.8 (SD 2.9). At t = 6 months, the radiofrequency energy group improved by 2.5 points on the Vaizey incontinence score compared with the sham group (13.2 (SD 3.1), 15.6 (SD 3.3), p = 0.02). The fecal incontinence quality-of-life score at t = 6 months was not statistically different. Anorectal function did not show any alteration. Patients with severe fecal incontinence were included in the study, thus making it difficult to generalize the results. Both radiofrequency energy and sham procedure improved the fecal incontinence score, the radiofrequency energy procedure more than sham. Although statistically significant, the clinical impact for most of the patients was negligible. Therefore, the radiofrequency energy procedure should not be recommended for patients with fecal incontinence until patient-related factors associated with treatment success are known. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A373.

  6. State of the art molecular markers for fecal pollution source tracking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslev, Peter; Bukh, Annette S

    2011-03-01

    Most environmental waters are susceptible to fecal contamination from animal and/or human pollution sources. To attenuate or eliminate such contamination, it is often critical that the pollution sources are rapidly and correctly identified. Fecal pollution source tracking (FST) is a promising research area that aims to identify the origin(s) of fecal pollution in water. This mini-review focuses on the potentials and limitations of library independent molecular markers that are exclusively or strongly associated with fecal pollution from humans and different animals. Fecal-source-associated molecular markers include nucleic acid sequences from prokaryotes and viruses associated with specific biological hosts, but also sequences such as mitochondrial DNA retrieved directly from humans and animals. However, some fecal-source-associated markers may not be absolutely specific for a given source type, and apparent specificity and frequency established in early studies are sometimes compromised by new studies suggesting variation in specificity and abundance on a regional, global and/or temporal scale. It is therefore recommended that FST studies are based on carefully selected arrays of markers, and that identification of human and animal contributions are based on a multi-marker toolkit with several markers for each source category. Furthermore, future FST studies should benefit from increased knowledge regarding sampling strategies and temporal and spatial variability of marker ratios. It will also be important to obtain a better understanding of marker persistence and the quantitative relationship between marker abundance and the relative contribution from individual fecal pollution source types. A combination of enhanced pathogen screening methods, and validated quantitative source tracking techniques could then contribute significantly to future management of environmental water quality including improved microbial risk assessment.

  7. Removing Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and... Bureaucracy ” that focuses on reducing cycle time, staffing time and all forms of inefficiencies. This includes review of those burdens that Congress

  8. Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaahtovuo, Jussi; Munukka, Eveliina; Korkeamäki, Mika; Luukkainen, Reijo; Toivanen, Paavo

    2008-08-01

    To compare the composition of intestinal microbiota of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or fibromyalgia (FM), fecal samples were collected from 51 patients with RA and 50 with FM. RA patients fulfilled the RA criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, and duration of their disease was etiopathogenesis of RA.

  9. [Constipation and fecal incontinence in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kemseke, C

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of anorectal functions (constipation and fecal incontinence) are very frequent in the elderly. The patient's global evaluation with his past medical history, comorbidities, medications, as well as social environment and physical dependence, is more than ever necessary in this high risk population to guide the explorations and the medical care of these disorders.

  10. Functional nonretentive fecal incontinence in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Marloes E. J.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Fecal incontinence, the loss of feces in the underwear after age 4 years, is a frustrating phenomenon for children and their parents. It is difficult to treat, presenting as a single symptom without any organic cause or signs of constipation. This review addresses the definition of functional

  11. Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Sandra L; Eren, A Murat

    2014-12-01

    Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals, and some strains appear to be associated with particular host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 12763 - Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop AGENCY... ``Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to exchange information... fecal microbiota for transplantation (FMT). ] Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on May 2...

  13. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Agrawal, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  14. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nazak AMANIDAZ; Ali ZAFARZADEH; Amir Hossein MAHVI

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks.Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal stre...

  15. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  17. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Michaelsen, Kim F; Forssten, Sofia D; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-12-01

    This study is a part of the clinical trials with probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 conducted in obese adolescents. Previously reported clinical studies showed no effect of Ls-33 consumption on the metabolic syndrome in the subject group. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of L. salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents. The study was a double-blinded intervention with 50 subjects randomized to intake of L. salivarius Ls-33 or placebo for 12 weeks. The fecal microbiota was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR before and after intervention. Concentrations of fecal short chain fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group to Firmicutes belonging bacteria, including Clostridium cluster XIV, Blautia coccoides_Eubacteria rectale group and Roseburia intestinalis, were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after administration of Ls-33. The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention. Similarly, short chain fatty acids remained unaffected. L. salivarius Ls-33 might modify the fecal microbiota in obese adolescents in a way not related to metabolic syndrome. NCT 01020617. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (Pcoliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  1. Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Danielle; Mcgraw, Patty; Duffalo, Chad; Drees, Marci; Depalma, Fedele; Herdman, Christine; Myerson, Scott; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective treatment for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With more widespread use of this intervention, variable cure rates (70–95%) have been observed. We conducted this study to identify specific patient- and procedure-level factors affecting FMT effectiveness, hypothesizing that those patients with higher comorbidity, inadequate bowel preparation, and shorter retention of transplant would fail more frequently. Methods At our 2-hospital, >1100-bed community-based academic center, we prospectively followed patients pre/post-FMT between June 2014-April 2017. To undergo FMT, patients must have ≥2 CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. We entered all FMT patients into a registry and followed them regularly for up to 1 year, collecting age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of CDI relapses, Boston bowel prep score, and stool retention time. FMT donor stool was obtained from OpenBiome (Boston, MA). We defined failure as recurrent CDI requiring treatment ≤8 weeks after FMT. We used 1-sided t-tests to test our hypotheses. Results During the study period, 41 patients (mean age 65 years, SD 17.6) underwent FMT. Most (37, 90%) were performed via colonoscopy, 1 via upper endoscopy, and 3 via oral preparation (capsules). FMT failure occurred in 10 patients (24.4%). Nearly half (n = 20) reported adverse events, including constipation, gas, abdominal pain, blood in stool, and fatigue. Three patients expired from comorbid disease, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Patients with higher Charlson scores failed more frequently (P = 0.04), and history of tumor (P = 0.03) and pulmonary disease (P = 0.04) were both associated with failure. No other factors, including age, retention time, and Boston bowel prep score, were associated with failure. Conclusion This study found that patients with multiple comorbid conditions, as defined by the Charlson index, are at risk for FMT failure. However, quality of

  2. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  3. Disparities in the receipt of fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy among Filipino American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M; Bastani, Roshan

    2008-08-01

    This report examines disparities associated with the type of colorectal screening test, fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy, within a particular racial/ethnic group, Filipino American immigrants. Between July 2005 and October 2006, Filipino Americans aged 50 to 75 years from 31 community organizations in Los Angeles completed a 15-minute survey in English (65%) or Filipino (35%). Of the 487 respondents included in this analysis, 257 (53%) had never received any type of colorectal cancer screening. Among the 230 subjects who had ever received a routine screening test, 78 had fecal occult blood test only (16% of the total sample), and 152 had endoscopy with or without fecal occult blood test (31% of the total sample). After controlling for access to care and key demographic variables in a multivariate analysis, only two characteristics distinguished between respondents who had fecal occult blood test only versus those who had endoscopy: acculturation, assessed by percent lifetime in the United States and language of interview, and income. Our data suggest a two-tier system, fecal occult blood test for less acculturated Filipino Americans with lower income versus endoscopy for Filipino immigrants with higher levels of acculturation and income. The disparity persists after adjusting for access to care. Instead of treating minority groups as monolithic, differences within groups need to be examined so that interventions can be appropriately targeted.

  4. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  5. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  6. Double-barreled wet colostomy: urinary and fecal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Dragutin M; Pavlov, Maja J; Ceranic, Miljan S; Masulovic, Dragan M; Popov, Ivan P; Micev, Marjan T

    2008-07-01

    Double-barreled wet colostomy represents simultaneous urinary and fecal surgical diversion performed most commonly after pelvic exenteration as a palliative procedure or after actinic damage. We report the structural and functional results of double-barreled wet colostomy with special attention to surgical technique, morbidity and functional results compared to those described in the available literature. We retrospectively followed 38 patients who underwent double-barreled wet colostomy at our institution from April 2003 to November 2007. The parameters were patient age and gender, the indication for double-barreled wet colostomy, postoperative morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay and functional assessment by excreting excretory urography. A total of 38 double-barreled wet colostomies were performed at our institution, including 24 following total pelvic exenteration, 14 without resection, 9 in inoperable tumor cases and 5 in actinic damage cases. The postoperative morbidity rate was 15.7% with no treatment related mortality. Two patients had late postoperative complications, including stenosis of the ureterocolonic anastomosis and conduit necrosis, respectively. In our experience double-barreled wet colostomy has an acceptable morbidity and mortality rate, is performed without technical difficulties and does not require prolonged operative time. Double-barreled wet colostomy represents the procedure of choice in patients who require concurrent urinary and fecal diversion.

  7. Sample preparation optimization in fecal metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Fasoula, Stella; Palachanis, Dimitris; Raikos, Νicolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Gika, Helen G

    2017-03-15

    Metabolomic analysis of feces can provide useful insight on the metabolic status, the health/disease state of the human/animal and the symbiosis with the gut microbiome. As a result, recently there is increased interest on the application of holistic analysis of feces for biomarker discovery. For metabolomics applications, the sample preparation process used prior to the analysis of fecal samples is of high importance, as it greatly affects the obtained metabolic profile, especially since feces, as matrix are diversifying in their physicochemical characteristics and molecular content. However there is still little information in the literature and lack of a universal approach on sample treatment for fecal metabolic profiling. The scope of the present work was to study the conditions for sample preparation of rat feces with the ultimate goal of the acquisition of comprehensive metabolic profiles either untargeted by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS or targeted by HILIC-MS/MS. A fecal sample pooled from male and female Wistar rats was extracted under various conditions by modifying the pH value, the nature of the organic solvent and the sample weight to solvent volume ratio. It was found that the 1/2 (w f /v s ) ratio provided the highest number of metabolites under neutral and basic conditions in both untargeted profiling techniques. Concerning LC-MS profiles, neutral acetonitrile and propanol provided higher signals and wide metabolite coverage, though extraction efficiency is metabolite dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis and Management of Fecal Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Arnold

    2018-03-26

    The purpose of this review is to highlight current and newer therapeutic approaches to treat fecal incontinence in patients who do not respond to conservative measures. Neurostimulation techniques, injection of bulking agents, and radiofrequency energy delivery to the anal canal have been proposed and tested for fecal incontinence over the last decade. Sacral stimulation is both effective and durable and is now the most popular of the invasive techniques whereas percutaneous tibial stimulation, radiofrequency energy, and bulking agents are either less effective or their evaluation has been handicapped by suboptimal study designs. The precise indications for the new vaginal control device and anal plugs remain to be established. The magnetic anal sphincter is disappointing. Stem cell therapy is a potentially exciting approach, which is in its infancy. There continues to be an unmet need for innovative approaches to patients with fecal incontinence who do not respond to conservative measures. The efficacy of current and future therapies should be assessed using criteria more stringent than has been used in the past to provide a more realistic assessment of meaningful efficacy.

  9. Fecal microbiota in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Yu; Wang, Jian-Lin; Wei, Jiang-Peng; Gao, Sen-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Li-Tian; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons. The band profiles and similarity indices were analyzed digitally. The predominant microbiota in different groups was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS Microbial biodiversity in the healthy controls was significantly higher compared with the UC groups (P UC patients in remission and those in the mildly active stage, the predominant species in patients with moderately and severely active UC changed obviously. In addition, the proportion of the dominant microbiota, which was negatively correlated with the disease activity of UC (r = -6.591, P UC. Patients with pouchitis had an altered microbiota composition compared with UC patients. The microbiota from pouchitis patients was less diverse than that from severely active UC patients. Sequencing results showed that similar microbiota, such as Clostridium perfringens, were shared in both UC and pouchitis. CONCLUSION Less diverse fecal microbiota was present in patients with UC and pouchitis. Increased C. perfringens in feces suggest its role in the exacerbation of UC and pouchitis. PMID:27833384

  10. Automated Sampling Procedures Supported by High Persistence of Bacterial Fecal Indicators and Bacteroidetes Genetic Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Municipal Wastewater during Short-Term Storage at 5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R. E.; Vierheilig, J.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G. H.; Saracevic, E.; Mach, R. L.; Kirschner, A. K. T.; Zessner, M.; Farnleitner, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of high diurnal water quality fluctuations in raw municipal wastewater, the use of proportional autosampling over a period of 24 h at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal has become a standard in many countries. Microbial removal or load estimation at municipal WWTPs, however, is still based on manually recovered grab samples. The goal of this study was to establish basic knowledge regarding the persistence of standard bacterial fecal indicators and Bacteroidetes genetic microbial source tracking markers in municipal wastewater in order to evaluate their suitability for automated sampling, as the potential lack of persistence is the main argument against such procedures. Raw and secondary treated wastewater of municipal origin from representative and well-characterized biological WWTPs without disinfection (organic carbon and nutrient removal) was investigated in microcosm experiments at 5 and 21°C with a total storage time of 32 h (including a 24-h autosampling component and an 8-h postsampling phase). Vegetative Escherichia coli and enterococci, as well as Clostridium perfringens spores, were selected as indicators for cultivation-based standard enumeration. Molecular analysis focused on total (AllBac) and human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes (BacHum-UCD, HF183 TaqMan) markers by using quantitative PCR, as well as 16S rRNA gene-based next-generation sequencing. The microbial parameters showed high persistence in both raw and treated wastewater at 5°C under the storage conditions used. Surprisingly, and in contrast to results obtained with treated wastewater, persistence of the microbial markers in raw wastewater was also high at 21°C. On the basis of our results, 24-h autosampling procedures with 5°C storage conditions can be recommended for the investigation of fecal indicators or Bacteroidetes genetic markers at municipal WWTPs. Such autosampling procedures will contribute to better

  11. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P  0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in adult dogs with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Heilmann, Romy M; Lecoindre, Patrick; Feugier, Alexandre; Day, Michael J; Peeters, Dominique; Freiche, Valérie; Hernandez, Juan; Grandjean, Dominique; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jorg M

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea. Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs). Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%). Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.

  13. Neuromodulation for fecal and urinary incontinence: functional results in 57 consecutive patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Chodez, Marine; Boillot, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is a recognized treatment for fecal and urinary incontinence. Few articles have been published about patients presenting with both types of incontinence. The aim of this study was to report the functional results in patients operated on for simultaneous fecal and urinary incontinence by the use of sacral nerve stimulation. This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The investigation was conducted in the academic departments of colorectal surgery and urology. Between January 2001 and March 2010, 57 consecutive patients (54 women) with a mean age of 58 years (range, 16-76) were included. Two-stage sacral nerve modulation (test and implant) was performed. Functional study before testing, at 6 months, and at the end of follow-up after implantation included the use of the Cleveland Clinic incontinence score, Urinary Symptoms Profile, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life score, and the Ditrovie score. Patient satisfaction with the technique was evaluated at a median follow-up of 62.8 months. : Fecal incontinence improved from 14.1/20 to 7.2/20 at 6 months and 6.9/20 at the end of follow-up. Urinary incontinence, mainly urge incontinence (47% of patients), and urgency frequency (34% of patients) improved at 6 months and end of follow-up, but not retention and dysuria. Specific quality of life was improved for fecal and urinary incontinence at 6 months and end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, 73% patients were highly satisfied with the technique, but 9% felt their condition had deteriorated. The reoperation rate was 29%, of which 12% were indicated because of a complication. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and the multiple causes of incontinence. Fecal and urinary incontinence, studied by symptoms scores and specific quality-of-life scores, are improved in patients receiving sacral nerve stimulation for double incontinence.

  14. Fecal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the Hospital and Community Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen-Weitz, Shantelle; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Ngwarai, Michelle R.; Thabane, Lehana; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus fecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus [including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA)] fecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings. Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA fecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies. Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA fecal carriage were 26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.8–36.3%), 86% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.9–97.9%) and 10% (95% CI: 0.7–27.0%), respectively. Fecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 to 65% during the first 8 weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64% at 6 months and 46% at 1 year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus fecal strains in diarrhea (n = 2) and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4). Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus fecal isolates. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus fecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be conducted and sequence-based genotyping

  15. Fecal total iron concentration is inversely associated with fecal Lactobacillus in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipatnapu, Sasank; Kuppuswamy, Sivaraman; Venugopal, Giriprasad; Kaliaperumal, Venkatesh; Ramadass, Balamurugan

    2017-08-01

    Iron deficiency is associated with stunting and poor performance in children. Oral iron supplementation is widely promoted to correct iron deficiency. However, excess iron may be toxic to beneficial luminal gut bacteria and could support growth of pathobionts. The aim of this study is to analyze the fecal total iron concentration and fecal Lactobacillus levels in a cohort of stunted and normal children. The study was undertaken in two different locations. One of them is a rural area, and the other is a semi-urban-slum area; both areas are located in the Vellore district of Tamilnadu state. Twenty children (10 stunted and 10 normal growth) aged 2 to 5 years from each area were recruited. Both groups were nearly identical demographically. Fecal samples were collected. Fecal total iron was estimated, and fecal DNA was extracted and subjected to 16S rDNA-targeted real-time PCR to determine the relative predominance of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The fecal total iron concentration in rural children (3656 μg/g wet wt. of feces) was significantly higher when compared with semi-urban-slum children (114.9 μg/g wet wt. of feces, P Lactobacillus in rural children (median 3.18 × 10 -3 relative difference compared with total bacteria) was significantly lower when compared with semi-urban-slum children (median 59.33 × 10 -3 , p Lactobacillus concentration in children belonging to two different localities independent of their nutritional status. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  17. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Gomes de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC, such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36 aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children and controls (40 nonconstipated children. We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool (p=0.015 than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool (p=0.323 and the intake of fruits, vegetables (p=0.563, and junk food (p=0.093 of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (0.45±0.8; p>0.001, were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%, were weaned earlier (median: 120; 60Q1–240Q3, and had a family history of constipation (71.8%. Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products.

  18. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    , ruminants, or canids. Results from samples from the Mettawee River watershed collected during high-flow conditions (12 storm samples on 2 dates at 6 stations) indicated that there was no evidence of fecal contamination from humans in seven samples and possible evidence in five samples. Results for humans were positive for only one station during both storm events. For two of the five samples with evidence for human fecal contamination, results for two different human genetic markers agreed, but results from three samples were inconsistent. In samples from five of the six Mettawee stations, ruminants were a potential source of fecal contamination on at least one of the three sampled dates, including three positive results for the base-flow sample. Yet samples from all of the stations that showed positive results for ruminants did so for only one or two of the three sampled dates. Samples from only one of the six stations gave consistent results, which were negative for ruminants for all three dates. In the Mettawee River base-flow sample, humans were an unlikely source of major fecal contamination. Factors that may influence results and conclusions include the timing of sample collection relative to the storm event; variability of E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations in fecal reference samples and in water; sampling and analytical errors; the potential cross reactivity of host-associated genetic markers; and different persistence and survival rates of E. coli bacteria and Bacteroidales genetic markers on land, in water, and by season. These factors interfere with the ability to directly relate Bacteroidales concentrations to E. coli concentrations in river samples. It must be recognized that while use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as a source tracking tool coupled with the interpretive approach described in this report cannot be used quantitatively to pinpoint sources, it can be used to exclude potential sources as major contributors to fecal contamination.

  19. Individual identification of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) using DNA from fecal pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd J. Brinkman; David K. Person; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin E. Colson; Kris J. Hundertmark

    2010-01-01

    We tested a protocol for extracting DNA from fecal pellets from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) and evaluated genotyping performance of previously developed microsatellite markers as well as a suite of new markers designed specifically for this study. We screened 30 microsatellites, and identified 7 (23%) loci including 4 new markers, that fit...

  20. Treatment of fecal retention is important in the management of overactive bladder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Jin; Seo, Bo Seon; Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Su Jin

    2017-02-01

    The investigation of fecal retention using objective and patient-friendly tools, rather than the diagnosis of constipation, might be important in the management of overactive bladder (OAB) in children. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and grade of fecal retention in children with OAB and to determine the effectiveness of laxative treatment for fecal retention in the management of OAB in children. This study included 88 children with OAB aged 5-15 years. Fecal retention was defined as type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale) or a Leech score above eight points, and constipation was determined according to the ROME III criteria. Among the 88 children, 71 with fecal retention or constipation were treated with oral laxatives (polyethylene glycol 3,350/4,000 or lactulose) for 2 weeks, and the responses to the treatment were assessed. Among the 88 children, 63 (71.6%) had a Leech score above eight points as assessed by plain abdominal radiography, 52 (59.1%) had type 1/2 feces (Bristol stool form scale), 24 (27.3%) had functional constipation and only 6 (6.8%) had none of either. Among the 71 children who received laxative treatment for 2 weeks, 58 (81.7%) reported an improvement in OAB symptoms. Additionally, the number of children with a Leech score above eight points was significantly higher in the good response group than in the poor response group (P = 0.014). Investigation of fecal retention with the Leech scoring system and laxative treatment might be helpful in the management of OAB in children. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:490-494, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  2. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  3. ESTABLISHING NORMAL FECAL FLORA IN WILD AUSTRALIAN PASSERINE BIRDS BY USE OF THE FECAL GRAM STAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Benjamin; Leishman, Alan; Martin, John; Phalen, David

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal fecal bacterial and fungal flora and parasite prevalence in wild passerine birds found at the Australian Botanic Garden (Mount Annan, New South Wales). Wild passerine birds (n = 186) from 28 species were captured with mist nets. Fecal Gram stains (n = 155) were made from 26 species and analyzed for bacterial density, Gram stain morphology, and the presence of yeast. Fecal wet preparations (n = 139) were made from 24 passerine species and were analyzed for parasites. Our results showed that 81.9% of passerines sampled had bacteria present in their feces. The bacteria found were entirely Gram positive and consisted predominantly of cocci. Individuals that were caught on multiple occasions were found to have stable bacterial populations, apart from the red-browed finch (Neochmia temporalis). Insectivores had higher bacterial densities and cocci proportions than nectarivores had. Yeasts were rare in most species, with the exception of the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys) and noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). The yeast, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, and parasites were not observed in any fecal samples. These results will help practitioners to assess the health of Australian passerine species submitted for care or housed in zoological collections.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  5. Evaluation of fecal contamination indicators (fecal coliforms, somatic phages, and helminth eggs) in ryegrass sward farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Moreno, Gerardo; Campos, Claudia

    2009-02-15

    The effect of soil supplementation with biosolids at various ratios on fecal-origin microorganism activity was evaluated in a ryegrass sward farm. Fifteen plots with 3 different soil and biosolid mixture ratios were assessed. Soil and grass were sampled over a period of 4 months (days 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 120) for soil and on days 75 and 120 for grass, corresponding to first and second grass harvest periods. We analyzed fecal coliforms, somatic phages, helminth eggs, and environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and moisture. The fecal coliforms decreased by 2 logarithmic units (LU) in all soils containing biosolids and by 1 LU in the soil alone and in biosolid control plots alone. The concentration of somatic phages decreased to 2 to 3 LU in the soil containing biosolids and to 1 to 2 LU in the control plots. In contrast, however, there was a noticeable increase in helminth eggs on days 75 ad 120, but not in the soil control alone. Maximum concentrations (10(2) CFU/g TS; colony forming units per gram total solids) of fecal coliforms were found on the grass and in other samples, but the concentrations of phages and helminth eggs were below detection limits. Environmental factors did not significantly influence the results, and grass production increased from 35 to 50 Ton/Ha (tons per hectare) with biosolid supplementation, as compared with controls (14 Ton/Ha).

  6. Isotopic nitrogen in fecal fiber as an indicator of winter diet in caribou and muskoxen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Addison, Jennifer; Shively, Rachel; Oliver, Lola

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N values) in excreta have been used to examine aspects of trophic and nutritional ecology across taxa. Nitrogen fractions in feces of herbivores include endogenous (e.g., sloughed intestinal cells, unresorbed digestive secretions, and microbial debris) and dietary sources. For animals such as large herbivores, that have diets and feces with high concentrations of indigestible fiber, endogenous 15N may constrain the use of fecal δ15N values to estimate dietary δ15N values and reconstruct diets. METHODS: We compared two techniques (detergent and detergent-free) to isolate fractions of plant fibers in the forages of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus); estimated the discrimination factors between the δ15N values of fecal fiber residues and of the diets of captive animals; and used the more effective isotopic tracer of dietary δ15N values to examine the relationships between the δ15N values of fecal residues and diet composition in several populations of wild caribou and muskoxen throughout North America in winter. RESULTS: The detergent-based approach contaminated the fractions of plant fibers in forages and feces with 14N, whereas the detergent-free method was a good proxy to estimate δ15N values of plant fibers (r2= 0.92) and provided a better estimate of the fecal-fiber to diet discrimination factor for both species (caribou = 3.6‰; muskoxen = 2.8‰). In wild populations, the δ15N values of fecal fibers reflected diet composition in muskoxen (adjusted R2= 0.43) but not caribou (adjusted R2= 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Contamination from detergent residues prohibited the use of detergent extraction in isolating forage 15N from endogenous 15N in the feces of herbivores. Although δ15N values in fecal fibers can be used to track dietary δ15N values in wild herbivores, discrimination between fecal extracts and diet may vary with the contribution of endogenous nitrogen (N), and

  7. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  8. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  9. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  11. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal Pollution Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, cr...

  12. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  13. Assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni Kijichi) and non-sewage impacted (Rasi Dege) mangrove forest sites along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Most Probable Number method was used for estimating the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal ...

  14. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  15. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  16. Release of Sediment-Bound Fecal Coliforms by Dredging1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal coliform concentrations increased significantly (F test) in the immediate vicinity of a maintenance dredging operation in the Mississippi River navigation channel. Increased counts were attributed to the disturbance and relocation of bottom sediments by dredging and a concomitant release of sediment-bound fecal coliforms. PMID:1089160

  17. Distinguishing bovine fecal matter on spinach leaves using field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodbourne illnesses. In this study passive field spectroscopy, mea...

  18. Heavy metal and associated antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed at assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals by wastewater bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance. Methodology and results: Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate fecal streptococci, fecal coliforms, Vibrio and Salmonella species from raw animal wastewaters ...

  19. Screening for fecal carriage of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans and primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zurfluh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe. Objectives To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of colistin were determined for non-intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates. Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. Results The fecal carriage rate of colistin resistant (MIC value >2 mg/l Enterobacteriaceae was 1.5% for healthy people and 3.8% for primary care patients. Isolates included Hafnia alvei (n = 9, Escherichia coli (n = 3, Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. None of the isolates harbored the mcr-1 or mcr-2 genes. Conclusions There is no evidence for the presence of MCR-producers in the fecal flora of healthy people or primary care patients. Therefore, the risk of transfer of mcr genes from animals, food or the environment to humans is likely to be low in Switzerland.

  20. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  1. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  2. Computer modeling of fecal coliform contamination of an urban estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatos, P D

    2001-01-01

    This study is focused on the investigation of the sources, distribution and fate of fecal coliform populations in the North Fork of the New River that flows through the City of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. The dynamics of this brackish river are driven by weak tides, regulated freshwater discharges, overland runoff, storm water drainage from sewers, and groundwater exchange. Extensive field studies failed to document any alleged source(s) of contamination, including birds, domesticated and undomesticated mammals, humans, septic tank leakage, urban runoff, non-point discharges from agricultural lands, waste disposal from live-aboard vessels and/or in situ re-growth of fecal coliform. In order to facilitate field sampling, and support the data analyses efforts, computer simulations were applied to assess the likelihood of the various possible pollution scenarios. The physically based computer model used is the WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Modeling System) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the Neural Network MATLAB Toolbox was utilized for data analysis. WASP was able to accurately simulate the water hydrodynamics and coliform concentrations within the North Fork, while the neural network assisted in identifying correlations between fecal coliform and the various parameters involved. The numerical results supported the conclusion that fecal coliform were introduced by the animal populations along the riverbanks and by storm water washout of the adjacent drainage basins and the banks. The problem is exaggerated due to the low flashing capacity of the river.

  3. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fecal Calprotectin Is Not Affected by Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian L.; Gearry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are important in pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory markers are often affected by the physiological adaption that occurs during pregnancy, although, few, if any, data exist on fecal calprotectin (FC......). We investigated FC concentrations in pregnant controls and IBD women, and whether FC correlated with physician global assessment (PGA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI)/Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) before and after pregnancy, as well as during each trimester....../SCCAI before (r = 0.66; P pregnancy (r = 0.47; P pregnancy (P > 0.05). An FC cutoff concentration of 250 g/g significantly correlated with active disease according to PGA in all 5 periods (P ≤ 0.0002). CRP only significantly correlated with FC (P = 0.0007) and PGA...

  5. [Culture, environment and fecal hazards: anthropological observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper was presented as a tribute to André Dodin, formerly director of the Paris Pasteur Institute's cholera department. It was intended to: - recall representations of what is seen as pure, impure, sullied, dirty ... medical and social interventions depend not only on scientific theories but also on unconscious presuppositions linked to their particular history and culture; - to stress the necessity of reexamining epidemiological chains in fecal peril bearing in mind bodily techniques and the material and symbolic behaviour of the populations concerned; - to insist upon the fact that traditional sanitation techniques do exist and should not be neglected, whether it be to make use of them, avoid or combat them. It is not a question of idealizing local culture, but of becoming acquainted with it so as better to appreciate its role.

  6. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  7. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence Neuromodulación de raíces sacras en incontinencia fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pascual

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze short-term outcomes and complications for our first fifty patients with fecal incontinence undergoing sacral root stimulation. Patients: fifty patients with fecal incontinence receiving sacral neuromodulation in 4 hospitals are reviewed. Discussed variables include: age, sex, incontinence duration, incontinence cause, prior surgery for incontinence, Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and endoanal ultrasonographic findings. Following the procedure Wexner scale score, anorectal manometry parameters, and associated complications are reviewed. Results: mean age of patients is 59.9 years, with females predominating. Most common causes of incontinence include obstetric procedures, idiopathic origin, and prior anal surgery. Mean follow-up is 17.02 months. Follow-up revealed a statistically significant reduction in Wexner scale score and increase in voluntary anal pressure. Technique-derived minor complications included: 2 surgical wound infections that led to stimulator withdrawal; 2 patients with pain who were managed conservatively; 1 case of externalization in a gluteal stimulator; and 1 broken tetrapolar electrode. Conclusions: sacral nerve stimulation is a simple technique that improves Wexner scores in a statistically significant manner with a low complications rate.Objetivo: analizar los resultados y complicaciones a corto plazo de nuestros primeros cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante estimulación de raíces sacras. Pacientes: se revisan cincuenta pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante neuromodulación de raíces sacras en 4 centros hospitalarios. Las variables analizadas son: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la incontinencia, causa de la incontinencia, cirugías previas para tratar la incontinencia, puntuación en la escala de Wexner, parámetros de la manometría anorrectal y los hallazgos en la ecografía endoanal. Tras la intervención se revisa la puntuaci

  8. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted.

  9. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  10. Effect of preservation method on spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) fecal microbiota over 8 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Tan, Chia L; Knight, Rob; Amato, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Studies of the gut microbiome have become increasingly common with recent technological advances. Gut microbes play an important role in human and animal health, and gut microbiome analysis holds great potential for evaluating health in wildlife, as microbiota can be assessed from non-invasively collected fecal samples. However, many common fecal preservation protocols (e.g. freezing at -80 °C) are not suitable for field conditions, or have not been tested for long-term (greater than 2 weeks) storage. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Columbian Park Zoo (Lafayette, IN, USA). The samples were pooled, homogenized, and preserved for up to 8 weeks prior to DNA extraction and sequencing. Preservation methods included: freezing at -20 °C, freezing at -80 °C, immersion in 100% ethanol, application to FTA cards, and immersion in RNAlater. At 0 (fresh), 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks from fecal collection, DNA was extracted and microbial DNA was amplified and sequenced. DNA concentration, purity, microbial diversity, and microbial composition were compared across all methods and time points. DNA concentration and purity did not correlate with microbial diversity or composition. Microbial composition of frozen and ethanol samples were most similar to fresh samples. FTA card and RNAlater-preserved samples had the least similar microbial composition and abundance compared to fresh samples. Microbial composition and diversity were relatively stable over time within each preservation method. Based on these results, if freezers are not available, we recommend preserving fecal samples in ethanol (for up to 8weeks) prior to microbial extraction and analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial Removal Efficiency of UV in Tehran Shahid Mahallati Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dabbagh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shahid Mahallati Wastewater Treatment Plant was selected for installing a UV disinfection unit to investigate its germicidal effect on microbial removal. Low pressure mercury lamps were used to generate germicidal ultraviolet radiation (UV-C. The UV system was operated over a period of 6 months that included both warm and cold seasons. A maximum UV disinfection efficiency of 14.4m3/h was recorded for the system on the basis of design criteria within turbidity ranges of 9 to 32 NTU. The minimum UV dose applied in the UV unit was 40000 µW.s/cm2 and the highest bacterial density in the UV unit influent was 5.6*107. Effluent total coliform or fecal coliform enumeration after exposure to UV ray showed the microbial density decreasing from four logs, or 99.99%, to as high as six logs, or 99.9999% removal efficiency, under different conditions. Effluent microbial densities in terms of total and fecal coliforms were below 1000MPN/100mL and 400MPN/100mL, respectively. These values comply with wastewater discharge or agricultural irrigation standards according to Iran Department of Environment. From our results, it is concluded that UV disinfection may be an effective technique for wastewater disinfection in Iranian wastewater treatment plants.

  12. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

    2014-08-01

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms.

  13. Using fecal glucocorticoids for stress assessment in Mourning Doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Schulz, John H.; Jones, Susan B.; Mong, T.

    2003-01-01

    Fecal glucocorticoid assays provide a potentially useful, noninvasive means to study physiological responses of wildlife to various stressors. The objective of our study was to validate a method for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) feces. We validated the assay using standard procedures (e.g., parallelism, recovery of exogenous corticosterone) to demonstrate that the assay accurately and precisely measured glucocorticoid metabolites in Mourning Dove fecal extracts. We conducted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) challenge experiments to validate the assay's ability to determine biologically important changes in fecal glucocorticoids. Fecal glucocorticoid levels increased significantly approximately 2-3 hr after administration of ACTH at 50 IU per kg body mass to wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. In contrast, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites did not increase in control birds, birds that received saline injections, or a lower dose of ACTH (1 IU per kg body mass). Variation in overall fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels may have been influenced by season and the length of time birds were held in captivity. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analyses, in combination with demographic information, may have considerable utility for monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Mourning Dove populations.

  14. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  15. Steatorrhea cannot be excluded where there is a fecal weight below 0.200 kg per day and a high fecal consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirup, P

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed one year's results of fecal fat (feces alifatic carboxylates) analyses, which are used in the diagnosis of malabsorption (steatorrhea), by calculating the relationship between fecal fat, fecal weight (fecal mass excretion rate) and fecal consistency (in terms of the volume of water...... used: 7% at 0.180 kg/24 h, 3% at 0.140 kg/24 h and 0% at 0.120 kg/24 h. There was no correlation between fecal fat and consistency. The mean volume of added water was not different in normal and steatorrheic feces. The fat content could be predicted as normal only in the seven specimens (3.5% (1......-7%)) that had more than 3.8 L/kg water added. Thus, an abnormal fecal fat content cannot reliably be excluded, in a routine setting, on the basis of a fecal weight below 0.200 kg/24 h and a high fecal consistency....

  16. Evaluation of standard and modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliforms in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; Hilner, C A; Coubrough, P

    1981-08-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtainable, easy to prepare and handle, and yielded clearly recognizable fecal coliform colonies. Identification of 1,139 fecal coliform isolates showed that fecal coliform tests cannot be used to enumerate Escherichia coli because the incidence of E. coli among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 51% for river water to 93% for an activated sludge effluent after chlorination. The incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 4% for the activated sludge effluent after chlorination to 32% for the river water. The advantages of a standard membrane filtration procedure for routine counting of fecal coliforms in water using M-FC agar without rosolic acid as growth medium, in the absence of preincubation or resuscitation steps, are outlined.

  17. Disinfection and removal of human pathogenic bacteria in arctic waste stabilization ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yannan; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    cool summer treatment season. With relevance to public health, the objectives of this paper were to determine if treatment in arctic WSPs resulted in the disinfection (i.e., removal of fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli) and removal of selected human bacterial pathogens from the treated...

  18. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...... and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed...

  19. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  20. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Tue H; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-05-10

    The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration in composition of overall fecal microbiota structure assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, or phylogenetic microarray methods were included. Independent collection and quality assessment of studies were performed by two authors using predefined criteria including methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review. The quality of the studies was assessed as medium to high. Still, no effects were observed on the fecal microbiota composition in terms of α-diversity, richness, or evenness in any of the included studies when compared to placebo. Only one study found that probiotic supplementation significantly modified the overall structure of the fecal bacterial community in terms of β-diversity when compared to placebo. This systematic review of the pertinent literature demonstrates a lack of evidence for an impact of probiotics on

  1. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  2. Tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  4. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonization associated with fecal microbiota treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) has emerged as the gold standard for treatment of persistent, symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that does not respond to conventional antimicrobial treatment. Probiotics are commonly recommended in addition to antimicrobial treatment for CD...

  6. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  7. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  8. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  9. Assessment of a new Bacteroidales marker targeting North American beaver (Castor canadensis) fecal pollution by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Zhang, Yun; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2013-11-01

    In many settings wildlife can be a significant source of fecal pathogen input into surface water. The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is a zoonotic reservoir for several human pathogens including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. In order to specifically detect fecal pollution by beavers, we have developed and validated a beaver-specific Bacteroidales marker, designated Beapol01, based on the 16S rRNA gene. The marker is suitable for quantifying pollution using real-time PCR. The specificity and sensitivity of the marker was excellent, Beaver signal was detected in water of a mixed-activity watershed harbouring this rodent. Overall, Beapol01 will be useful for a better understanding of fecal source inputs in drainage basins inhabited by the beaver. © 2013.

  10. Digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Farinna L; Fanning, James

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during pelvic examination. We reviewed the data for 232 consecutive women who underwent digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during routine pelvic examination and who had had at least 1-year of follow-up visits: 59% of the women were followed for gynecologic cancer, and 41% of the women were followed for benign gynecologic disease. The median age was 62 years. Patients with positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening were sent for gastroenterologic examination. Sixteen of 232 patients (7%) had a positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening result. On gastroenterologic examination, 5 of the 16 patients (31%) were found to have disease (2 polyps, 1 diverticular disease, 2 radiation proctitis). At 1-year follow-up, no patient had colon cancer. Until better compliance can be obtained with home stool sample fecal occult blood testing, we recommend a larger study of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination to verify our results.

  11. A rapid fecal bioassay method for Pu/Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is a sensitive tool to estimate intake of radionuclides, especially for insoluble or poorly absorbed actinides. To increase efficiency and reduce turnaround time, improvements were introduced in the sample digestion step of a fecal bioassay method to rapidly detect Pu and Am. The acid- and microwave-digestion of the spiked fecal samples (5-10 g) were effectively completed in 1 h. The turnaround time for the sample analysis was minimized to 6 h. The average recoveries for Pu and Am were 35% and 60% for artificial fecal samples, respectively. Much better recoveries for Pu and Am were obtained for natural fecal samples. Observed relative biases for Pu and Am were marginally in the range of -0.25 to +0.50. The relative precision values for both radionuclides were, however, within the performance index of 0.4. This rapid fecal method is a potential candidate for an acceptable quantitative radiobioassay and screening method for the suspected Pu/Am exposures. (author)

  12. Performance of viruses and bacteriophages for fecal source determination in a multi-laboratory, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Stewart, Jill R; Fong, Theng-Theng; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Converse, Reagan R; Diston, David; Ebdon, James; Fuhrman, Jed A; Gourmelon, Michele; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Griffith, John F; Kashian, Donna R; Noble, Rachel T; Taylor, Huw; Wicki, Melanie

    2013-11-15

    An inter-laboratory study of the accuracy of microbial source tracking (MST) methods was conducted using challenge fecal and sewage samples that were spiked into artificial freshwater and provided as unknowns (blind test samples) to the laboratories. The results of the Source Identification Protocol Project (SIPP) are presented in a series of papers that cover 41 MST methods. This contribution details the results of the virus and bacteriophage methods targeting human fecal or sewage contamination. Human viruses used as source identifiers included adenoviruses (HAdV), enteroviruses (EV), norovirus Groups I and II (NoVI and NoVII), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs). Bacteriophages were also employed, including somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) as general indicators of fecal contamination. Bacteriophage methods targeting human fecal sources included genotyping of FRNAPH isolates and plaque formation on bacterial hosts Enterococcus faecium MB-55, Bacteroides HB-73 and Bacteroides GB-124. The use of small sample volumes (≤50 ml) resulted in relatively insensitive theoretical limits of detection (10-50 gene copies or plaques × 50 ml(-1)) which, coupled with low virus concentrations in samples, resulted in high false-negative rates, low sensitivity, and low negative predictive values. On the other hand, the specificity of the human virus methods was generally close to 100% and positive predictive values were ∼40-70% with the exception of NoVs, which were not detected. The bacteriophage methods were generally much less specific toward human sewage than virus methods, although FRNAPH II genotyping was relatively successful, with 18% sensitivity and 85% specificity. While the specificity of the human virus methods engenders great confidence in a positive result, better concentration methods and larger sample volumes must be utilized for greater accuracy of negative results, i.e. the prediction that a human contamination source is absent. Copyright

  13. Removal of Microorganisms in Drinking Water using Pulsed High Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadi Hazmi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pulsed high voltage was used to remove microorganisms in drinking water. The effects of the pulsed high voltage on pH, conductivity, temperature and oxidation reduction potential (ORP of the drinking water were investigated. The observed results show that the removal efficiency with respect to fecal coliforms and total coliforms increased with the increase of the pulsed high voltage. The removal efficiency for microorganisms such as fecal coliforms and total coliforms was in the range 25-100% and 44-100%, respectively, after the water was exposed to a pulsed high voltage of 5-10 kV for 60 minutes. An increase of the pulsed high voltage caused a decrease in the conductivity and ORP with operational time.

  14. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( Digestibility of DM, OM, and energy did not differ from the control at any inclusion rate, except for a decrease ( digestibility was not affected by treatment and ranged from 82.9 to 86.2%. Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in dogs fed 24

  15. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  16. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  17. Weight Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant for Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, Dina; Drees, Marci; Myerson, Scott; Duffalo, Chad; Mosby, Danielle; Herdman, Christine; Depalma, Fedele; Mcgraw, Patty; Bacon, Alfred E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for relapsing Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) allows for rapid repopulation of the colonic microbiome and may prevent future relapses. FMT is considered safe, however subsequent impact on weight and metabolism are incompletely understood. Animal studies have shown that alterations in microbiota lead to changes in weight; this is also suggested in humans, based on limited anecdotal evidence. This study explores changes in weight associated with FMT. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent FMT at our 1100-bed community-based academic healthcare system. FMT protocol requires 2 documented CDI relapses and failed vancomycin taper. FMT methods include colonoscopy, EGD and oral capsules. Of note, donor stool (OpenBiome, Boston, Massachusetts) criteria include BMI 5% gain 11 (65) >10% gain 6 (35) >5% loss 6 (50) >10% loss 2 (17) Average % of body weight change (among those with changes) - Gain 7.7 Loss 5.5 Conclusion In this limited population, it appears FMT may predispose to weight gain, which may reflect improved health with CDI cure. However, effects of FMT on patient’s microbiomes must also be considered. As this intervention becomes more widely used we must be increasingly aware of possible metabolic side effects and ensure documentation of weight changes as part of FMT protocols. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  18. Comparison of Diverting Colostomy and Bowel Management Catheter Applications in Fournier Gangrene Cases Requiring Fecal Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Ismail Cem; Alabaz, Omer; Akcam, Atilgan Tolga; Ulku, Abdullah; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Sakman, Gurhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2015-12-01

    In some patients of Fournier gangrene originated from perianal region, it is important to prevent fecal contamination in order to provide healing without wound infection. For this purposes, diverting colostomy or bowel management catheter methods were performed. In this study, it is aimed to carry out a comparison of prognosis and cost efficiency between diverting colostomy and bowel management catheter methods applied for preventing fecal contamination in Fournier's gangrene patients. Fourty-eight patients with diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene, serious perianal infections, and preserved sphincters and without rectum injury after debridement were included in the study. The cases were divided into two groups as patients who were subjected to colostomy for fecal diversion and who were subjected to bowel management catheter without colostomy. Then, the groups were compared in terms of age, predisposing factors, duration of hospital stay, mortality, additional surgery requirements, and cost. Fourty-eight patients were included the study. Sixteen patients were treated without colostomy. Decreased duration of total hospital stay, additional surgery requirements, and hospital expense in bowel management catheter group has determined. It is thought that preferring bowel management catheter method instead of colostomy in patients without rectum injury, who require diverting colostomy and have undamaged anal sphincters, can relieve patients, patients' relatives, healthcare organizations, and the national economy of a serious burden. In addition, although patients' satisfaction and workforce loss factors are not taken into consideration in this study, the bowel management catheter method is thought to have positive effects also on these parameters.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Williams

    Full Text Available Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety.To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands.A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141. Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1 and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7 times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58 and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22. Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62 compared to other water sources used for consumption.Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  20. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung G Phan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in

  1. Comparative reduction of Giardia cysts, F+ coliphages, sulphite reducing clostridia and fecal coliforms by wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M; Benisti, Neta-Lee; Ofer, Naomi; Hovers, Sivan; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2017-01-28

    Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The treatment process consists of activated sludge, coagulation, high rate filtration and either chlorine or UV disinfection. The results of the study demonstrated that Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in raw wastewater at an average concentration of 3600 cysts/L. Fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and SRC were also detected at high concentrations in raw wastewater. Giardia cysts were efficiently removed (3.6 log 10 ) by the treatment train. The greatest reduction was observed for fecal coliforms (9.6 log 10 ) whereas the least reduction was observed for F+ coliphages (2.1 log 10 ) following chlorine disinfection. Similar reduction was observed for SRC by filtration and disinfection by either UV (3.6 log 10 ) or chlorine (3.3 log 10 ). Since F+ coliphage and SRC were found to be more resistant than fecal coliforms for the tertiary treatment processes, they may prove to be more suitable as indicators for Giardia. The results of this study demonstrated that advanced wastewater treatment may prove efficient for the removal of Giardia cysts and may prevent its transmission when treated effluents are applied for crop irrigation or streams restoration.

  2. The occurrence and removal of algae (including cyanobacteria) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacterial bloom formation in freshwaters, such as rivers, lakes and dams, is known to occur throughout the world. The Vaalkop Dam, which serves as source to the Vaalkop drinking water treatment works (DWTW), is no exception. Blooms of cyanobacteria occur annually in Vaalkop Dam as well as in dams from which ...

  3. Removable camouflage paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Pasi S.; Niinimaki-Heikkila, Tiina; Hallenberg, Ilkka

    2001-09-01

    All military objects must have basic camouflage that is usually achieved by painting. Patterned camouflage painting hides the object and blends its shape and characteristic features in with its surroundings. Basic camouflage can be complemented by using temporary camouflage such as removable camouflage paints. These paints can be used in seasons and environments where the basic pattern is not appropriate. A research project was begun at the Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (DFTRC) in 1994 in order to formulate an environmentally friendly, removable camouflage paint for military use. The paint should be easily removable when they are applied to previously painted military equipment. However, it should also be resistant to drizzle. The paint should have optical properties similar to those of its surroundings. The surface of the coatings should also be matt to avoid any conspicuous reflection. Finally, it should be possible to apply removable camouflage paints in the field using any painting method. During the project environmentally friendly and non-toxic removable paints were successfully formulated. The colors of removable paints are compromises of average operating environments. The project included numerous laboratory tests in addition to natural and accelerated weathering tests. Several field tests have been carried out. According to the tests, the removable paints are well resistant to drizzle, sufficiently resistant to abrasion, and they can be washed off with water.

  4. Coliforms removal by an integrated activated sludge-maturation pond system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study assesses the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms in a full-scale activated sludge and maturation pond system with primary screening facility that is operating in center of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 grab samples for microbiological test were collected from the inlet and outlet of activated sludge (AS and maturation pond (MP during the winter and summer 2010 (3 sample per month in 3 locations. Collected samples were sent to laboratory and were analyzed for total coliformbacteria (TCB and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB according to Standard Methods. Results: The results of this study show that the maximum TCB removal in AS (92.2% and MP (99.2% were occurred in summer. Also, for FCB, the highest removal rate (99.7% was recorded during the summer. The mean winter TCB numbers for AS and MP effluents were 2.7 × 10 7 and 2.3 × 10 6 (MPN per 100 ml, respectively. However, the effluent still contained a significant number of coliforms, which was greater than the permissible limit for unrestricted irrigation as prescribed by Iranian and WHO guidelines. Conclusion: Removal efficiencies of fecal indicator bacteria were maximum during summer and minimum during winter. Statistical analysis indicated that TCB and FCB removal in MP is significantly affected by ambient temperature, whereas there was weak correlation between ambient temperature and coliform removal in AS system.

  5. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced.

  6. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  7. Clinical Practice and Infrastructure Review of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan J; Tebas, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    A substantial proportion of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases recur after completion of antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic cure rates diminish with each recurrence of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent FMT, which otherwise requires prolonged or indefinite antibiotic treatment. FMT is performed by introducing the fecal microbial community obtained from a healthy donor or pool of donors into the stomach, small intestine, or colon of a patient with CDI. Multiple clinical trials support the usefulness of FMT in treating recurrent CDI, and CDI treatment guidelines now include consideration of FMT at the third CDI recurrence. However, there remain challenges to incorporating FMT into clinical practice. First, methods of fecal bacterial community processing vary, as do methods of FMT administration. Second, the optimal dosing strategy and expected benefit of FMT for refractory CDI, particularly for severe and severe complicated cases, are uncertain. Third, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers FMT an investigational treatment. Fourth, insurance reimbursement for FMT usually falls short of FMT administration costs. In the setting of rising C difficile incidence and growing evidence for FMT efficacy, the demand for FMT has increased. However, uncertainty surrounding optimal FMT preparation and administration methods, FDA oversight, and insurance reimbursement presently limits the clinical practice of FMT. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intestinal microbiota pathogenesis and fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Ye; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Gang; Peng, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The pathogenesis of IBD involves inappropriate ongoing activation of the mucosal immune system driven by abnormal intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there are still no definitive microbial pathogens linked to the onset of IBD. The composition and function of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites are indeed disturbed in IBD patients. The special alterations of gut microbiota associated with IBD remain to be evaluated. The microbial interactions and host-microbe immune interactions are still not clarified. Limitations of present probiotic products in IBD are mainly due to modest clinical efficacy, few available strains and no standardized administration. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may restore intestinal microbial homeostasis, and preliminary data have shown the clinical efficacy of FMT on refractory IBD or IBD combined with Clostridium difficile infection. Additionally, synthetic microbiota transplantation with the defined composition of fecal microbiota is also a promising therapeutic approach for IBD. However, FMT-related barriers, including the mechanism of restoring gut microbiota, standardized donor screening, fecal material preparation and administration, and long-term safety should be resolved. The role of intestinal microbiota and FMT in IBD should be further investigated by metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with germ-free/human flora-associated animals and chemostat gut models. PMID:25356041

  9. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  10. Bifidobacterium-Rich Fecal Donor May Be a Positive Predictor for Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Shinta; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Naganuma, Makoto; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Kitazawa, Momoko; Kurokawa, Shunya; Nakashima, Moeko; Takeshita, Kozue; Suda, Wataru; Mimura, Masaru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy. The primary end point was a change in the Bristol stool form scale at 4 weeks after FMT. Recovery to types 3-4 was considered a clinical response. The secondary end point was a change in intestinal microbiota and psychological status using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Ten patients were enrolled. Six patients achieved a clinical response. The diversity of patients 4 weeks after FMT increased significantly compared with patients before FMT, and that of responding patients was significantly higher than non-responder patients. The abundance of Bifidobacterium in effective donors was significantly higher than in ineffective donors and patients. Psychological status of all patients was significantly improved after FMT. FMT for patients with IBS is safe, and relatively effective. Bifidobacterium-rich fecal donor may be a positive predictor for successful FMT. Key Summary: (1) Dysbiosis is associated with various gastrointestinal disorders including IBS. (2) FMT has potential to restore intestinal microbial balance. (3) We showed that FMT improved stool form and psychological status of IBS patients. (4) Bifidobacterium-rich donor efficiently induced symbiosis in IBS patients. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  12. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  13. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates ( P panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  14. Diagnostic Performance of Measurement of Fecal Elastase-1 in Detection of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency - Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanga, Rohini R; Tansel, Aylin; Sidiq, Saad; El-Serag, Hashem B; Othman, Mohamed

    2018-01-25

    Tests to quantify fecal levels of chymotrypsin like elastase family member 3 (CELA3 or elastase-1) in feces are widely used to identify patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). However, the diagnostic accuracy of this test, an ELISA, is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the accuracy of measurement of fecal elastase-1 in detection of EPI. We searched PubMed, Embase, and reference lists for articles through November 2016 describing studies that compared fecal level of elastase-1 with results from a reference standard, direct method (secretin stimulation test), or indirect method (measurement of fecal fat) for detection of EPI. Sensitivity and specificity values were pooled statistically using bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis. We included total of 428 cases of EPI and 673 individuals without EPI (controls), from 14 studies, in the meta-analysis. The assay for elastase-1, compared to secretin stimulation test, identified patients with pancreatic insufficiency with a pooled sensitivity value of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.58-0.89) and specificity value of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78-0.93). In an analysis of 345 cases of EPI and 312 controls, from 6 studies, the fecal elastase-1 assay identified patients with EPI with a pooled sensitivity value of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.79-0.99) and specificity value of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.59-0.97), compared to quantitative fecal fat estimation. In patients with low pre-test probability of EPI (5%), the fecal elastase-1 assay would have a false-negative rate of 1.1% and a false-positive rate of 11%, indicating a high yield in ruling out EPI but not in detection of EPI. In contrast, in patients with high pre-test probability of EPI (40%), approximately 10% of patients with EPI would be missed (false negatives). In a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared fecal level of elastase-1 for detection of EPI, we found that normal level of elastase-1 (above 200 mcg/g) can rule out EPI in patients with

  15. The Low-Diversity Fecal Microbiota of the Critically Endangered Kākāpō Is Robust to Anthropogenic Dietary and Geographic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena K. Perry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered kākāpō, an herbivorous parrot endemic to New Zealand, is subject to intensive management to increase its population size. Key aspects of the management program include supplementary feeding and translocation of kākāpō between different predator-free islands to optimize the genetic composition of the breeding populations. While these practices have helped boost the kākāpō population, their impact on the kākāpō fecal microbiota is uncertain. Previous studies have found that the kākāpō possesses a low-diversity fecal microbiota, typically dominated by Escherichia/Shigella spp. However, the question of whether the low diversity of the kākāpō fecal microbiota is an inadvertent consequence of human interventions has yet to be investigated. To that end, we used high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from fecal material of 63 kākāpō representing different diets, islands, and ages. Remarkably, neither supplementary feeding nor geographic location were associated with significant differences in the overall fecal microbial community structures of adult kākāpō, suggesting that the kākāpō's low-diversity fecal microbiota is both inherent to this species and robust to these external influences.

  16. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. [Parasitic diseases and fecal hazards: diseases due to helminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1998-01-01

    Ascaris, trichocephalus, hookworm, necator and anguillula--all of which are human parasites--are closely linked to fecal peril and especially prevalent among populations in developing countries, where fecal hygiene is insufficient or lacking. Epidemiological surveys seeking to evaluate the frequency of the various intestinal helminths are usually intermittent, few in number, and especially difficult to compare because of the different coprological techniques used. However this may be, the respective prevalence of these worms depends on geographical, climatic, economic, and human conditions. Their effect on health is not negligible, especially on children's health and in particular when malnutrition also occurs. To fight effectively against these verminoses, education and economic development must be promoted, but the present situation of the economy in most developing countries is postponing indefinitely the fight against fecal peril especially as its control is not seen as a priority.

  18. Media Discourse on the Social Acceptability of Fecal Transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H; O'Doherty, Kieran C; Secko, David M

    2015-10-01

    Advances in human microbiome research have generated considerable interest in elucidating the role of bacteria in health and the application of microbial ecosystem therapies and probiotics. Fecal transplants involve the introduction of gut microbes from a healthy donor's stool to the patient and have been documented as effective for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and some other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the treatment has encountered regulatory hurdles preventing widespread uptake. We examined dominant representations of fecal transplants in Canadian media and found that fecal transplants are often represented as being inherently disgusting or distasteful (the "ick factor"). This "ick factor" is used to construct different messages about the treatment's social acceptability and legitimacy. We conclude that an over-emphasis on the "ick factor" constrains public discourse from a more nuanced discussion of the social challenges, scientific concerns, and regulatory issues surrounding the treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Fractionation of fecal neutral steroids by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.M.; Kloss, C.A.; Weintraub, S.T.; Mott, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fecal neutral steroids were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three major fractions: 5 beta-H, 3-keto steroids; 5 beta-H, 3 beta-hydroxy steroids; and 5 alpha-H and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids. This separation was achieved in about 10 minutes, with greater than 97% recovery of standards in each fraction. Gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of fecal steroids fractionated by either HPLC or thin-layer chromatography gave nearly identical results. A method using both C18 reverse phase and silica HPLC to purify radiolabeled sterols is also described

  20. Clinical efficacy maintains patients’ positive attitudes toward fecal microbiota transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Ting; Cui, Bota; He, Zhi; Xiang, Jie; Long, Chuyan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Li, Pan; Huang, Guangming; Ji, Guozhong; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have been conducted on the attitudes of patients seeking fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). This study aimed to investigate the reasons for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) seeking FMT and their attitude changes after FMT. In this prospective study, all included patients were diagnosed with CD for at least 6 months and intended to receive FMT. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the history of medical visits and patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Only refractory patients who failed to clinically respond to previous treatment were selected for undergoing FMT. Three months after the first FMT, patients were required to complete the second questionnaire on attitudes toward the first FMT. A total of 207 patients with CD were included for questionnaire survey. In 118 refractory patients, 94.07% sought FMT because they had no other choice. In 89 nonrefractory patients, 78.65% sought FMT for the reason that they wanted to achieve better clinical results or even a cure, although the current treatment was effective for them. In all, 118 refractory patients received FMT. Three months after the first FMT, 88.98% (105/118) patients completed the questionnaire on patients’ attitudes toward FMT. Of these 105 patients, 56.19% reported to have satisfactory clinical efficacy and 74.29% were willing to receive the second FMT. Moreover, 89.52% (94/105) showed their willingness to recommend FMT to other patients. In conclusion, this study at least first time demonstrated that patients with CD were willing to accept FMT due to its efficacy. PMID:27472679

  1. Survival and persistence of fecal host-specific Bacteroidales cells and their DNA assessed by PMA-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S.; Bombardelli, F.; Wuertz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding and managing microbial pollutions in water is one of the foremost challenges of establishing effective managements and remediation strategies to impaired water bodies polluted by uncharacterized fecal sources. Quantitative microbial source tracking (MST) approaches using fecal Bacteroidales and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure gene copies of host-specific 16S rRNA genetic markers are promising because they can allow for identifying and quantifying fecal loadings from a particular animal host and understanding the fate and transport of host-specific Bacteroidales over a range of conditions in water bodies. Similar to the case of traditional fecal indicator bacteria, a relatively long persistence of target DNA may hamper applied MST studies, if genetic markers cannot be linked to recent fecal pollution in water. We report a successful approach to removing the qPCR signal derived from free DNA and dead host-specific Bacteroidales cells by selectively binding the DNA and consequently inhibiting PCR amplification using light- activated propidium monoazide (PMA). Optimal PMA-qPCR conditions were determined as 100 µM of PMA concentration and a 10-min light exposure time at different solids concentrations in order to mimic a range of water samples. Under these conditions, PMA-qPCR resulted in the selective exclusion of DNA from heat- treated cells of non-culturable Bacteroidales in human feces and wastewater influent and effluent samples. Also, the persistence of feces-derived host-specific Bacteroidales DNA and their cells (determined by universal, human-, cow- and dog-specific Bacteroidales qPCR assays) in seawater was investigated in microcosms at environmental conditions. The average T99 (two log reduction) value for host-specific viable Bacteroidales cells was 28 h, whereas that for total host-specific Bacteroidales DNA was 177 h. Natural sunlight did not have a strong influence on the fate of fecal Bacteroidales cells and their DNA, presumably

  2. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  3. Community dynamics drive punctuated engraftment of the fecal microbiome following transplantation using freeze-dried, encapsulated fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Vaughn, Byron P; Graiziger, Carolyn T; Singroy, Stephanie; Hamilton, Matthew J; Yao, Dan; Chen, Chi; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-05-04

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment of recurrent and recalcitrant Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). In a recent study oral-delivery of encapsulated, freeze-dried donor material, resulted in comparable rates of cure to colonoscopic approaches. Here we characterize shifts in the fecal bacterial community structure of patients treated for rCDI using encapsulated donor material. Prior to FMT, patient fecal samples showed declines in diversity and abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in members of the Proteobacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, patients who experienced recurrence of CDI within the 2-month clinical follow-up had greater abundances of Enterobacteriaceae and did not show resolution of dysbioses. Despite resolution of rCDI following oral-administration of encapsulated fecal microbiota, community composition was slow to return to a normal donor-like assemblage. Post-FMT taxa within the Firmicutes showed rapid increases in relative abundance and did not vary significantly over time. Conversely, Bacteroidetes taxa only showed significant increases in abundance after one month post-FMT, corresponding to significant increases in the community attributable to the donors. Changes in the associations among dominant OTUs were observed at days, weeks, and months post-FMT, suggesting shifts in community dynamics may be related to the timing of increases in abundance of specific taxa. Administration of encapsulated, freeze-dried, fecal microbiota to rCDI patients resulted in restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis. However, shifts in the fecal microbiome were incremental rather than immediate, and may be driven by changes in community dynamics reflecting changes in the host environment.

  4. Relationship between fecal calprotectin, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies and other markers of disease activity in patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, María José; Moreno Ramos, Manuel José; Linares Ferrando, Luis Francisco

    2018-02-01

    To assess the relationship between the increase of fecal calprotectin, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and disease markers in a group of patients with spondyloarthritis. We evaluated patients who were at least 18-years-old and met the Assessment in Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for spondyloarthritis or the New York modified criteria. We analyzed activity criteria, physical function, analytical criteria (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] B27, fecal calprotectin, presence of ASCA, among others) and demographic data. We included 33 patients. All but one patient had normal ASCA values. We found statistical significance in the correlation of calprotectin with C-reactive protein (CRP) but not with other parameters. We also found a relationship between calprotectin levels and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake (P=.001). We found no relationship between CRP levels and NSAID use. After discontinuation of NSAIDs for one month, we found no significant differences in calprotectin levels (P=.9). Fecal calprotectin is elevated in patients with spondyloarthritis and correlates positively with CRP. Level of fecal calprotectin is not altered by NSAID use. The amount of ASCA present does not change and does not correlate with any clinical parameters in the study population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to human source fecal indicators and self-reported illness among bathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Indicator microorganisms are used to predict the presence of fecal pollution in water and assess associated health risks, usually gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea. Few studies have characterized the health risks associated with human fecal sources using microbi...

  6. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  7. Pudendal Neuropathy Alone Results in Urge Incontinence Rather Than in Complete Fecal Incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M.; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M. A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conscious external anal sphincter contraction is mediated by the pudendal nerve. Pudendal neuropathy is, therefore, believed to result in fecal incontinence. Until urge sensation is experienced, fecal continence is maintained by unconscious external anal sphincter contraction, which is

  8. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  9. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  10. Prevalence and mechanisms of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in clinical and fecal Enterobacteriaceae isolates from dogs in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pauline L C; Shen, Xiao; Chalmers, Gabhan; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Slavic, Durda; Dick, Hani; Boerlin, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    There is little information on the genetic basis of resistance to the critically important extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Enterobacteriaceae from dogs in Canada. This study assessed the frequency of ESC resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs in Ontario and the distribution of major ESC resistance genes in these bacteria. A total of 542 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 506 clinical samples from two diagnostic laboratories in Ontario. Eighty-eight ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 217 Escherichia coli were isolated from 234 fecal samples from dogs collected at leash-free dog parks. These fecal isolates were tested for ESC resistance along with the clinical isolates. Isolates with reduced ESC susceptibility were screened for bla CMY , bla CTX-M , and bla SHV , and all CTX-M-positive isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing. The prevalence of ESC resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae was 10.4%. The average frequency of fecal carriage of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthy dogs was 26.5%. The majority of ESC-resistant isolates were E. coli and the other major Enterobacteriaceae carrying ESC resistance genes were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The results show that the same ESC resistance genes can be found in clinical and fecal Enterobacteriaceae in dogs. The identified E. coli sequence types (including ST131 and ST648) and CTX-M variants (including CTX-M-14, -15, and -27) support the hypothesis of transfer of resistant bacteria between humans and dogs. CTX-M-1 was frequently found in canine fecal Enterobacteriaceae, while it is still rare in human Enterobacteriaceae in Canada, thus suggesting transfer of resistant bacteria to dogs from food animals or other sources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. F.; Frissen, M. N.; de Clercq, N. C.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial

  14. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    ) with fecal tagging may be a method of gaining further patient acceptance and widespread use, but the method has to be optimized. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of a new contrast agent mixture and to validate a new method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents. Materials...

  15. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  16. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  17. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  18. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  19. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    SH terms used were IBS and fecal microbiota transplantation and the abbreviations IBS and FMT. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. RESULTS: A total of six conference abstracts, one case report, one letter to the editor, and one clinical review were...

  20. Schelpdierwaterkwaliteit in Nederlandse kustwatergebieden in maart 2004 (fecale coliformen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van A.C.M.; Poelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    In maart van 2004 is onderzoek gedaan naar de (schelpdier)waterkwaliteit in de Kustwatergebieden. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van indicatormicro-organismen: de fecale coliformen. Er wordt gekeken naar de aanwezigheid in gebieden waar schelpdieren worden gekweekt, waar schelpdieren in het wild voorkomen

  1. Chocolate consumption, fecal water antioxidant activity, and hydroxyl radical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Ian R; McInerney, Jennifer K; Noakes, Manny; Bird, Anthony R

    2003-01-01

    As part of a larger study into the effects of polyphenols derived from chocolate on bowel health we have compared the effects of consumption of chocolate containing either 200 mg of flavanols and related procyanidins or a similar chocolate containing less than 10 mg of polyphenols on fecal free radical production and antioxidant activity in 18 volunteers. In a double-blind crossover trail volunteers consumed chocolate for two 4-wk periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. During the time the volunteers consumed the chocolate they also consumed a low-polyphenol diet. Free radical production in the fecal water was lowered from 122 +/- 10 micromol/l/h to 94 +/- 9 micromol/l/h (P = 0.009) when the high procyanidin chocolate diet was consumed and from 117 +/- 14 micromol/l/h to 86 +/- 12 micromol/l/h when the low procyanidin chocolate was consumed (P = 0.014). Fecal water antioxidant capacity measured by either the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity or ferric reducing ability of plasma procedure was not significantly affected. Consumption of either chocolate reduced the production of free radicals in fecal water. This suggests that some component of the chocolate other than the flavanols and related procyanidins may have been effective.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal isolates of salmonella and shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis and Shigellosis coupled with increased levels of multidrug resistances are public health problems, especially in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of fecal Salmonella and Shigella spp and its antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted on ...

  3. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  4. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  5. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  6. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  7. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  8. Optimising laser tattoo removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal.

  9. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  10. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH, EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs and frozen at −20 °C, storage time (one, three and six months, fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO and false allele (FA rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05. The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  11. Comparison of common fecal flotation techniques for the recovery of parasite eggs and oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Ridley, R; Smith, V

    2005-01-01

    A variety of procedures are available to detect parasite eggs or oocysts in feces. This study compared the efficacy of simple flotation, a commercial assay, and various centrifugation techniques and three common flotation solutions. Results indicate that centrifugation consistently recovered more eggs than other methods. Proper technique is critical, including ensuring that the specific gravity of the flotation solution is correct and allowing the sample to stand for a sufficient amount of time before examining the coverslip. Because of the zoonotic health risks of many companion animal parasites, veterinarian and their staff should better utilize fecal examinations in their routine diagnostic plan.

  12. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid-cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, A.; Kashina, T.; Kada, T.

    1986-09-01

    The antimutagenic properties of milk cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were examined using streptomycin-dependent strains of Salmonella in an in vitro assay system. The mutagens utilized for testing included 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, and fecal mutagenic extracts from cats, monkeys, dogs and other mammals. Both types of cultured milk exhibited antimutagenic activity on all mutagens used. Antimutagenic activities of the cultured milks with 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide increased with incubation time but were thermolabile beyond 55/sup 0/C for 10 min.

  13. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  14. The Development of a Novel qPCR Assay-Set for Identifying Fecal Contamination Originating from Domestic Fowls and Waterfowl in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshanit eOhad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Microbial Source Tracking (MST methodologies aim to identify fecal contamination originating from domestic and wild animals, and from humans. Avian MST is especially challenging, primarily because the Aves class includes both domesticated and wild species with highly diverse habitats and dietary characteristics. The quest for specific fecal bacterial MST markers can be difficult with respect to attaining sufficient assay sensitivity and specificity. The present study utilizes High Throughput Sequencing (HTS to screen bacterial 16S rRNA genes from fecal samples collected from both domestic and wild avian species. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU analysis was then performed, from which sequences were retained for downstream qPCR marker development. Identification of unique avian host DNA sequences, absent in non-avian hosts, was then carried out using a dedicated database of bacterial 16S rRNA gene taken from the Ribosomal Database Project. Six qPCR assays were developed targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Lactobacillus, Gallibacterium, Firmicutes, Fusobacteriaceae and other bacteria. Two assays (Av4143 and Av163 identified most of the avian fecal samples and demonstrated sensitivity values of 91% and 70%, respectively. The Av43 assay only identified droppings from battery hens and poultry, whereas each of the other three assays (Av24, Av13, and Av216 identified waterfowl species with lower sensitivities values. The development of an MST assay-panel, which includes both domestic and wild avian species, expands the currently known MST analysis capabilities for decoding fecal contamination.

  15. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not necessary. Iron removal processes are discussed in relation to radium removal. Iron oxides remove much less than 20 percent of the radium from water under typical conditions. Manganese dioxide removes radium from water when competition for sorption sites and clogging of sites is reduced. Filter sand that is rinsed daily with dilute acid will remove radium from water. Manganese dioxide coated filter sorption removes radium but more capacity would be desirable. The radium selective complexer selectively removes radium with significant capacity if iron fouling is eliminated

  16. A predictive model combining fecal calgranulin B and fecal occult blood tests can improve the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chang Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Current fecal screening tools for colorectal cancer (CRC, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT, are limited by their low sensitivity. Calgranulin B (CALB was previously reported as a candidate fecal marker for CRC. This study investigated whether a combination of the FOBT and fecal CALB has increased sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with CRC (n = 175, and healthy individuals (controls; n = 151 were enrolled into the development (81 cases and 51 controls and validation (94 cases and 100 controls sets. Stool samples were collected before bowel preparation. CALB levels were determined by western blotting. FOBT and fecal CALB results were used to develop a predictive model based on logistic regression analysis. The benefit of adding CALB to a model with only FOBT was evaluated as an increased area under the receiver operating curve (AUC, partial AUC, and reclassification improvement (RI in cases and controls, and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: Mean CALB level was significantly higher in CRC patients than in controls (P<0.001. CALB was not associated with tumor stage or cancer site, but positivity on the FOBT was significantly higher in advanced than in earlier tumor stages. At a specificity of 90%, the cross-validated AUC and sensitivity were 89.81% and 82.72%, respectively, in the development set, and 92.74% and 79.79%, respectively, in the validation set. The incremental benefit of adding CALB to the model, as shown by the increase in AUC, had a p-value of 0.0499. RI in cases and controls and NRI all revealed that adding CALB significantly improved the prediction model. CONCLUSION: A predictive model using a combination of FOBT and CALB may have greater sensitivity and specificity and AUC for predicting CRC than models using a single marker.

  17. Krypton-85 removal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Fernandez, J.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey was made in order to predict the atmospheric Kr-85 concentration in the future and it s effect on the population. As a consequence the need for its treatment and removal as a previous step to gaseous waste disposal is justified. A literature review of possible methods of Kr-85 removal and storage is also included. (Author) 43 refs

  18. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  19. Cataract removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better. The procedure almost always includes placing an artificial lens (IOL) in the eye. Description Cataract surgery ... the old lens (cataract). It helps improve your vision. The doctor may close the incision with very ...

  20. Microbiota dynamics in patients treated with fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis and is responsible for a large and increasing fraction of hospital-acquired infections. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI refractory to antibiotic therapy. It has recently been discussed favorably in the clinical and scientific communities and is receiving increasing public attention. However, short- and long-term health consequences of FMT remain a concern, as the effects of the transplanted microbiota on the patient remain unknown. To shed light on microbial events associated with RCDI and treatment by FMT, we performed fecal microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of 14 pairs of healthy donors and RCDI patients treated successfully by FMT. Post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples collected up to one year after FMT were studied longitudinally, including one post-FMT patient with antibiotic-associated relapse three months after FMT. This analysis allowed us not only to confirm prior reports that RCDI is associated with reduced diversity and compositional changes in the fecal microbiota, but also to characterize previously undocumented post-FMT microbiota dynamics. Members of the Streptococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, or Enterobacteriaceae were significantly increased and putative butyrate producers, such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were significantly reduced in samples from RCDI patients before FMT as compared to post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. RCDI patient samples showed more case-specific variations than post-FMT patient and healthy donor samples. However, none of the bacterial groups were invariably associated with RCDI or successful treatment by FMT. Overall microbiota compositions in post-FMT patients, specifically abundances of the above-mentioned Firmicutes, continued to change for at least 16 weeks after FMT, suggesting that

  1. Dysbiosis of the Fecal Microbiota in Cattle Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Fecteau

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD is a chronic, intestinal infection of cattle, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. It results in granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal lining, leading to malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Crohn's disease (CD, a chronic, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease of humans, has many clinical and pathologic similarities to JD. Dysbiosis of the enteric microbiota has been demonstrated in CD patients. It is speculated that this dysbiosis may contribute to the intestinal inflammation observed in those patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity patterns of fecal bacterial populations in cattle infected with MAP, compared to those of uninfected control cattle, using phylogenomic analysis. Fecal samples were selected to include samples from 20 MAP-positive cows; 25 MAP-negative herdmates; and 25 MAP-negative cows from a MAP-free herd. The genomic DNA was extracted; PCR amplified sequenced on a 454 Roche platform, and analyzed using QIIME. Approximately 199,077 reads were analyzed from 70 bacterial communities (average of 2,843 reads/sample. The composition of bacterial communities differed between the 3 treatment groups (P < 0.001; Permanova test. Taxonomic assignment of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified 17 bacterial phyla across all samples. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes constituted more than 95% of the bacterial population in the negative and exposed groups. In the positive group, lineages of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria increased and those of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased (P < 0.001. Actinobacteria was highly abundant (30% of the total bacteria in the positive group compared to exposed and negative groups (0.1-0.2%. Notably, the genus Arthrobacter was found to predominate Actinobacteria in the positive group. This study indicates that MAP-infected cattle have a different composition of their fecal microbiota than MAP-negative cattle.

  2. [Postpartum urinary and fecal incontinence in gemelar pregnancy according to route and mode of delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerva González, Marcos Javier; López Carpintero, Nayara; de la Calle Fernández, Miranda María; Usandizaga, Ramón; González, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of multiple pregnancies increased in the last two decades. Several studies seeking the incidence of pelvic floor pathology, particularly urinary incontinence and its risk factors, conclude that a previous cesarean and vaginal delivery even more, carry an increased risk for developing urinary and fecal incontinence, compared with patients nulligravida. To determine the different risk factors for urinary incontinence after a twin pregnancy. 331 women from 20 to 50 years of age without symptoms prior to pregnancy were interviewed, attending antenatal care of twin pregnancy in the Hospital La Paz, Madrid. The interview included the ICIQ-SF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form). We recorded maternal age, gestational age, parity, episiotomy, weights of both newborns, the need for urinary protectors and fecal or gas incontinence. The prevalence of urinary incontinence postpartum according ICIQ-SF >0 was 23%; 20.4% in the caesarean group, 25.3% in the eutocic delivery group and 35.5% in the instrumental delivery group (p = 0.033). The prevalence of moderate to severe incontinence (ICIQ-SF >6) was 14.8%; 12.3% in caesarean group, 14.5% in the eutocic delivery group and 32.3% in the instrumental delivery group (p = 0.005). The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 3.4%; 4.8% in eutocic delivery group, 1.9% in the caesarean group and 9.7% in the instrumental delivery group (p = 0.058). The risk of urinary incontinence after a twin pregnancy was higher among patients who had an instrumental delivery when compared with patients with eutocic delivery or cesarean section. The total fetal weight and maternal age did not appear as risk factors in our study. Any woman who had an instrumental delivery for twins should be followed up by a pelvic floor specialist.

  3. Commentary on key aspects of fecal microbiota transplantation in small animal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitman J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Chaitman,1 Albert E Jergens,2 Frederic Gaschen,3 Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro,4 Stanley L Marks,5 Alicia G Marroquin-Cardona,4 Keith Richter,6 Giacomo Rossi,7 Jan S Suchodolski,8 J Scott Weese9 1Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists, New York, NY, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 3School of Veterinary Medicine, Lousiana State University, LA, USA; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico; 5Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, 6Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 8Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 9Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of dogs, cats, and other mammals including humans harbors millions of beneficial microorganisms that regulate and maintain health. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a procedure involving the administration of a fecal infusion from a healthy individual (donor to a patient with disease to help improve health. Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. Here, we outline key aspects of FMT in small animal practice. Keywords: microbiota, health, fecal microbiota transplantation, dysbiosis, enteropathogens, immune system

  4. Exploring the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus fecal microbiome, bacterial inhabitants of a worldwide pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Alcaraz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome. Methods In this paper, we analyzed the gut microbiome from fecal samples of three healthy adult cockatiels by massive sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we compared the cockatiel fecal microbiomes with those of other bird species, including poultry and wild birds. Results The vast majority of the bacteria found in cockatiels were Firmicutes, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were poorly represented. A total of 19,280 different OTUs were detected, of which 8,072 belonged to the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Discussion It is relevant to study cockatiel the microbiomes of cockatiels owing to their wide geographic distribution and close human contact. This study serves as a reference for cockatiel bacterial diversity. Despite the large OTU numbers, the diversity is not even and is dominated by Firmicutes of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Cockatiels and other wild birds are almost depleted of Bacteroidetes, which happen to be abundant in poultry-related birds, and this is probably associated with the intensive human manipulation of poultry bird diets. Some probable pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Serratia, appeared to be frequent inhabitants of the fecal microbiome of cockatiels, whereas other potential pathogens were not detected.

  5. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, G E; Scott, H M; Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G; Vinasco, J; Bai, J; Norby, B; Renter, D G; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D

    2014-06-01

    Feed-grade chlortetracycline (CTC) and copper are both widely utilized in U.S. pig production. Cluster randomized experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation in weaned pigs on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among fecal Escherichia coli. Four treatment groups: control, copper, CTC, or copper plus CTC were randomly allocated to 32 pens with five pigs per pen. Fecal samples were collected weekly from three pigs per pen for six weeks. Two E. coli isolates per fecal sample were tested for phenotypic and genotypic resistance against antibiotics and copper. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed effects logistic regression, multivariate probit analysis and discrete time survival analysis. CTC-supplementation was significantly (99% [95% CI=98-100%]) associated with increased tetracycline resistance compared to the control group (95% [95% CI=94-97%]). Copper supplementation was associated with decreased resistance to most of the antibiotics tested, including cephalosporins, over the treatment period. Overall, 91% of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes). tetA and blaCMY-2 genes were positively associated (Ppigs exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance, with diverse multi-resistant phenotypic profiles. The roles of copper supplementation in pig production, and pco-mediated copper resistance among E. coli in particular, need to be further explored since a strong negative association of pco with both tetA and blaCMY-2 points to opportunities for selecting a more innocuous resistance profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Breed Size, Age, Fecal Quality, and Enteropathogen Shedding on Fecal Calprotectin and Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Puppies During the Weaning Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, A; Heilmann, R M; Polack, B; Feugier, A; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Grandjean, D; Grützner, N; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2016-07-01

    Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. Three hundred and twenty-four puppies. Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. For each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at ≥1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at ≥1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. Fecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with abnormal feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  8. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  9. Treatment strategies in obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaikin, Marat; Wexner, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Obstructed defecation (OD) and fecal incontinence (FI) are challenging clinical problems, which are commonly encountered in the practice of colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists. These disorders socially and psychologically distress patients and greatly impair their quality of life. The underlying anatomical and pathophysiological changes are complex, often incompletely understood and cannot always be determined. As a consequence, many medical, surgical, and behavioral approaches have been described, with no panacea. Over the past decade, advances in an understanding of these disorders together with rational and similar methods of evaluation in anorectal physiology laboratories (ARP), radiology studies, and new surgical techniques have led to promising results. In this brief review, we discuss treatment strategies and recent updates on clinical and therapeutic aspects of obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence. PMID:16718835

  10. Fecal incontinence in older patients. A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cabrera, Ana María; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rosa María; Reyes Díaz, María Luisa; Vázquez Monchul, Jorge Manuel; Ramos Fernández, María; Díaz Pavón, José Manuel; Palacios González, Carmen; Padillo Ruiz, Francisco Javier; de la Portilla de Juan, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Fecal incontinence is one of the leading causes for the institutionalization of people in the last decades of life, associated with a great psychosocial and economic burden. The literature is scarce in this population group, due to the absence of universally accepted criteria to define "elderly patients" and difficulties in detection and diagnostic. The aim of this article was to conduct a narrative review of the main aspects related to fecal incontinence in older patients, providing management support. Toileting assistance, dietary change, controlling stool consistency and medical treatment can be used to treat these patients. Nevertheless, other therapies, such as biofeedback, neuromodulation or surgical treatment, can be considered in selected patients. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Paul I; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Pelletier, Eric; Alberti, Adriana; Levenez, Florence; Tramontano, Melanie; Driessen, Marja; Hercog, Rajna; Jung, Ferris-Elias; Kultima, Jens Roat; Hayward, Matthew R; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Bertrand, Laurie; Blaut, Michael; Brown, Jillian R M; Carton, Thomas; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie; Daigneault, Michelle; Derrien, Muriel; Druesne, Anne; de Vos, Willem M; Finlay, B Brett; Flint, Harry J; Guarner, Francisco; Hattori, Masahira; Heilig, Hans; Luna, Ruth Ann; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Junick, Jana; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Langella, Philippe; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Mai, Volker; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Martin, Jennifer C; Mery, Clémentine; Morita, Hidetoshi; O'Toole, Paul W; Orvain, Céline; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Penders, John; Persson, Søren; Pons, Nicolas; Popova, Milena; Salonen, Anne; Saulnier, Delphine; Scott, Karen P; Singh, Bhagirath; Slezak, Kathleen; Veiga, Patrick; Versalovic, James; Zhao, Liping; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Dore, Joel; Bork, Peer

    2017-11-01

    Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.

  12. Fecal continence following complex anorectal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katie W; Soukup, Elizabeth S; Metzger, Ryan R; Zobell, Sarah; Scaife, Eric R; Barnhart, Douglas C; Rollins, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Complex injuries involving the anus and rectum are uncommon in children. We sought to examine long-term fecal continence following repair of these injuries. We conducted a retrospective review using our trauma registry from 2003 to 2012 of children with traumatic injuries to the anus or rectum at a level I pediatric trauma center. Patients with an injury requiring surgical repair that involved the anal sphincters and/or rectum were selected for a detailed review. Twenty-one patients (21/13,149 activations, 0.2%) who had an injury to the anus (n=9), rectum (n=8), or destructive injury to both the anus and rectum (n=4) were identified. Eleven (52%) patients were male, and the median age at time of injury was 9 (range 1-14) years. Penetrating trauma accounted for 48% of injuries. Three (14%) patients had accompanying injury to the urinary tract, and 6 (60%) females had vaginal injuries. All patients with an injury involving the rectum and destructive anal injuries were managed with fecal diversion. No patient with an isolated anal injury underwent fecal diversion. Four (19%) patients developed wound infections. The majority (90%) of patients were continent at last follow-up. One patient who sustained a gunshot injury to the pelvis with sacral nerve involvement is incontinent, but remains artificially clean on an intense bowel management program with enemas, and one patient with a destructive crush injury still has a colostomy. With anatomic reconstruction of the anal sphincter mechanism, most patients with traumatic anorectal injuries will experience long-term fecal continence. Follow-up is needed as occasionally these patients, specifically those with nerve or crush injury, may require a formal bowel management program. © 2014.

  13. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  14. Recovery of the gut microbiome following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M; Aas, Johannes; Gessert, Charles E; Rubin, Timothy A; Saman, Daniel M; Bakken, Johan S; Young, Vincent B

    2014-06-17

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for

  15. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  16. Comparison of commercial DNA extraction kits and quantitative PCR systems for better sensitivity in detecting the causative agent of paratuberculosis in dairy cow fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock-Chow-Tho, D; Topp, E; Ibeagha-Awemu, E A; Bissonnette, N

    2017-01-01

    PCR analysis should be adequate to confirm that an animal with diarrhea or other signs of paratuberculosis is positive, detecting low shedders at the highest sensitivity should include repetitive testing. This study demonstrates the importance of repetitions using the most appropriate method for extracting DNA from fecal samples, combined with a compatible qPCR system for identifying MAP-shedding animals. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparación de métodos para el análisis de coliformes totales y fecales en muestras de agua mediante la técnica de Número Más Probable (NMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Arias Echandi, María Laura

    2011-01-01

    The basic microbiological analysis of water includes the determination of total and fecal coliforms. The presence or abscense of fecal coliforms in water defines its potability. The main objective of this work was to design and execute a comparison scheme of two techniques for the determination of coliforms in water, applying modifications to the reference technique of the Most Probable Number, derived from the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The modifications in...

  18. Fecal estradiol-17β and testosterone in prepubertal domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faya, M; Carranza, A; Miotti, R; Ponchón, T; Furlan, P; Gobello, C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the time course of prepubertal sexual steroids in domestic cats. Fourteen newborn kittens were followed up until puberty (physical, behavioral, and hormonal changes). Fecal testosterone [T; males] and E estradiol 17-β [E2; females] concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and two consecutive time windows (TWs) were used to compare changes in both male (postnatal weeks 1-4 vs. 5-14) and females (postnatal weeks 1-5 vs. 6-13). Puberty was achieved 14.3 ± 0.3 and 13.3 ± 0.4 weeks after birth in male and female cats, respectively. In both genders, during TW-1 fecal steroids concentrations were similar (males) or even higher (females) to that previously described for mature cats. Fecal T (P cats. It is concluded that in domestic cats there is a sexual steroid surge during the first 4 and 5 postnatal weeks in male and female animals, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...... be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect...

  20. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.

  1. Life Support Systems: Carbon Dioxide Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Carbon Dioxide Removal and Management task includes development of systems that remove CO2 from a...

  2. Efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in 2 children with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and its impact on their growth and gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Ritu; Garg, Shashank; Song, Yang; Girotra, Mohit; Cuffari, Carmen; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Dutta, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recognized as an alternative therapeutic modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI); however, data on its efficacy in children are lacking, including its effect on their growth and fecal microbiota. We report on 2 young children (<3 years old) who failed available therapeutics for RCDI, but responded remarkably well to FMT. Besides resolution of clinical features of C difficile infection (CDI), FMT administration led to marked improvement in their growth, along with increased microbiota diversity, especially proportion of Bacteroides. Our 2 cases illustrate the efficacy of FMT in children with RCDI and its positive effect on their growth and gut microbiota.

  3. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-01

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  5. Effects of rainfall, host demography, and musth on strongyle fecal egg counts in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, M I; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E; Turner, W C; Nambandi, K; Kinzley, C; Rodwell, T C; Faulkner, C T; Felt, S A; Bouley, D M

    2011-01-01

    Wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are commonly infected with intestinal strongyle parasites. Our objective was to determine baseline fecal strongyle egg counts for elephants in the northeast region of Etosha National Park, Namibia and determine if these numbers were affected by annual rainfall, elephant demography (age of individuals and composition of groups), and hormonal state of males. We found that matriarchal family group members have significantly higher fecal egg counts than male elephants (bulls). Among family group members, strongyle egg counts increased with age, whereas among bulls, strongyle egg counts decreased with age. Years of higher rainfall were correlated with decreased numbers of strongyle eggs among bulls. Finally, bulls were not affected by their physiologic (hormonal) status (musth vs. nonmusth). These results suggest that infection by strongyle parasites in Namibian African elephants is a dynamic process affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host demography and rainfall.

  6. Influence of enclosure size and animal density on fecal cortisol concentration and aggression in Père David's deer stags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunwang; Jiang, Zhigang; Tang, Songhua; Zeng, Yan

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of enclosure size and animal density on behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Père David's deer in Dafeng Nature Reserve, China. From February 15 to April 16 in 2004, we conducted two experiments. First, we studied maintenance behavior and conflict behavior of Père David's deer stags in a large enclosure (200 ha) with low animal density (0.66 deer/ha) and a small display pen (0.75 ha) with high animal density (25.33 deer/ha). The maintenance behavior we recorded included standing, locomotion, foraging and rest. During the behavioral observations, we collected fresh voided fecal samples from the stags periodically, and analyzed the fecal cortisol concentrations in those samples using radioimmunoassay technique. Second, we monitored the fecal cortisol concentrations of one group of stags (12 deer lived in an enclosure of 100 ha) before and after transferred into a small pen (0.5 ha). We found that in the first experiment: (1) there were significant differences in standing and rest whereas no significant differences of locomotion and foraging between the free-ranging group and the display group; (2) frequency of conflict behavior in the display group was significantly higher than those in the free-ranging group; and (3) fecal cortisol concentration of the display group (326.17+/-16.98 ng/g dry feces) was significantly higher than that of the free-ranging group (268.98+/-15.21 ng/g dry feces). In the second experiment, there was no significant difference of the fecal cortisol concentrations among sampling days, but the mean fecal cortisol concentration of the day after transferring (337.46+/-17.88 ng/g dry feces) was significantly higher than that of the day before transferring (248.44+/-7.99 ng/g dry feces). Comparison with published findings, our results indicated that enclosure size and animal density affect not only behaviors, but also adrenocortical secretion in Père David's deer. Small living space with high animal density may

  7. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  8. Removal of enteric bacteria in constructed treatment wetlands with emergent macrophytes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Domestic and municipal sewage contains various pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms which, depending on species concentration, pose a potential risk to human health and whose presence must therefore be reduced in the course of wastewater treatment. The removal of microbiological pollution is seldom a primary target for constructed treatment wetlands (CWs). However, wetlands are known to act as excellent biofilters through a complex of physical, chemical and biological factors which all participate in the reduction of the number of bacteria. Measurement of human pathogenic organisms in untreated and treated wastewater is expensive and technically challenging. Consequently, environmental engineers have sought indicator organisms that are (1) easy to monitor and (2) correlate with population of pathogenic organisms. The most frequently used indicators are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli. The literature survey of 60 constructed wetlands with emergent vegetation around the world revealed that removal of total and fecal coliforms in constructed wetlands with emergent macrophytes is high, usually 95 to > 99% while removal of fecal streptococci is lower, usually 80-95%. Because bacterial removal efficiency is a function of inflow bacteria number, the high removal effects are achieved for untreated or mechanically pretreated wastewater. Therefore, the outflow numbers of bacteria are more important. For TC and FC the outflow concentrations are usually in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) CFU/ 100 ml while for FS the range is between 10(2) and 10(4) CFU/ 100 ml. Results from operating systems suggest that enteric microbe removal efficiency in CWs with emergent macrophytes is primarily influenced by hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and the resultant hydraulic residence time (HRT) and the presence of vegetation. Removal of enteric bacteria follows approximately a first-order relationship.

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution of fecal indicators in three rivers of the Haihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Chen, Yanan; Zheng, Xiang; Gui, Chengmin; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    Because of their significant impact on public health, waterborne pathogens, especially bacteria and viruses, are frequently monitored in surface water to assess microbial quality of water bodies. However, more than one billion people worldwide currently lack access to safe drinking water, and a diversity of waterborne outbreaks caused by pathogens is reported in nations at all levels of economic development. Spatio-temporal distribution of conventional pollutants and five pathogenic microorganisms were discussed for the Haihe River Basin. Land use and socio-economic assessments were coupled with comprehensive water quality monitoring. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were measured at 20 different sites in the watershed for 1 year, including pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-N, total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus. The results highlighted the high spatio-temporal variability in pathogen distribution at watershed scale: high concentration of somatic coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in March and December and their very low concentration in June and September. All pathogens were positively correlated to urban/rural residential/industrial land and negatively correlated to other four land use types. Microbial pollution was greatly correlated with population density, urbanization rate, and percentage of the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product. In the future, river microbial risk control strategy should focus more on the effective management of secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant and land around rivers.

  10. Experimental Chagas disease-induced perturbations of the fecal microbiome and metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Tripathi, Anupriya; Vargas, Fernando; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L

    2018-03-12

    Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease. We observed joint microbial and chemical perturbations associated with T. cruzi infection. These included alterations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) derivatives and in specific members of families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, as well as alterations in secondary bile acids and members of order Clostridiales. These results highlight the importance of multi-'omics' and poly-microbial studies in understanding parasitic diseases in general, and Chagas disease in particular.

  11. Evaluation of commercial ß-agonists, dietary protein, and shade on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from feedlot cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen commonly associated with cattle feces. Diet, including dietary supplements such as b-agonists, may impact fecal shedding of this pathogen. A series of three experiments were conducted to determine if the b- agonists ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) or ...

  12. Continuous, low-dose oral exposure to sodium chlorate reduces fecal Enterobacteriaceae coliforms in sheep feces without inducing subclinical chlorate toxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to determine a minimal daily dose of sodium chlorate, to be included in the drinking water for 5 days, that is safe yet maintains efficacy in reducing fecal shedding of Escherichia coli in mature ewes. In a complete randomized experimental design, 25 Targhee ewes (age = 18- to 20...

  13. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  14. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  15. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  16. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee , Gadre; Dattatraya, Aniruddha [Rexford, NY

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  17. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  18. Direct metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in nasal and fecal specimens using an unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakamura

    Full Text Available With the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic of 2003 and renewed attention on avian influenza viral pandemics, new surveillance systems are needed for the earlier detection of emerging infectious diseases. We applied a "next-generation" parallel sequencing platform for viral detection in nasopharyngeal and fecal samples collected during seasonal influenza virus (Flu infections and norovirus outbreaks from 2005 to 2007 in Osaka, Japan. Random RT-PCR was performed to amplify RNA extracted from 0.1-0.25 ml of nasopharyngeal aspirates (N = 3 and fecal specimens (N = 5, and more than 10 microg of cDNA was synthesized. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of these 8 samples yielded 15,298-32,335 (average 24,738 reads in a single 7.5 h run. In nasopharyngeal samples, although whole genome analysis was not available because the majority (>90% of reads were host genome-derived, 20-460 Flu-reads were detected, which was sufficient for subtype identification. In fecal samples, bacteria and host cells were removed by centrifugation, resulting in gain of 484-15,260 reads of norovirus sequence (78-98% of the whole genome was covered, except for one specimen that was under-detectable by RT-PCR. These results suggest that our unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach is useful for directly detecting pathogenic viruses without advance genetic information. Although its cost and technological availability make it unlikely that this system will very soon be the diagnostic standard worldwide, this system could be useful for the earlier discovery of novel emerging viruses and bioterrorism, which are difficult to detect with conventional procedures.

  19. All Incontinence is Not Created Equal: Impact of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence on Quality of Life in Adults with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Cain, Mark P; Whittam, Benjamin; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that the self-reported amount of urinary incontinence is the main predictor of lower health related quality of life in adults with spina bifida. In this study we sought to determine the impact of fecal incontinence on health related quality of life after correcting for urinary incontinence. An international sample of adults with spina bifida was surveyed online in 2013 to 2014. We evaluated fecal incontinence in the last 4 weeks using clean intervals (less than 1 day, 1 to 6 days, 1 week or longer, or no fecal incontinence), amount (a lot, medium, a little or none), number of protective undergarments worn daily and similar variables for urinary incontinence. Validated instruments were used, including QUALAS-A (Quality of Life Assessment in Spina bifida for Adults) for spina bifida specific health related quality of life and the generic WHOQOL-BREF (WHO Quality of Life, short form). Linear regression was used (all outcomes 0 to 100). Mean age of the 518 participants was 32 years and 33.0% were male. Overall, 55.4% of participants had fecal incontinence, 76.3% had urinary incontinence and 46.9% had both types. On multivariate analysis fecal incontinence was associated with lower bowel and bladder health related quality of life across all amounts (-16.2 for a lot, -20.9 for medium and -18.5 for little vs none, p spina bifida. Health related quality of life is lower with an increasing amount of urinary incontinence. Fecal incontinence has a more uniform impact on health related quality of life regardless of frequency or amount. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of enteroviruses from sewage by bench-scale rotary-tube trickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N A; Chang, S L

    1975-08-01

    The efficacy of a rotary-tube type of trickling filter for removing coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 12 suspended in raw settled sewage was investigated. At filtration rates equivalent to about 10 MGD (million gallons per day)/acre (ca. 3,785 m3/day per acre), the filters removed 95% of the poliovirus, 83% of echovirus 12, and 94% of coxsackievirus A9. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals were remarkably similar, averaging 94, 92, 93, and 95%, respectively. At filtration rates equivalent to about 23 MGD/acre, 59% of the poliovirus, 63% of the echovirus 23, and 81% of the coxsackievirus A9 were removed. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals at this filtration rate were 68, 75, 72, and 56%, respectively. Viruses were assumed to be adsorbed to the biological slime growing in the filters, but attempts to disassociate the viruses from the slime were unsuccessful, indicating that the slime-virus complex is very stable or that the viruses were somehow inactivated. The data indicate that coliform and fecal streptococci reductions in this type sewage treatment process can be used as an index of virus reduction. Disinfection, however, must be used to ensure a virus-free final effluent.

  1. [Effect of Kegel exercise to prevent urinary and fecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hi; Kang, Chang-Bum; Jang, Seon Young; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine whether intensive pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy and after delivery could prevent urinary and fecal incontinence. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) of low-risk obstetric populations who had done Kegel exercise during pregnancy and after delivery met the inclusion criteria. Articles published between 1966 and 2012 from periodicals indexed in Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, KoreaMed, NDSL and other databases were selected, using the following keywords: 'Kegel, pelvic floor exercise'. The Cochrane's Risk of Bias was applied to assess the internal validity of the RCT. Fourteen selected studies were analyzed by meta-analysis using RevMan 5.1. Fourteen RCTs with high methodological quality, involving 6,454 women were included. They indicated that Kegel exercise significantly reduced the development of urinary and fecal incontinence from pregnancy to postpartum. Also, there was low clinical heterogeneity. There is some evidence that for antenatal and postnatal women, Kegel exercise can prevent urinary and fecal incontinence. Therefore, a priority task is to develop standardized Kegel exercise programs for Korean pregnant and postpartum women and make efficient use of these programs.

  2. Fecal Fistula Communicating with a Femur Shaft Fracture Secondary to a Malpositioned Suprapubic Catheter: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guled, Uday; Goni, Vijay G; Honnurappa, Arjun R H; John, Rakesh; Vardhana, Harsha; Sharma, Gaurav; Pattabhiraman, Kirubakaran S

    2015-10-06

    Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a common urological procedure. Though considered a simple and safe procedure, complications are bound to occur if proper precautions are not taken during the procedure. The reported complications include gross hematuria, post-obstruction diuresis, insertion site skin-related complications, and intra-abdominal visceral injuries. Iatrogenic bowel injuries have been reported to occur as a complication in around 2.5% of cases. We report a very rare case of a bowel injury due to improper insertion of a SPC leading to fecal matter tracking along the muscle planes to reach the fracture site of the femur shaft and formation of an external fecal fistula along the lateral aspect of thigh, which according to us is the first reported case in the literature. This case report shows the devastating complication of a technically simple procedure done in an improper manner and successful management of a rare case of femur fracture with communicating fecal fistula. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the importance of taking proper precautions before the procedure.

  3. Simple diagnostic approach to childhood fecal retention using the Leech score and Bristol stool form scale in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Shin, Jae Il; Chung, Ki Sup

    2010-02-01

    To assess fecal retention, plain abdominal radiography is frequently used to complement the clinical history and physical examination, and three scoring systems have been proposed by Barr, Blethyn, and Leech on a single abdominal radiography. The aim of the present study was to find simple and useful diagnostic tools for an approach to fecal retention by correlation of the three scoring systems with the clinical characteristics. This study included 76 children (5.6-15.4 years, male : female = 33:43) who presented with various gastrointestinal complaints and 20 healthy children from the years 2004-2008. Defecation characteristics, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea, the Bristol stool form scale, and colonic transit time were studied. Plain abdominal radiographs were independently scored with the three scoring systems by a pediatrician and a radiologist. The k-value of the Leech score (0.912) between two of the observers was higher than the others (Barr 0.870 and Blethyn 0.670), and the correlation coefficients of the Leech scoring system by a pediatrician in relation to the colonic transit time (r = 0.861, P Bristol stool form scale (r = -0.818, P Bristol stool form scale may be simple and useful diagnostic tools for pediatricians to access childhood fecal loading in outpatient clinics along with a thorough clinical history.

  4. Fecal Fermentation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Influence of Dietary Restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Røseth, Arne Gustav; Knudsen, Torunn; Malmstrøm, Gunn Helen; Fiennes, Jennifer T; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) may relieve symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether this diet alters microbial fermentation, a process that may be involved in IBS symptom generation. Patients with IBS were included consecutively to participate in a 4-week FODMAP restricted diet. IBS symptoms were evaluated by using the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed in fecal samples before and after the dietary intervention, both at baseline and after in vitro fermentation for 24 h. Sixty-three patients completed the study. Following the dietary intervention, IBS-SSS scores improved significantly (p fermentation for 24 h (p = 0.013). Following diet, baseline levels of acetic (p = 0.003) and n-butyric acids (p = 0.009) decreased, whereas 24 h levels of i-butyric (p = 0.003) and i-valeric acids (p = 0.003) increased. Fecal SCFA levels and IBS symptom scores were not correlated. Dietary FODMAP restriction markedly modulated fecal fermentation in patients with IBS. Saccharolytic fermentation decreased, while proteolytic fermentation increased, apparently independent of symptoms. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effect of vegetables, tea, and soy on endogenous N-nitrosation, fecal ammonia, and fecal water genotoxicity during a high red meat diet in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roisin; Pollock, Jim R A; Bingham, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    Red meat increases colonic N-nitrosation, and this may explain the positive epidemiological relationship between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk. Vegetables, tea, and soy have been shown to block N-nitroso compound (NOC) formation and are associated with protection against colorectal cancer. To determine whether these supplements affect fecal NOC excretion during consumption of a high red meat (420 g/day) diet, 11 male volunteers were studied over a randomized series of 15-day dietary periods. Seven of these subjects completed a further dietary period to test the effects of soy (100 g/day). Soy significantly suppressed fecal apparent total NOC (ATNC) concentration (P = 0.02), but supplements of vegetables (400 g/day as 134 g broccoli, 134 g brussels sprouts, and 134 g petits pois) and tea extract (3 g/day) did not affect mean levels of fecal ATNC, nitrogen and ammonia excretion, and fecal water genotoxicity. However, fecal weight was increased (P < 0.001) and associated with reduced transit time (r = 0.594, P < 0.0001), so that contact between ATNC, nitrite, and ammonia and the large bowel mucosa would have been reduced. Longer transit times were associated with elevated fecal ATNC concentrations (r = 0.42, P = 0.002). Fecal nitrite was significantly suppressed during the tea supplement compared with the meat-only (P = 0.0028) and meat + vegetables diets (P = 0.005 for microgram NO2/g).

  6. Household siblings and nasal and fecal microbiota in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Linnemann, Rachel W; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Ajami, Nadim J; Espinola, Janice A; Fiechtner, Lauren G; Petrosino, Joseph F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    Early-life exposure to older siblings is associated with a lower risk of asthma. To date, no study has addressed the impact of having siblings on both the airway and fecal microbiota during infancy. The aim of this study was therefore to profile the nasal airway and fecal microbiota in infants, and to examine the association between having siblings and microbiota profile. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 105 healthy infants (aged microbiota profiles and then determined the association between having siblings and microbiome profile. Overall, the median age was 3.4 months (IQR, 2.0-4.7 months); 43% had siblings in the household. Unbiased clustering of nasal airway microbiota identified three profiles: Moraxella dominant (43%), Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum dominant (36%), and mixed (21%). Infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant profile than Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant profile (76% vs 18%), while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (18% vs 50%; P microbiota consisted of three profiles: Bifidobacterium dominant (39%), Escherichia dominant (31%), and Enterobacter dominant (30%). Infants with siblings were more likely to have a Bifidobacterium-dominant profile than Escherichia-dominant profile (49% vs 24%) while those without siblings had the opposite pattern (32% vs 37%; P = 0.04, multivariable-adjusted). In this cross-sectional study, infants with siblings were more likely to have a Moraxella-dominant nasal microbiota profile and Bifidobacterium-dominant fecal microbiota profile. These findings should facilitate further investigation of the interplay between early-life environmental exposure, the microbiome, and childhood asthma. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  8. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  9. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  10. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH 4 /g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella species in biosolids following thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Reza; Cox, Huub H J

    2006-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Part 503 Biosolids Rule requires the fecal coliform (indicator) or Salmonella species (pathogen) density requirements for Class A biosolids to be met at the last point of plant control (truck-loading facility and/or farm for land application). The three Southern Californian wastewater treatment plants in this study produced biosolids by thermophilic anaerobic digestion and all met the Class A limits for both fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. in the digester outflow biosolids. At two plants, however, a recurrence of fecal coliforms was observed in postdigestion biosolids, which caused exceedance of the Class A limit for fecal coliforms at the truck-loading facility and farm for land application. Comparison of observations at the three plants and further laboratory tests indicated that the recurrence of fecal coliforms can possibly be related to the following combination of factors: (1) incomplete destruction of fecal coliforms during thermophilic anaerobic digestion, (2) contamination of Class A biosolids with fecal coliforms from external sources during postdigestion, (3) a large drop of the postdigestion biosolids temperature to below the maximum for fecal coliform growth, (4) an unknown effect of biosolids dewatering in centrifuges. At Hyperion Treatment Plant (City of Los Angeles, California), fecal coliform recurrence could be prevented by the following: (1) complete conversion to thermophilic operation to exclude contamination by mesophilically digested biosolids and (2) insulation and electrical heat-tracing of postdigestion train for maintaining a high biosolids temperature in postdigestion.

  12. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage...... for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied...... in fecal samples from animals and humans....

  13. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compar...... = 0.99 and R-2 = 1.00). In conclusion, silica-membrane, columns can provide a more convenient and less hazardous alternative to the conventional phenol-based method. The results have implication for further improvement of sensitive amplification methods for laboratory diagnosis....

  14. Radioactive ruthenium removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yoshie.

    1992-01-01

    In a device for passing gaseous wastes generated from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant through a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) to remove ruthenium, a polyethylene filler is disposed at the pre-stage of the high efficiency particulate air filter. RuO 4 is considered as gaseous ruthenium present in the gaseous wastes. RuO 4 is reduced into RuO 2 easily in a reducing atmosphere. Polyethylene includes double bonds and has an effect of reducing RuO 4 to RuO 2 . RuO 2 reduced by the filler charged with polyethylene is deposited on the filler. Further, also RuO 2 transferred to the gaseous wastes can be removed by the high efficiency particulate air filter. Further, since RuO 4 is adsorbed effectively to RuO 2 deposited on the polyethylene, it is not necessary to exchange the filler, to increase the effect of ruthenium removal. (T.M.)

  15. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  16. Effects of high- and low-fiber diets on fecal fermentation and fecal microbial populations of captive chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pristaš, P.; Piknová, M.; Nigutová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Schovancová, Kateřina; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2009), s. 548-557 ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0009/08; MVTS(SK) SK-CZ-0086-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : chimpanzee * fiber * diet * in vitro fecal fermentation * DGGE * archaea * eubacteria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2009

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. A randomized physiotherapy trial in patients with fecal incontinence: design of the PhysioFIT-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bie Rob A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal incontinence (FI is defined as the recurrent involuntary excretion of feces in inappropriate places or at inappropriate times. It is a major and highly embarrassing health care problem which affects about 2 to 24% of the adult population. The prevalence increases with age in both men and women. Physiotherapy interventions are often considered a first-line approach due to its safe and non-invasive nature when dietary and pharmaceutical treatment fails or in addition to this treatment regime. Two physiotherapy interventions, rectal balloon training (RBT and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT are widely used in the management of FI. However, their effectiveness remains uncertain since well-designed trials on the effectiveness of RBT and PFMT versus PFMT alone in FI have never been published. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. One hundred and six patients are randomized to receive either PFMT combined with RBT or PFMT alone. Physicians in the University Hospital Maastricht include eligible participants. Inclusion criteria are (1 adults (aged ≥ 18 years, (2 with fecal incontinence complaints due to different etiologies persisting for at least six months, (3 having a Vaizey incontinence score of at least 12, (4 and failure of conservative treatment (including dietary adaptations and pharmacological agents. Baseline measurements consist of the Vaizey incontinence score, medical history, physical examination, medication use, anorectal manometry, rectal capacity measurement, anorectal sensation, anal endosonography, defecography, symptom diary, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL and the PREFAB-score. Follow-up measurements are scheduled at three, six and 12 months after inclusion. Skilled and registered physiotherapists experienced in women's health perform physiotherapy treatment. Twelve sessions are administered during three months according to a standardized

  19. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  2. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  3. Fecal incontinence in systemic sclerosis is secondary to neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoua, Nora M; Abdel-Halim, Mostafa; Forbes, Alastair; Denton, Chris P; Emmanuel, Anton V

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disorder with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement in up to 90% of patients and anorectal involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients. The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal abnormalities may be both myogenic and neurogenic. We aimed to identify which anorectal physiological abnormalities correlate with clinical symptoms and thus understand the pathophysiology of anorectal involvement in SSc. In total, 44 SSc patients (24 symptomatic (Sx) (fecal incontinence) and 20 asymptomatic (ASx)) and 20 incontinent controls (ICs) were studied. Patients underwent anorectal manometry, rectal mucosal blood flow (RMBF), rectal compliance (barostat), and rectoanal inhibitory reflex assessment (RAIR). Anal squeeze pressure was lower in the IC group compared with both the ASx and Sx groups (IC: 46.95 (30-63.9)) vs. ASx: 104.6 (81-128.3) vs. (Sx: 121.4 (101.3-141.6); P ASx: 6.7 (5.7-7.7) vs. IC: 8.5 (6.5-10.4); P ASx and in 1/20 IC patients. Fecal incontinence in SSc is related to neuropathy as suggested by absent RAIR and higher anal sensory threshold and is related less so to sphincter atrophy and rectal fibrosis.

  4. Parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: fecal examination and rectal biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with all progress in the search of sensitive and methods for the immunological diagnosis of schistosomiasis, the microscopic detection of eggs of the parasite in the stool still remains the most widely used tool for the actual diagnosis of active infection. Among the coproscopic methods, Kato's technic modified by Katz et al (Kato/Katz has the advantages of higher sensitivity, the possibility of egg quantification, its low operational cost and its feasibility in areas with minimal infra-structure. The oorgram of the rectal mucosa is valuable in initial clinical trials of schistosomicides, when it is needed to observe egg morphology in tissue. It could be an alternative method for individual diagnosis, being more sensitive than a single stool exam in low intensity infection. However, the increased sensitivity of a higher number of fecal exams makes that invasiveprocedure unnecessary. In the assessment of cure of schistosomiasis, Kato/Katz method (three fecal samples in one, three and six months after treatment and the rectal biopsy four months after treatment, are equally reliable.

  5. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  6. An Investigation of Variables in a Fecal Flotation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M. R.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Alteration of the intestinal microbiome: fecal microbiota transplant and probiotics for Clostridium difficile and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindigni, Stephen M; Broussard, Elizabeth K; Surawicz, Christina M

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly common with a high risk of recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. In cases of recurrent C. difficile infection, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a highly effective treatment option promoting the restoration of normal gut microbiota. Furthermore, preliminary uncontrolled evidence demonstrates possible benefit of FMT in the management of some cases of inflammatory bowel disease and chronic constipation. In addition to presenting an overview of FMT, we discuss the role of probiotics, a more common approach to modifying the intestinal microbiome. Probiotics have been utilized broadly for many disease processes, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and allergic disease settings, although with limited and inconsistent results. Multiple potential areas for research are also identified.

  9. Fecal incontinence in obese women with urinary incontinence: prevalence and role of dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Alayne D; Richter, Holly E; Burgio, Kathryn L; Bragg, Charlotte; Hernandez, Alexandra L; Subak, Leslee L

    2009-05-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence and compares dietary intake in women with and without FI. A total of 336 incontinent and overweight women in the Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise clinical trial were included. FI was defined as monthly or greater loss of mucus, liquid, or solid stool. Dietary intake was quantified using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women had a mean (+/- SD) age of 53 +/- 10 years, body mass index of 36 +/- 6 kg/m(2), and 19% were African American. Prevalence of FI was 16% (n = 55). In multivariable analyses, FI was independently associated with low fiber intake, higher depressive symptoms, and increased urinary tract symptoms (all P Overweight and obese women report a high prevalence of monthly FI associated with low dietary fiber intake. Increasing dietary fiber may be a treatment for FI.

  10. Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Fecal Peritonitis following Ostomy Necrosis and Detachment by Using NPT and Flexi-Seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetışır

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis following ostomy in elderly patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report management of frozen Open Abdomen (OA with colonic fistula following ostomy necrosis and detachment in an elderly patient with comorbid disease and malignancy. 78-year-old woman with high stage rectum carcinoma was admitted to emergency department and underwent operation for severe peritonitis and sigmoid colonic perforation. Loop sigmoidostomy was performed. At postoperative 15th day, she was transferred to our clinic with necrotizing fasciitis and severe faecal peritonitis due to ostomy necrosis and detachment. Enteric effluent was removed from the OA wound by using the Flexi-Seal Fecal Management System (FMS (ConvaTec and pesser tube in deeply located colonic fistula in conjunction with Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT. Maturation of ostomy was facilitated by using second NPT on ostomy side. After source control, delayed abdominal closure was achieved by skin flap approximation.

  11. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  12. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  13. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  14. Can the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence be predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Terra (Maaike); M. Deutekom (Marije); A.C. Dobben (Annette); C.G.M.I. Baeten; L.W.M. Janssen (Lucas); G.E. Boeckxstaens (Guy); A.F. Engel (Alexander); R.J.F. Felt-Bersma; J.F.W. Slors; M.F. Gerhards (Michael); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); E. Everhardt; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); B. Berghmans; P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); J. Stoker (Jacob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Pelvic-floor rehabilitation does not provide the same degree of relief in all fecal incontinent patients. We aimed at studying prospectively the ability of tests to predict the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence. Materials and methods: Two

  15. Study of fecal bacterial diversity in Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    probably had some link with human obesity (Ley et al.,. 2006). J272 and J278 had 94 and 93% similarity, respectively, with the uncultured bacteria isolated from ... in the microbiota of R. bieti, it reflects the fecal bacterial diversity of R. bieti to a large extent by the use of fecal analysis based on molecular scatology. Analysis of ...

  16. Development and Testing of Novel Canine Fecal Source-Identification Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. Recent method comparison studies have shown that available Bacteroidales 16S rRNA-based methods for the detection of canine fecal ...

  17. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods for Human Fecal Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source id...

  18. Variation in fecal testosterone hormone concentration with season and harem size in Misaki feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf M; Nakahara, Keiko; Tokuriki, Mikihiko; Kaseda, Yujiro; Murakami, Noboru

    2009-08-01

    On Misaki peninsula, Japan, fecal samples were collected from 14 Misaki stallions at monthly intervals for 12 consecutive months. The fecal testosterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. We examined monthly fecal testosterone hormone patterns and the relationship between fecal testosterone concentration and breeding season and later harem size. Marked monthly variations in fecal testosterone concentration were observed. The fecal testosterone concentration began rising in March; the highest mean monthly concentration, 2.87 +/- 0.18 ng/g, was found in April, and the level remained elevated until the end of August and thereafter decreased. A significant correlation was found between the fecal testosterone concentrations and harem size in both the breeding and non-breeding season among the 14 stallions. It is therefore possible that the testosterone levels in feces, instead of blood, correlate very well with harem size in Misaki stallions. Our findings emphasized that the fecal testosterone concentration can be a powerful indicator for monitoring of endocrine status in wild stallions.

  19. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  20. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  1. Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Lo, Kin-Land; Que, Tak-Lun; Lee, Rodney A; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P

    2014-10-18

    Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed. Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV. HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

  2. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  3. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  4. The effect of storage time on Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in an Isco autosampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaleh, Maite N; Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination in coastal and estuarine ecosystems is critical to reduce adverse effects to public health. During storm events, particularly hurricanes, floods, Nor'easters, and tropical cyclones, sampling of coastal and estuarine waters is not generally possible due to safety concerns. It is particularly important to monitor waters during these periods as it is at precisely these times that pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations fluctuate, potentially posing significant risks to public health. Automated samplers, such as the Isco sampler, are commonly used to conduct remote sample collection. Remote sampling is employed during severe storm periods, thereby reducing risk to researchers. Water samples are then stored until conditions are safe enough to retrieve them, typically in less than 21h, to collect the samples. Concerns exist regarding potential "bottle effects", whereby containment of sample might result in altered results. While these effects are well documented in samples being held for 24h or more, there is little data on bottle effects occurring during the first 24h of containment, and less still on the specific effects related to this type of sampling regime. Estuarine water samples were collected in the fall of 2013, placed into an Isco autosampler and subsampled over time to determine the effects of storage within this type of autosampling device. Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria were quantified using replicated culture-based methods, including Enterolert™ and membrane filtration. The experiments demonstrated no significant impact of storage time when comparing concentrations of total Vibrio spp., Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Enterococcus spp. after storage compared to original concentrations. However, the findings also suggested that increased variability and growth can occur during the middle of the day

  5. Prevalence and Source of Fecal and Oral Bacteria on Infant, Child, and Adult Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Modern hygienic practices are applied to avoid exposure to pathogens that spread via fecal-oral transmission. Despite this, the gastrointestinal tract is quickly colonized by fecal microbes. The hands are an important vector for the transmission of microbes, but the frequency at which fecal and oral microbes exist on hands and the source of those microbes have not been extensively described. Using data from a previous study that characterized the fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 73 families, we found a significant incidence of fecal and oral microbes on hands. Of palms, 48.9% had fecal signal and 67.2% had oral signal. Fecal, oral, and forehead microbes were tracked to family members and an individual's own palms far more often than to unrelated individuals and showed relationships with age, gender, and parental status. For instance, oral microbes that were specifically sourced to the same individual (oneself) were most common on infant palms; mothers had more infant-child-sourced and oral-sourced microbes on their palms than nonparents. Fecal microbes on palms more often sourced to members of the family than unrelated individuals, but more often to other members of the family than oneself. This study supports that the hands are an important vector for the transfer of fecal and oral microbes within families. IMPORTANCE Bacteria live all around us, and we are constantly exposed to them during our everyday lives. Modern standards of hygiene aim to limit exposure to fecal bacteria, and yet bacteria rapidly colonize the gut in early life and following antibacterial treatment. Exposures to fecal and oral microbes provide risk of disease, but are also necessary since commensal microbes play important roles in health. This work establishes that bacteria of both fecal and oral origins are commonly found on hands. It also establishes that the uniqueness of fecal and oral bacterial communities across people can allow for determination of the likely individual from whom

  6. A longitudinal study of fecal calprotectin and the development of inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Eva; Strid, Hans; Ståhl, Arne; Deminger, Anna; Carlsten, Hans; Öhman, Lena; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2017-02-02

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are at increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to determine the variation in fecal calprotectin in AS over 5 years in relation to disease activity and medication and also to study the incidence of and predictors for development of IBD. Fecal calprotectin was assessed at baseline (n = 204) and at 5-year follow-up (n = 164). The patients answered questionnaires and underwent clinical evaluations. At baseline and at 5-year follow-up, ileocolonoscopy was performed in patients with fecal calprotectin ≥500 mg/kg and ≥200 mg/kg, respectively. The medical records were checked for diagnoses of IBD during the follow-up period. Fecal calprotectin >50 mg/kg was found in two-thirds of the patients at both study visits. In 80% of the patients, fecal calprotectin changed by Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and fecal calprotectin at 5-year follow-up. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was associated with higher fecal calprotectin, and 3-week cessation of NSAIDs resulted in a drop of a median 116 mg/kg in fecal calprotectin. The use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers was associated with lower fecal calprotectin at both visits, but the users of TNF receptor fusion proteins had significantly higher fecal calprotectin than users of anti-TNF antibodies at 5-year follow-up. The 5-year incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) was 1.5% and was predicted by high fecal calprotectin. Fecal calprotectin was elevated in a majority of the patients and was associated with disease activity and medication at both visits. CD developed in 1.5% of the patients with AS, and a high fecal calprotectin was the main predictor thereof. The results support a link between inflammation in the gut and the

  7. Predicting fecal sources in waters with diverse pollution loads using general and molecular host-specific indicators and applying machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Gómez-Doñate, Marta; Sánchez, David; Belanche-Muñoz, Lluís A; Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R

    2015-03-15

    In this study we use a machine learning software (Ichnaea) to generate predictive models for water samples with different concentrations of fecal contamination (point source, moderate and low). We applied several MST methods (host-specific Bacteroides phages, mitochondrial DNA genetic markers, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium dentium markers, and bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR), and general indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci and somatic coliphages) to evaluate the source of contamination in the samples. The results provided data to the Ichnaea software, that evaluated the performance of each method in the different scenarios and determined the source of the contamination. Almost all MST methods in this study determined correctly the origin of fecal contamination at point source and in moderate concentration samples. When the dilution of the fecal pollution increased (below 3 log10 CFU E. coli/100 ml) some of these indicators (bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR, some mitochondrial markers or B. dentium marker) were not suitable because their concentrations decreased below the detection limit. Using the data from source point samples, the software Ichnaea produced models for waters with low levels of fecal pollution. These models included some MST methods, on the basis of their best performance, that were used to determine the source of pollution in this area. Regardless the methods selected, that could vary depending on the scenario, inductive machine learning methods are a promising tool in MST studies and may represent a leap forward in solving MST cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  9. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  10. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  11. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Jean-Francois; Irenge, Leonid M; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Dumont, Catherine; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-07

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  12. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  13. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Step-up fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bota; Li, Pan; Xu, Lijuan; Peng, Zhaoyuan; Xiang, Jie; He, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut dysbiosis is a characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy to restore intestinal microbial diversity and has been reported to have a potential therapeutic value in IBD. Our recent study reported a holistic integrative therapy called “step-up FMT strategy,” which was beneficial in treating steroid-dependent IBD patients. This strategy consists of scheduled FMTs combined with steroids, anti-TNF-α antibody treatment or enteral nutrition. Herein, we will elaborate the strategy thoroughly, introducing the concept, potential indication, methodology, and safety of “step-up FMT strategy” in detail. PMID:26939622

  15. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  16. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  17. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Palomero-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural blood patch (EBP is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L 1 -L 2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L 1 to L 2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord.

  18. Paraparesis (paraplegia) tetraparesis (tetraplegia), urinary/fecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornegay, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Paraparesis (paraplegia) refers to partial (-paresis) or complete (-plegia) loss of voluntary motor function in the pelvic limbs. Similar involvement of all four limbs is termed tetraparesis (tetraplegia). Paraparesis generally results from spinal cord lesions caudad to the second thoracic spinal cord segment, whereas tetraparesis occurs because of lesions craniad to this segment (see discussion of spinal cord lesion localization in The Neurologic Examination and Lesion Localization, on page 328). The limbs may be affected equally; however, asymmetric lesions cause greater clinical involvement on the ipsilateral side. Strictly unilateral lesions at C1-T2 result in clinical involvement on only the affected side of the body (hemiparesis, hemiplegia). Monoparesis (monoplegia) occurs subsequent to unilateral T2-S1 lesions. Trauma and neoplasia are the most common spinal cord diseases affecting cats. Urinary and fecal incontinence often occur concomitant with paresis. General concepts relating to disorders of micturition are discussed at the conclusion of this chapter

  19. Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, P F; Frissen, M N; de Clercq, N C; Nieuwdorp, M

    2017-05-04

    The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.

  20. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  1. Effect of soybean husk supplementation on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Htun; Iwahashi, Yu; Koike, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2017-11-01

    In vitro fermentation and in vivo feeding experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of soybean (Glycine max) husk on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs. An in vitro fermentation study using feces from three Toy Poodle dogs (6.5 ± 3.5 months in age and 2.9 ± 0.4 kg in body weight) revealed that the fecal inoculum was able to ferment soybean husk (supplemented at 0.01 g/mL culture) and increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and Bifidobacterium, irrespective of pre-digestion of the husk by pepsin and pancreatin. In a feeding experiment, four Shiba dogs (7-48 months in age and 7.5 ± 1.7 kg in body weight) fed a commercial diet supplemented with 5.6% soybean husk showed an increase in SCFA, such as acetate and butyrate, and lactate, and a decrease in indole and skatole in the feces compared to those fed a 5.6% cellulose diet. Real-time PCR assay showed that soybean husk supplementation stimulated the growth of lactobacilli, Clostridium cluster IV including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group but inhibited the growth of Clostridium cluster XI. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that soybean husk supplementation improves gastrointestinal health through optimization of beneficial organic acid production and increase of beneficial bacteria. Therefore, soybean husk is suggested to be applicable as a functional fiber in the formulation of canine diets. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  3. Adrenal responses of large whales: Integrating fecal aldosterone as a complementary biomarker to glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Hunt, Kathleen E; Kraus, Scott D; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-10-01

    Until now, physiological stress assessment of large whales has predominantly focused on adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) measures. Elevated GC concentrations in feces (fGC) are known to reflect stressful disturbances, such as fishing gear entanglement and human-generated underwater noise, in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). However, there can be considerable variation in GC production as a function of sex and life history stage, which may confound the interpretation of fGC levels. Additionally, GC antibodies used in immunoassays can cross-react with other fecal metabolites (i.e., non-target steroids), potentially influencing fGC data. Here, aldosterone concentrations (fALD; aldosterone and related metabolites) were measured in fecal samples from right whales (total n=315 samples), including samples from identified individuals of known life history (n=82 individual whales), to evaluate its utility as a complementary biomarker to fGC for identifying adrenal activation. Concentrations of fALD were positively correlated with fGCs in right whales (r=0.59, Pwhales, fALD concentrations showed similar patterns to those reported for fGC, with higher levels in pregnant females (35.9±7.6ng/g) followed by reproductively mature males (9.5±0.9ng/g) (Pwhales. The addition of fALD measurement as a biomarker of adrenal activation may help distinguish between intrinsic and external causes of stress hormone elevations in large whales, as well as other free-living wildlife species, providing a more comprehensive approach for associating adrenal activation with specific natural and anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incontinencia fecal en el adulto: Un desafio permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Claudio Wainstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia fecal (IF es un problema complejo que afecta desde 2% de la población general, hasta un 45% de los pacientes de casas de reposo. Entre los factores etiológicos destacan causas traumáticas, neurológicas, congénitas e iatrogénicas, siendo uno de las principales, el trauma obstétrico. Resulta fundamental en el manejo de estos pacientes un enfoque multidisciplinario, no solo por la etiología multifactorial, sino porque suele asociarse a otras alteraciones del piso pelviano como prolapso ginecológico e incontinencia urinaria entre otros. Por estas razones puede resultar en una patología devastadora por sus consecuencias tanto sociales, psicológicas, de calidad de vida y económicas. La evaluación clínica resulta fundamental para orientar tanto el estudio como su manejo en forma integral. Existen múltiples opciones de tratamiento médico y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de la incontinencia fecal. La rehabilitación pelviperineal es una de las estrategias más exitosas ya sea como tratamiento exclusivo o coadyuvante a la terapia quirúrgica. Dependiendo de la causa, la cirugía tiene indicaciones precisas, con resultados variables. La IF es un problema de difícil manejo; no hay un algoritmo único de estudio ni tratamiento, razón por la cual resulta fundamental el enfoque multidisciplinario en su tratamiento. El objetivo de este artículo es resumir los avances en el conocimiento de los mecanismos que conducen a la IF, como también la nuevas estrategias en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología.

  5. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is a fundamental requirement for good health and is also a human right. Global access to safe drinking-water is monitored by WHO and UNICEF using as an indicator "use of an improved source," which does not account for water quality measurements. Our objectives were to determine whether water from "improved" sources is less likely to contain fecal contamination than "unimproved" sources and to assess the extent to which contamination varies by source type and setting. Studies in Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were identified from online databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, and grey literature. Studies in low- and middle-income countries published between 1990 and August 2013 that assessed drinking-water for the presence of Escherichia coli or thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) were included provided they associated results with a particular source type. In total 319 studies were included, reporting on 96,737 water samples. The odds of contamination within a given study were considerably lower for "improved" sources than "unimproved" sources (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [0.10-0.21], I2 = 80.3% [72.9-85.6]). However over a quarter of samples from improved sources contained fecal contamination in 38% of 191 studies. Water sources in low-income countries (OR = 2.37 [1.52-3.71]; pwater quality or sanitary risks and few achieved robust random selection. Safety may be overestimated due to infrequent water sampling and deterioration in quality prior to consumption. Access to an "improved source" provides a measure of sanitary protection but does not ensure water is free of fecal contamination nor is it consistent between source types or settings. International estimates therefore greatly overstate use of safe drinking-water and do not fully reflect disparities in access. An enhanced monitoring strategy would combine indicators of sanitary protection with measures of water quality.

  6. Fecal lactoferrin and intestinal permeability are effective non-invasive markers in the diagnostic work-up of chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccaro, Roberta; D'Incà, Renata; Martinato, Matteo; Pont, Elisabetta Dal; Pathak, Surajit; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive markers able to identify patients with chronic diarrhea at risk of organic disease are missing. Aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic ability of intestinal permeability (IP) test and fecal lactoferrin (FL) in distinguishing functional from organic disease in patients with chronic diarrhea. We retrospectively enrolled patients referring to the gastroenterology outpatient clinic for chronic diarrhea. Among the 103 patients included, 40 % had an organic disease, with IP and FL levels significantly higher compared to those with a functional disorder (p chronic diarrhea patients. Together these tests could recognize both the presence of intestinal damage and its site.

  7. PROGRAMMING OFFICE REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-HM

    2000-01-01

    The Removals Service recommends you to plan your removals well in advance, taking into account the fact that the Transport and Handling Group’s main priority remains the dismantling of LEP and the installation of the LHC. The requests can be made by: http://st.web.cern.ch/st/hm/removal/DEMEE.HTM Thank you for your cooperation.

  8. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of four methods for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples from human, canine and feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Campos, Sabrina Destri Emmerick; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2018-02-01

    Enteric parasitic diseases including giardiasis are of public health concern. Different methods are available for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in fecal samples such as the identification of protozoan cysts and trophozoites by light microscopy, detection of specific antigens by ELISA, and amplification of DNA fragments by PCR. The present study aimed at assessing the performance of four laboratory tests for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in fecal specimens from three different host species with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis; canine, feline and human patients provided new stool samples to be retested for Giardia before initiating treatment with antiprotozoal drugs. For this purpose, triplicate fecal specimens from 54 humans, 24 dogs and 18 cats living in the city of Niterói, RJ, southeast Brazil, were analysed by light microscopy, ELISA, immunochromatography, and nested PCR. The centrifugal-flotation method detected Giardia cysts in 89.6% (86/96) of the fecal samples. The protozoan parasite was detected via immunochromatography in 87.5% (84/96) of these samples. Giardia was detected by ELISA in 69.8% (67/96) of the stool specimens from carriers with a previous diagnosis of Giardia infection. Giardia was detected by PCR in only 39.6% (38/96) of the fecal specimens. Based on these findings, we suggest that, among the four assays that were used in this study, the zinc sulphate flotation technique (Faust et al., 1939) is the best diagnostic assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity to detect G. duodenalis on serially collected samples from dogs, cats and humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal permeability and fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are the best diagnosis tools for digestive non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Castelain, Marie-Christine; Cousin, Marie Odile; Sauvage, Christine; Ba, Fatimata; Nicolis, Ioannis; Campeotto, Florence; Butel, Marie José; Dupont, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    Food allergy is a common problem in France involving 4%-6% of toddlers. As opposed to IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA), delayed-onset CMA, mostly, non-IgE-mediated, remains difficult to diagnose in toddlers. Our study assessed the diagnostic performances of intestinal permeability and of fecal markers, in comparison with the standard allergic work-up in children referred for CMA diagnosis. Twenty-five consecutive children, mean age (standard deviation) 6.3 months (4.8) with digestive and/or extra-digestive manifestations suggesting CMA, were prospectively studied based on a standardized allergic work-up (specific cow's protein IgE and IgG, skin prick test, atopy patch test and oral open cow's milk challenge) and digestive work-up including fecal microbiota analysis, intestinal permeability determination (urinary lactitol/mannitol ratio) and fecal markers measurement, i.e., α(1)-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, calprotectin, β-defensin2, secretory IgA and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all markers in order to define cut-off levels. The cow's milk challenge was positive in 11 children and negative in 14. The global test performances, i.e., the number of true positive+negative cases/the total number of cases, were 76% for intestinal permeability; 72% for fecal EDN; contrasting with atopy patch test, 68%; IgE, 60%; skin prick test, 55% and IgG, 52%. In this routine diagnosis allergy work-up for CMA in toddlers, the best efficacy was seen for intestinal permeability compared to IgE, IgG, skin prick test and atopy patch test. Moreover, fecal EDN in a single spot sample displayed a similar performance.

  10. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  11. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8×102 MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10-4 arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5×102, 1.6×102, 4.4×102, 1

  12. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  13. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn's disease and in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malíčková, Karin; Francová, Irena; Lukáš, Milan; Kolář, Martin; Králíková, Eva; Bortlík, Martin; Ďuricová, Dana; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Pánková, Alexandra; Zima, Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc). Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations). No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL) compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL), p zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn's disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers.

  14. Graphitic packing removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  15. Reasons for never and intermittent completion of colorectal cancer screening after receiving multiple rounds of mailed fecal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beverly B; BlueSpruce, June; Tuzzio, Leah; Vernon, Sally W; Aubree Shay, L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-05-30

    Long-term adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is particularly important for fecal testing. Some U.S. studies report that only 25% of individuals repeat fecal testing annually. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify barriers and facilitators reported by patients with suboptimal screening adherence to refine interventions for starting ongoing adherence to CRC screening. We also explored whether participants, particularly never screeners, would be willing to do a CRC screening blood test. Forty-one patients who previously enrolled in the Systems of Support to Increase CRC Screening (SOS) trial were interviewed 4-5 years later. Participants were purposively selected to include men and women with diverse race/ethnicities who had either been inconsistent screeners or had never screened during the first three years of SOS despite receiving at least two rounds of mailed fecal tests. Two interviewers conducted 30-min telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. An iterative thematic analysis approach was used. Themes related to screening barriers were more pervasive among never screeners including: (1) Avoidance (inattention, procrastination) (2) Concerns about handling stool; (3) Health concerns; (4) Fear of a cancer diagnosis or positive test results. Themes related to screening facilitators were more often mentioned by participants who screened at least once including: (1) Use of a simpler 1-sample fecal test; (2) Convenience of mailings and doing the test at home; (3) Salience of prevention, especially as one got older; and (4) Influence of recommendations from providers, family and friends. Participants had diverse preferences for the number (3 on average) and types (phone, mail, text) of screening reminders. Some participants did not prefer e-mail links to the patient shared electronic health record because of difficulties remembering their password. It was acceptable for a nurse or medical assistant not from their clinic to

  16. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  17. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  18. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-06

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed.

  19. Surgical Eye Removal in Ile‑Ife, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical eye removal procedures include evisceration, enucleation, and exenteration. It excludes autoenucleation and ritual enucleation. Enucleation refers to the surgical removal of the entire globe. Evisceration involves the removal of the intraocular contents while exenteration of the orbit refers to the surgical removal of ...

  20. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by using mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... biomass indicates that they are effective in removing metal ions from single metal solutions as well as other co-ions with ... been devised for the treatment and removal of heavy metals. The commonly used procedures for removing metal ions from aqueous streams include phyto- ...... Removal of uranium (vi).

  1. 8 CFR 241.7 - Self-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Juvenile Affairs may permit an alien ordered removed (including an alien ordered excluded or deported in... outstanding shall be considered to have been deported, excluded and deported, or removed, except that an alien... alternate order of deportation or removal shall not be considered to be so deported or removed. [67 FR 39260...

  2. Removal pathways of Th and Pu isotopes in coastal marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Li, Y.H.

    1982-01-01

    The half removal time (t/sub c/) of Th from the surface waters of the New York Bight was almost independent of season suggesting that variable biological activity does not affect the removal rate of Th. The decreasing trend of t/sub c/ from the continental slope (t/sub c/ = 70 +/- 10 days) toward the shelf (t/sub c/ = 20 +/- 10 days) correlated with the general trend of increasing concentrations of suspended non-living particles toward the shore throughout the year. Incorporation in zooplankton fecal pellets was not a significant removal mechanism of Th in the surface waters of the continental shelf of the New York Bight. The same conclusion was reached for Pu whose removal was related to that of Th. The most important process affecting the removal of Th in the ocean is the total particle flux through the system

  3. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  4. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  5. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Pathak,1 Hill Ambrose Enuh,1 Anish Patel,1 Prasanna Wickremesinghe21Department of Internal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global concern over the last decade. In the United States, CDI escalated in incidence from 1996 to 2005 from 31 to 64/100,000. In 2010, there were 500,000 cases of CDI with an estimated mortality up to 20,000 cases a year. The significance of this problem is evident from the hospital costs of over 3 billion dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT was first described in 1958 and since then about 500 cases have been published in literature in various small series and case reports. This procedure has been reported mainly from centers outside of the United States and acceptance of the practice has been difficult. Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA labeled FMT as a biological drug; as a result, guidelines will soon be required to help establish it as a mainstream treatment. More US experience needs to be reported to popularize this procedure here and form guidelines.Method: We did a retrospective review of our series of patients with relapsing CDI who were treated with FMT over a 3-year period. We present our experience with FMT at a community hospital as a retrospective review and describe our procedure.Results: There were a total of 12 patients who underwent FMT for relapsing C. difficile. Only one patient failed to respond and required a second FMT. There were no complications associated with the transplant and all patients had resolution of symptoms within 48 hours of FMT.Conclusion: FMT is a cheap, easily available, effective therapy for recurrent CDI; it can be safely performed in a

  6. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  7. Evaluation of a QIAamp DNA stool purification kit for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli detection in bovine fecal swabs by PCR Evaluación del kit QIAamp DNA stool purification para la detección de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga en hisopados de materia fecal bovina por PCR[

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gioffré

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercial kit intended for Taq polymerase inhibitor removal was tested to detect Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC by polymersase chain reaction (PCR directly from cattle fecal samples. Forty-five samples were analysed for the presence of stx genes. Results were compared to those obtained by two other methods: amplification of DNA purified by a non-commercial procedure (heat lysis protocol, and amplification of DNA from samples cultured in solid media, commonly used in our lab. Identical numbers of positive samples (33/45, 73 % were obtained with the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit and the culturing procedure, suggesting an adequate removal of inhibitors that interfere in PCR amplification from the feces. Besides, the number of positive samples detected using DNA purified by the non-commercial protocol was lower, 25/39 (64% than that achieved by using the kit. In conclusion, the use of the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit provided a rapid stx gene detection by PCR in bovine fecal samples.Un kit comercial diseñado para la eliminación de inhibidores de la polimerasa Taq fue ensayado para la detección de STEC por PCR en muestras fecales de bovinos. Cuarenta y cinco muestras fueron evaluadas por la presencia de genes stx. Los resultados fueron comparados con aquéllos obtenidos por otros dos métodos: amplificación de ADN purificado por un procedimiento no comercial (protocolo de lisis por calor, y amplificación de ADN de muestras cultivadas en medio sólido, comúnmente usado en nuestro laboratorio. El mismo número de muestras positivas (33/45, 73 %, fueron obtenidas con el QIAamp DNA stool purification kit y el procedimiento de cultivo, sugiriendo una eliminación adecuada de inhibidores que interfieren con la amplificación en materia fecal. Por otro lado, el número de muestras positivas detectadas usando ADN purificado por el protocolo no comercial fue menor, 25/39 (64%. En conclusión, el uso del kit QIAamp DNA stool

  8. Effect of housing arrangement on fecal-oral transmission of avian hepatitis E virus in chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Chen, Yiyang; Du, Taofeng; Nan, Yuchen; Wang, Xinjie; Li, Huixia; Huang, Baicheng; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2017-09-07

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is common in chicken flocks in China, as currently no measures exist to prevent the spread of the disease. In this study, we analyzed the effect of caged versus cage-free housing arrangements on avian HEV transmission. First, 127 serum and 110 clinical fecal samples were collected from 4 chicken flocks including the two arrangements in Shaanxi Province, China and tested for HEV antibodies and/or virus. Concurrently, 36 specific-pathogen-free chickens were divided equally into four experimental living arrangement groups, designated cage-free (Inoculated), caged (Inoculated), cage-free (Negative) and caged (Negative) groups. In caged groups, three cages contained 3 chickens each. Three chickens each from cage-free (Inoculated) and caged (Inoculated) groups (one chicken of each cage) were inoculated by cutaneous ulnar vein with the same dose of avian HEV, respectively. The cage-free (Negative) and caged (Negative) groups served as negative control. Serum and fecal samples were collected at 1 to 7 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and liver lesions were scored at 7 wpi. The results of serology showed that the avian HEV infection rate (54.10%) of the cage-free chickens was significantly higher than the one (12.12%) for caged chickens (P chickens (6) was significantly higher than the one for the uninoculated caged birds (2), as evidenced by seroconversion, fecal virus shedding, viremia and gross and microscopic liver lesions. These results suggest that reduction of contact with feces as seen in the caged arrangement of housing chickens can reduce avian HEV transmission. This study provides insights for prevention and control of avian HEV infection in chicken flocks.

  9. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  10. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    From March through October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen gene markers and densities of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in 22 tributaries to the Great Lakes. This project was funded as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and included sampling at 22 locations throughout 6 states that border the Great Lakes.

  11. The Influence of Household- and Community-Level Sanitation and Fecal Sludge Management on Urban Fecal Contamination in Households and Drains and Enteric Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie A; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Leon, Juan; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Ghale, Ben; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-06-01

    AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households. The two neighborhoods differed significantly in toilet coverage (78% versus 33%) and spatial clustering. Overall, 49% of toilets discharged directly into open drains ("poor FSM"). Children in households with poor FSM had 3.78 times higher prevalence of enteric infection when compared with children in other households, even those without toilets. In the neighborhood with high coverage of household toilets, children in households with poor FSM had 10 times higher prevalence of enteric infection than other children in the neighborhood and drains in poor FSM clusters who had significantly higher concentrations of genogroup II norovirus. Conversely, children in households with a toilet that contained excreta in a tank onsite had 55% lower prevalence of enteric infection compared with the rest of the study area. Notably, households with a toilet in the neighborhood with low toilet coverage had more fecal contamination on floors where children played compared with those without a toilet. Overall, both toilet coverage levels and FSM were associated with environmental fecal contamination and, subsequently, enteric infection prevalence in this urban setting.

  12. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  13. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (purban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  15. Impact of exercise on fecal and cecal metabolome over aging: a longitudinal study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen; Panagoulis, Theodoros; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Nikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise can reduce adverse conditions during aging, while both exercise and aging act as metabolism modifiers. The present study investigates rat fecal and cecal metabolome alterations derived from exercise during rats' lifespan. Groups of rats trained life-long or for a specific period of time were under study. The training protocol consisted of swimming, 15-18 min per day, 3-5 days per week, with load of 4-0% of rat's weight. Fecal samples and cecal extracts were analyzed by targeted and untargeted metabolic profiling methods (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS). Effects of exercise and aging on the rats' fecal and cecal metabolome were observed. Fecal and cecal metabolomics are a promising field to investigate exercise biochemistry and age-related alterations.

  16. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  17. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  18. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  19. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  20. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  1. Evaluation of alkali fusion and acid leaching methods for the separation of plutonium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers of Fuel reprocessing and Fuel fabrication facilities are monitored for the assessment of intakes of actinide radionuclides and evaluation of effective dose. The determination of the internally deposited radionuclides is carried out, by in-vivo technique, by analyzing the bioassay materials like urine and feaces. Urine samples are selected for the analysis of soluble (Type M) Pu/U isotopes while fecal samples are analyzed for the determination insoluble Pu/U isotopes (Type S). The strategy involves the analysis of both fecal as well as urine samples for assessing the possible nature of compound. This paper presents the investigation of analytical methods for fecal sample processing. Generally, separation of Pu isotopes in fecal sample is carried out by alkali fusion followed by standard radioanalytical technique

  2. Profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goot, Annemieke Catharina; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Millar, Robert Peter; Paris, Monique Christina Johanna; Ganswindt, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Unlike their wild counterparts, many white rhinoceros females in captivity fail to reproduce successfully such that current captive populations are not self-sustaining. The causes of the problem are poorly understood. Variation in cycle length and long periods of acyclicity are characteristics of the majority of these non-reproducing females in captivity but it is unknown whether these characteristics are a feature of reproductively successful free-ranging females. This study therefore aimed to monitor cyclic activity in a wild population of southern white rhinoceros at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, by measuring the concentrations of immunoreactive fecal progestagen metabolites (fPM). Five adult females were tracked twice per week for 20 months and if located a fresh fecal sample was collected. Reproductive events and group structural dynamics were also recorded and subsequently correlated with the fPM data. The baseline concentration of fPM was 0.69±0.20μg/g DW while concentrations during pregnancy were 30-400-fold higher. The females exhibited estrous cycle lengths of 30.6±7.7 days and, based on fPM data, gestation length in one female was 502±3 days. Year-round monitoring showed no clear evidence of seasonality in ovarian activity. During cyclic luteal activity females were often seen in the presence of a dominant bull. One female stopped cycling after removal of the local dominant bull and luteal activity only returned after a new bull was introduced. This suggests that white rhinoceros females in the wild might need external stimuli from a male to ovulate. These findings indicate that the irregular cyclicity reported for white rhinoceros housed in zoos and animal parks may result from conditions in captivity and account for reduced fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  4. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Christine Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage. Studies show that metagenomic methods, from sample storage and DNA extraction to library preparation and shotgun sequencing, have a great influence on data output. To construct protocols that extract the complete metagenome but with minimal bias is an ongoing challenge. Many different software strategies for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied in real-time. Finally, diagnostic metagenomics can theoretically be better geared than conventional methods to detect co-infections. The present review focuses on the current state of test development, as well as practical implementation of diagnostic metagenomics to trace foodborne bacterial infections in fecal samples from animals and humans.

  6. Colite de derivação fecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto Júnior

    Full Text Available A colite de derivação fecal (CD é um processo inflamatório que ocorre no segmento colorretal desfuncionalizado, após uma cirurgia de desvio do trânsito intestinal. As principais características dessa entidade clínica são: apresenta-se na desfuncionalização do cólon ou reto; não há doença inflamatória intestinal preexistente; nunca acomete o sítio proximal à colostomia e ocorre resolução do processo após a restauração do trânsito intestinal. Diversas são as hipóteses postuladas para explicar o seu aparecimento; todavia, a deficiência nutricional do epitélio colônico, pela ausência dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC, no segmento desfuncionalizado, é a mais aceita na atualidade. Os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura enfocando os aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e terapêuticos desta doença.

  7. Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Barger, Kathryn; Fu, Xueyan; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B; Meydani, Simin N; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined. Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8. Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation

  8. Fecal calprotectin levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa, Rehab; Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Kamel, Noha; Elsharqawy, Sonia Elsharqawy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Methods: Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study grou...

  9. Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Alexa R; Chen, Chi; Bobr, Aleh; Yao, Dan; Lu, Yuwei; Nelson, Valerie M; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander

    2014-02-15

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.

  10. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn’s disease and in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Malíčková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Design and methods: Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc. Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Results: Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn’s disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations. No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Fecal and serum zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn’s disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers. Keywords: Zonulin, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Smoking

  11. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a fecal scoring scale in puppies during the weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Feugier, Alexandre; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Carrez, Bruno; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Casseleux, Gregory; Grandjean, Dominique

    2012-10-01

    In puppies weaning is a high risk period. Fecal changes are frequent and can be signs of infection by digestive pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and indicators of nutritional and environmental stress. The aim of this study was to define a pathological fecal score for weaning puppies, and to study the impact on that score of two intestinal viruses (canine parvovirus type 2 and canine coronavirus). For this, the quality of stools was evaluated on 154 puppies between 4 and 8 weeks of age (100 from small breeds and 54 from large breeds). The scoring was performed immediately after a spontaneous defecation based on a 13-point scale (from 1; liquid to 13; dry and hard feces). Fecal samples were frozen for further viral analysis. Each puppy was weighed once a week during the study period. The fecal score regarded as pathological was the highest score associated with a significant reduction in average daily gain (ADG). Fecal samples were checked by semi-quantitative PCR or RT-PCR for canine parvovirus type 2 and canine coronavirus identification, respectively. The quality of feces was affected by both age and breed size. In small breeds, the ADG was significantly reduced under a fecal score of 6 and 7 for puppies at 4-5 and 6-8 weeks of age, respectively. In large breeds, the ADG was significantly reduced under a fecal score of 5 whatever the age of the puppy. Whereas a high viral load of canine parvovirus type 2 significantly impacted feces quality, no effect was recorded for canine coronavirus. This study provides an objective threshold for evaluation of fecal quality in weaning puppies. It also emphasizes the importance to be given to age and breed size in that evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  14. Sacral nerve stimulation for urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    health technology assessments for urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention included (RCTs (level 2) as their primary source of evidence for their conclusions. The assessment of fecal incontinence based its conclusions on evidence from case series (level 4). Because there was level 2 data available for the use of SNS in patients with urinary conditions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat chose to review thoroughly the RCTs included in the assessments and search for publications since the assessments were released. However, for the health technology assessment for fecal incontinence, which contained only level 4 evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched for studies on SNS and fecal incontinence that were published since that assessment was released. URGE INCONTINENCE: Two RCTs were identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urge incontinence. Both RCTs reported significant improvements (> 50% improvement in voiding function) in the SNS group for number of incontinence episodes per day, number of pads used per day, and severity of incontinence episodes. URGENCY-FREQUENCY (WITH OR WITHOUT CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN): One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urgency-frequency. The RCT reported significant improvements in urgency-frequency symptoms in the SNS group (average volume per void, detrusor pressure). In addition to the RCT, 1 retrospective review and 2 prospective case series were identified that measured pelvic pain associated with urgency-frequency in patients who underwent SNS. All 3 studies reported a significant decrease in pain at median follow-up. URINARY RETENTION: One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urinary retention. The RCT reported significant improvements in urinary retention in the SNS group compared to the control group for number of catheterizations required and number of voids per day. In addition to this RCT

  15. Modeling Escherichia coli removal in constructed wetlands under pulse loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Adhikari, Umesh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Harrigan, Timothy; Reinhold, Dawn M

    2014-03-01

    Manure-borne pathogens are a threat to water quality and have resulted in disease outbreaks globally. Land application of livestock manure to croplands may result in pathogen transport through surface runoff and tile drains, eventually entering water bodies such as rivers and wetlands. The goal of this study was to develop a robust model for estimating the pathogen removal in surface flow wetlands under pulse loading conditions. A new modeling approach was used to describe Escherichia coli removal in pulse-loaded constructed wetlands using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). Several ANFIS models were developed and validated using experimental data under pulse loading over two seasons (winter and summer). In addition to ANFIS, a mechanistic fecal coliform removal model was validated using the same sets of experimental data. The results showed that the ANFIS model significantly improved the ability to describe the dynamics of E. coli removal under pulse loading. The mechanistic model performed poorly as demonstrated by lower coefficient of determination and higher root mean squared error compared to the ANFIS models. The E. coli concentrations corresponding to the inflection points on the tracer study were keys to improving the predictability of the E. coli removal model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard compared with mnemonic counseling for fecal incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Murrietta, Ambroshia M; Komesu, Yuko M

    2015-05-01

    To estimate whether women who underwent mnemonic counseling had better recall of fecal incontinence therapies at 2 months and if mnemonic counseling resulted in greater satisfaction with physician counseling and improvement in quality of life when compared with a group who underwent standard counseling. Counseling-naive women with fecal incontinence were recruited from an academic urogynecology clinic. Women underwent physical examinations, completed the Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction, recorded fecal incontinence treatment options they recalled, and completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Manchester Health Questionnaire immediately after counseling and again at 2 months. Ninety women consented to participate, were randomized, and completed baseline questionnaires. At baseline, women did not differ in age, ethnicity, education, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, or Manchester Health Questionnaire scores. After counseling, the mnemonic group reported higher satisfaction on Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction (66.4±6.5 compared with 62.2±10.7, P=.03). Ninety percent (81/90) of women followed up at 2 months. Our primary endpoint, 2-month recall of fecal incontinence treatments, was not different between groups (2.3±1.6 mnemonic counseling compared with 1.8±1.0 standard counseling; P=.08). Secondary endpoints for the mnemonic group reported greater improvement on total Manchester Health Questionnaire (P=.02), emotional (P=.03), sleep (0.045), role limitations (Pmnemonic aid did not improve recall at 2 months but improved patient satisfaction and quality of life at 2 months.

  17. Prevalence of bacterial contamination with antibiotic-resistant and enterotoxigenic fecal coliforms in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S P; Gopal, K

    2008-01-01

    Pollution indicator bacteria such as coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated using a multiple-tube fermentation method in 100 treated drinking-water samples from 20 locations in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of a tropical city during summer. Thirty-four percent of the samples were bacteriologically nonpotable. Maximum coliform-contaminated (27%) samples were derived from industrial areas, while samples contaminated with fecal coliform (23%) and fecal streptococci (20%) originated from commercial areas. Coliforms identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were present in 29%, 26%, 24%, and 15% of samples, respectively. Fecal coliforms were examined for antibiotic susceptibility with disc diffusion method. All test isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) for kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Escherichia coli isolates were examined for enterotoxigenicity using the suckling mice bioassay and 60% of the isolates displayed enterotoxigenicity. Data indicate that drinking water contaminated with antibiotic-resistant enterotoxigenic fecal bacteria may be responsible for presence of waterborne diarrheal diseases attributed to therapeutic agents used by urban populations in the tropics.

  18. Application of phylogenetic microarray analysis to discriminate sources of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Esmaili, Laleh; Hulls, John R; Cao, Yiping; Griffith, John F; Andersen, Gary L

    2012-04-17

    Conventional methods for fecal source tracking typically use single biomarkers to systematically identify or exclude sources. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis can potentially identify all sources of microbial contaminants in a single test by measuring the total diversity of fecal microbial communities. In this study, we used phylogenetic microarray analysis to determine the comprehensive suite of bacteria that define major sources of fecal contamination in coastal California. Fecal wastes were collected from 42 different populations of humans, birds, cows, horses, elk, and pinnipeds. We characterized bacterial community composition using a DNA microarray that probes for 16S rRNA genes of 59,316 different bacterial taxa. Cluster analysis revealed strong differences in community composition among fecal wastes from human, birds, pinnipeds, and grazers. Actinobacteria, Bacilli, and many Gammaproteobacteria taxa discriminated birds from mammalian sources. Diverse families within the Clostridia and Bacteroidetes taxa discriminated human wastes, grazers, and pinnipeds from each other. We found 1058 different bacterial taxa that were unique to either human, grazing mammal, or bird fecal wastes. These OTUs can serve as specific identifier taxa for these sources in environmental waters. Two field tests in marine waters demonstrate the capacity of phylogenetic microarray analysis to track multiple sources with one test.

  19. Modified technique of bilateral gluteus maximus transposition for reconstruction of sphincter for pediatric traumatic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feiteng; Wu, Yang; Chen, Yongmei; Liu, Juxian; Li, Fuyu; Xiang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to report our 13-year experience of 14 children with gluteus maximus muscular transposition to treat post-trauma fecal incontinence and discuss our technical modifications to this surgical procedure. Fourteen children (median age: 9.9years) with complete fecal incontinence after traumas received this procedure from December 1998 to February 2011. The major modification of the surgery was that we transposed two thick muscular bundles about 2cm in diameter bilaterally. They surrounded the middle portion of rectum to act as sphincters. We used dynamic defecography and anorectal endosonography to observe the functions of the transposed muscles. Wexner scores, fecal incontinence quality of life questionnaire and self-rated health measurement scale scores had been used to evaluate their life quality. The median follow-up time was 6.3years. Twelve children reported prominently improved fecal controls with reduced stool frequency. Postoperative dynamic defecography and anorectal endosongraphy vividly demonstrated the satisfactory voluntary contractile and relaxed states of the reconstructed muscle. Wexner scores were significantly improved both 1year and 2years after the procedure (Pgluteus maximus transposition for reconstruction of sphincter efficiently improved fecal control and life quality for pediatric patients with traumatic fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of fecal contamination indicator sterols in an Australian water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik A; Ford, Rebecca; Hill, Julian

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance survey of the concentrations of sterol compounds (as indicators of fecal contamination) in a large water supply system in southeast Australia comprising a network of rivers, channels, and drains. Levels of coprostanol and cholestanol were determined in surface water and bottom sediment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis across 17 strategic sampling sites and over 12 months. Clear differences in the levels of fecal contamination were observed among sites. Four sites routinely contained high levels of the fecal indicator sterols indicated from surface water and sediment sample analysis. Coprostanol concentrations at each location varied from 0 ng/L at the reference site to 11,327 ng/L in a surface water sample of a drain directly downstream of a knackery. The majority of the sites contained coprostanol in the range of 500 to 800 ng/L. Since no fecal-associated sterol compounds were detected at the external reference sites, these were assumed to be free from fecal contamination. Sewage water discharge and/or substantial water runoff maybe the principal factors contributing to fecal contamination of the supply drains and channels.

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Identification and characterization of microsporidia from fecal samples of HIV-positive patients from Lagos, Nigeria.

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    Oladele Teslim Ojuromi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They have been increasingly recognized as human pathogens in AIDS patients, mainly associated with a life-threatening chronic diarrhea and systemic disease. However, to date the global epidemiology of human microsporidiosis is poorly understood, and recent data suggest that the incidence of these pathogens is much higher than previously reported and may represent a neglected etiological agent of more common diseases indeed in immunocompetent individuals. To contribute to the knowledge of microsporidia molecular epidemiology in HIV-positive patients in Nigeria, the authors tested stool samples proceeding from patients with and without diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples from 193 HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea (67 and 126 respectively from Lagos (Nigeria were investigated for the presence of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium using Weber's Chromotrope-based stain, Kinyoun stain, IFAT and PCR. The Weber stain showed 45 fecal samples (23.3% with characteristic microsporidia spores, and a significant association of microsporidia with diarrhea was observed (O.R. = 18.2; CI: 95%. A similar result was obtained using Kinyoun stain, showing 44 (31,8% positive samples with structures morphologically compatible with Cryptosporidium sp, 14 (31.8% of them with infection mixed with microsporidia. The characterization of microsporidia species by IFAT and PCR allowed identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and E. cuniculi in 5, 2 and 1 samples respectively. The partial sequencing of the ITS region of the rRNA genes showed that the three isolates of E.bieneusi studied are included in Group I, one of which bears the genotype B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of microsporidia characterization in fecal samples from HIV-positive patients from

  3. Fecal Collection and Stabilization Methods for Improved Fecal DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer in a Screening Setting

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    Francesca Maria Carozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of CRC and adenomas reduces CRC-related mortality. The optimal screening test for CRC is still a subject of debate, and molecular stool sample analysis could provide a valid alternative to conventional methods in terms of compliance and practicability. Seven fecal DNA storage systems were evaluated in two successive phases. In the first phase of the study was selected the preservative buffer able to ensure the best human DNA recovery. In the second phase was evaluated human DNA stability, amplificability and integrity in DNA extracted from selected buffer. Results showed that the best performance was obtained in samples stored in 100 mM EDTA buffer and Genefec buffer. Likewise buffer addition yielded a significant increase in DNA stability and integrity without PCR inhibition, compared to the matched aliquots with no buffer added. Our study shows that samples collected in stabilization solution stabilize DNA so that intact nucleic acids, are more effectively detectable in the molecular assay. DNA buffer preservation and storage conditions could be useful to guarantee the most consistent yield in human DNA. Stabilization buffer addition to stool samples prior to transport presents an easily implemented solution that appears to be highly effective. Overall DNA extracted from faeces preserved in preservative buffer can feasibility been used for molecular analysis leading to an increase of assay sensitivity.

  4. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Evaluating Intestinal Involvement of Behçet’s Disease

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    Burak Özşeker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the regions of involvement of Behçet’s disease (BD, a systematic inflammatory vasculitis with unknown etiology, is the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy are frequently used methods to diagnose the intestinal involvement of BD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin (FC in the evaluation of intestinal involvement in BD. Material and Method. A total of 30 patients who were diagnosed with BD and had no GI symptoms and 25 individuals in the control group were included in this study. Results. Levels of FC were statistically significantly higher in patients with BD compared to the control group (p<0.001. The correlation analysis performed including FC and markers of disease activity revealed a positive and statistically significant correlation between FC level and CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r: 0.255, p<0.049, and r: 0.404, p<0.001, resp.. FC levels in patients who were detected to have ulcers in the terminal ileum and colon in the colonoscopic examination were statistically significantly higher compared to the patients with BD without intestinal involvement (p=0.01. Conclusion. The measurement of FC levels, in patients with BD who are asymptomatic for GI involvement, may be helpful to detect the possible underlying intestinal involvement.

  5. No appendix necessary: Fecal transplants and antibiotics can resolve Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tejas; Elderd, Bret D; Abbott, Karen C

    2018-04-07

    The appendix has been hypothesized to protect the colon against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by providing a continuous source of commensal bacteria that crowd out the potentially unhealthy bacteria and/or by contributing to defensive immune dynamics. Here, a series of deterministic systems comprised of ordinary differential equations, which treat the system as an ecological community of microorganisms, model the dynamics of colon microbiome. The first model includes migration of commensal bacteria from the appendix to the gut, while the second model expands this to also include immune dynamics. Simulations and simple analytic techniques are used to explore dynamics under biologically relevant parameters values. Both models exhibited bistability with steady states of a healthy state and of fulminant CDI. However, we find that the appendix size was much too small for migration to affect the stability of the system. Both models affirm the use of fecal transplants in conjunction with antibiotic use for CDI treatment, while the second model also suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs may protect against CDI. Ultimately, in general neither the appendiceal migration rate of commensal microbiota nor the boost to antibody production could exert an appreciable impact on the stability of the system, thus failing to support the proposed protective role of the appendix against CDI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  7. Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation process: Recent trends and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, P V; Singh, T S Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a major issue in the present world. Arsenicosis is the disease caused by the regular consumption of arsenic contaminated water, even at a lesser contaminated level. The number of arsenicosis patients is increasing day-by-day. Decontamination of arsenic from the water medium is the only one way to regulate this and the arsenic removal can be fulfilled by water treatment methods based on separation techniques. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a promising technology for the effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The present review article analyzes the performance of the EC process for arsenic removal. Electrocoagulation using various sacrificial metal anodes such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, etc. is found to be very effective for arsenic decontamination. The performances of each anode are described in detail. A special focus has been made on the mechanism behind the arsenite and arsenate removal by EC process. Main trends in the disposal methods of sludge containing arsenic are also included. Comparison of arsenic decontamination efficiencies of chemical coagulation and EC is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs.

  9. Changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine: a human trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of moderate consumption of red wine to modulate the intestinal inflammation response on healthy humans. Fecal samples from a human intervention study (n=34 were collected before and after consumption of red wine for 4 weeks, and 24 immune markers including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were analysed. When considering the whole group of case volunteers, almost no statistically significant differences were found in the immune markers after wine consumption. However, a detailed exploration of the values differentiated a 6-volunteer subgroup that showed unusually high values of cytokines before wine consumption. For this subgroup, wine consumption significantly reduced the content of 16 out of 24 markers down to usual values, especially noticeable for cytokines related to the promotion of initial inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma. This study reveals, for the first time, changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine.

  10. Amplifiability of mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin DNA loci from fecal samples of red brocket deer Mazama americana (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M L; Duarte, J M B

    2013-01-16

    We tried to amplify mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin loci in DNA from fecal samples of a wild Mazama americana population. Fifty-two deer fecal samples were collected from a 600-ha seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in a subtropical region of Brazil (21°20'S, 47°17'W), with the help of a detection dog; then, stored in ethanol and georeferenced. Among these samples 16 were classified as "fresh" and 36 as "non-fresh". DNA was extracted using the QIAamp(®) DNA Stool Mini Kit. Mitochondrial loci were amplified in 49 of the 52 samples. Five microsatellite loci were amplified by PCR; success in amplification varied according to locus size and sample age. Successful amplifications were achieved in 10/16 of the fresh and in 13/36 of the non-fresh samples; a negative correlation (R = -0.82) was found between successful amplification and locus size. Amplification of the amelogenin locus was successful in 22 of the 52 samples. The difficulty of amplifying nuclear loci in DNA samples extracted from feces collected in the field was evident. Some methodological improvements, including collecting fresh samples, selecting primers for shorter loci and quantifying the extracted DNA by real-time PCR, are suggested to increase amplification success in future studies.

  11. Neonatal exposure to fecal antigens reduces intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; McFarlane, Sarah M; Doyle, Jason S G; Fedorak, Richard N

    2011-04-01

    A role for bacterial antigens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established in enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to ubiquitous antigens of the enteric flora. However, we have recently shown that bacterial antigens in the absence of live bacteria cannot initiate an intestinal inflammation in IBD-prone interleukin (IL)-10 gene-deficient mice. The objective was to investigate whether neonatal exposure to antigens of their own endogenous flora can tolerize mice to bacterial antigens. IL-10 gene-deficient neonates were injected intraperitoneally within 72 hours of birth with a sterile solution of bacterial lysates prepared from fecal material of either conventionally raised mice (contains bacterial antigens) or axenic mice (lacks bacterial antigens). The onset of intestinal inflammation was monitored as the appearance of occult blood in the stool in weekly hemoccult analysis. Mice were sacrificed between age 15 and 19 weeks and tested for histopathologic injury, intestinal inflammation, and systemic response to bacterial antigens. In mice neonatally exposed to bacterial antigens the onset of intestinal inflammation was delayed and the incidence of histopathologic injury at age 18 weeks was reduced. In addition, mice injected with lysates from conventionally raised mice exhibited decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ] and IL-17) in intestinal tissue and demonstrated reduced bacteria-stimulated systemic responses when compared to mice injected with lysates derived from bacteria-free, axenic mice. Neonatal intraperitoneal injection of antigens from the commensal flora causes long-lasting changes in systemic and mucosal immune responses resulting in delayed onset of intestinal inflammation and injury in IBD-prone IL-10 gene-deficient mice. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  12. The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Fontan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos; Taqatqa, Anas; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Holton, Jacob P; Awad, Sawsan M

    2018-03-01

    The Fontan procedure was first performed in the seventies as a palliation for patients with single ventricle physiology. A feared complication after a Fontan procedure is the development of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). Systemic inflammation has a negative effect on the intestinal barrier integrity, which has supported the use of steroids in this setting. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies linking intestinal inflammation in patients with PLE after Fontan. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of intestinal inflammation measured by FC in patients with PLE after a Fontan procedure. A cross-sectional analysis was performed examining 23 stool samples from 23 Fontan patients for both Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) and FC with and without PLE. The median FC was 21 mcg/gm of stool (IQR: 15.7-241 mcg/gm of stool), and the median FA1AT was 40 mg/dL (IQR: 30-220 mg/dL). The median FC and FA1AT were significantly higher in the PLE group than in the Non-PLE group (p = 0.002 and p PLE, which correlated with the elevated levels of FA1AT. Inversely, levels of FC in Fontan patients without suspected PLE were within the normal range. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate intestinal inflammation using FC in the setting of PLE within this cohort, and may prove to be useful as a diagnostic tool in its treatment.

  13. Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2012-10-01

    This research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. This is the first study to investigate weaning in primates using fecal stable isotope ratios. Diets of a single François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) mother-infant pair at the Toledo Zoo are reconstructed using this technique to track changes in infant suckling behavior over the weaning period. Stable isotope ratios in feces are sampled instead of more traditional samples such as bone or hair to enable daily, noninvasive snapshots of weaning status. Isotopic assessments of weaning status are compared to visual assessments to identify any discordance between the two. Three measurements documented the transition from breast milk to solid foods: stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N), and nitrogen content of feces (%N). It appears that solid foods were introduced at approximately 2 months of infant age, but that nursing continued into the 12th month, when sample collection ceased. Stable isotope data exposed a much longer weaning period than what was expected based on previously published data for captive langurs, and clarified visual estimates of weaning status. This reflects the method's sensitivity to suckling at night and ability to distinguish actual nursing from comfort nursing. After testing this method with zoo animals, it can readily be applied among wild populations. An isotopic approach to weaning provides a new, accurate, and biologically meaningful assessment of interbirth intervals, and facilitates a better understanding of mother-infant interactions. Both of these outcomes are critical for developing successful conservation strategies for captive and wild primates. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Surgical removal of infected transvenous pacemaker leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, R; Brodman, R F; Furman, S; Andrews, C A; Gross, J N

    1993-12-01

    Infection, though uncommon, can be the most lethal of all potential complications following transvenous pacemaker implantation. Eradication of infection associated with pacemakers requires complete removal of all hardware, including inactive leads. Since 1972, 5,089 patients have had 8,508 pacemaker generators implanted at Montefiore Medical Center. There were 91 infections (1.06%); four of our patients required surgical removal. Nine additional patients were referred for surgical removal of infected transvenous pacemaker leads from other institutions. Surgical methods for removal included use of cardiopulmonary bypass or inflow occlusion. Surgery may be safely used in unstable or elderly patients and should not be reserved as a last resort. This article reviews our surgical experience removing infected pacemaker leads at Montefiore Medical Center.

  15. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  16. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

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    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  17. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, M E; Iriarte, M M; Mercado Guzmán, A; Coronado, O; Almanza, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1mLg(-1) for coliphage, between 1 and 100mLg(-1) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000mLg(-1) for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  20. Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs

  1. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  2. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  3. Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Benqiang; Deng, Li

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and its morbidity and mortality rates are increasing due to alterations to human lifestyle and dietary habits. The relationship between human gut flora and colorectal cancer has attracted increasing attention. In the present study, a metabolic fingerprinting technique that combined pyrosequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to compare the differences in gut flora profiling and fecal metabolites between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut flora between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer (P>0.05) and the dominant bacterial phyla present in the gut of both groups included Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia . At the bacterial strain/genus level, significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of 18 species of bacteria (Pflora profiling and metabolite composition. These findings suggest that gut flora disorder results in the alteration of bacterial metabolism, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The results of the present study are useful as a foundation for further studies to elucidate a potential colorectal cancer diagnostic index and therapeutic targets.

  4. Value of Fecal Calprotectin as a Biomarker for Juvenile Polyps in Children Investigated With Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Ingunn; Nemeth, Artur; Lörinc, Ester; Toth, Ervin; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation of colonic juvenile polyps with abdominal discomfort and occult rectal bleedings make them difficult to recognize. The aim of this study was to report the clinical features of colonic juvenile polyps in children referred to colonoscopy and evaluate fecal calprotectin (FCP) as a screening biomarker for their diagnosis. The study included a total of 266 children (range 3.1-19.0 years, median age 15.8 years) investigated with ileocolonoscopy; of whom, 239 (89%) were investigated for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FCPs were analyzed as a marker of colonic inflammation, and levels polyps were detected in 12 (4.5%) children; the remaining 67 (25.2%) had Crohn disease, 57 (21.4%) ulcerative colitis, 5 (1.9%) unclassified IBD, 4 (1.5%) allergic colitis, bleeding source was localized in 6 (2.3%), and 115 (43.2%) had unspecific or normal findings. FCP was available in 203 (76.3%) children before colonoscopy; levels of FCP were higher in children with juvenile polyps (range 28-2287 mg/kg, median 844 mg/kg) compared with those with normal colonoscopies (range children after polypectomy, of whom all had their FCP levels significantly reduced (range 0-281 mg/kg, median 49 mg/kg, P Colonic juvenile polyps are frequently found in pediatric patients presenting with hematochezia and elevated FCP levels. Colonic juvenile polyps are difficult to differentiate from pediatric IBD without a colonoscopy.

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella in fecal samples of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Abbey S; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G

    2011-10-01

    This is the first extensive study of the prevalence of naturally acquired Salmonella infection in wild-caught kangaroos in Australia. Given the close association between kangaroos, livestock, and humans and the growing popularity of kangaroo meat, it is important to identify epidemiologic factors associated with infection in these marsupials in order to minimize the risk of Salmonella transmission. The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella in 645 western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) sampled across 10 locations in Western Australia was 3.6% (95% CI: 2.3-5.3). Seven Salmonella serovars were identified including Salmonella enterica serovar Muenchen, Kiambu, Rubislaw, Lindern, Champaign, Saintpaul and II 42:g,t:-. Prevalence was significantly associated with rainfall (Pkangaroos are infected with Salmonella in their natural habitat, infection is less common than in hand-reared joeys, pet kangaroos, and macropods raised in captivity. Care should be taken to maintain hygiene during the evisceration, processing, and handling of kangaroos and to adequately cook kangaroo meat prior to consumption to reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  6. Fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening: The gender dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbee, Esmée J; Wieten, Els; Hansen, Bettina E; Stoop, Esther M; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Dekker, Evelien; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite differences between men and women in incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursors, screening programs consistently use the same strategy for both genders. Objective The objective of this article is to illustrate the effects of gender-tailored screening, including the effects on miss rates of advanced neoplasia (AN). Methods Participants (age 50–75 years) in a colonoscopy screening program were asked to complete a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) before colonoscopy. Positivity rates, sensitivity and specificity for detection of AN at multiple cut-offs were determined. Absolute numbers of detected and missed AN per 1000 screenees were calculated. Results In total 1,256 individuals underwent FIT and colonoscopy, 51% male (median age 61 years; IQR 56–66) and 49% female (median age 60 years; IQR 55–65). At all cut-offs men had higher positivity rates than women, ranging from 3.8% to 10.8% versus 3.2% to 4.8%. Sensitivity for AN was higher in men than women; 40%–25% and 35%–22%, respectively. More AN were found and missed in absolute numbers in men at all cut-offs. Conclusion More AN were both detected and missed in men compared to women at all cut-offs. Gender-tailored cut-offs could either level sensitivity in men and women (i.e., lower cut-off in women) or level the amount of missed lesions (i.e., lower cut-off in men). PMID:28507758

  7. The Present Status of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Value in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao-Wen; Fischer, Monika

    2017-09-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review current literature describing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of various diseases, and its potential role in elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years). Research on FMT has blossomed in the last decade and its pivotal role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been recognized by the American College of Gastroenterology in the latest guidelines. There is also emerging evidence that FMT may be beneficial in the treatment of severe and/or complicated CDI refractory to medical therapy, resulting in decreased rates of colectomy and mortality. In the elderly, CDI is associated with markedly higher rates of mortality and colectomy; outcomes are even worse when patients have underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the majority of patients who receive FMT for CDI are older, only a handful of studies focused specifically on FMT treatment outcomes and safety in this age group. Current data corroborate the efficacy and safety profile of FMT, while also supporting its use for recurrent, severe, and/or complicated CDI in the elderly population. FMT is recommended for the treatment of recurrent, severe, and/or complicated CDI in patients older than 65 years of age. It may be prudent to offer FMT earlier in the disease course, possibly after just the second recurrence and for the first episode of severe CDI to avert complications including colectomy and end-organ failure that elderly patients are more prone to developing.

  8. Quality Metrics of a Fecal Immunochemical Test-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Cha, Jae Myung; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Cho, Young-Hak; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2018-03-15

    Knowledge regarding the quality metrics of fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based colorectal cancer screening programs is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance and quality metrics of a FIT-based screening program. In our screening program, asymptomatic subjects aged ≥50 years underwent an annual FIT, and subjects with positive FIT results underwent a subsequent colonoscopy. The performance of the FIT and colonoscopy was analyzed in individuals with a positive FIT who completed the program between 2009 and 2015 at a university hospital. Among the 51,439 screened participants, 75.1% completed the FIT. The positive rate was 1.1%, and the colonoscopy completion rate in these patients was 68.6%. The positive predictive values of cancer and advanced neoplasia were 5.5% and 19.1%, respectively. The adenoma detection rate in the patients who underwent colonoscopy after a positive FIT was 48.2% (60.0% for men and 33.6% for women). The group with the highest tertile quantitative FIT level showed a significantly higher detection rate of advanced neoplasia than the group with the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; p<0.001). The quality metrics used in the United States and Europe may be directly introduced to other countries, including Korea. However, the optimal quality metrics should be established in each country.

  9. Seasonal variation of physicochemical factor and fecal pollution in the Hansan-Geojeman area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation of fecal coliforms (FCs and physicochemical factors was determined in seawaters of the Hansan-Geojeman area, including a designated area for oyster, and in inland pollution sources of its drainage basin. The mean daily loads of FCs in inland pollution sources ranged from 1.2 × 109 to 3.1 × 1011 most probable number (MPN/day; however, the pollutants could not be reached at the designated area. FC concentrations of seawaters were closely related to season, rainfall, and inland contaminants, however, within the regulation limit of various countries for shellfish. The highest concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a in seawaters were shown in the surface layer during August with high rainfall, whereas the lowest for dissolved oxygen (DO in the bottom layer of the same month. Therefore, it indicates that the concentrations of FC, COD, DO, and chlorophyll-a of seawaters were closely related to season and rainfall.

  10. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  11. Effect of incubation temperature on the detection of thermophilic campylobacter species from freshwater beaches, nearby wastewater effluents, and bird fecal droppings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Izhar U H; Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C.

  12. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  13. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reactor for removing ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifang [Livermore, CA; Stewart, Kenneth D [Valley Springs, CA

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  15. Hemorrhoid removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these types of procedures: Placing a small rubber band around the hemorrhoids to shrink them by blocking blood flow Stapling the hemorrhoids to block blood flow Surgically removing the hemorrhoids Laser or ...

  16. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  17. Gallbladder removal - open

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    ... Cholecystolithiasis Gallbladder Gallbladder removal - Series References Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  18. Breast lump removal

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    ... clips will be placed inside the breast to mark the area of tissue removal. This makes the ... Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 23. Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases ...

  19. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  20. Predicting Bacteria Removal by Enhanced Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Bell, C. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Fecal indicator bacteria are present in high concentrations in stormwater and are strictly regulated in receiving waters; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are often used to treat, infiltrate, and release urban runoff, but field measurements show that the removal of bacteria by these structural solutions is limited (median log removal = 0.24, n = 370). Researchers have therefore looked to improve bacterial removal by enhancing SCMs through alterations in flow regimes or adding geomedia such as biochar. The present research seeks to develop a model to predict removal of fecal indicator bacteria by enhanced SCMs at the watershed scale in a semi-arid climate. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (290 km2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, a hydrologic model is coupled with a stochastic water quality model to predict E. coli concentration near the outfall of the Ballona Creek, Santa Monica Bay. A hydrologic model was developed using EPA SWMM, calibrated for flow from water year 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.94), and validated from water year 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.90; R2 = 0.93). This bacterial loading model was then linked to EPA SUSTAIN and a SCM bacterial removal script to simulate log removal of bacteria by various SCMs and predict bacterial concentrations in Ballona Creek. Preliminary results suggest small enhancements to SCMs that improve bacterial removal (<0.5 log removal) may offer large benefits to surface water quality and enable communities such as Los Angeles to meet their regulatory requirements.

  1. Contribution of Colonic Fermentation and Fecal Water Toxicity to the Pathophysiology of Lactose-Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; Houben, Els; Deroover, Lise; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-08

    Whether or not abdominal symptoms occur in subjects with small intestinal lactose malabsorption might depend on differences in colonic fermentation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we collected fecal samples from subjects with lactose malabsorption with abdominal complaints (LM-IT, n = 11) and without abdominal complaints (LM-T, n = 8) and subjects with normal lactose digestion (NLD, n = 15). Lactose malabsorption was diagnosed using a (13)C-lactose breath test. Colonic fermentation was characterized in fecal samples at baseline and after incubation with lactose for 3 h, 6 h and 24 h through a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fecal water cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not different between the three groups (Kruskall-Wallis p = 0.164). Cluster analysis of the metabolite patterns revealed separate clusters for NLD, LM-T and LM-IT samples at baseline and after 24 h incubation with lactose. Levels of 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD whereas those of an unidentified aldehyde were significantly higher in LM-IT compared to LM-T and NLD. Incubation with lactose increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations more in LM-IT and LM-T compared to NLD. In conclusion, fermentation patterns were clearly different in NLD, LM-IT and LM-T, but not related to differences in fecal water cytotoxicity.

  2. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  3. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Wu, Yih-Yiing; Yang, Ruey-Neng; Huang, Chi-Jung; Yang, Shung-Haur; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Hung; Pan, Shiann; Lee, Chia-Long; Lin, Chih-Ming; Sun, Hsiao-Lun; Huang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19) transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis) and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years) revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001) and patients at the M0 stage (p = 0.004). Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042). These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients

  4. Clinical meaning of age-related expression of fecal cytokeratin 19 in colorectal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hsiao-Lun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of malignant death worldwide. Because young age of onset is often considered a poor prognostic factor for CRC, it is important to identify the poor outcomes of CRC in a younger population and to consider an aggressive approach by implementing early treatment. Our aim was to specifically quantify the fecal cytokeratin 19 (CK19 transcript from CRC patients and investigate its correlation with clinical stage, tumor malignancy, and age. Methods The quantitation of fecal CK19 transcript was determined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain in 129 CRC patients (45 younger than 60 years at diagnosis and 85 healthy controls. The levels of CK19 protein were examined both in colonic cell lines and tissues. Results The analysis of 45 younger CRC patients (age ≤ 60 years revealed that patients at the M1 stage had significantly higher expression levels of fecal CK19 mRNA when compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.004. Additionally, the degree of consistency between the mean level of fecal CK19 mRNA and the distant metastatic rate in each age interval was up to 89% (p = 0.042. Conclusion These results indicate that high levels of fecal CK19 mRNA represent a potential marker for colorectal malignancy and for aggressive treatment of younger CRC patients.

  5. Association of dietary type with fecal microbiota in vegetarians and omnivores in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Grabnar, Iztok; Avguštin, Gorazd; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover differences in the human fecal microbiota composition driven by long-term omnivore versus vegan/lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern. In addition, the possible association of demographic characteristics and dietary habits such as consumption of particular foods with the fecal microbiota was examined. This study was conducted on a Slovenian population comprising 31 vegetarian participants (11 lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans) and 29 omnivore participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the frozen fecal samples by Maxwell 16 Tissue DNA Purification Kit (Promega). Relative quantification of selected bacterial groups was performed by real-time PCR. Differences in fecal microbiota composition were evaluated by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting of the V3 16S rRNA region. Participants' demographic characteristics, dietary habits and health status information were collected through a questionnaire. Vegetarian diet was associated with higher ratio (% of group-specific DNA in relation to all bacterial DNA) of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Clostridium clostridioforme and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but with lower ratio (%) of Clostridium cluster XIVa. Real-time PCR also showed a higher concentration and ratio of Enterobacteriaceae (16S rDNA copies/g and %) in female participants (p yoghurt, other dairy products, fish and seafood) and vegetarian type of diet explained the largest share of variance in microbial community structure. Fecal microbiota composition was also associated with participants' age, gender and body mass.

  6. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  7. Evaluation and optimization of microbial DNA extraction from fecal samples of wild Antarctic bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Per; Mourkas, Evangelos; González-Acuna, Daniel; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins. Material and methods : Six DNA extraction kits were first tested according to the manufacturers' instructions using mallard feces. The kit giving the highest DNA yield was selected for further optimization and evaluation using Antarctic bird feces. Results : Penguin feces constitute a challenging sample type: most of the DNA extraction kits failed to yield acceptable amounts of DNA. The QIAamp cador Pathogen kit (Qiagen) performed the best in the initial investigation. Further optimization of the protocol resulted in good yields of high-quality DNA from seven bird species of different avian orders. Conclusion : This study presents an optimized approach to DNA extraction from challenging avian fecal samples.

  8. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  10. The association of fecal incontinence with institutionalization and mortality in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAmeel, Turki; Andrew, Melissa K; MacKnight, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is a growing problem in the aging population. Little is known about the association of fecal incontinence with institutionalization and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence among older adults in Canada and whether it is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and mortality, independent of the effect of potential confounders. This study consisted of a secondary analysis of data from 9,008 community-dwelling participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, aged 65 years or older. The measures used in the study are age, gender, self-reported loss of bowel control, cognition, impairment in activities of daily living (ADL), and self-reported health. Outcomes were death or institutionalization over the 10 years of follow-up. Fecal incontinence was found in 354 (4%) of the 8,917 subjects. Those with incontinence were older, with a mean age of 75.5 years, compared with 72.9 years in the continent group (Pinstitutionalization independent of age and sex (odds ratio 1.79, 95% CI: 1.00-3.20, P=0.05), this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for cognition, ADL dependence, and self-reported health. Although fecal incontinence was associated with increased mortality and institutionalization, independent of age and gender, these associations were largely explained by other potential confounders such as poor self-assessed health, cognitive impairment, and ADL dependence.

  11. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  12. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose ( 75 Se, 54 Mn, 59 Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. 51 CrCl 3 was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered 51 CrCl 3 was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption

  13. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Suja, A.; Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Das, A.P.; Badodkar, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  14. Immunoreactive insulin and insulin-degrading activity in rat fecal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillion, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The insulin-degrading activity and insulin content of aqueous extracts of rat fecal material isolated from the proximal colon were measured by radioimmunoassay in the presence and absence of various inhibitors of proteolysis. In the absence of protease inhibitors, up to 40% of the [ 125 I]-insulin present in radioimmunoassay tubes was degraded to a form that was not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. In the presence of bacitracin, EDTA or a mixture of protease inhibitors, insulin degradation was diminished to 125 I]-insulin by the aqueous fecal extract was time- and temperature-dependent. Fecal samples obtained from streptozotocin-diabetic rats contained reduced amounts of insulin, suggesting that the fecal insulin was produced partially, but not exclusively, in the pancreas. These results indicate that fecal material in the rat proximal colon contains small amounts of insulin, as well as a rich supply of insulinase activity, and that insulin receptors located on the mucosal surface of proximal colon epithelial cells may be exposed to insulin in vivo

  15. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  16. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to safe drinking-water is a fundamental requirement for good health and is also a human right. Global access to safe drinking-water is monitored by WHO and UNICEF using as an indicator "use of an improved source," which does not account for water quality measurements. Our objectives were to determine whether water from "improved" sources is less likely to contain fecal contamination than "unimproved" sources and to assess the extent to which contamination varies by source type and setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies in Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were identified from online databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, and grey literature. Studies in low- and middle-income countries published between 1990 and August 2013 that assessed drinking-water for the presence of Escherichia coli or thermotolerant coliforms (TTC were included provided they associated results with a particular source type. In total 319 studies were included, reporting on 96,737 water samples. The odds of contamination within a given study were considerably lower for "improved" sources than "unimproved" sources (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [0.10-0.21], I2 = 80.3% [72.9-85.6]. However over a quarter of samples from improved sources contained fecal contamination in 38% of 191 studies. Water sources in low-income countries (OR = 2.37 [1.52-3.71]; p<0.001 and rural areas (OR = 2.37 [1.47-3.81] p<0.001 were more likely to be contaminated. Studies rarely reported stored water quality or sanitary risks and few achieved robust random selection. Safety may be overestimated due to infrequent water sampling and deterioration in quality prior to consumption. CONCLUSION: Access to an "improved source" provides a measure of sanitary protection but does not ensure water is free of fecal contamination nor is it consistent between source types or settings. International estimates therefore greatly overstate use of safe drinking

  17. Fecal Contamination of Drinking-Water in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to safe drinking-water is a fundamental requirement for good health and is also a human right. Global access to safe drinking-water is monitored by WHO and UNICEF using as an indicator “use of an improved source,” which does not account for water quality measurements. Our objectives were to determine whether water from “improved” sources is less likely to contain fecal contamination than “unimproved” sources and to assess the extent to which contamination varies by source type and setting. Methods and Findings Studies in Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were identified from online databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, and grey literature. Studies in low- and middle-income countries published between 1990 and August 2013 that assessed drinking-water for the presence of Escherichia coli or thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) were included provided they associated results with a particular source type. In total 319 studies were included, reporting on 96,737 water samples. The odds of contamination within a given study were considerably lower for “improved” sources than “unimproved” sources (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [0.10–0.21], I2 = 80.3% [72.9–85.6]). However over a quarter of samples from improved sources contained fecal contamination in 38% of 191 studies. Water sources in low-income countries (OR = 2.37 [1.52–3.71]; pwater quality or sanitary risks and few achieved robust random selection. Safety may be overestimated due to infrequent water sampling and deterioration in quality prior to consumption. Conclusion Access to an “improved source” provides a measure of sanitary protection but does not ensure water is free of fecal contamination nor is it consistent between source types or settings. International estimates therefore greatly overstate use of safe drinking-water and do not fully reflect disparities in access. An enhanced monitoring strategy would combine indicators of sanitary

  18. Coliforms removal in full-scale activated sludge plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, A A; Tyagi, V K; Trivedi, R C; Kumar, Arvind

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates the removal of coliforms in full-scale activated sludge plants (ASP) operating in northern regions of India. Log2.2 and log2.4 removal were observed for total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC), respectively. However, the effluent still contained a significant number of TC and FC which was greater than the permissible limit for unrestricted irrigation as prescribed by WHO. The observations also suggest that extended aeration (EA) process operating under high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and sludge retention time (SRT) is more efficient in the removal of coliforms. Further attempts have been made to establish the relationship between two key wastewater parameters, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) with respect to fecal and TC. The relationships were observed to be linear with a good coefficient of correlation. The interrelationship of BOD and SS with coliforms manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater could be linked with the removal of SS. Therefore, SS can serve as a regulatory tool in lieu of an explicit coliforms standard.

  19. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  20. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenbro, J.L.; Wetterberg, P.; Vallgren, S.; Bergqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    Increased fecal blood loss was produced in healthy volunteers by the administration of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), naproxen or fenflumizole. Basal as well as drug-induced gastrointestinal blood loss was measured using 51 Cr erythrocyte labeling. Median rise in daily fecal blood loss was 432%. All subjects were endoscoped at the initiation and at the completion of the study. Endoscopic findings were assessed quantitatively by two observers in two different ways. All subjects but three had gastric mucosal lesions at follow-up endoscopy. There was a good correlation between the endoscopic assessments but no statistical correlation between the endoscopic assessment and the increase in fecal blood loss. The data suggest that factors other than gastric mucosal lesions have to be taken into account when investigating NSAID-induced gastrointestinal bleeding

  1. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    in each watershed) over 18 months. The human Bacteroidales marker (HF183) occurred in 9-10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant/cow Bacteroidales markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mt......DNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences (Purban watershed, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (12 vs. 3%) were observed in the rural watershed, while Salmonella...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  2. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation–PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Ly, Tram Thuy; Cao, Cuong; Høgberg, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease worldwide. The presence of Campylobacter in chicken feces poses a high risk for contamination of chicken meat and for Campylobacter infections in human. Detection of this bacterium in chicken fecal...... specimens before slaughter is therefore vital to prevent disease transmission. By combining two techniques – immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study developed a reliable and specific method for rapid detection of C. jejuni in chicken fecal samples. The specificity...... of the assay was assured by two selection steps: 1) Dynabeads®M-270 Amine microbeads (2.8 μm in diameter) coated with C. jejuni monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary selection to isolate bacteria from fecal samples. 2) A PCR assay amplifying the Hippuricase gene was performed as the specific selection...

  4. Factors associated with fecal incontinence in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Chen; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Chen, Chi-Hau; Lin, Ho-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.   Data regarding clinical and urodynamic parameters and history of fecal incontinence of 1334 women with lower urinary tract symptoms who had previously undergone urodynamic evaluation were collected and subjected to univariate, multivariate, and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis to identify significant associations between these parameters and fecal incontinence.   Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.05, P=0.005), presence of diabetes (OR=2.10, 95%CI=1.22-3.61, P=0.007), presence of urodynamic stress incontinence (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.24-2.91, P=0.003), pad weight (OR=1.01, 95%CI=1.00-1.01, P=0.04), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03, P=0.003) as independent risk factors for fecal incontinence. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified age≥55years, detrusor pressure at maximum flow≥35 cmH(2) O, and pad weight≥15g as having positive predictive values of 11.4%, 11.5%, and 12.4%, respectively, thus indicating that they are the most predictive values in concomitant fecal incontinence.   Detrusor pressure at maximum flow and pad weight may be associated with fecal incontinence in female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, but require confirmation as indicators by further study before their use as screening tools. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G; Hoyt, David W; Howsmon, Daniel P; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites-caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate-may potentially function as a modest biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further

  6. Probabilistic assessment of compliance with the numerical criteria for fecal coliforms in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung

    2017-04-01

    Most guidelines for assessing fecal contamination in surface waters suggest that a waterbody is impaired if a certain percent or the geometric mean of samples exceeds the numerical criteria for fecal indicator organisms. However, this raw score approach is not able to account for the uncertainty and variability in the sample statistics. In a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, the uncertainty in the mean parameter is expressed as a posterior distribution, and the probability of not violating the criterion is referred to as the confidence of compliance (COC). Further, the spatiotemporal variability in the mean parameter can be quantified by imposing the hierarchical structure on the model. The monitoring data spanning 91 sites across the four major rivers (the Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong) of South Korea for the years 2007-2016 were used. The Bayesian hierarchical model was developed for each river to predict the COC with the criteria for fecal coliforms. The established criteria for fecal coliforms are less than 10, 100, 200, and 1,000 CFU/100mL in the river whose water quality goal corresponds to Class Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively. The model results suggested that the COC varied significantly by site, ranging from 0.0 to 98.9 percent across the four rivers. In the Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong Rivers, COC values in the upper river sections were substantially lower than those in the upper river sections. The model suggested that for all four rivers the spatial component, compared with annual and seasonal components, made the largest contribution to the variability in mean fecal coliforms. In all four rivers, mean levels for fecal coliform during the summer (July to September) were distinctly higher than those during other seasons. A decreasing pattern was clearly shown in the Yeongsan River over the recent decade, while monotonic increases or decreases were not shown in other three rivers.

  7. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae-Wook; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Isern, Nancy G.; Hoyt, David W.; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Shaffer, Michael; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Hahn, Juergen; Adams, James B.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites- caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate- may potentially function as a biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

  8. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  9. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This design manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a water treatment plant for removal of arsenic in the As (V) form from drinking water using an iron removal process. The manual also discusses the capital and operating costs including many...

  10. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  11. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry....... Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth...

  12. Comparison of fecal and cecal microbiotas reveals qualitative similarities but quantitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Chen, Honglei; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2015-02-27

    The majority of chicken microbiota studies have used the ceca as a sampling site due to the specific role of ceca in chicken productivity, health and wellbeing. However, sampling from ceca and other gastrointestinal tract sections requires the bird to be sacrificed. In contrast, fecal sampling does not require sacrifice and thus allows the same bird to be sampled repeatedly over time. This is a more meaningful and preferred way of sampling as the same animals can be monitored and tracked for temporal studies. The commonly used practice of selecting a subset of birds at each time-point for sacrifice and sampling introduces added variability due to the known animal to animal variation in microbiota. Cecal samples and fecal samples via cloacal swab were collected from 163 birds across 3 replicate trials. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified and pyrosequenced to determine and compare the phylogenetic profile of the microbiota within each sample. The fecal and cecal samples were investigated to determine to what extent the microbiota found in fecal samples represented the microbiota of the ceca. It was found that 88.55% of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs), containing 99.25% of all sequences, were shared between the two sample types, with OTUs unique for each sample type found to be very rare. There was a positive correlation between cecal and fecal abundance in the shared sequences, however the two communities differed significantly in community structure, represented as either alpha or beta diversity. The microbial populations present within the paired ceca of individual birds were also compared and shown to be similar. Fecal sample analysis captures a large percentage of the microbial diversity present in the ceca. However, the qualitative similarities in OTU presence are not a good representation of the proportions of OTUs within the microbiota from each sampling site. The fecal microbiota is qualitatively similar to cecal microbiota but

  13. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  14. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agthe, O.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Metal removal efficiency and ecotoxicological assessment of field-scale passive treatment biochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic biochemical reactors (BCRs) are useful for removing metals from mining-impacted water (MIW) at remote sites. Removal processes include sorption and precipitation of metal sulfides, carbonates and hydroxides. A question of interest is whether BCRs remove aquatic toxicit...

  16. Hemodialysis removal of norfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A H; Tang, I; Fitzloff, J; Jain, R

    1994-01-01

    The effect of hemodialysis on norfloxacin removal was evaluated in 7 patients. Single 800-mg doses of the drug were given to the subjects prior to dialysis using cuprophan hollow fiber dialyzers. Arterial and venous sample pairs were obtained at hourly intervals during treatment. Norfloxacin plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. The mean hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio were 38.84 +/- 10.92 ml/min and 0.19 +/- 0.06, respectively. Small differences in these parameters were observed between dialyzers with different surface areas (p > 0.05) and also between treatments using different blood flow rates (p > 0.05). Since a relatively small amount of norfloxacin is removed by hemodialysis, dosage adjustment is not necessary to compensate for the extracorporeal removal.

  17. Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of lateritic soils to remove fluoride from water has been studied. Important issues considered in the study include the relation between the mineral composition of soils and their ability to remove fluoride, the effect of thermal treatment of the soil on fluoride removal; the predominant fluoride containing species ...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.16 - Adhesive and mastic removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adhesive and mastic removers. 2902.16 Section 2902.16... Items § 2902.16 Adhesive and mastic removers. (a) Definition. Solvent products formulated for use in removing asbestos, carpet, and tile mastics as well as adhesive materials, including glue, tape, and gum...

  19. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbyla, M.E.; Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M.; Mihelcic, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g −1 for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g −1 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g −1 for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in ponds may

  20. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to comple