Sample records for included quantitative analysis

  1. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features. (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E


    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  2. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung


    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  3. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard


    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  4. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.


    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  5. Quantitative Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The US energy sector is vulnerable to multiple hazards including both natural disasters and malicious attacks from an intelligent adversary. The question that utility owners, operators and regulators face is how to prioritize their investments to mitigate the risks from a hazard that can have the most impact on the asset of interest. In order to be able to understand their risk landscape and develop a prioritized mitigation strategy, they must quantify risk in a consistent way across all hazards their asset is facing. Without being able to quantitatively measure risk, it is not possible to defensibly prioritize security investments or evaluate trade-offs between security and functionality. Development of a methodology that will consistently measure and quantify risk across different hazards is needed.

  6. Quantitative analysis in megageomorphology (United States)

    Mayer, L.


    Megageomorphology is the study of regional topographic features and their relations to independent geomorphic variables that operate at the regional scale. These independent variables can be classified as either tectonic or climatic in nature. Quantitative megageomorphology stresses the causal relations between plate tectonic factors and landscape features or correlations between climatic factors and geomorphic processes. In addition, the cumulative effects of tectonics and climate on landscape evolution that simultaneously operate in a complex system of energy transfer is of interst. Regional topographic differentiation, say between continents and ocean floors, is largely the result of the different densities and density contrasts within the oceanic and continental lithosphere and their isostatic consequences. Regional tectonic processes that alter these lithospheric characteristics include rifting, collision, subduction, transpression and transtension.

  7. Quantitative analysis of 'calanchi (United States)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Rotigliano, Edoardo


    Three years (2006 - 2009) of monitoring data from two calanchi sites located in the western Sicilian Appennines are analyzed and discussed: the data comes from two networks of erosion pins and a rainfall gauge station. The aim of the present research is to quantitatively analyze the effects of erosion by water and to investigate their relationships with rainfall trends and specific properties of the two calanchi fronts. Each of the sites was equipped with a grid of randomly distributed erosion pins, made of 41 nodes for the "Catalfimo" site, and 13 nodes for the "Ottosalme" site (in light of the general homogeneity of its geomorphologic conditions); the erosion pins consist in 2 cm graded iron stakes, 100 cm long, with a section having a diameter of 1.6 cm. Repeated readings at the erosion pins allowed to estimate point topographic height variations; a total number of 21 surveys have been made remotely by acquiring high resolution photographs from a fixed view point. Since the two calanchi sites are very close each other (some hundred meters), a single rainfall gauge station was installed, assuming a strict climatic homogeneity of the investigated area. Rainfall data have been processed to derive the rain erosivity index signal, detecting a total number of 27 erosive events. Despite the close distance between the two sites, because of a different geologic setting, the calanchi fronts are characterized by the outcropping of different levels of the same formation (Terravecchia fm., Middle-Late Miocene); as a consequence, both mineralogical, textural and geotechnical (index) properties, as well as the topographic and geomorphologic characteristics, change. Therefore, in order to define the "framework" in which the two erosion pin grids have been installed, 40 samples of rock have been analyzed, and a geomorphologic detailed survey has been carried out; in particular, plasticity index, liquid limit, carbonate, pH, granulometric fractions and their mineralogic

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Keun Chul


    are useful for the differentiation of various renal diseases, however, qualitative analysis of the renogram with one or two parameters is not accurate. 3) In bilateral non-functioning kidney groups, a positive correlation between anemia and nitrogen retention was observed, although the quantitative assessment of the degree of non-functioning was impossible.

  9. Quantitative Hazard and Risk Analysis


    Geza Tarnai; Balazs Saghi; Izabela Krbilova


    In this paper a quantitative method for hazard and risk analysis is discussed. The method was developed and introduced for the allocation of safety requirements to the functions of a railway signaling remote control system.

  10. Monotowns: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrei


    Full Text Available The authors propose an empirical analysis of the current situation in monotowns. The study questions the perceived seriousness of the ‘monotown problem’ as well as the actual challenges it presents. The authors use a cluster analysis to divide monotowns into groups for further structural comparison. The structural differences in the available databases limit the possibilities of empirical analysis. Hence, alternative approaches are required. The authors consider possible reasons for the limitations identified. Special attention is paid to the monotowns that were granted the status of advanced development territories. A comparative analysis makes it possible to study their general characteristics and socioeconomic indicators. The authors apply the theory of opportunistic behaviour to describe potential problems caused by the lack of unified criteria for granting monotowns the status of advanced development territories. The article identifies the main stakeholders and the character of their interaction; it desc ribes a conceptual model built on the principal/agent interactions, and identifies the parametric space of mutually beneficial cooperation. The solution to the principal/agent problem suggested in the article contributes to the development of an alternative approach to the current situation and a rational approach to overcoming the ‘monotown problem’.

  11. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter


    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  12. Quantitative ADF STEM: acquisition, analysis and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L


    Quantitative annular dark-field in the scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF STEM), where image intensities are used to provide composition and thickness measurements, has enjoyed a renaissance during the last decade. Now in a post aberration-correction era many aspects of the technique are being revisited. Here the recent progress and emerging best-practice for such aberration corrected quantitative ADF STEM is discussed including issues relating to proper acquisition of experimental data and its calibration, approaches for data analysis, the utility of such data, its interpretation and limitations. (paper)

  13. Quantitative pulsed eddy current analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.A.


    The potential of pulsed eddy current testing for furnishing more information than conventional single-frequency eddy current methods has been known for some time. However, a fundamental problem has been analyzing the pulse shape with sufficient precision to produce accurate quantitative results. Accordingly, the primary goal of this investigation was to: demonstrate ways of digitizing the short pulses encountered in PEC testing, and to develop empirical analysis techniques that would predict some of the parameters (e.g., depth) of simple types of defect. This report describes a digitizing technique using a computer and either a conventional nuclear ADC or a fast transient analyzer; the computer software used to collect and analyze pulses; and some of the results obtained. (U.S.)

  14. Why include phenomenological analysis in a Research Methods course? (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R


    Guidelines for Spanish university curricula include the descriptor Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, but the latter are still poorly represented. To inform the argument for phenomenological methods, the last 20-year interval of ISI databases has been content-analyzed with the following codes: discourse analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis, phenomenological analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, that is, four qualitative methods and a prototypical quantitative one. In absolute terms, the most frequent qualitative method is grounded theory, followed by discourse analysis, phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. However, taking into account content categories, only phenomenological analysis shows a clear psychological profile, similar to confirmatory factor analysis. We recommend starting qualitative training with a method that does not require either big groups, or big funding, and that has a procedural core that is simple, relatively well-delimited and "secularizable," a variety of thematic analysis. Historical reasons and the clear psychological profile evidenced by our results enhance our argument to foster the inclusion of phenomenological analysis in research method courses in psychology.

  15. Diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative and quantitative stress CMR perfusion analysis: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    van Dijk, R; van Assen, M; Vliegenthart, R; de Bock, G H; van der Harst, P; Oudkerk, M


    Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging is a promising modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to high spatial resolution and absence of radiation. Semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of CMR perfusion are based on signal-intensity curves produced during the first-pass of gadolinium contrast. Multiple semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters have been introduced. Diagnostic performance of these parameters varies extensively among studies and standardized protocols are lacking. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi- quantitative and quantitative CMR perfusion parameters, compared to multiple reference standards. Pubmed, WebOfScience, and Embase were systematically searched using predefined criteria (3272 articles). A check for duplicates was performed (1967 articles). Eligibility and relevance of the articles was determined by two reviewers using pre-defined criteria. The primary data extraction was performed independently by two researchers with the use of a predefined template. Differences in extracted data were resolved by discussion between the two researchers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the 'Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Tool' (QUADAS-2). True positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives were subtracted/calculated from the articles. The principal summary measures used to assess diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity, specificity, andarea under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Data was pooled according to analysis territory, reference standard and perfusion parameter. Twenty-two articles were eligible based on the predefined study eligibility criteria. The pooled diagnostic accuracy for segment-, territory- and patient-based analyses showed good diagnostic performance with sensitivity of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.83, specificity of 0.72, 0.83, and 0.76 and AUC of 0.90, 0.84, and 0.87, respectively. In per territory

  16. Quantitative interactome analysis reveals a chemoresistant edgotype. (United States)

    Chavez, Juan D; Schweppe, Devin K; Eng, Jimmy K; Zheng, Chunxiang; Taipale, Alex; Zhang, Yiyi; Takara, Kohji; Bruce, James E


    Chemoresistance is a common mode of therapy failure for many cancers. Tumours develop resistance to chemotherapeutics through a variety of mechanisms, with proteins serving pivotal roles. Changes in protein conformations and interactions affect the cellular response to environmental conditions contributing to the development of new phenotypes. The ability to understand how protein interaction networks adapt to yield new function or alter phenotype is limited by the inability to determine structural and protein interaction changes on a proteomic scale. Here, chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry were employed to quantify changes in protein structures and interactions in multidrug-resistant human carcinoma cells. Quantitative analysis of the largest crosslinking-derived, protein interaction network comprising 1,391 crosslinked peptides allows for 'edgotype' analysis in a cell model of chemoresistance. We detect consistent changes to protein interactions and structures, including those involving cytokeratins, topoisomerase-2-alpha, and post-translationally modified histones, which correlate with a chemoresistant phenotype.

  17. Quantitative MR Image Analysis for Brian Tumor. (United States)

    Shboul, Zeina A; Reza, Sayed M S; Iftekharuddin, Khan M


    This paper presents an integrated quantitative MR image analysis framework to include all necessary steps such as MRI inhomogeneity correction, feature extraction, multiclass feature selection and multimodality abnormal brain tissue segmentation respectively. We first obtain mathematical algorithm to compute a novel Generalized multifractional Brownian motion (GmBm) texture feature. We then demonstrate efficacy of multiple multiresolution texture features including regular fractal dimension (FD) texture, and stochastic texture such as multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) and GmBm features for robust tumor and other abnormal tissue segmentation in brain MRI. We evaluate these texture and associated intensity features to effectively delineate multiple abnormal tissues within and around the tumor core, and stroke lesions using large scale public and private datasets.

  18. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol


    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  19. Methods in quantitative image analysis. (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M


    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  20. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de


    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  1. Quantitative possibility analysis. Present status in ESCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, D.


    A short review of the recent developments in quantification of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or ESCA is presented. The basic equations are reminded. Each involved parameter (photoionisation, inelastic mean free paths, 'response function' of the instruments, intensity measurement) is separately discussed in relation with the accuracy and the precision of the method. Other topics are considered such as roughness, surface contamination, matrix effect and inhomogeneous composition. Some aspects of the quantitative ESCA analysis and AES analysis are compared [fr

  2. Database design and implementation for quantitative image analysis research. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew S; Shah, Sumit K; Pais, Richard C; Lee, Yeng-Zhong; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Goldin, Jonathan G; Cardenas, Alfonso F; Aberle, Denise R


    Quantitative image analysis (QIA) goes beyond subjective visual assessment to provide computer measurements of the image content, typically following image segmentation to identify anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Commercially available picture archiving and communication systems focus on storage of image data. They are not well suited to efficient storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. In this paper, we present a system that integrates image segmentation, quantitation, and characterization with database and data mining facilities. The paper includes generic process and data models for QIA in medicine and describes their practical use. The data model is based upon the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data hierarchy, which is augmented with tables to store segmentation results (ROIs) and quantitative data from multiple experiments. Data mining for statistical analysis of the quantitative data is described along with example queries. The database is implemented in PostgreSQL on a UNIX server. Database requirements and capabilities are illustrated through two quantitative imaging experiments related to lung cancer screening and assessment of emphysema lung disease. The system can manage the large amounts of quantitative data necessary for research, development, and deployment of computer-aided diagnosis tools.

  3. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis (United States)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.


    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  4. Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection. (United States)

    Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko


    This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods-the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. © 2014 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)


    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  6. Quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Nariaki; Hoer, G.; Johost, S.; Maul, F.-D.; Standke, R.


    The method of quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy using computer assisted technique was described. Calculated indices are washout factor, vitality index and redistribution factor. Washout factor is the ratio of counts at certain period of time after exercise and immediately after exercise. This value is neccessary for the evaluation of redistribution to the ischemic areas in serial imagings to correct the Tl-201 washout from the myocardium under the assumption that the washout is constant in the whole myocardium. Vitality index is the ratio between the Tl-201 uptake in the region of interest and that of the maximum. Redistribution factor is the ratio of the redistribution in the region of interest in serial imagings after exercise to that of immediately after exercise. Four examples of exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigrams and the quantitative analyses before and after the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were presented. (author)

  7. Quantitative phase analysis by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Song, Su Ho; Lee, Jin Ho; Shim, Hae Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This study is to apply quantitative phase analysis (QPA) by neutron diffraction to the round robin samples provided by the International Union of Crystallography(IUCr). We measured neutron diffraction patterns for mixed samples which have several different weight percentages and their unique characteristic features. Neutron diffraction method has been known to be superior to its complementary methods such as X-ray or Synchrotron, but it is still accepted as highly reliable under limited conditions or samples. Neutron diffraction has strong capability especially on oxides due to its scattering cross-section of the oxygen and it can become a more strong tool for analysis on the industrial materials with this quantitative phase analysis techniques. By doing this study, we hope not only to do one of instrument performance tests on our HRPD but also to improve our ability on the analysis of neutron diffraction data by comparing our QPA results with others from any advanced reactor facilities. 14 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  8. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong


    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  9. Quantitative wear particle analysis for osteoarthritis assessment. (United States)

    Guo, Meizhai; Lord, Megan S; Peng, Zhongxiao


    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively characterise the boundary and surface features of wear particles present in the synovial fluid of patients, (2) to select key numerical parameters that describe distinctive particle features and enable osteoarthritis assessment and (3) to develop a model to assess osteoarthritis conditions using comprehensive wear debris information. Discriminant analysis was used to statistically group particles based on differences in their numerical parameters. The analysis methods agreed with the clinical osteoarthritis grades in 63%, 50% and 61% of particles for no osteoarthritis, mild osteoarthritis and severe osteoarthritis, respectively. This study has revealed particle features specific to different osteoarthritis grades and provided further understanding of the cartilage degradation process through wear particle analysis - the technique that has the potential to be developed as an objective and minimally invasive method for osteoarthritis diagnosis.

  10. Quantitative standard-less XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulitzka, S.


    Full text: For most analytical tasks in the mining and associated industries matrix-matched calibrations are used for the monitoring of ore grades and process control. In general, such calibrations are product specific (iron ore, bauxite, alumina, mineral sands, cement etc.) and apply to a relatively narrow concentration range but give the best precision and accuracy for those materials. A wide range of CRMs is available and for less common materials synthetic standards can be made up from 'pure' chemicals. At times, analysis of materials with varying matrices (powders, scales, fly ash, alloys, polymers, liquors, etc.) and diverse physical shapes (non-flat, metal drillings, thin layers on substrates etc.) is required that could also contain elements which are not part of a specific calibration. A qualitative analysis can provide information about the presence of certain elements and the relative intensities of element peaks in a scan can give a rough idea about their concentrations. More often however, quantitative values are required. The paper will look into the basics of quantitative standardless analysis and show results for some well-defined CRMs. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Micro photometer's automation for quantitative spectrograph analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez E, C.Y.A.


    A Microphotometer is used to increase the sharpness of dark spectral lines. Analyzing these lines one sample content and its concentration could be determined and the analysis is known as Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis. The Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis is carried out in 3 steps, as follows. 1. Emulsion calibration. This consists of gauging a photographic emulsion, to determine the intensity variations in terms of the incident radiation. For the procedure of emulsion calibration an adjustment with square minimum to the data obtained is applied to obtain a graph. It is possible to determine the density of dark spectral line against the incident light intensity shown by the microphotometer. 2. Working curves. The values of known concentration of an element against incident light intensity are plotted. Since the sample contains several elements, it is necessary to find a work curve for each one of them. 3. Analytical results. The calibration curve and working curves are compared and the concentration of the studied element is determined. The automatic data acquisition, calculation and obtaining of resulting, is done by means of a computer (PC) and a computer program. The conditioning signal circuits have the function of delivering TTL levels (Transistor Transistor Logic) to make the communication between the microphotometer and the computer possible. Data calculation is done using a computer programm

  12. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.


    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  13. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (United States)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann


    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  14. Alternative Equation on Magnetic Pair Distribution Function for Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Kodama, Katsuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Otomo, Toshiya


    We derive an alternative equation of magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) related to the mPDF equation given in a preceding study [B. A. Frandsen, X. Yang, and S. J. L. Billinge," xlink:type="simple">Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 70, 3 (2014)] for quantitative analysis of realistic experimental data. The additional term related to spontaneous magnetization included in the equation is particularly important for the mPDF analysis of ferromagnetic materials. Quantitative estimation of mPDF from neutron diffraction data is also shown. The experimental mPDFs estimated from the neutron diffraction data of the ferromagnet MnSb and the antiferromagnet MnF2 are quantitatively consistent with the mPDFs calculated using the presented equation.

  15. Quantitative analysis of retinal changes in hypertension (United States)

    Giansanti, Roberto; Boemi, Massimo; Fumelli, Paolo; Passerini, Giorgio; Zingaretti, Primo


    Arterial hypertension is a high prevalence disease in Western countries and it is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular accidents. Retinal vessel changes are common findings in patients suffering from long-standing hypertensive disease. Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. A qualitative analysis of the retinal lesions is usually performed and this implies severe limitations both in the classification of the different degrees of the pathology and in the follow-up of the disease. A diagnostic system based on a quantitative analysis of the retinal changes could overcome these problems. Our computerized approach was intended for this scope. The paper concentrates on the results and the implications of a computerized approach to the automatic extraction of numerical indexes describing morphological details of the fundus oculi. A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. The software system was developed to extract indexes such as caliber and path of vessels, local tortuosity of arteries and arterioles, positions and angles of crossings between two vessels. The reliability of the results, justified by their low variability, makes feasible the standardization of quantitative parameters to be used both in the diagnosis and in the prognosis of hypertension, and also allows prospective studies based upon them.

  16. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John


    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, the morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the galaxy mergers are visualized using phylogenies to provide a graph that reflects the morphological similarities between the different galaxy mergers, and thus quantitatively profile the morphology of galaxy mergers.

  17. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis (United States)

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.


    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

  18. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Nausieda


    Full Text Available Background: Workers chronically exposed to manganese in welding fumes may develop an extra-pyramidal syndrome with postural and action tremors. Objectives: To determine the utility of tremor analysis in distinguishing tremors among workers exposed to welding fumes, patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD and Essential Tremor (ET. Methods: Retrospective study of recorded tremor in subjects from academic Movement Disorders Clinics and Welders. Quantitative tremor analysis was performed and associated with clinical status. Results: Postural tremor intensity was increased in Welders and ET and was associated with visibly greater amplitude of tremor with arms extended. Mean center frequencies (Cf of welders and patients with ET were significantly higher than the mean Cf of PD subjects. Although both the welders and the ET group exhibited a higher Cf with arms extended, welders could be distinguished from the ET subjects by a significantly lower Cf of the rest tremor than that measured in ET subjects. Conclusions: In the context of an appropriate exposure history and neurological examination, tremor analysis may be useful in the diagnosis of manganese-related extra-pyramidal manifestations.

  20. Quantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms (United States)

    Weith-Glushko, Seth; Salvaggio, Carl


    Dynamic range reduction and contrast enhancement are two image-processing methods that are required when developing thermal camera systems. The two methods must be performed in such a way that the high dynamic range imagery output from current sensors are compressed in a pleasing way for display on lower dynamic range monitors. This research examines a quantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms found in literature and developed by the author. Four algorithms were studied, three of which were found in literature and one developed by the author: tail-less plateau equalization (TPE), adaptive plateau equalization (APE), the method according to Aare Mällo (MEAM), and infrared multi-scale retinex (IMSR). TPE and APE are histogram-based methods, requiring the calculation of the probability density of digital counts within an image. MEAM and IMSR are frequency-domain methods, methods that operate on input imagery that has been split into components containing differing spatial frequency content. After a rate of growth analysis and psychophysical trial were performed, MEAM was found to be the best algorithm.

  1. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic biomass using infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Tabil, L.G. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Karunakaran, C. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Canadian Light Source; Schoenau, G.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Agricultural biomass or lignocellulosic residues such as barley, canola, oat and wheat straw have the potential to be used as feedstock for the biofuel industry. Low bulk density straw has to be processed and densified after harvest in order to facilitate efficient handling and transportation, and realize any potential economic benefits. Preliminary predictive models were developed to calculate the quantity of lignocellulosic components (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) of agricultural biomass (barley, canola, oat and wheat straw) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was important to estimate critical parameters through analytical specification of lignocellulosic biomass and consequently the development and validation of a procedure for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin composition. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including sample material preparation; reference material preparation; measured data; FT-IR equipment; and quantitative analysis. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA


    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  4. Quantitative analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood. (United States)

    Johansson, M; Pisa, E K; Törmänen, V; Arstrand, K; Kågedal, B


    Tyrosinase is an enzyme unique to pigment-forming cells. Methods using this transcript for detection of melanoma cells in blood have given divergent results. Quantitative analytical procedures are therefore needed to study the analytical performance of the methods. Mononucleated cells were isolated by Percoll centrifugation. RNA was isolated by each of three methods: Ultraspec(TM)-II RNA isolation system, FastRNA(TM) GREEN Kit, and QIAamp RNA Blood Mini Kit. cDNA was synthesized using random hexamer primers. A tyrosinase-specific product of 207 bp was amplified by PCR. As an internal standard (and competitor) we used a 207-bp cDNA with a base sequence identical to the tyrosinase target except for a 20-bp probe-binding region. The PCR products were identified by 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-labeled probes specific for tyrosinase (5'DNP-GGGGAGCCTTGGGGTTCTGG-3') and internal standard (5'DNP-CGGAGCCCCGAAACCACATC-3') and quantified by ELISA. The calibration curves were linear and had a broad dynamic measuring range. A detection limit (2 SD above zero) of 48 transcripts/mL of blood was obtained from a low control. The analytical imprecision was 50% and 48% at concentrations of 1775 and 17 929 transcripts/mL (n = 12 and 14, respectively). With the cell line SK-Mel 28 added to blood and RNA extracted with the Ultraspec, Fast RNA, and QIAamp RNA methods, we found (mean +/- SD) 1716+/-1341, 2670+/-3174, and 24 320+/-5332 transcripts/mL of blood. Corresponding values were 527+/-497, 2497+/-1033, 14 930+/-1927 transcripts/mL of blood when the cell line JKM86-4 was added. One high-risk patient was followed by repeated analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood. The melanoma marker 5-S-cysteinyldopa in serum and urine was within reference values, but tyrosinase mRNA was slightly increased (120-168 transcripts/mL of blood). The tyrosinase mRNA increased to 1860 transcripts/mL concomitant with the increase in 5-S-cysteinyldopa; later a spleen metastasis was found. The results

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of postmortem muscle development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang

    )-based quantitative phosphoproteomic strategies were employed to analyze PM muscle with the aim to intensively characterize the protein phosphorylation involved in meat quality development. Firstly, gel-based phosphoproteomic studies were performed to analyze the protein phosphorylation in both sarcoplasmic proteins...... proteins in beef. The majority of the identified phosphoproteins were glycometabolism related enzymes in the sarcoplasmic fraction and contraction related proteins in the myofibrillar fraction. Subsequently, the quantitative LC-MS/MS-based phosphoproteomic strategy was used to identify and quantify...

  6. A quantitative analysis of hip capsular thickness. (United States)

    Philippon, Marc J; Michalski, Max P; Campbell, Kevin J; Rasmussen, Matthew T; Goldsmith, Mary T; Devitt, Brian M; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F


    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis of capsular thickness adjacent to the acetabular rim in clinically relevant locations. Dissections were performed and hip capsular measurements were recorded on 13 non-paired, fresh-frozen cadaveric hemi-pelvises using a coordinate measuring device. Measurements were taken for each clock-face position at 0, 5, 10 and 15 mm distances from the labral edge. The capsule was consistently thickest at 2 o'clock for each interval from the labrum with a maximum thickness of 8.3 at 10 mm [95 % CI 6.8, 9.8] and 15 mm [95 % CI 6.8, 9.7]. The capsule was noticeably thinner between 4 and 11 o'clock with a minimum thickness of 4.1 mm [95 % CI 3.3, 4.9] at 10 o'clock at the labral edge. Direct comparison between 0 and 5 mm between 9 and 3 o'clock showed that the hip capsule was significantly thicker at 5 mm from the labrum at 9 o'clock (p = 0.027), 10 o'clock (p = 0.032), 1 o'clock (p = 0.003), 2 o'clock (p = 0.001) and 3 o'clock (p = 0.001). The hip capsule was thickest between the 1 and 2 o'clock positions for all measured distances from the acetabular labrum and reached its maximum thickness at 2 o'clock, which corresponds to the location of the iliofemoral ligament.

  7. Quantitative Data Analysis--In the Graduate Curriculum (United States)

    Albers, Michael J.


    A quantitative research study collects numerical data that must be analyzed to help draw the study's conclusions. Teaching quantitative data analysis is not teaching number crunching, but teaching a way of critical thinking for how to analyze the data. The goal of data analysis is to reveal the underlying patterns, trends, and relationships of a…

  8. A Quantitative Analysis of Countries’ Research Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Saxena


    Full Text Available This study employed a multidimensional analysis to evaluate transnational patterns of scientific research to determine relative research strengths among widely varying nations. Findings from this study may inform national policy with regard to the most efficient use of scarce national research resources, including government and private funding. Research output from 34 countries is examined using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the ratio of research resources devoted to a particular field to research output measured by publications in peer-reviewed journals. Using cluster analysis and k-means analysis, we conclude that countries’ research output (as measured by the number of published peer-reviewed articles and their efficiency (as measured by a ratio of research output to dollars allocated to research together indicate a comparative advantage within any given country’s own menu of research choices and an absolute advantage relative to other countries. This study implies that the more countries engage in publication in areas of relative strength and consume research in areas of relative weakness, the stronger their entire research agenda will become.

  9. Automated approach to quantitative error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.


    A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given neutron transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost is described. This code also generates user-oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces. 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Radar Returns from Insects (United States)

    Riley, J. R.


    When a number of flying insects is low enough to permit their resolution as individual radar targets, quantitative estimates of their aerial density are developed. Accurate measurements of heading distribution using a rotating polarization radar to enhance the wingbeat frequency method of identification are presented.

  11. Critical Race Quantitative Intersections: A "testimonio" Analysis (United States)

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia; Burciaga, Rebeca; Vélez, Verónica N.; Solorzano, Daniel G.


    The educational pipeline has become a commonly referenced depiction of educational outcomes for racialized groups across the country. While visually impactful, an overreliance on decontextualized quantitative data often leads to majoritarian interpretations. Without sociohistorical contexts, these interpretations run the risk of perpetuating…

  12. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A


    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  13. Quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra with principal components analysis (United States)

    Johnson, P. E.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.


    A technique is presented for quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra as mixtures of particles on microscopic and macroscopic scales using principal components analysis. This technique allows for determination of the endmembers being mixed, their abundance, and the scale of mixing, as well as other physical parameters. Eighteen lunar telescopic reflectance spectra of the Copernicus crater region, from 600 nm to 1800 nm in wavelength, are modeled in terms of five likely endmembers: mare basalt, mature mare soil, anorthosite, mature highland soil, and clinopyroxene. These endmembers were chosen from a similar analysis of 92 lunar soil and rock samples. The models fit the data to within 2 percent rms. It is found that the goodness of fit is marginally better for intimate mixing over macroscopic mixing.

  14. Quantitative surface analysis using deuteron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, Hossein


    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique consists of looking at the energies of the reaction products which uniquely define the particular elements present in the sample and it analysis the yield/energy distribution to reveal depth profiles. A summary of the basic features of the nuclear reaction analysis technique is given, in particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,alpha) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described. Finally a set of (d,p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17 using 2 MeV incident deutrons is included together with example of more applications of the (d,alpha) spectra. (author)

  15. Quantitative analysis of comparative genomic hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoir, S. du; Bentz, M.; Joos, S. [Abteilung Organisation komplexer Genome, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Institut fuer Humangenetik, Heidelberg (Germany)] [and others


    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic method for the detection of chromosomal imbalances. Following cohybridization of DNA prepared from a sample to be studied and control DNA to normal metaphase spreads, probes are detected via different fluorochromes. The ratio of the test and control fluorescence intensities along a chromosome reflects the relative copy number of segments of a chromosome in the test genome. Quantitative evaluation of CGH experiments is required for the determination of low copy changes, e.g., monosomy or trisomy, and for the definition of the breakpoints involved in unbalanced rearrangements. In this study, a program for quantitation of CGH preparations is presented. This program is based on the extraction of the fluorescence ratio profile along each chromosome, followed by averaging of individual profiles from several metaphase spreads. Objective parameters critical for quantitative evaluations were tested, and the criteria for selection of suitable CGH preparations are described. The granularity of the chromosome painting and the regional inhomogeneity of fluorescence intensities in metaphase spreads proved to be crucial parameters. The coefficient of variation of the ratio value for chromosomes in balanced state (CVBS) provides a general quality criterion for CGH experiments. Different cutoff levels (thresholds) of average fluorescence ratio values were compared for their specificity and sensitivity with regard to the detection of chromosomal imbalances. 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Chromatin immunoprecipitation: optimization, quantitative analysis and data normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterhansel Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and other chromatin-related processes play a crucial role in gene regulation. A very useful technique to study these processes is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. ChIP is widely used for a few model systems, including Arabidopsis, but establishment of the technique for other organisms is still remarkably challenging. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the precipitated material and normalization of the data is often underestimated, negatively affecting data quality. Results We developed a robust ChIP protocol, using maize (Zea mays as a model system, and present a general strategy to systematically optimize this protocol for any type of tissue. We propose endogenous controls for active and for repressed chromatin, and discuss various other controls that are essential for successful ChIP experiments. We experienced that the use of quantitative PCR (QPCR is crucial for obtaining high quality ChIP data and we explain why. The method of data normalization has a major impact on the quality of ChIP analyses. Therefore, we analyzed different normalization strategies, resulting in a thorough discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of the various approaches. Conclusion Here we provide a robust ChIP protocol and strategy to optimize the protocol for any type of tissue; we argue that quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR is the best method to analyze the precipitates, and present comprehensive insights into data normalization.

  17. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in 2,2'-((4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 7, 2018 ... REGULAR ARTICLE. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in ... The quantitative molecular electrostatic potential surface diagram depicts the potential binding sites which are in good agreement with the crystal ..... root mean squared deviation (rmsd: 0.19 Å) is observed for the compound I and ...

  18. Porosity determination on pyrocarbon using automatic quantitative image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizlik, K.; Uhlenbruck, U.; Delle, W.; Nickel, H.

    Methods of porosity determination are reviewed and applied to the measurement of the porosity of pyrocarbon. Specifically, the mathematical basis of stereology and the procedures involved in quantitative image analysis are detailed

  19. Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.


    Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.

  20. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits. (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing


    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  1. Quantitative data analysis in education a critical introduction using SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Connolly, Paul


    This book provides a refreshing and user-friendly guide to quantitative data analysis in education for students and researchers. It assumes absolutely no prior knowledge of quantitative methods or statistics. Beginning with the very basics, it provides the reader with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to undertake routine quantitative data analysis to a level expected of published research. Rather than focusing on teaching statistics through mathematical formulae, the book places an emphasis on using SPSS to gain a real feel for the data and an intuitive grasp of t

  2. Use of MRI in Differentiation of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. (United States)

    Doshi, Ankur M; Ream, Justin M; Kierans, Andrea S; Bilbily, Matthew; Rusinek, Henry; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitative and quantitative MRI feature analysis is useful for differentiating type 1 from type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). This retrospective study included 21 type 1 and 17 type 2 PRCCs evaluated with preoperative MRI. Two radiologists independently evaluated various qualitative features, including signal intensity, heterogeneity, and margin. For the quantitative analysis, a radiology fellow and a medical student independently drew 3D volumes of interest over the entire tumor on T2-weighted HASTE images, apparent diffusion coefficient parametric maps, and nephrographic phase contrast-enhanced MR images to derive first-order texture metrics. Qualitative and quantitative features were compared between the groups. For both readers, qualitative features with greater frequency in type 2 PRCC included heterogeneous enhancement, indistinct margin, and T2 heterogeneity (all, p Quantitative analysis revealed that apparent diffusion coefficient, HASTE, and contrast-enhanced entropy were greater in type 2 PRCC (p quantitative and qualitative model had an AUC of 0.859. Qualitative features within the model had interreader concordance of 84-95%, and the quantitative data had intraclass coefficients of 0.873-0.961. Qualitative and quantitative features can help discriminate between type 1 and type 2 PRCC. Quantitative analysis may capture useful information that complements the qualitative appearance while benefiting from high interobserver agreement.

  3. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  4. Quantitative analysis of probabilistic BPMN workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin


    We present a framework for modelling and analysis of realworld business workflows. We present a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations....... We present an algorithm for the translation of such models into Markov Decision processes expressed in the syntax of the PRISM model checker. This enables analysis of business processes for the following properties: transient and steadystate probabilities, the timing, occurrence and ordering...... of events, reward-based properties and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover the entire BPMN language, allow...

  5. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L


    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  6. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.


    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of detonation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yun


    Different sampling and different injection method were used during analyzing unknown detonation products in a obturator. The sample analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum. Qualitative analysis was used with CO, NO, C 2 H 2 , C 6 H 6 and so on, qualitative analysis was used with C 3 H 5 N, C 10 H 10 , C 8 H 8 N 2 and so on. The method used in the article is feasible. The results show that the component of detonation in the study is negative oxygen balance, there were many pollutants in the detonation products. (authors)

  8. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.


    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  9. Quantitative Determination of Aluminum in Deodorant Brands: A Guided Inquiry Learning Experience in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory (United States)

    Sedwick, Victoria; Leal, Anne; Turner, Dea; Kanu, A. Bakarr


    The monitoring of metals in commercial products is essential for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. This article presents a guided inquiry (GI) experimental lab approach in a quantitative analysis lab class that enabled students' to determine the levels of aluminum in deodorant brands. The utility of a GI experimental…

  10. Quantitative analysis of wellbeing and personal goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Jorien


    In this paper we present data on 407 homeless adults who have just entered the Dutch social relief system. We examined their personal goals of homeless adults and the association between their perceived goal related self-efficacy and their quality of life. Based on a hierarchical regression analysis

  11. Fundamentals of quantitative PET data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, ATM; van den Hoff, J


    Drug analysis and development with PET should fully exhaust the ability of this tomographic technique to quantify regional tracer concentrations in vivo. Data evaluation based on visual inspection or assessment of regional image contrast is not sufficient for this purpose since much of the

  12. Comprehensive wellbore stability analysis utilizing Quantitative Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, Daniel; Peska, Pavel; Finkbeiner, Thomas [GeoMechanics International, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States); Zoback, Mark [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    A comprehensive geomechanical approach to wellbore stability requires knowledge of rock strength, pore pressure and the magnitude and orientation of the three principal stresses. These parameters are often uncertain, making confidence in deterministic predictions of the risks associated with instabilities during drilling and production difficult to assess. This paper demonstrates the use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to formally account for the uncertainty in each input parameter to assess the probability of achieving a desired degree of wellbore stability at a given mud weight. We also utilize QRA to assess how the uncertainty in each parameter affects the mud weight calculated to maintain stability. In one case study, we illustrate how this approach allows us to compute optimal mud weight windows and casing set points at a deep-water site. In another case study, we demonstrate how to assess the feasibility of underbalanced drilling and open-hole completion of horizontal wells utilizing a comprehensive stability analysis that includes application of QRA.

  13. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...

  14. Quantitative analysis of probabilistic BPMN workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin


    We present a framework for modelling and analysis of realworld business workflows. We present a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) and then proceed to extend this language with probabilistic nondeterministic branching and general-purpose reward annotations...... of events, reward-based properties and best- and worst- case scenarios. We develop a simple example of medical workflow and demonstrate the utility of this analysis in accurate provisioning of drug stocks. Finally, we suggest a path to building upon these techniques to cover the entire BPMN language, allow...... for more complex annotations and ultimately to automatically synthesise workflows by composing predefined sub-processes, in order to achieve a configuration that is optimal for parameters of interest....

  15. Longitudinal Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Zhang, Yiwei; Albert, Paul S.; Liu, Aiyi; Wang, Yuanjia; Xiong, Momiao


    Longitudinal genetic studies provide a valuable resource for exploring key genetic and environmental factors that affect complex traits over time. Genetic analysis of longitudinal data that incorporate temporal variations is important for understanding genetic architecture and biological variations of common complex diseases. Although they are important, there is a paucity of statistical methods to analyze longitudinal human genetic data. In this article, longitudinal methods are developed for temporal association mapping to analyze population longitudinal data. Both parametric and nonparametric models are proposed. The models can be applied to multiple diallelic genetic markers such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and multiallelic markers such as microsatellites. By analytical formulae, we show that the models take both the linkage disequilibrium and temporal trends into account simultaneously. Variance-covariance structure is constructed to model the single measurement variation and multiple measurement correlations of an individual based on the theory of stochastic processes. Novel penalized spline models are used to estimate the time-dependent mean functions and regression coefficients. The methods were applied to analyze Framingham Heart Study data of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 13 and GAW 16. The temporal trends and genetic effects of the systolic blood pressure are successfully detected by the proposed approaches. Simulation studies were performed to find out that the nonparametric penalized linear model is the best choice in fitting real data. The research sheds light on the important area of longitudinal genetic analysis, and it provides a basis for future methodological investigations and practical applications. PMID:22965819

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Human Red Blood Cell Proteome. (United States)

    Bryk, Agata H; Wiśniewski, Jacek R


    Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant cell type in the human body. RBCs and, in particular, their plasma membrane composition have been extensively studied for many years. During the past decade proteomics studies have extended our knowledge on RBC composition; however, these studies did not provide quantitative insights. Here we report a large-scale proteomics investigation of RBCs and their "white ghost" membrane fraction. Samples were processed using the multienzyme digestion filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and analyzed using Q-Exactive mass spectrometer. Protein abundances were computed using the total protein approach (TPA). The validation of the data with stable isotope-labeled peptide-based protein quantification followed. Our in-depth analysis resulted in the identification of 2650 proteins, of which 1890 occurred at more than 100 copies per cell. We quantified 41 membrane transporter proteins spanning an abundance range of five orders of magnitude. Some of these, including the drug transporter ABCA7 and choline transporters SLC44A1 and SLC44A2, have not previously been identified in RBC membranes. Comparison of protein copy numbers assessed by proteomics showed a good correlation with literature data; however, abundances of several proteins were not consistent with the classical references. Because we validated our findings by a targeted analysis using labeled standards, our data suggest that some older reference data from a variety of biochemical approaches are inaccurate. Our study provides the first "in-depth" quantitative analysis of the RBC proteome and will promote future studies of erythrocyte structure, functions, and disease.

  17. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Method for the High Hazard Mechanical System in Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang


    Full Text Available The high hazard mechanical system (HHMS has three characteristics in the petroleum and petrochemical industry (PPI: high risk, high cost, and high technology requirements. For a HHMS, part, component, and subsystem failures will result in varying degrees and various types of risk consequences, including unexpected downtime, production losses, economic costs, safety accidents, and environmental pollution. Thus, obtaining the quantitative risk level and distribution in a HHMS to control major risk accidents and ensure safe production is of vital importance. However, the structure of the HHMS is more complex than some other systems, making the quantitative risk analysis process more difficult. Additionally, a variety of uncertain risk data hinder the realization of quantitative risk analysis. A few quantitative risk analysis techniques and studies for HHMS exist, especially in the PPI. Therefore, a study on the quantitative risk analysis method for HHMS was completed to obtain the risk level and distribution of high-risk objects. Firstly, Fuzzy Set Theory (FST was applied to address the uncertain risk data for the occurrence probability (OP and consequence severity (CS in the risk analysis process. Secondly, a fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA and a fuzzy event tree analysis (FETA were used to achieve quantitative risk analysis and calculation. Thirdly, a fuzzy bow-tie model (FBTM was established to obtain a quantitative risk assessment result according to the analysis results of the FFTA and FETA. Finally, the feasibility and practicability of the method were verified with a case study on the quantitative risk analysis of one reciprocating pump system (RPS. The quantitative risk analysis method for HHMS can provide more accurate and scientific data support for the development of Asset Integrity Management (AIM systems in the PPI.

  18. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues. (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne


    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  19. Event History Analysis in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel

    Event history analysis is a clas of statistical methods specially designed to analyze time-to-event characteristics, e.g. the time until death. The aim of the thesis was to present adequate multivariate versions of mixed survival models that properly represent the genetic aspects related to a given...... time-to-event characteristic of interest. Real genetic longevity studies based on female animals of different species (sows, dairy cows, and sheep) exemplifies the use of the methods. Moreover these studies allow to understand som genetic mechanisms related to the lenght of the productive life...

  20. Quantitative Image Simulation and Analysis of Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    Microscopy (HRTEM) has become a routine analysis tool for structural characterization at atomic resolution, and with the recent development of in-situ TEMs, it is now possible to study catalytic nanoparticles under reaction conditions. However, the connection between an experimental image, and the underlying...... of strain measurements from TEM images, and investigate the stability of these measurements to microscope parameters. This is followed by our efforts toward simulating metal nanoparticles on a metal-oxide support using the Charge Optimized Many Body (COMB) interatomic potential. The simulated interface...

  1. Quantitative studies of rhubarb using quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Sun, Jiachen; Wu, Yueting; Dong, Shengjie; Li, Xia; Gao, Wenyuan


    In this work, we developed a novel approach to evaluate the contents of bioactive components in rhubarb. The present method was based on the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker and response surface methodology approaches. The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed and applied to determine the contents of 12 bioactive components in rhubarb. No significant differences were found in the results from the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker and the external standard method. In order to maximize the extraction of 12 bioactive compounds in rhubarb, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were obtained by the response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design. According to the obtained results, we showed that the optimal conditions would be as follows: proportion of ethanol/water 74.39%, solvent-to-solid ratio 24.07:1 v/w, extraction time 51.13 min, and extraction temperature 63.61°C. The analytical scheme established in this research should be a reliable, convenient, and appropriate method for quantitative determination of bioactive compounds in rhubarb. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction performance of interpolants (United States)

    Lansing, Donald L.; Park, Stephen K.


    The analysis presented provides a quantitative measure of the reconstruction or interpolation performance of linear, shift-invariant interpolants. The performance criterion is the mean square error of the difference between the sampled and reconstructed functions. The analysis is applicable to reconstruction algorithms used in image processing and to many types of splines used in numerical analysis and computer graphics. When formulated in the frequency domain, the mean square error clearly separates the contribution of the interpolation method from the contribution of the sampled data. The equations provide a rational basis for selecting an optimal interpolant; that is, one which minimizes the mean square error. The analysis has been applied to a selection of frequently used data splines and reconstruction algorithms: parametric cubic and quintic Hermite splines, exponential and nu splines (including the special case of the cubic spline), parametric cubic convolution, Keys' fourth-order cubic, and a cubic with a discontinuous first derivative. The emphasis in this paper is on the image-dependent case in which no a priori knowledge of the frequency spectrum of the sampled function is assumed.

  3. Biostatistical analysis of quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy images. (United States)

    Giles, C; Albrecht, M A; Lam, V; Takechi, R; Mamo, J C


    Semiquantitative immunofluorescence microscopy has become a key methodology in biomedical research. Typical statistical workflows are considered in the context of avoiding pseudo-replication and marginalising experimental error. However, immunofluorescence microscopy naturally generates hierarchically structured data that can be leveraged to improve statistical power and enrich biological interpretation. Herein, we describe a robust distribution fitting procedure and compare several statistical tests, outlining their potential advantages/disadvantages in the context of biological interpretation. Further, we describe tractable procedures for power analysis that incorporates the underlying distribution, sample size and number of images captured per sample. The procedures outlined have significant potential for increasing understanding of biological processes and decreasing both ethical and financial burden through experimental optimization. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran (United States)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy


    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  5. [TXRF technique and quantitative analysis of mollusc teeth]. (United States)

    Tian, Y; Liu, K; Wu, X; Zheng, S


    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis technique and the instrument with a short path, high efficiency, low power and small volume are briefly presented. The detection limit of the system are at pg-level for Cu and Mo target excitation. Teeth of a marine mollusc were measured quantitatively and the spectrum and analysis results were given.

  6. Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Castillo-Soto


    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the economic extinction efficiency of forest fires, based on the study of fire combat undertaken by aerial and terrestrial means. Area of study, materials and methods: Approximately 112,000 hectares in Chile. Records of 5,876 forest fires that occurred between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. The area further provides a validation sector for results, by incorporating databases for the years 2010 and 2012. The criteria used for measuring extinction efficiency were economic value of forestry resources, Contraction Factor analysis and definition of the extinction costs function. Main results: It is possible to establish a relationship between burnt area, extinction costs and economic losses. The method proposed may be used and adapted to other fire situations, requiring unit costs for aerial and terrestrial operations, economic value of the property to be protected and speed attributes of fire spread in free advance. Research highlights: The determination of extinction efficiency in containment works of forest fires and potential projection of losses, different types of plant fuel and local conditions favoring the spread of fire broaden the admissible ranges of a, φ and Ce considerably.

  7. Quantitative analysis of carbon in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Chantal.


    The aim of this study is to develop a method for the determination of carbon traces (20 to 400 ppm) in plutonium. The development of a carbon in plutonium standard is described, then the content of this substance is determined and its validity as a standard shown by analysis in two different ways. In the first method used, reaction of the metal with sulphur and determination of carbon as carbon sulphide, the following parameters were studied: influence of excess reagent, surface growth of samples in contact with sulphur, temperature and reaction time. The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by the conventional method of carbon determination, combustion in oxygen and measurement of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Owing to the presence of this standard we were then able to study the different parameters involved in plutonium combustion so that the reaction can be made complete: temperature reached during combustion, role of flux, metal surface in contact with oxygen and finally method of cleaning plutonium samples [fr

  8. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    The majority of modern software and hardware systems are reactive systems, where input provided by the user (possibly another system) and the output of the system is exchanged continuously throughout the (possibly) indefinite execution of the system. Natural examples include control systems, mobi......, energy consumption, latency, mean-time to failure, and cost. For systems integrated in mass-market products, the ability to quantify trade-offs between performance and robustness, under given technical and economic constraints, is of strategic importance....... by the environment in which they are embedded. This thesis studies the semantics and properties of a model-based framework for re- active systems, in which models and specifications are assumed to contain quantifiable information, such as references to time or energy. Our goal is to develop a theory of approximation......, in terms of a new mathematical basis for systems modeling which can incompas behavioural properties as well as environmental constraints. They continue by pointing out that, continuous performance and robustness measures are paramount when dealing with physical resource levels such as clock frequency...

  9. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Enceladus' Plume Composition. (United States)

    Peter, J.; Nordheim, T.; Hofmann, A.; Hand, K. P.


    Analyses of data from Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) taken during several close flybys of Enceladus suggest the presence of a potentially habitable ocean underneath the ice shell [1,2]. Proper identification of the molecular species sampled from Enceladus' plumes by INMS is of utmost importance for characterizing the ocean's chemical composition. Data from Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have provided clues for possible plume chemistry, but further analysis of the INMS data is necessary [3,4]. Here we present a novel automated algorithm for comparing INMS spectra and analogue laboratory spectra to a vast library of sample spectra provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The algorithm implements a Monte Carlo simulation that computes the angular similarity between the spectrum of interest and a random sample of synthetic spectra generated at arbitrary mixing ratios of molecular species. The synthetic spectra with the highest similarity scores are then averaged to produce a convergent estimate of the mixing ratio of the spectrum of interest. Here we will discuss the application of this technique to INMS and laboratory data and the implication of our preliminary results for the ocean chemistry and habitability of Enceladus. 1. Waite, J., et al., 2009. Liquid Water on Enceladus From Observations of Ammonia and 40Ar in the Plume. Nature 460, 487-498. 2. Waite, J., et al. 2017. Cassini Finds Molecular Hydrogen in the Enceladus Plume: Evidence for Hydrothermal Processes. Science 356, 155-159. 3. Postberg, F., et al., 2008. The E Ring in the Vicinity of Enceladus II: Signatures of Enceladus in the Elemental Composition of E-Ring Particles. Icarus 193(2), 438-454. 4. Brown, R., et al., 2006. Composition and Physical Properties of Enceladus' Surface. Science 311, 1425-1428.

  10. A computational tool for quantitative analysis of vascular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Zudaire

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the generation of mature vascular networks from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenesis is crucial during the organism' development, for wound healing and for the female reproductive cycle. Several murine experimental systems are well suited for studying developmental and pathological angiogenesis. They include the embryonic hindbrain, the post-natal retina and allantois explants. In these systems vascular networks are visualised by appropriate staining procedures followed by microscopical analysis. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of angiogenesis is hampered by the lack of readily available, standardized metrics and software analysis tools. Non-automated protocols are being used widely and they are, in general, time--and labour intensive, prone to human error and do not permit computation of complex spatial metrics. We have developed a light-weight, user friendly software, AngioTool, which allows for quick, hands-off and reproducible quantification of vascular networks in microscopic images. AngioTool computes several morphological and spatial parameters including the area covered by a vascular network, the number of vessels, vessel length, vascular density and lacunarity. In addition, AngioTool calculates the so-called "branching index" (branch points/unit area, providing a measurement of the sprouting activity of a specimen of interest. We have validated AngioTool using images of embryonic murine hindbrains, post-natal retinas and allantois explants. AngioTool is open source and can be downloaded free of charge.

  11. Application of neural networks to quantitative spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilato, V.; Tola, F.; Martinez, J.M.; Huver, M.


    Accurate quantitative analysis of complex spectra (fission and activation products), relies upon experts' knowledge. In some cases several hours, even days of tedious calculations are needed. This is because current software is unable to solve deconvolution problems when several rays overlap. We have shown that such analysis can be correctly handled by a neural network, and the procedure can be automated with minimum laboratory measurements for networks training, as long as all the elements of the analysed solution figure in the training set and provided that adequate scaling of input data is performed. Once the network has been trained, analysis is carried out in a few seconds. On submitting to a test between several well-known laboratories, where unknown quantities of 57 Co, 58 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 131 I, 139 Ce, 141 Ce present in a sample had to be determined, the results yielded by our network classed it amongst the best. The method is described, including experimental device and measures, training set designing, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. Main results are presented together with a statistical model allowing networks error prediction

  12. Quantiprot - a Python package for quantitative analysis of protein sequences. (United States)

    Konopka, Bogumił M; Marciniak, Marta; Dyrka, Witold


    The field of protein sequence analysis is dominated by tools rooted in substitution matrices and alignments. A complementary approach is provided by methods of quantitative characterization. A major advantage of the approach is that quantitative properties defines a multidimensional solution space, where sequences can be related to each other and differences can be meaningfully interpreted. Quantiprot is a software package in Python, which provides a simple and consistent interface to multiple methods for quantitative characterization of protein sequences. The package can be used to calculate dozens of characteristics directly from sequences or using physico-chemical properties of amino acids. Besides basic measures, Quantiprot performs quantitative analysis of recurrence and determinism in the sequence, calculates distribution of n-grams and computes the Zipf's law coefficient. We propose three main fields of application of the Quantiprot package. First, quantitative characteristics can be used in alignment-free similarity searches, and in clustering of large and/or divergent sequence sets. Second, a feature space defined by quantitative properties can be used in comparative studies of protein families and organisms. Third, the feature space can be used for evaluating generative models, where large number of sequences generated by the model can be compared to actually observed sequences.

  13. [Correspondence analysis between traditional commercial specifications and quantitative quality indices of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix]. (United States)

    Jiang, Shun-Yuan; Sun, Hong-Bing; Sun, Hui; Ma, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Yi


    This paper aims to explore a comprehensive assessment method combined traditional Chinese medicinal material specifications with quantitative quality indicators. Seventy-six samples of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix were collected on market and at producing areas. Traditional commercial specifications were described and assigned, and 10 chemical components and volatile oils were determined for each sample. Cluster analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis and correspondence analysis were used to establish the relationship between the traditional qualitative commercial specifications and quantitative chemical indices for comprehensive evaluating quality of medicinal materials, and quantitative classification of commercial grade and quality grade. A herb quality index (HQI) including traditional commercial specifications and chemical components for quantitative grade classification were established, and corresponding discriminant function were figured out for precise determination of quality grade and sub-grade of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The result showed that notopterol, isoimperatorin and volatile oil were the major components for determination of chemical quality, and their dividing values were specified for every grade and sub-grade of the commercial materials of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. According to the result, essential relationship between traditional medicinal indicators, qualitative commercial specifications, and quantitative chemical composition indicators can be examined by K-mean cluster, Fisher discriminant analysis and correspondence analysis, which provide a new method for comprehensive quantitative evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine quality integrated traditional commodity specifications and quantitative modern chemical index. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Quantitative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sebastien; Mandacaru, Samuel C


    this well-established differentiation protocol to perform a comprehensive quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of the T. cruzi amastigogenesis. Samples from fully differentiated forms and two biologically relevant intermediate time points were Lys-C/trypsin digested, i......TRAQ-labeled and multiplexed. Subsequently, phosphopeptides were enriched using TiO2 matrix. Non-phosphorylated peptides were HILIC-fractionated prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics procedures were used for protein and phosphopeptide quantitation, identification and phosphorylation site assignment. We could...... induced by incubation in acidic medium were also evinced. To our knowledge, this work is the most comprehensive quantitative proteomics study of the T. cruzi amastigogenesis and this data will provide trustworthy basis for future studies and possibly for new potential drug targets....

  15. Quantitative analysis of normal thallium-201 tomographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Cerqueira, M.


    To determine the normal (nl) distribution of Tl-201 uptake post exercise (EX) and at redistribution (RD) and nl washout, Tl-201 rotational tomographic (tomo) studies were performed in 40 subjects: 16 angiographic (angio) nls and 24 nl volunteers (12 from Emory and 12 from Yale). Oblique angle short axis slices were subjected to maximal count circumferential profile analysis. Data were displayed as a ''bullseye'' functional map with the apex at the center and base at the periphery. The bullseye was not uniform in all regions because of the variable effects of attenuation and resolution at different view angles. In all studies, the septum: lateral wall ratio was 1.0 in males and approximately equal to 1.0 in females. This occurred predominantly because of anterior defects due to breast soft tissue attenuation. EX and RD bullseyes were similar. Using a bi-exponential model for Tl kinetics, 4 hour normalized washout ranged 49-54% in each group and showed minimal variation between walls throughout the bullseye. Thus, there are well defined variations in Tl-201 uptake in the nl myocardium which must be taken into consideration when analyzing pt data. Because of these defects and the lack of adequate methods for attenuation correction, quantitative analysis of Tl-201 studies must include direct comparison with gender-matched nl data sets

  16. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.


    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  17. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimally ordered sparse [Bʹ], [Bʺ] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [d] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in ...

  18. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-seven wheat genotypes and three check varieties were studied for correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits in wheat at Kisan (P.G), College, Simbhaoli in India. Generally, the estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients ...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (3a) July, 2010. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest. Stands: A Review (Pp. 367-377). Oyebade, B. A. - Forest Biometrics & Measurement Unit, ...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources remains significant in the sustainable management of complex tropical forest resources. Analyses of data from complex tropical forest stands have not been easy or clear due to improper data management. It is pivotal to practical researches ...

  1. Quantitative analysis of microtubule transport in growing nerve processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma*, Ytao; Shakiryanova*, Dinara; Vardya, Irina


    the translocation of MT plus ends in the axonal shaft by expressing GFP-EB1 in Xenopus embryo neurons in culture. Formal quantitative analysis of MT assembly/disassembly indicated that none of the MTs in the axonal shaft were rapidly transported. Our results suggest that transport of axonal MTs is not required...

  2. Insights Into Quantitative Biology: analysis of cellular adaptation


    Agoni, Valentina


    In the last years many powerful techniques have emerged to measure protein interactions as well as gene expression. Many progresses have been done since the introduction of these techniques but not toward quantitative analysis of data. In this paper we show how to study cellular adaptation and how to detect cellular subpopulations. Moreover we go deeper in analyzing signal transduction pathways dynamics.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of catechin and quercetin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of catechin and quercetin in flavonoids extracted from Rosa roxburghii Tratt. Methods: Total flavonoids were determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV) at 500 nm. The optimal gradient program started with 15 % methanol and was kept within a period of 0 ...

  4. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in 2, 2'-((4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relative contributions of various intermolecular contacts in the title compound and its closely related analogs are evaluated using Hirshfeld surface analysis and the decomposed fingerprint plots. The common packing features exist between the title compound and its related analogs are identified.The quantitative ...

  5. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry


    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.


    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measur...

  6. Tools for voltage stability analysis, including a probabilistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X.; Martins, N.; Bianco, A.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, P.; Santos, M.G. dos [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper reviews some voltage stability analysis tools that are being used or envisioned for expansion and operational planning studies in the Brazilian system, as well as, their applications. The paper also shows that deterministic tools can be linked together in a probabilistic framework, so as to provide complementary help to the analyst in choosing the most adequate operation strategies, or the best planning solutions for a given system. (author) 43 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease (United States)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.


    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  8. Improved method and apparatus for chromatographic quantitative analysis (United States)

    Fritz, J.S.; Gjerde, D.T.; Schmuckler, G.

    An improved apparatus and method are described for the quantitative analysis of a solution containing a plurality of anion species by ion exchange chromatography which utilizes a single element and a single ion exchange bed which does not require periodic regeneration. The solution containing the anions is added to an anion exchange resin bed which is a low capacity macroreticular polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin containing quarternary ammonium functional groups, and is eluted therefrom with a dilute solution of a low electrical conductance organic acid salt. As each anion species is eluted from the bed, it is quantitatively sensed by conventional detection means such as a conductivity cell.

  9. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman


    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities.

  10. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman


    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. ‘Culturomics’ extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

  11. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone ...

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract. Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) ...

  13. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying


    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  14. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)


    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  15. Quantitative analysis of chromatin accessibility in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (United States)

    Zhuo, Baowen; Yu, Juan; Chang, Luyuan; Lei, Jiafan; Wen, Zengqi; Liu, Cuifang; Mao, Guankun; Wang, Kehui; Shen, Jie; Xu, Xueqing


    Genomic DNA of eukaryotic cells is hierarchically packaged into chromatin by histones. The dynamic organization of chromatin fibers plays a critical role in the regulation of gene transcription and other DNA-associated biological processes. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to map the chromatin organization by characterizing chromatin accessibilities in genome-wide. However, reliable methods to quantitatively map chromatin accessibility are not well-established, especially not on a genome-wide scale. Here, we developed a modified MNase-seq for mouse embryonic fibroblasts, wherein chromatin was partially digested at multiple digestion times using micrococcal nuclease (MNase), allowing quantitative analysis of local yet genome-wide chromatin compaction. Our results provide strong evidence that the chromatin accessibility at promoter regions are positively correlated with gene activity. In conclusion, our assay is an ideal tool for the quantitative study of gene regulation in the perspective of chromatin accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Ultrasound and bone's response to exercise: a meta analysis. (United States)

    Babatunde, O O; Forsyth, J J


    The utility of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) for assessing and monitoring changes in bone health due to exercise is limited for lack of adequate research evidence. Restrictions to bone density testing and the enduring debate over repeat dual energy absorptiometry testing spells uncertainty over clinical and non-clinical evaluation of exercise for prevention of osteoporosis. This study, via systematic review and meta-analysis, aimed to paint a portrait of current evidence regarding QUS' application to monitoring bone's adaptive response to exercise interventions. Structured and comprehensive search of databases was undertaken along with hand-searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to December 2011. Twelve articles met predetermined inclusion criteria. The effect of exercise interventions for improving bone health, as measured by QUS of the calcaneum, was examined across the age spectrum. Study outcomes for analysis: absolute (dB/MHz) or relative change (%) in broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and/or os calcis stiffness index were compared by calculating standardised mean difference (SMD) using fixed- and random-effects models. Quality of included trials varied from low to high on a scale of one to three. Four to 36months of exercise led to a significant improvement in calcaneum BUA (0.98 SMD, 95% CI 0.80, 1.16, overall effect Z-value=10.72, p=0.001) across the age spectrum. The meta-analysis attests to the sensitivity of QUS to exercise-induced changes in bone health across the age groups. QUS may be considered for use in exercise-based bone health interventions for preventing osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Collocations and collocation types in ESP textbooks: Quantitative pedagogical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Vesna Ž.


    Full Text Available The term collocation, even though it is rather common in the English language grammar, it is not a well known or commonly used term in the textbooks and scientific papers written in the Serbian language. Collocating is usually defined as a natural appearance of two (or more words, which are usually one next to another even though they can be separated in the text, while collocations are defined as words with natural semantic and/or syntactic relations being joined together in a sentence. Collocations are naturally used in all English written texts, including scientific texts and papers. Using two textbooks for English for Specific Purposes (ESP for intermediate students' courses, this paper presents the frequency of collocations and their typology. The paper tries to investigate the relationship between lexical and grammatical collocations written in the ESP texts and the reasons for their presence. There is an overview of the most used subtypes of lexical collocations as well. Furthermore, on applying the basic corpus analysis based on the quantitative analysis, the paper presents the number of open, restricted and bound collocations in ESP texts, trying to draw conclusions on their frequency and hence the modes for their learning. There is also a section related to the number and usage of scientific collocations, both common scientific and narrow-professional ones. The conclusion is that the number of present collocations in the selected two textbooks imposes a demand for further analysis of these lexical connections, as well as new modes for their teaching and presentations to the English learning students.

  18. A strategy to apply quantitative epistasis analysis on developmental traits. (United States)

    Labocha, Marta K; Yuan, Wang; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Zhong, Weiwei


    Genetic interactions are keys to understand complex traits and evolution. Epistasis analysis is an effective method to map genetic interactions. Large-scale quantitative epistasis analysis has been well established for single cells. However, there is a substantial lack of such studies in multicellular organisms and their complex phenotypes such as development. Here we present a method to extend quantitative epistasis analysis to developmental traits. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we applied RNA interference on mutants to inactivate two genes, used an imaging system to quantitatively measure phenotypes, and developed a set of statistical methods to extract genetic interactions from phenotypic measurement. Using two different C. elegans developmental phenotypes, body length and sex ratio, as examples, we showed that this method could accommodate various metazoan phenotypes with performances comparable to those methods in single cell growth studies. Comparing with qualitative observations, this method of quantitative epistasis enabled detection of new interactions involving subtle phenotypes. For example, several sex-ratio genes were found to interact with brc-1 and brd-1, the orthologs of the human breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BARD1, respectively. We confirmed the brc-1 interactions with the following genes in DNA damage response: C34F6.1, him-3 (ortholog of HORMAD1, HORMAD2), sdc-1, and set-2 (ortholog of SETD1A, SETD1B, KMT2C, KMT2D), validating the effectiveness of our method in detecting genetic interactions. We developed a reliable, high-throughput method for quantitative epistasis analysis of developmental phenotypes.

  19. Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows a guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bryman, Alan


    The latest edition of this best-selling introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis through the use of a computer package has been completely updated to accommodate the needs of users of SPSS Release 8 for Windows. Like its predecessor, it provides a non-technical approach to quantitative data analysis and a user-friendly introduction to the widely used SPSS for Windows. It assumes no previous familiarity with either statistics or computing but takes the reader step-by-step through the techniques, reinforced by exercises for further practice. Techniques explained in Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows include: * correlation * simple and multiple regression * multivariate analysis of variance and covariance * factor analysis The book also covers issues such as sampling, statistical significance, conceptualization and measurement and the selection of appropriate tests. For further information or to download the book's datasets, please visit the webstite:

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in Down syndrome. (United States)

    Sales, André Vinicius Marcondes Natel; Giacheti, Célia Maria; Cola, Paula Cristina; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da


    To describe the qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS) through a case series study of six individuals aged 4 to 17 months (mean age = 11.16 months; median = 12 months). Qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of swallowing using videofluoroscopy and specific software. The following parameters were assessed: presence or absence of oral incoordination, labial sphincter sealing incompetence, oral residue, posterior oral spillage, laryngotracheal penetration and aspiration, pharyngeal and total oral transit time (TOTT). Qualitative analysis identified individuals with disorders in at least four of the swallowing parameters investigated. Only one individual presented total oral transit time (TOTT) different from the others. No difference was observed between the cases regarding pharyngeal transit time. Qualitative swallowing disorders are observed in children with DS, with difference in TOTT only in the case report of the youngest infant.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  2. Field nonuniformity correction for quantitative analysis of digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.


    Several factors, including the heel effect, variation in distance from the x-ray source to points in the image and path obliquity contribute to the signal nonuniformity of mammograms. To best use digitized mammograms for quantitative image analysis, these field non-uniformities must be corrected. An empirically based correction method, which uses a bowl-shaped calibration phantom, has been developed. Due to the annular spherical shape of the phantom, its attenuation is constant over the entire image. Remaining nonuniformities are due only to the heel and inverse square effects as well as the variable path through the beam filter, compression plate and image receptor. In logarithmic space, a normalized image of the phantom can be added to mammograms to correct for these effects. Then, an analytical correction for path obliquity in the breast can be applied to the images. It was found that the correction causes the errors associated with field nonuniformity to be reduced from 14% to 2% for a 4 cm block of material corresponding to a combination of 50% fibroglandular and 50% fatty breast tissue. A repeatability study has been conducted to show that in regions as far as 20 cm away from the chest wall, variations due to imaging conditions and phantom alignment contribute to <2% of overall corrected signal

  3. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik L. Carlton


    Full Text Available Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the context of leadership local health departments.Methods. Leadership styles among local health department directors (n=13 were examined using survey methodology. Quantitative analysis methods included descriptive statistics, boxplots, and Pearson bivariate correlations using SPSS v18.0. Findings. Self-reported leadership styles were highly correlated to leadership outcomes at the organizational level. However, they were not related to county health rankings. Results suggest the preeminence of leader behaviors and providing individual consideration to staff as compared to idealized attributes of leaders, intellectual stimulation, or inspirational motivation. Implications. Holistic leadership assessment instruments, such as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ can be useful in assessing public health leaders approaches and outcomes. Comprehensive, 360-degree reviews may be especially helpful. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of public health leadership development models, as well as the extent that public health leadership impacts public health outcomes.

  4. IGSA: Individual Gene Sets Analysis, including Enrichment and Clustering. (United States)

    Wu, Lingxiang; Chen, Xiujie; Zhang, Denan; Zhang, Wubing; Liu, Lei; Ma, Hongzhe; Yang, Jingbo; Xie, Hongbo; Liu, Bo; Jin, Qing


    Analysis of gene sets has been widely applied in various high-throughput biological studies. One weakness in the traditional methods is that they neglect the heterogeneity of genes expressions in samples which may lead to the omission of some specific and important gene sets. It is also difficult for them to reflect the severities of disease and provide expression profiles of gene sets for individuals. We developed an application software called IGSA that leverages a powerful analytical capacity in gene sets enrichment and samples clustering. IGSA calculates gene sets expression scores for each sample and takes an accumulating clustering strategy to let the samples gather into the set according to the progress of disease from mild to severe. We focus on gastric, pancreatic and ovarian cancer data sets for the performance of IGSA. We also compared the results of IGSA in KEGG pathways enrichment with David, GSEA, SPIA, ssGSEA and analyzed the results of IGSA clustering and different similarity measurement methods. Notably, IGSA is proved to be more sensitive and specific in finding significant pathways, and can indicate related changes in pathways with the severity of disease. In addition, IGSA provides with significant gene sets profile for each sample.

  5. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.


    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  6. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas. (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto


    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  7. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules. (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng


    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  8. Quantitative analysis of professionally trained versus untrained voices. (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora


    The aim of this study was to compare healthy trained and untrained voices as well as healthy and dysphonic trained voices in adults using combined voice range profile and aerodynamic tests, to define the normal range limiting values of quantitative voice parameters and to select the most informative quantitative voice parameters for separation between healthy and dysphonic trained voices. Three groups of persons were evaluated. One hundred eighty six healthy volunteers were divided into two groups according to voice training: non-professional speakers group consisted of 106 untrained voices persons (36 males and 70 females) and professional speakers group--of 80 trained voices persons (21 males and 59 females). Clinical group consisted of 103 dysphonic professional speakers (23 males and 80 females) with various voice disorders. Eighteen quantitative voice parameters from combined voice range profile (VRP) test were analyzed: 8 of voice range profile, 8 of speaking voice, overall vocal dysfunction degree and coefficient of sound, and aerodynamic maximum phonation time. Analysis showed that healthy professional speakers demonstrated expanded vocal abilities in comparison to healthy non-professional speakers. Quantitative voice range profile parameters- pitch range, high frequency limit, area of high frequencies and coefficient of sound differed significantly between healthy professional and non-professional voices, and were more informative than speaking voice or aerodynamic parameters in showing the voice training. Logistic stepwise regression revealed that VRP area in high frequencies was sufficient to discriminate between healthy and dysphonic professional speakers for male subjects (overall discrimination accuracy--81.8%) and combination of three quantitative parameters (VRP high frequency limit, maximum voice intensity and slope of speaking curve) for female subjects (overall model discrimination accuracy--75.4%). We concluded that quantitative voice assessment

  9. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  10. Quantitative X ray analysis system. User's manual and guide to X ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This guide covers trimmed and re-arranged version 3.6 of the Quantitative X ray Analysis System (QXAS) software package that includes the most frequently used methods of quantitative analysis. QXAS is a comprehensive quantitative analysis package that has been developed by the IAEA through research and technical contracts. Additional development has also been carried out in the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf where QXAS was extensively tested. New in this version of the manual are the descriptions of the Voigt-profile peak fitting, the backscatter fundamental parameters' and emission-transmission methods of chemical composition analysis, an expanded chapter on the X ray fluorescence physics, and completely revised and increased number of practical examples of utilization of the QXAS software package. The analytical data accompanying this manual were collected in the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in the years 2006/2007

  11. QuantUM: Quantitative Safety Analysis of UML Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leitner-Fischer


    Full Text Available When developing a safety-critical system it is essential to obtain an assessment of different design alternatives. In particular, an early safety assessment of the architectural design of a system is desirable. In spite of the plethora of available formal quantitative analysis methods it is still difficult for software and system architects to integrate these techniques into their every day work. This is mainly due to the lack of methods that can be directly applied to architecture level models, for instance given as UML diagrams. Also, it is necessary that the description methods used do not require a profound knowledge of formal methods. Our approach bridges this gap and improves the integration of quantitative safety analysis methods into the development process. All inputs of the analysis are specified at the level of a UML model. This model is then automatically translated into the analysis model, and the results of the analysis are consequently represented on the level of the UML model. Thus the analysis model and the formal methods used during the analysis are hidden from the user. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach using an industrial strength case study.

  12. A quantitative analysis of coupled oscillations using mobile accelerometer sensors (United States)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Fernando; Monsoriu, Juan A.


    In this paper, smartphone acceleration sensors were used to perform a quantitative analysis of mechanical coupled oscillations. Symmetric and asymmetric normal modes were studied separately in the first two experiments. In the third, a coupled oscillation was studied as a combination of the normal modes. Results indicate that acceleration sensors of smartphones, which are very familiar to students, represent valuable measurement instruments for introductory and first-year physics courses.

  13. A quantitative analysis of coupled oscillations using mobile accelerometer sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Abad, Luisberis; Giménez, Fernando; Monsoriu, Juan A


    In this paper, smartphone acceleration sensors were used to perform a quantitative analysis of mechanical coupled oscillations. Symmetric and asymmetric normal modes were studied separately in the first two experiments. In the third, a coupled oscillation was studied as a combination of the normal modes. Results indicate that acceleration sensors of smartphones, which are very familiar to students, represent valuable measurement instruments for introductory and first-year physics courses. (paper)

  14. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah


    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  15. Quantitative subsurface analysis using frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (United States)

    Subhani, S. K.; Suresh, B.; Ghali, V. S.


    Quantitative depth analysis of the anomaly with an enhanced depth resolution is a challenging task towards the estimation of depth of the subsurface anomaly using thermography. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging introduced earlier provides a complete depth scanning of the object by stimulating it with a suitable band of frequencies and further analyzing the subsequent thermal response using a suitable post processing approach to resolve subsurface details. But conventional Fourier transform based methods used for post processing unscramble the frequencies with a limited frequency resolution and contribute for a finite depth resolution. Spectral zooming provided by chirp z transform facilitates enhanced frequency resolution which can further improves the depth resolution to axially explore finest subsurface features. Quantitative depth analysis with this augmented depth resolution is proposed to provide a closest estimate to the actual depth of subsurface anomaly. This manuscript experimentally validates this enhanced depth resolution using non stationary thermal wave imaging and offers an ever first and unique solution for quantitative depth estimation in frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  16. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.


    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  17. Quantitative analysis of macro-ARG using IP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Eiichi; Kawai, Kenji; Furuta, Yoshitake


    Recent progress in imaging plate (IP) system allow us to analyze autoradiographic images quantitatively. In the 'whole-body autoradiography', a method clarify the distribution of radioisotope or labeled compounds in the tissues and organs in a freeze-dried whole-body section of small animals such as rats and mice, the sections are pressed against a IP for exposure and the IP is scanned by Bio-Imaging Analyzer (Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd) and a digital autoradiographic image is given. Quantitative data concerning the activity in different tissues can be obtained using an isotope scale as a reference source. Fading effect, application of IP system for distribution of receptor binding ARG, analysis of radio-spots on TLC and radioactive concentration in liquid such as blood are also discussed. (author)

  18. Quantitative 3D analysis of huge nanoparticle assemblies. (United States)

    Zanaga, Daniele; Bleichrodt, Folkert; Altantzis, Thomas; Winckelmans, Naomi; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Sijbers, Jan; de Nijs, Bart; van Huis, Marijn A; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Batenburg, K Joost; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf


    Nanoparticle assemblies can be investigated in 3 dimensions using electron tomography. However, it is not straightforward to obtain quantitative information such as the number of particles or their relative position. This becomes particularly difficult when the number of particles increases. We propose a novel approach in which prior information on the shape of the individual particles is exploited. It improves the quality of the reconstruction of these complex assemblies significantly. Moreover, this quantitative Sparse Sphere Reconstruction approach yields directly the number of particles and their position as an output of the reconstruction technique, enabling a detailed 3D analysis of assemblies with as many as 10,000 particles. The approach can also be used to reconstruct objects based on a very limited number of projections, which opens up possibilities to investigate beam sensitive assemblies where previous reconstructions with the available electron tomography techniques failed.

  19. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW" (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.


    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  20. Quantitative risk analysis as a basis for emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Macedo, Eduardo Soares de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Several environmental accidents happened in Brazil and in the world during the 70's and 80's. This strongly motivated the preparation for emergencies in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Environmental accidents affect the environment and the communities that are neighbor to the industrial facilities. The present study aims at subsidizing and providing orientation to develop Emergency Planning from the data obtained on Quantitative Risk Analysis, elaborated according to the Technical Standard P4.261/03 from CETESB (Sao Paulo Environmental Agency). It was observed, during the development of the research, that the data generated on these studies need a complementation and a deeper analysis, so that it is possible to use them on the Emergency Plans. The main issues that were analyzed and discussed on this study were the reevaluation of hazard identification for the emergency plans, the consequences and vulnerability analysis for the response planning, the risk communication, and the preparation to respond to the emergencies of the communities exposed to manageable risks. As a result, the study intends to improve the interpretation and use of the data deriving from the Quantitative Risk Analysis to develop the emergency plans. (author)

  1. Quantitative analysis of myocardial tissue with digital autofluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Svendsen, Ida M H


    staining may benefit. METHODS: This study explores the inherent tissue fluorescence, also known as autofluorescence, as a mean to quantitate cardiac tissue components in histological microsections. Data acquisition using a commercially available whole slide scanner and an image-based quantitation algorithm...... quantitation along with accurate outlines of above-mentioned components. The digital quantitations are verified by comparison to point grid quantitations performed on the microsections after Van Gieson staining. CONCLUSION: The presented method is amply described as a prestain multicomponent quantitation...

  2. Quantitative Analysis of the Cervical Texture by Ultrasound and Correlation with Gestational Age. (United States)

    Baños, Núria; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Migliorelli, Federico; Triginer, Laura; Cobo, Teresa; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard; Palacio, Montse


    Quantitative texture analysis has been proposed to extract robust features from the ultrasound image to detect subtle changes in the textures of the images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative cervical texture analysis to assess cervical tissue changes throughout pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study including singleton pregnancies between 20.0 and 41.6 weeks of gestation from women who delivered at term. Cervical length was measured, and a selected region of interest in the cervix was delineated. A model to predict gestational age based on features extracted from cervical images was developed following three steps: data splitting, feature transformation, and regression model computation. Seven hundred images, 30 per gestational week, were included for analysis. There was a strong correlation between the gestational age at which the images were obtained and the estimated gestational age by quantitative analysis of the cervical texture (R = 0.88). This study provides evidence that quantitative analysis of cervical texture can extract features from cervical ultrasound images which correlate with gestational age. Further research is needed to evaluate its applicability as a biomarker of the risk of spontaneous preterm birth, as well as its role in cervical assessment in other clinical situations in which cervical evaluation might be relevant. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis. (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J


    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  4. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.


    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  5. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino eSalminen


    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9±9.2 years with coronary artery disease diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Median salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary A. actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥ 6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL. High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP. The combination of the four bacteria, i.e. the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13. When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52. The highest odds ratio 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63 was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were used. Salivary

  6. Quantitative option analysis for implementation and management of landfills. (United States)

    Kerestecioğlu, Merih


    The selection of the most feasible strategy for implementation of landfills is a challenging step. Potential implementation options of landfills cover a wide range, from conventional construction contracts to the concessions. Montenegro, seeking to improve the efficiency of the public services while maintaining affordability, was considering privatisation as a way to reduce public spending on service provision. In this study, to determine the most feasible model for construction and operation of a regional landfill, a quantitative risk analysis was implemented with four steps: (i) development of a global risk matrix; (ii) assignment of qualitative probabilities of occurrences and magnitude of impacts; (iii) determination of the risks to be mitigated, monitored, controlled or ignored; (iv) reduction of the main risk elements; and (v) incorporation of quantitative estimates of probability of occurrence and expected impact for each risk element in the reduced risk matrix. The evaluated scenarios were: (i) construction and operation of the regional landfill by the public sector; (ii) construction and operation of the landfill by private sector and transfer of the ownership to the public sector after a pre-defined period; and (iii) operation of the landfill by the private sector, without ownership. The quantitative risk assessment concluded that introduction of a public private partnership is not the most feasible option, unlike the common belief in several public institutions in developing countries. A management contract for the first years of operation was advised to be implemented, after which, a long term operating contract may follow. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.


    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

  8. Fluorescent foci quantitation for high-throughput analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ledesma-Fernández


    Full Text Available A number of cellular proteins localize to discrete foci within cells, for example DNA repair proteins, microtubule organizing centers, P bodies or kinetochores. It is often possible to measure the fluorescence emission from tagged proteins within these foci as a surrogate for the concentration of that specific protein. We wished to develop tools that would allow quantitation of fluorescence foci intensities in high-throughput studies. As proof of principle we have examined the kinetochore, a large multi-subunit complex that is critical for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Kinetochore perturbations lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Hence, understanding kinetochore homeostasis and regulation are important for a global understanding of cell division and genome integrity. The 16 budding yeast kinetochores colocalize within the nucleus to form a single focus. Here we have created a set of freely-available tools to allow high-throughput quantitation of kinetochore foci fluorescence. We use this ‘FociQuant’ tool to compare methods of kinetochore quantitation and we show proof of principle that FociQuant can be used to identify changes in kinetochore protein levels in a mutant that affects kinetochore function. This analysis can be applied to any protein that forms discrete foci in cells.

  9. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.


    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  10. Preoperative Prediction of Microvascular Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Quantitative Image Analysis. (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Chapman, William C; Gerst, Scott; Gonen, Mithat; Pak, Linda M; Jarnagin, William R; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Do, Richard K G; Simpson, Amber L


    Microvascular invasion (MVI) is a significant risk factor for early recurrence after resection or transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Knowledge of MVI status would help guide treatment recommendations, but is generally identified after operation. This study aims to predict MVI preoperatively using quantitative image analysis. One hundred and twenty patients from 2 institutions underwent resection of HCC from 2003 to 2015 were included. The largest tumor from preoperative CT was subjected to quantitative image analysis, which uses an automated computer algorithm to capture regional variation in CT enhancement patterns. Quantitative imaging features by automatic analysis, qualitative radiographic descriptors by 2 radiologists, and preoperative clinical variables were included in multivariate analysis to predict histologic MVI. Histologic MVI was identified in 19 (37%) patients with tumors ≤5 cm and 34 (49%) patients with tumors >5 cm. Among patients with tumors ≤5 cm, none of the clinical findings or radiographic descriptors were associated with MVI; however, quantitative features based on angle co-occurrence matrix predicted MVI with an area under curve of 0.80, positive predictive value of 63%, and negative predictive value of 85%. In patients with tumors >5 cm, higher α-fetoprotein level, larger tumor size, and viral hepatitis history were associated with MVI, and radiographic descriptors were not. However, a multivariate model combining α-fetoprotein, tumor size, hepatitis status, and quantitative feature based on local binary pattern predicted MVI with area under curve of 0.88, positive predictive value of 72%, and negative predictive value of 96%. This study reveals the potential importance of quantitative image analysis as a predictor of MVI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.


    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  12. Program for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepelea, V.; Purice, E.; Dan, R.; Calcev, G.; Domnisan, M.; Galis, V.; Teodosiu, G.; Debert, C.; Mocanu, N.; Nastase, M.


    A computer code for processing of data from neutron activation analysis is described. The code is capable of qualitative and quantitative analysis of regular spectra from neutron irradiated samples, measured by a Ge(li) detector. Multichannel analysers with 1024 channels, such as TN 1705 or a Romanian made MCA 79, and an ITC interface can be used. The code is implemented on FELIX M118 and FELIX M216 microcomputers. Spectrum processing is performed off line, after storing the data on a floppy disk. The background is assumed to be a polynomial of first, second or third degree. Qualitative analysis is performed by recursive least square, Gaussian curve fitting. The elements are identified using a polynomial relation between energy and channel, obtained by calibration with a standard sample

  13. The cost of electricity distribution in Italy: a quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, C.


    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the cost of medium and low tension electricity distribution in Italy. An econometric analysis of the cost function is proposed, on the basis of data on 147 zones of the dominant firm, ENEL. Data are available only for 1996, which has forced to carry out only a cross-section OLS analysis. The econometric estimate shows the existence of significant scale economies, that the current organisational structure does not exploit. On this basis is also possible to control to what extent exogenous cost drivers affect costs. The role of numerous exogenous factors considered seems however quite limited. The area of the distribution zone and an indicator of quality are the only elements that appear significant from an economic viewpoint [it

  14. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab. (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert


    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin


    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  16. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles. (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C


    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  17. Quantitative imaging analysis of posterior fossa ependymoma location in children. (United States)

    Sabin, Noah D; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Xingyu; Li, Yimei; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A; Ellison, David W; Ogg, Robert J


    Imaging descriptions of posterior fossa ependymoma in children have focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal and local anatomic relationships with imaging location only recently used to classify these neoplasms. We developed a quantitative method for analyzing the location of ependymoma in the posterior fossa, tested its effectiveness in distinguishing groups of tumors, and examined potential associations of distinct tumor groups with treatment and prognostic factors. Pre-operative MRI examinations of the brain for 38 children with histopathologically proven posterior fossa ependymoma were analyzed. Tumor margin contours and anatomic landmarks were manually marked and used to calculate the centroid of each tumor. Landmarks were used to calculate a transformation to align, scale, and rotate each patient's image coordinates to a common coordinate space. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the location and morphological variables was performed to detect multivariate patterns in tumor characteristics. The ependymomas were also characterized as "central" or "lateral" based on published radiological criteria. Therapeutic details and demographic, recurrence, and survival information were obtained from medical records and analyzed with the tumor location and morphology to identify prognostic tumor characteristics. Cluster analysis yielded two distinct tumor groups based on centroid location The cluster groups were associated with differences in PFS (p = .044), "central" vs. "lateral" radiological designation (p = .035), and marginally associated with multiple operative interventions (p = .064). Posterior fossa ependymoma can be objectively classified based on quantitative analysis of tumor location, and these classifications are associated with prognostic and treatment factors.

  18. Quantitative analysis of peel-off degree for printed electronics (United States)

    Park, Janghoon; Lee, Jongsu; Sung, Ki-Hak; Shin, Kee-Hyun; Kang, Hyunkyoo


    We suggest a facile methodology of peel-off degree evaluation by image processing on printed electronics. The quantification of peeled and printed areas was performed using open source programs. To verify the accuracy of methods, we manually removed areas from the printed circuit that was measured, resulting in 96.3% accuracy. The sintered patterns showed a decreasing tendency in accordance with the increase in the energy density of an infrared lamp, and the peel-off degree increased. Thus, the comparison between both results was presented. Finally, the correlation between performance characteristics was determined by quantitative analysis.

  19. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø


    in a number work cases. These mainly falls in the three categories: (i) Description of coarse scale measures to quantify surface structure or texture (topography); (ii) Characterization of fracture surfaces in steels (fractography); (iii) Grain boundary segmentation in sintered ceramics. The theoretical...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  20. Frequency-Domain Response Analysis for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Models. (United States)

    Schulthess, Pascal; Post, Teun M; Yates, James; van der Graaf, Piet H


    Drug dosing regimen can significantly impact drug effect and, thus, the success of treatments. Nevertheless, trial and error is still the most commonly used method by conventional pharmacometric approaches to optimize dosing regimen. In this tutorial, we utilize four distinct classes of quantitative systems pharmacology models to introduce frequency-domain response analysis, a method widely used in electrical and control engineering that allows the analytical optimization of drug treatment regimen from the dynamics of the model. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  1. Quantitative analysis of tellurium in simple substance sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Yoshiko


    The MIBK extraction-bismuthiol-2 absorptiometric method for the quantitative analysis of tellurium was studied. The method and its limitation were compared with the atomic absorption method. The period of time required to boil the solution in order to decompose excess hydrogen peroxide and to reduce tellurium from 6 valance to 4 valance was examined. As a result of experiment, the decomposition was fast in the alkaline solution. It takes 30 minutes with alkaline solution and 40 minutes with acid solution to indicate constant absorption. A method of analyzing the sample containing tellurium less than 5 ppm was studied. The experiment revealed that the sample containing a very small amount of tellurium can be analyzed when concentration by extraction is carried out for the sample solutions which are divided into one gram each because it is difficult to treat several grams of the sample at one time. This method also is suitable for the quantitative analysis of selenium. This method showed good addition effect and reproducibility within the relative error of 5%. The comparison between the calibration curve of the standard solution of tellurium 4 subjected to the reaction with bismuthiol-2 and the calibration curve obtained from the extraction of tellurium 4 with MIBK indicated that the extraction is perfect. The result by bismuthiol-2 method and that by atom absorption method coincided quite well on the same sample. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory. (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman


    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative analysis of results for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, Bruno Martins


    The linear accelerators represent the most important, practical and versatile source of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. These functional characteristics influence the geometric and dosimetric accuracy of therapeutic doses applied to patients. The performance of this equipment may vary due to electronic defects, component failures or mechanical breakdowns, or may vary due to the deterioration and aging of components. Maintaining the quality of care depends on the stability of the accelerators and quality control of the institutions to monitor deviations in the parameters of the beam. The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0,998 ± 0,012) and (0,996 ± 0,014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1,008 ± 0,009) and (1,006 ± 0,010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. Statistical analysis of the three linear accelerators was found that the coefficient of variation of calibration factors had values below 2% which shows a consistency in the data. By calculating the normal distribution of calibration factors, we found that for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable limits according to the TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR 20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR20,10 from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  4. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven


    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  5. A new technique for the quantitative analysis of cranial suture biology. (United States)

    Sherick, D G; Buchman, S R; Goulet, R W; Goldstein, S A


    Our objective was to assess the ability of the microcomputed tomography scanner to correctly image normal and synostosed cranial sutures at the ultrastructural level. Two specimens of coronal sutures were collected from operative specimens. After appropriate preparation, histological sections were obtained and stained with toluene blue for evaluation. Representative histological sections were compared to microcomputed tomography slices. With microcomputed tomography, we successfully imaged one normal and one synostosed human coronal suture and performed a quantitative analysis of these specimens. Microcomputed tomography scanning was found to be a highly accurate imaging device for the evaluation of cranial suture development. Microcomputed tomography offers three-dimensional imaging at the microscopic level and allows for rapid quantitative analysis of bone architecture, including several measurements unavailable through histologic analysis. We believe that microcomputed tomography can play an important role in imaging and in the quantitative analysis of the stereology of bone microarchitecture. Among its advantages, microcomputed tomography is able to image many more slices than are obtainable through histology, and the method is not prone to human error. Microcomputed tomography slices are generated without destruction of the specimen and without loss or corruption of reproducible data. Structure-oriented slices from microcomputed tomography together with cellular-oriented sections from histology are complementary in the overall quantitative analysis of cranial sutures.

  6. [Biological analysis of proteinuria in the laboratory: quantitative features]. (United States)

    Le Bricon, T


    Total protein analysis is one of the most frequent laboratory analyses in urine. A proteinuria above 150 mg/L is often observed in a random way in preventive or school medicine (dipsticks) or during laboratory analysis (quantitative determination). Complete (quantitative, then qualitative) and repeated evaluation of proteinuria is of major interest for the clinician to establish a diagnosis of abnormality and for therapeutic follow-up of a nephropathy, uropathy or a non-renal disease (diabetes, multiple myeloma). Most frequent (90% of cases) and severe forms of proteinuria are of glomerular type, associated to the nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, and progressive renal failure. Attention should be paid by the biologist to the pre-analytical phase (specimen collection, treatment, and storage), to clinical data, and to prescription of drugs that could interfere with protein analysis. During the last past 10 years, significant analytical advances have been made: dipstick analysis has been dropped (false positives and most importantly false negatives) as manual precipitation techniques with turbidimetric detection (poor inter-laboratory coefficients of variation, CV), replacement of Coomassie blue by pyrogallol red (improved practicability). Urinary quality control data reflect these positive changes, as demonstrated by a dramatic reduction in reported CVs. There is, however, still no reference method for total urinary protein determination and limits of existing pyrogallol red methods should be emphasized: variable reagent composition between manufacturers (such as the presence of SDS additive), limited sensitivity, difficulty in the choice of a calibration material, underestimation of free light chains, and interference with gelatin based vascular replacement fluids.

  7. The Quantitative Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Ethirajan


    Chennai, also called as Detroit of India due to presence of Automotive Industry producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur, Thirumalizai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. The objective is to study the Quantitative Performance of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster before (2001-2002) and after the CDA (2008-2009). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from 100 ACI using quantitative questionnaire and analyzing using Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), Friedman Test (FMT), and Kruskall Wallis Test (KWT).The CA computed for the different set of variables reveals that there is high degree of relationship between the variables studied. The RA models constructed establish the strong relationship between the dependent variable and a host of independent variables. The models proposed here reveal the approximate relationship in a closer form. KWT proves, there is no significant difference between three locations clusters with respect to: Net Profit, Production Cost, Marketing Costs, Procurement Costs and Gross Output. This supports that each location has contributed for development of automobile component cluster uniformly. The FMT proves, there is no significant difference between industrial units in respect of cost like Production, Infrastructure, Technology, Marketing and Net Profit. To conclude, the Automotive Industries have fully utilized the Physical Infrastructure and Centralised Facilities by adopting CDA and now exporting their products to North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. The value chain analysis models have been implemented in all the cluster units. This Cluster Development Approach (CDA) model can be implemented in industries of under developed and developing countries for cost reduction and productivity

  8. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)


    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  9. MR imaging of Minamata disease. Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korogi, Yukunori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sumi, Minako; Hirai, Toshinori; Okuda, Tomoko; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Okajima, Toru.


    Minamata disease (MD), a result of methylmercury poisoning, is a neurological illness caused by ingestion of contaminated seafood. We evaluated MR findings of patients with MD qualitatively and quantitatively. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla was performed in seven patients with MD and in eight control subjects. All of our patients showed typical neurological findings like sensory disturbance, constriction of the visual fields, and ataxia. In the quantitative image analysis, inferior and middle parts of the cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemispheres were significantly atrophic in comparison with the normal controls. There were no significant differences in measurements of the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles, corpus callosum, or cerebral hemispheres between MD and the normal controls. The calcarine sulci and central sulci were significantly dilated, reflecting atrophy of the visual cortex and postcentral cortex, respectively. The lesions located in the calcarine area, cerebellum, and postcentral gyri were related to three characteristic manifestations of this disease, constriction of the visual fields, ataxia, and sensory disturbance, respectively. MR imaging has proved to be useful in evaluating the CNS abnormalities of methylmercury poisoning. (author)

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Airway Walls Using CT Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Jung; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Kyung Won; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kwang Gi; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to develop dedicated software for quantitative analysis of the airways and to validate the software using airway phantoms and excised swine lung. The dedicated software was validated in airway phantoms and excised swine lung through comparison of the actual values with the measurements acquired with dedicated software. The accuracy of the measurements according to the reconstruction methods (standard, lung, sharp) and spatial resolution were compared using airway phantoms. Repeatability of the measurement of airway phantoms was assessed with follow-up CT scans three months later. Airway dimension measurements obtained in airway phantoms and excised swine lung showed good agreements with actual values. Airway measurements were more accurate when the sharp reconstruction algorithm was used and when the spatial resolution was improved using pixels smaller than conventional size. There was good agreement between the initial airway measurements and those obtained three months later. We developed and validated dedicated software for quantitative airway measurement. Reconstruction with sharp algorithms and high spatial resolution images is recommended for obtaining airway measurements.

  11. Analysis of correlation and causes for discrepancy between quantitative and semi-quantitative Doppler scores in synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Hamed; Af Klint, Erik; Hammer, Hilde Berner


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between two semi-quantitative Doppler US scoring systems (SQS), and the quantitative scoring (QS) of Doppler pixel count. METHODS: Adult patients with RA and inadequate clinical response to anti-rheumatic therapy were examined...... correlations and multilevel models taking into account the clustering of ratings at the rater, patient and joint levels. RESULTS: Analysis of the 1190 ratings revealed a strong correlation (ρ = 0.89, P

  12. Assessment of acute myocarditis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. (United States)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; De Giorgi, Marco; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Cuocolo, Renato; Ponsiglione, Andrea; De Giorgi, Igino; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Klain, Michele; Piscione, Federico; Pace, Leonardo; Cuocolo, Alberto


    To compare cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the noninvasive assessment of myocardial inflammation in patients with suspected acute myocarditis (AM). A total of 61 patients with suspected AM underwent coronary angiography and CMR. Qualitative analysis was performed applying Lake-Louise Criteria (LLC), followed by quantitative analysis based on the evaluation of edema ratio (ER) and global relative enhancement (RE). Diagnostic performance was assessed for each method by measuring the area under the curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic analyses. The final diagnosis of AM was based on symptoms and signs suggestive of cardiac disease, evidence of myocardial injury as defined by electrocardiogram changes, elevated troponin I, exclusion of coronary artery disease by coronary angiography, and clinical and echocardiographic follow-up at 3 months after admission to the chest pain unit. In all patients, coronary angiography did not show significant coronary artery stenosis. Troponin I levels and creatine kinase were higher in patients with AM compared to those without (both P qualitative (T2-weighted STIR 0.92, EGE 0.87 and LGE 0.88) and quantitative (ER 0.89 and global RE 0.80) analyses were also similar. Qualitative and quantitative CMR analysis methods show similar diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AM. These findings suggest that a simplified approach using a shortened CMR protocol including only T2-weighted STIR sequences might be useful to rule out AM in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal coronary angiography.

  13. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair. (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C


    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents from latrines. (United States)

    Lin, Jianming; Aoll, Jackline; Niclass, Yvan; Velazco, Maria Inés; Wünsche, Laurent; Pika, Jana; Starkenmann, Christian


    More than 2.5 billion people defecate in the open. The increased commitment of private and public organizations to improving this situation is driving the research and development of new technologies for toilets and latrines. Although key technical aspects are considered by researchers when designing new technologies for developing countries, the basic aspect of offending malodors from human waste is often neglected. With the objective of contributing to technical solutions that are acceptable to global consumers, we investigated the chemical composition of latrine malodors sampled in Africa and India. Field latrines in four countries were evaluated olfactively and the odors qualitatively and quantitatively characterized with three analytical techniques. Sulfur compounds including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl-mono-(di;tri) sulfide are important in sewage-like odors of pit latrines under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, in Nairobi for example, paracresol and indole reached concentrations of 89 and 65 μg/g, respectively, which, along with short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid (13 mg/g) explained the strong rancid, manure and farm yard odor. This work represents the first qualitative and quantitative study of volatile compounds sampled from seven pit latrines in a variety of geographic, technical, and economic contexts in addition to three single stools from India and a pit latrine model system.

  15. Quantitative analysis of lead in polysulfide-based impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Silva Braga


    Full Text Available Permlastic® is a polysulfide-based impression material widely used by dentists in Brazil. It is composed of a base paste and a catalyzer containing lead dioxide. The high toxicity of lead to humans is ground for much concern, since it can attack various systems and organs. The present study involved a quantitative analysis of the concentration of lead in the material Permlastic®. The lead was determined by plasma-induced optical emission spectrometry (Varian model Vista. The percentages of lead found in the two analyzed lots were 38.1 and 40.8%. The lead concentrations in the material under study were high, but the product’s packaging contained no information about these concentrations.

  16. Quantitative analysis of spatial variability of geotechnical parameters (United States)

    Fang, Xing


    Geotechnical parameters are the basic parameters of geotechnical engineering design, while the geotechnical parameters have strong regional characteristics. At the same time, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters has been recognized. It is gradually introduced into the reliability analysis of geotechnical engineering. Based on the statistical theory of geostatistical spatial information, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters is quantitatively analyzed. At the same time, the evaluation of geotechnical parameters and the correlation coefficient between geotechnical parameters are calculated. A residential district of Tianjin Survey Institute was selected as the research object. There are 68 boreholes in this area and 9 layers of mechanical stratification. The parameters are water content, natural gravity, void ratio, liquid limit, plasticity index, liquidity index, compressibility coefficient, compressive modulus, internal friction angle, cohesion and SP index. According to the principle of statistical correlation, the correlation coefficient of geotechnical parameters is calculated. According to the correlation coefficient, the law of geotechnical parameters is obtained.

  17. Sexual Scripts in Contemporary Mexican Cinema: A Quantitative Content Analysis. (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Mann, Emily S; Zegbe, Estephania Moreno; Thrasher, James F


    While the literature on sexual scripts is substantive, with some scholarship examining the role of popular media in the production of dominant and divergent sexual practices and interactions, limited attention has been paid to the contemporary Mexican context. In this article, we share findings from a quantitative content analysis of popular Mexican films in order to explore how sexual behavior is portrayed and more specifically how relationship characteristics, condom use, and substance use interact with representations of sexual behavior. We find that more sexually explicit portrayals featured people engaged in heterosexual sexual interactions outside the context of marriage and also in age discordant relationships, where one partner was a minor. Few films featured safer sex practices or substance use in concert with sexual behavior. This research sheds light on how film as a powerful agent of socialization communicates sexual scripts in contemporary Mexican culture that may contribute to risky sexual behaviors among Mexican youth.

  18. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.


    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  19. Quali- and quantitative analysis of commercial coffee by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Leila Aley; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto


    Coffee is one of the beverages most widely consumed in the world and the 'cafezinho' is normally prepared from a blend of roasted powder of two species, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Each one exhibits differences in their taste and in the chemical composition, especially in the caffeine percentage. There are several procedures proposed in the literature for caffeine determination in different samples like soft drinks, coffee, medicines, etc but most of them need a sample workup which involves at least one step of purification. This work describes the quantitative analysis of caffeine using 1 H NMR and the identification of the major components in commercial coffee samples using 1D and 2D NMR techniques without any sample pre-treatment. (author)

  20. [Quantitative Analysis of Power Doppler Images in Lateral Humeral Enthesopathy]. (United States)

    Walder, P; Paša, L; Pavliska, L


    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The evaluation of efficiency of power Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of lateral humeral enthesopathy, role of correct assessment of Doppler sonographic images with the method of quantitative analysis, assessment of statistical differences between a group of patients with lateral humeral enthesopathy and a control group of healthy subjects and assessment of the diagnostic power of this test. In addition, consideration of the relevance of each area of the lateral compartment for assessment and diagnosis making in lateral humeral enthesopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 41 subjects, aged 18 to 60 years, entered the study. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with lateral humeral enthesopathy on the basis of clinical tests and a positive reaction of the lateral humeral epicondylus to administration of local anaesthetic. The control group consisted of 28 subjects without clinical signs of lateral humeral enthesopathy and subjective complaints. Power Doppler activity was evaluated in the whole region studied and in sub-regions involving the enthesis of the common extensor tendon and the periosteum of the lateral epicondyle with the area distal to it. The evaluation was based on calculating the overall surface with power Doppler activity using the method of quantitative image analysis. Each patient was measured on three occasions and the median of values obtained was used in calculation. To assess the diagnostic power of this test, all values obtained from the whole power Doppler region measured were used. The optimal dividing criterion at which the method had a maximum of sensitivity and specificity was determined. RESULTS The most evident, statistically significant difference between the patient and the control group was recorded in the whole "Range of Interest" (ROI) region (p=1.34x10-6). A significant difference was also found in sub-regions corresponding chiefly to the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle and to the

  1. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A; Yahya, Z


    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  2. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe


    UNLABELLED: Protein phosphorylation can regulate most of the important processes in muscle, such as metabolism and contraction. The postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis have essential effects on meat quality. In order to identify and characterize the protein phosphorylation events involved...... in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160...... phosphoproteins with 784 phosphorylation sites. Among these, 184 phosphorylation sites on 93 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed. The proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction were the two largest clusters of phosphoproteins with significantly changed...

  3. Quantitative TEM analysis of a hexagonal mesoporous silicate structure. (United States)

    Hudson, S; Tanner, D A; Redington, W; Magner, E; Hodnett, K; Nakahara, S


    TEM analysis of mesoporous materials is generally undertaken to give qualitative results. Accurate quantitative analysis is demonstrated in this study. A systematic image analysis of a powder form of a hexagonal mesoporous material known as KIT-6 is conducted using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Three types of image contrast typically appear in this material (a hexagonal honeycomb structure, wide and narrow parallel lines). The honeycomb face is used to characterise this material in terms of a conventional 2-D hexagonal structure and the d-spacings for the (100) and (110) planes are experimentally measured in varying focus conditions. A tilting experiment is conducted to determine how the angle of tilt affects the line spacing and their visibility. Tilting has very little effect on the line spacing, whereas it affects the visibility of both the wide and narrow lines by limiting an angle range of visibility. The hexagonal lattice structure parameter determined by TEM method is found to be approximately 7% lower than that calculated by low-angle X-ray diffraction. Thus we conclude that TEM data can be used to determine the geometry and dimensions of hexagonal mesoporous silica materials, with a small error in the hexagonal lattice parameter.

  4. [Quantitative analysis of drug expenditures variability in dermatology units]. (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, David; Ferrándiz, Lara; Ramírez-Soto, Gabriel; Muñoyerro, M Dolores


    Variability in adjusted drug expenditures among clinical departments raises the possibility of difficult access to certain therapies at the time that avoidable expenditures may also exist. Nevertheless, drug expenditures are not usually applied to clinical practice variability analysis. To identify and quantify variability in drug expenditures in comparable dermatology department of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. Comparative economic analysis regarding the drug expenditures adjusted to population and health care production in 18 dermatology departments of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The 2012 cost and production data (homogeneous production units -HPU-)were provided by Inforcoan, the cost accounting information system of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The observed drug expenditure ratio ranged from 0.97?/inh to 8.90?/inh and from 208.45?/HPU to 1,471.95?/ HPU. The Pearson correlation between drug expenditure and population was 0.25 and 0.35 for the correlation between expenditure and homogeneous production (p=0.32 and p=0,15, respectively), both Pearson coefficients confirming the lack of correlation and arelevant degree of variability in drug expenditures. The quantitative analysis of variability performed through Pearson correlation has confirmed the existence of drug expenditure variability among comparable dermatology departments. Copyright © 2013 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis of transformed ray transferences of optical systems in a space of augmented Hamiltonian matrices*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available There is a need for methods for quantitative analysis of the first-order optical character of optical systems including the eye and components of the eye.  Because of their symplectic nature ray transferences themselves are not closed under addition and multiplication by ascalar and, hence, are not amenable to conventional quantitative analysis such as the calculation of an arithmetic mean.  However transferences can be transformed into augmented Hamiltonian matrices which are amenable to such analysis.  This paper provides a general methodology and in particular shows how to calculate means and variance-covariances representing the first-order optical character of optical systems.  The systems may be astigmatic and may have decentred elements.  An accompanying paper shows application to the cornea of the human eye with allowance for thickness.

  6. Application of magnetic carriers to two examples of quantitative cell analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chen; Qian, Zhixi; Choi, Young Suk; David, Allan E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Todd, Paul, E-mail: [Techshot, Inc., 7200 Highway 150, Greenville, IN 47124 (United States); Hanley, Thomas R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)


    The use of magnetophoretic mobility as a surrogate for fluorescence intensity in quantitative cell analysis was investigated. The objectives of quantitative fluorescence flow cytometry include establishing a level of labeling for the setting of parameters in fluorescence activated cell sorters (FACS) and the determination of levels of uptake of fluorescently labeled substrates by living cells. Likewise, the objectives of quantitative magnetic cytometry include establishing a level of labeling for the setting of parameters in flowing magnetic cell sorters and the determination of levels of uptake of magnetically labeled substrates by living cells. The magnetic counterpart to fluorescence intensity is magnetophoretic mobility, defined as the velocity imparted to a suspended cell per unit of magnetic ponderomotive force. A commercial velocimeter available for making this measurement was used to demonstrate both applications. Cultured Gallus lymphoma cells were immunolabeled with commercial magnetic beads and shown to have adequate magnetophoretic mobility to be separated by a novel flowing magnetic separator. Phagocytosis of starch nanoparticles having magnetic cores by cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, a CHO line, was quantified on the basis of magnetophoretic mobility. - Highlights: • Commercial particle tracking velocimetry measures magnetophoretic mobility of labeled cells. • Magnetically labeled tumor cells were shown to have adequate mobility for capture in a specific sorter. • The kinetics of nonspecific endocytosis of magnetic nanomaterials by CHO cells was characterized. • Magnetic labeling of cells can be used like fluorescence flow cytometry for quantitative cell analysis.

  7. Quantitative analysis of the epithelial lining architecture in radicular cysts and odontogenic keratocysts


    Landini Gabriel


    Abstract Background This paper describes a quantitative analysis of the cyst lining architecture in radicular cysts (of inflammatory aetiology) and odontogenic keratocysts (thought to be developmental or neoplastic) including its 2 counterparts: solitary and associated with the Basal Cell Naevus Syndrome (BCNS). Methods Epithelial linings from 150 images (from 9 radicular cysts, 13 solitary keratocysts and 8 BCNS keratocysts) were segmented into theoretical cells using a semi-automated partit...

  8. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe


    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  9. Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of and distance to SN1999em (United States)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.


    Multi-epoch multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations of photospheric-phase type II supernovae (SN) provide information on massive-star progenitor properties, the core-collapse mechanism, and distances in the Universe. Following successes of recent endeavors (Dessart & Hillier 2005a, A&A, 437, 667; 2005b, A&A, 439, 671) with the non-LTE model atmosphere code CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller 1998, ApJ, 496, 407), we present a detailed quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the type II SN1999em and, using the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM) or synthetic fits to observed spectra, à la Baron et al. (2004, ApJ, 616, 91), we estimate its distance. Selecting eight epochs, which cover the first 38 days after discovery, we obtain satisfactory fits to optical spectroscopic observations of SN1999em (including the UV and near-IR ranges when available). We use the same iron-group metal content for the ejecta, the same power-law density distribution (with exponent n = 10{-}12), and a Hubble-velocity law at all times. We adopt a H/He/C/N/O abundance pattern compatible with CNO-cycle equilibrium values for a RSG/BSG progenitor, with C/O enhanced and N depleted at later times. The overall evolution of the spectral energy distribution, whose peak shifts to longer wavelengths as time progresses, reflects the steady temperature/ionization-level decrease of the ejecta, associated non-linearly with a dramatic shift to ions with stronger line-blocking powers in the UV and optical (Fe ii, Tiii). In the parameter space investigated, CMFGEN is very sensitive and provides photospheric temperatures and velocities, reddenings, and the H/He abundance ratio with an accuracy of ±500 K, ±10%, 0.05 and 50%, respectively. Following Leonard et al. (2002, PASP, 114, 35), and their use of correction factors from Hamuy et al. (2001, ApJ, 558, 615), we estimate an EPM distance to SN1999em that also falls 30% short of the Cepheid distance of 11.7 Mpc to its host galaxy NGC 1637 (Leonard et al. 2003, Ap

  10. Review of Department of Defense Education Activity (DODEA) Schools. Volume II: Quantitative Analysis of Educational Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Lowell


    This volume compiles, and presents in integrated form, IDA's quantitative analysis of educational quality provided by DoD's dependent schools, It covers the quantitative aspects of volume I in greater...

  11. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  12. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer. (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D


    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  13. Quantitative Analysis Of Acoustic Emission From Rock Fracture Experiments (United States)

    Goodfellow, Sebastian David

    This thesis aims to advance the methods of quantitative acoustic emission (AE) analysis by calibrating sensors, characterizing sources, and applying the results to solve engi- neering problems. In the first part of this thesis, we built a calibration apparatus and successfully calibrated two commercial AE sensors. The ErgoTech sensor was found to have broadband velocity sensitivity and the Panametrics V103 was sensitive to surface normal displacement. These calibration results were applied to two AE data sets from rock fracture experiments in order to characterize the sources of AE events. The first data set was from an in situ rock fracture experiment conducted at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The Mine-By experiment was a large scale excavation response test where both AE (10 kHz - 1 MHz) and microseismicity (MS) (1 Hz - 10 kHz) were monitored. Using the calibration information, magnitude, stress drop, dimension and energy were successfully estimated for 21 AE events recorded in the tensile region of the tunnel wall. Magnitudes were in the range -7.5 stress drops were within the range commonly observed for induced seismicity in the field (0.1 - 10 MPa). The second data set was AE collected during a true-triaxial deformation experiment, where the objectives were to characterize laboratory AE sources and identify issues related to moving the analysis from ideal in situ conditions to more complex laboratory conditions in terms of the ability to conduct quantitative AE analysis. We found AE magnitudes in the range -7.8 stress release was within the expected range of 0.1 - 10 MPa. We identified four major challenges to quantitative analysis in the laboratory, which in- hibited our ability to study parameter scaling (M0 ∝ fc -3 scaling). These challenges were 0c (1) limited knowledge of attenuation which we proved was continuously evolving, (2) the use of a narrow frequency band for acquisition, (3) the inability to identify P and S waves given the small

  14. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Analysis of ERBB3/ERBB4 Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian K Wandinger

    Full Text Available The four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB family form homo- and heterodimers which mediate ligand-specific regulation of many key cellular processes in normal and cancer tissues. While signaling through the EGFR has been extensively studied on the molecular level, signal transduction through ERBB3/ERBB4 heterodimers is less well understood. Here, we generated isogenic mouse Ba/F3 cells that express full-length and functional membrane-integrated ERBB3 and ERBB4 or ERBB4 alone, to serve as a defined cellular model for biological and phosphoproteomics analysis of ERBB3/ERBB4 signaling. ERBB3 co-expression significantly enhanced Ba/F3 cell proliferation upon neuregulin-1 (NRG1 treatment. For comprehensive signaling studies we performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS experiments to compare the basal ERBB3/ERBB4 cell phosphoproteome to NRG1 treatment of ERBB3/ERBB4 and ERBB4 cells. We employed a workflow comprising differential isotope labeling with mTRAQ reagents followed by chromatographic peptide separation and final phosphopeptide enrichment prior to MS analysis. Overall, we identified 9686 phosphorylation sites which could be confidently localized to specific residues. Statistical analysis of three replicate experiments revealed 492 phosphorylation sites which were significantly changed in NRG1-treated ERBB3/ERBB4 cells. Bioinformatics data analysis recapitulated regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways, but also indicated signaling links to cytoskeletal functions and nuclear biology. Comparative assessment of NRG1-stimulated ERBB4 Ba/F3 cells revealed that ERBB3 did not trigger defined signaling pathways but more broadly enhanced phosphoproteome regulation in cells expressing both receptors. In conclusion, our data provide the first global picture of ERBB3/ERBB4 signaling and provide numerous potential starting points for further mechanistic studies.

  15. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging. (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe


    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  16. Automatic quantitative analysis of liver functions by a computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpo, Takako


    In the previous paper, we confirmed the clinical usefulness of hepatic clearance (hepatic blood flow), which is the hepatic uptake and blood disappearance rate coefficients. These were obtained by the initial slope index of each minute during a period of five frames of a hepatogram by injecting sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid 37 MBq. To analyze the information simply, rapidly and accurately, we developed a automatic quantitative analysis for liver functions. Information was obtained every quarter minute during a period of 60 frames of the sequential image. The sequential counts were measured for the heart, whole liver, both left lobe and right lobes using a computer connected to a scintillation camera. We measured the effective hepatic blood flow, from the disappearance rate multiplied by the percentage of hepatic uptake as follows, (liver counts)/(tatal counts of the field) Our method of analysis automatically recorded the reappearance graph of the disappearance curve and uptake curve on the basis of the heart and the whole liver, respectively; and computed using BASIC language. This method makes it possible to obtain the image of the initial uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid into the liver by a small dose of it. (author)

  17. Highly Multiplexed Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ubiquitylomes. (United States)

    Rose, Christopher M; Isasa, Marta; Ordureau, Alban; Prado, Miguel A; Beausoleil, Sean A; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Finley, Daniel J; Harper, J Wade; Gygi, Steven P


    System-wide quantitative analysis of ubiquitylomes has proven to be a valuable tool for elucidating targets and mechanisms of the ubiquitin-driven signaling systems, as well as gaining insights into neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Current mass spectrometry methods for ubiquitylome detection require large amounts of starting material and rely on stochastic data collection to increase replicate analyses. We describe a method compatible with cell line and tissue samples for large-scale quantification of 5,000-9,000 ubiquitylation forms across ten samples simultaneously. Using this method, we reveal site-specific ubiquitylation in mammalian brain and liver tissues, as well as in cancer cells undergoing proteasome inhibition. To demonstrate the power of the approach for signal-dependent ubiquitylation, we examined protein and ubiquitylation dynamics for mitochondria undergoing PARKIN- and PINK1-dependent mitophagy. This analysis revealed the largest collection of PARKIN- and PINK1-dependent ubiquitylation targets to date in a single experiment, and it also revealed a subset of proteins recruited to the mitochondria during mitophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops (United States)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael


    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama (United States)

    Hettiyadura, Anusha P. S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Baumann, Karsten; Goldstein, Allen H.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koss, Abigail; Keutsch, Frank N.; Skog, Kate; Stone, Elizabeth A.


    Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) that form from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sulfate. In this study, the composition and abundance of organosulfates were determined in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected from Centreville, AL, during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in summer 2013. Six organosulfates were quantified using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQD) against authentic standards. Among these, the three most abundant species were glycolic acid sulfate (0.5-52.5 ng m-3), lactic acid sulfate (0.5-36.7 ng m-3), and hydroxyacetone sulfate (0.5-14.3 ng m-3). These three species were strongly inter-correlated, suggesting similar precursors and/or formation pathways. Further correlations with sulfate, isoprene, and isoprene oxidation products indicate important roles for these precursors in organosulfate formation in Centreville. Positive filter sampling artifacts associated with these organosulfates due to gas adsorption or reaction of gas phase precursors of organosulfates with sulfuric acid were assessed for a subset of samples and were less than 7.8 % of their PM2.5 concentrations. Together, the quantified organosulfates accounted for quantitative analysis was employed by way of monitoring characteristic product ions of organosulfates (HSO4- at m/z 97 and SO4- ṡ at m/z 96) and evaluating relative signal strength by HILIC-TQD. Molecular formulas of organosulfates were determined by high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The major organosulfate signal across all samples corresponded to 2-methyltetrol sulfates, which accounted for 42-62 % of the total bisulfate ion signal. Conversely, glycolic acid sulfate, the most abundant organosulfate quantified in this study, was 0.13-0.57 % of the total bisulfate ion signal. Precursors of m/z 96 mainly consisted of nitro-oxy organosulfates. Organosulfates

  20. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis). (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K


    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  1. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis. (United States)

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L


    The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex

  2. Interleukin-2 signaling pathway analysis by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Moss, Helle; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine


    among which 79 were found with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, including several previously not reported IL-2 downstream effectors. Combinatorial site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis resulted in identification of 99 phosphorylated sites mapping to the identified proteins...

  3. [Evaluation on methodological problems in reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Chen, Bi-Cang; Wu, Qiu-Ying; Xiang, Cheng-Bin; Zhou, Yi; Guo, Ling-Xiang; Zhao, Neng-Jiang; Yang, Shu-Yu


    To evaluate the quality of reports published in recent 10 years in China about quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation for diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to explore the methodological problems in these reports and find possible solutions. The main medical literature databases in China were searched. Thirty-one articles were included and evaluated by the principles of clinical epidemiology. There were many mistakes and deficiencies in these articles, such as clinical trial designs, diagnosis criteria for DM, standards of syndrome differentiation of DM, case inclusive and exclusive criteria, sample size and estimation, data comparability and statistical methods. It is necessary and important to improve the quality of reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of DM in light of the principles of clinical epidemiology.

  4. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of percentage grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 28, 2011 ... Chalkiness is a major concern in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding because it is one of the key factors in determining quality and price, which is a complicated quantitative trait and controlled by maternal, endosperm and cytoplasmic effects. In this study, we conducted grain chalkiness percentage quantitative ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV


    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  6. Photographers’ Nomenclature Units: A Structural and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A. Mihailova


    Full Text Available Addressing the needs of cross and intercultural communication as well as the methodology of contrastive research, the paper presents the results of the complex analysis conducted to describe semantic and pragmatic parameters of nomenclature units denoting photography equipment in the modern Russian informal discourse of professional photographers. The research is exemplified by 34 original nomenclature units and their 34 Russian equivalents used in 6871 comments posted at “Клуб” web-site in 2015. The structural and quantitative analyses of photographers’ nomenclature demonstrate the users’ morphological and graphic preferences and indirectly reflect their social and professional values. The corpus-based approach developed by Kast-Aigner (2009: 141 was applied in the study with the aim to identify the nomenclature units denoting photography equipment, validate and elaborate the data of the existing corpus. The research also throws light on the problems of professional language development and derivational processes. The perspective of the study lies in the research of the broader context of professional nomenclature.

  7. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR (United States)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Kalli, Chris; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; May, Eric F.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Graham, Brendan F.; Carroll, Matthew R. J.; Johns, Michael L.


    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1-30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography.

  8. Quantitative risk analysis of the pipeline GASDUC III - solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Bettoni, Izabel Cristina [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this work the quantitative risks analysis to the external public of the Pipeline Cabiunas - REDUC (GASDUC III), with 180 km, linking the municipalities of Macae and Duque de Caxias - RJ was performed by the Companies PETROBRAS and ITSEMAP do Brasil. In addition to the large diameter of the pipeline 38 inches and high operation pressure 100 kgf/cm{sup 2} operating with natural gas through several densely populated areas. Initially, the individual risk contours were calculated without considering mitigating measures, obtaining as result the individual risk contour with frequencies of 1x10{sup -06} per year involving sensitive occupations and therefore considered unacceptable when compared with the INEA criterion. The societal risk was calculated for eight densely populated areas and their respective FN-curves situated below the advised limit established by INEA, except for two areas that required the proposal of additional mitigating measures to the reduction of societal risk. Regarding to societal risk, the FN-curve should be below the advised limit presented in the Technical Instruction of INEA. The individual and societal risk were reassessed incorporating some mitigating measures and the results situated below the advised limits established by INEA and PETROBRAS has obtained the license for installation of the pipeline. (author)

  9. Quantitative analysis of time-resolved microwave conductivity data (United States)

    Reid, Obadiah G.; Moore, David T.; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Dewei; Yan, Yanfa; Zhu, Kai; Rumbles, Garry


    Flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (fp-TRMC) is a versatile, highly sensitive technique for studying the complex photoconductivity of solution, solid, and gas-phase samples. The purpose of this paper is to provide a standard reference work for experimentalists interested in using microwave conductivity methods to study functional electronic materials, describing how to conduct and calibrate these experiments in order to obtain quantitative results. The main focus of the paper is on calculating the calibration factor, K, which is used to connect the measured change in microwave power absorption to the conductance of the sample. We describe the standard analytical formulae that have been used in the past, and compare them to numerical simulations. This comparison shows that the most widely used analytical analysis of fp-TRMC data systematically under-estimates the transient conductivity by ~60%. We suggest a more accurate semi-empirical way of calibrating these experiments. However, we emphasize that the full numerical calculation is necessary to quantify both transient and steady-state conductance for arbitrary sample properties and geometry.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection (United States)

    Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Schuster, David M.; Osunkoya, Adeboye; Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter T.; Chen, Georgia Z.


    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for various medical applications. Its spectroscopic data might be able to be used to noninvasively detect cancer. Quantitative analysis is often necessary in order to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. We propose the use of an advanced image processing and classification method in order to analyze hyperspectral image data for prostate cancer detection. The spectral signatures were extracted and evaluated in both cancerous and normal tissue. Least squares support vector machines were developed and evaluated for classifying hyperspectral data in order to enhance the detection of cancer tissue. This method was used to detect prostate cancer in tumor-bearing mice and on pathology slides. Spatially resolved images were created to highlight the differences of the reflectance properties of cancer versus those of normal tissue. Preliminary results with 11 mice showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperspectral image classification method are 92.8% to 2.0% and 96.9% to 1.3%, respectively. Therefore, this imaging method may be able to help physicians to dissect malignant regions with a safe margin and to evaluate the tumor bed after resection. This pilot study may lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of prostate cancer using HSI technology. PMID:22894488

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of Photovoltaic Modules Using Halved Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo


    Full Text Available In a silicon wafer-based photovoltaic (PV module, significant power is lost due to current transport through the ribbons interconnecting neighbour cells. Using halved cells in PV modules is an effective method to reduce the resistive power loss which has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar in their commercial available PV modules. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of PV modules using halved cells is needed. In this paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the difference between modules made with halved and full-size solar cells. Theoretically, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.8% absolute and output power of 90 mW for the halved cell minimodule. Experimentally, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.3% absolute and output power of 60 mW for the halved cell module. Also, we investigate theoretically how this effect confers to the case of large-size modules. It is found that the performance increment of halved cell PV modules is even higher for high-efficiency solar cells. After that, the resistive loss of large-size modules with different interconnection schemes is analysed. Finally, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial halved cell PV modules are discussed.

  12. Quantitative analysis of histopathological findings using image processing software. (United States)

    Horai, Yasushi; Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Takemoto, Kana; Tanaka, Masaharu


    In evaluating pathological changes in drug efficacy and toxicity studies, morphometric analysis can be quite robust. In this experiment, we examined whether morphometric changes of major pathological findings in various tissue specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin could be recognized and quantified using image processing software. Using Tissue Studio, hypertrophy of hepatocytes and adrenocortical cells could be quantified based on the method of a previous report, but the regions of red pulp, white pulp, and marginal zones in the spleen could not be recognized when using one setting condition. Using Image-Pro Plus, lipid-derived vacuoles in the liver and mucin-derived vacuoles in the intestinal mucosa could be quantified using two criteria (area and/or roundness). Vacuoles derived from phospholipid could not be quantified when small lipid deposition coexisted in the liver and adrenal cortex. Mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver could be quantified to some extent, except for specimens with many clustered infiltrating cells. Adipocyte size and the mean linear intercept could be quantified easily and efficiently using morphological processing and the macro tool equipped in Image-Pro Plus. These methodologies are expected to form a base system that can recognize morphometric features and analyze quantitatively pathological findings through the use of information technology.

  13. Quantitative analysis of dynamic association in live biological fluorescent samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Ruusuvuori

    Full Text Available Determining vesicle localization and association in live microscopy may be challenging due to non-simultaneous imaging of rapidly moving objects with two excitation channels. Besides errors due to movement of objects, imaging may also introduce shifting between the image channels, and traditional colocalization methods cannot handle such situations. Our approach to quantifying the association between tagged proteins is to use an object-based method where the exact match of object locations is not assumed. Point-pattern matching provides a measure of correspondence between two point-sets under various changes between the sets. Thus, it can be used for robust quantitative analysis of vesicle association between image channels. Results for a large set of synthetic images shows that the novel association method based on point-pattern matching demonstrates robust capability to detect association of closely located vesicles in live cell-microscopy where traditional colocalization methods fail to produce results. In addition, the method outperforms compared Iterated Closest Points registration method. Results for fixed and live experimental data shows the association method to perform comparably to traditional methods in colocalization studies for fixed cells and to perform favorably in association studies for live cells.

  14. Social media in epilepsy: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Elkaim, Lior; Wang, Justin; Liu, Jessica; Alotaibi, Naif M; Ibrahim, George M; Fallah, Aria; Weil, Alexander G; Valiante, Taufik A; Lozano, Andres M; Rutka, James T


    While the social burden of epilepsy has been extensively studied, an evaluation of social media related to epilepsy may provide novel insight into disease perception, patient needs and access to treatments. The objective of this study is to assess patterns in social media and online communication usage related to epilepsy and its associated topics. We searched two major social media platforms (Facebook and Twitter) for public accounts dedicated to epilepsy. Results were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The former involved thematic and word count analysis for online posts and tweets on these platforms, while the latter employed descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Facebook had a higher number of pages (840 accounts) and users (3 million) compared to Twitter (137 accounts and 274,663 users). Foundation and support groups comprised most of the accounts and users on both Facebook and Twitter. The number of accounts increased by 100% from 2012 to 2016. Among the 403 posts and tweets analyzed, "providing information" on medications or correcting common misconceptions in epilepsy was the most common theme (48%). Surgical interventions for epilepsy were only mentioned in 1% of all posts and tweets. The current study provides a comprehensive reference on the usage of social media in epilepsy. The number of online users interested in epilepsy is likely the highest among all neurological conditions. Surgery, as a method of treating refractory epilepsy, however, could be underrepresented on social media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated quantitative analysis of coordinated locomotor behaviour in rats. (United States)

    Tanger, H J; Vanwersch, R A; Wolthuis, O L


    Disturbances of motor coordination are usually difficult to quantify. Therefore, a method was developed for the automated quantitative analysis of the movements of the dyed paws of stepping rats, registered by a colour TV camera. The signals from the TV-video system were converted by an electronic interface into voltages proportional to the X- and Y-coordinates of the paws, from which a desktop computer calculated the movements of these paws in time and distance. Application 1 analysed the steps of a rat walking in a hollow rotating wheel. The results showed low variability of the walking pattern, the method was insensitive to low doses of alcohol, but was suitable to quantify overt, e.g. neurotoxic, locomotor disturbances or recovery thereof. In application 2 hurdles were placed in a similar hollow wheel and the rats were trained to step from the top of one hurdle to another. Physostigmine-induced disturbances of this acquired complex motor task could be detected at doses far below those that cause overt symptoms.

  16. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, P.; Weeke, B.; Loewenstein, H.


    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 5 dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A. (author)

  17. Survival Prediction in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Quantitative Computed Tomography Image Analysis. (United States)

    Attiyeh, Marc A; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Doussot, Alexandre; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Mainarich, Shiana; Gönen, Mithat; Balachandran, Vinod P; D'Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Jarnagin, William R; Kingham, T Peter; Allen, Peter J; Simpson, Amber L; Do, Richard K


    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal cancer with no established a priori markers of survival. Existing nomograms rely mainly on post-resection data and are of limited utility in directing surgical management. This study investigated the use of quantitative computed tomography (CT) features to preoperatively assess survival for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. A prospectively maintained database identified consecutive chemotherapy-naive patients with CT angiography and resected PDAC between 2009 and 2012. Variation in CT enhancement patterns was extracted from the tumor region using texture analysis, a quantitative image analysis tool previously described in the literature. Two continuous survival models were constructed, with 70% of the data (training set) using Cox regression, first based only on preoperative serum cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 levels and image features (model A), and then on CA19-9, image features, and the Brennan score (composite pathology score; model B). The remaining 30% of the data (test set) were reserved for independent validation. A total of 161 patients were included in the analysis. Training and test sets contained 113 and 48 patients, respectively. Quantitative image features combined with CA19-9 achieved a c-index of 0.69 [integrated Brier score (IBS) 0.224] on the test data, while combining CA19-9, imaging, and the Brennan score achieved a c-index of 0.74 (IBS 0.200) on the test data. We present two continuous survival prediction models for resected PDAC patients. Quantitative analysis of CT texture features is associated with overall survival. Further work includes applying the model to an external dataset to increase the sample size for training and to determine its applicability.

  18. Design database for quantitative trait loci (QTL) data warehouse, data mining, and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Reecy, James M; Wu, Xiao-Lin


    A database can be used to warehouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) data from multiple sources for comparison, genomic data mining, and meta-analysis. A robust database design involves sound data structure logistics, meaningful data transformations, normalization, and proper user interface designs. This chapter starts with a brief review of relational database basics and concentrates on issues associated with curation of QTL data into a relational database, with emphasis on the principles of data normalization and structure optimization. In addition, some simple examples of QTL data mining and meta-analysis are included. These examples are provided to help readers better understand the potential and importance of sound database design.

  19. B1 -sensitivity analysis of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging. (United States)

    Boudreau, Mathieu; Stikov, Nikola; Pike, G Bruce


    To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) fitted parameters to B 1 inaccuracies, focusing on the difference between two categories of T 1 mapping techniques: B 1 -independent and B 1 -dependent. The B 1 -sensitivity of qMT was investigated and compared using two T 1 measurement methods: inversion recovery (IR) (B 1 -independent) and variable flip angle (VFA), B 1 -dependent). The study was separated into four stages: 1) numerical simulations, 2) sensitivity analysis of the Z-spectra, 3) healthy subjects at 3T, and 4) comparison using three different B 1 imaging techniques. For typical B 1 variations in the brain at 3T (±30%), the simulations resulted in errors of the pool-size ratio (F) ranging from -3% to 7% for VFA, and -40% to > 100% for IR, agreeing with the Z-spectra sensitivity analysis. In healthy subjects, pooled whole-brain Pearson correlation coefficients for F (comparing measured double angle and nominal flip angle B 1 maps) were ρ = 0.97/0.81 for VFA/IR. This work describes the B 1 -sensitivity characteristics of qMT, demonstrating that it varies substantially on the B 1 -dependency of the T 1 mapping method. Particularly, the pool-size ratio is more robust against B 1 inaccuracies if VFA T 1 mapping is used, so much so that B 1 mapping could be omitted without substantially biasing F. Magn Reson Med 79:276-285, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Quantitative analysis of impact measurements using dynamic load cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J. Maranzano


    Full Text Available A mathematical model is used to estimate material properties from a short duration transient impact force measured by dropping spheres onto rectangular coupons fixed to a dynamic load cell. The contact stress between the dynamic load cell surface and the projectile are modeled using Hertzian contact mechanics. Due to the short impact time relative to the load cell dynamics, an additional Kelvin–Voigt element is included in the model to account for the finite response time of the piezoelectric crystal. Calculations with and without the Kelvin–Voigt element are compared to experimental data collected from combinations of polymeric spheres and polymeric and metallic surfaces. The results illustrate that the inclusion of the Kelvin–Voigt element qualitatively captures the post impact resonance and non-linear behavior of the load cell signal and quantitatively improves the estimation of the Young's elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. Mathematically, the additional KV element couples one additional differential equation to the Hertzian spring-dashpot equation. The model can be numerically integrated in seconds using standard numerical techniques allowing for its use as a rapid technique for the estimation of material properties. Keywords: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Dynamic load cell

  1. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka


    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  2. Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data (United States)

    Chance, K.


    Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

  3. Quantitative Outline-based Shape Analysis and Classification of Planetary Craterforms using Supervised Learning Models (United States)

    Slezak, Thomas Joseph; Radebaugh, Jani; Christiansen, Eric


    The shapes of craterform morphology on planetary surfaces provides rich information about their origins and evolution. While morphologic information provides rich visual clues to geologic processes and properties, the ability to quantitatively communicate this information is less easily accomplished. This study examines the morphology of craterforms using the quantitative outline-based shape methods of geometric morphometrics, commonly used in biology and paleontology. We examine and compare landforms on planetary surfaces using shape, a property of morphology that is invariant to translation, rotation, and size. We quantify the shapes of paterae on Io, martian calderas, terrestrial basaltic shield calderas, terrestrial ash-flow calderas, and lunar impact craters using elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and the Zahn and Roskies (Z-R) shape function, or tangent angle approach to produce multivariate shape descriptors. These shape descriptors are subjected to multivariate statistical analysis including canonical variate analysis (CVA), a multiple-comparison variant of discriminant analysis, to investigate the link between craterform shape and classification. Paterae on Io are most similar in shape to terrestrial ash-flow calderas and the shapes of terrestrial basaltic shield volcanoes are most similar to martian calderas. The shapes of lunar impact craters, including simple, transitional, and complex morphology, are classified with a 100% rate of success in all models. Multiple CVA models effectively predict and classify different craterforms using shape-based identification and demonstrate significant potential for use in the analysis of planetary surfaces.

  4. Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (United States)

    Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.


    Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was β-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays. PMID:23884629

  5. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele


    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for US Army Recruiting Input Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John


    .... An objective study of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of recruiting is necessary to meet the future needs of the Army, in light of strong possibilities of recruiting resource reduction...

  7. Quantitative analysis of psychological personality for NPP operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jia; Huang Xiangrui


    The author introduces the relevant personality quantitative psychological research work carried out by 'Prognoz' Laboratory and Taiwan, and presents the primary results of the research for Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operator's psychological personality assessment, which based on the survey of MMPI, and presents the main contents for the personality quantitative psychological research in NPP of China. And emphasizes the need to carry out psychological selection and training in nuclear industry

  8. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket (United States)

    Miranda, Suci


    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  9. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson


    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis (United States)

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.


    The understanding of the effective functionality that governs the enzymatic self-organized processes in cellular conditions is a crucial topic in the post-genomic era. In recent studies, Transfer Entropy has been proposed as a rigorous, robust and self-consistent method for the causal quantification of the functional information flow among nonlinear processes. Here, in order to quantify the functional connectivity for the glycolytic enzymes in dissipative conditions we have analyzed different catalytic patterns using the technique of Transfer Entropy. The data were obtained by means of a yeast glycolytic model formed by three delay differential equations where the enzymatic rate equations of the irreversible stages have been explicitly considered. These enzymatic activity functions were previously modeled and tested experimentally by other different groups. The results show the emergence of a new kind of dynamical functional structure, characterized by changing connectivity flows and a metabolic invariant that constrains the activity of the irreversible enzymes. In addition to the classical topological structure characterized by the specific location of enzymes, substrates, products and feedback-regulatory metabolites, an effective functional structure emerges in the modeled glycolytic system, which is dynamical and characterized by notable variations of the functional interactions. The dynamical structure also exhibits a metabolic invariant which constrains the functional attributes of the enzymes. Finally, in accordance with the classical biochemical studies, our numerical analysis reveals in a quantitative manner that the enzyme phosphofructokinase is the key-core of the metabolic system, behaving for all conditions as the main source of the effective causal flows in yeast glycolysis. PMID:22393350

  11. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis (United States)

    Probe, John D.


    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  12. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics. (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D


    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Quantitative analysis of exercise 201Tl myocardial emission CT in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yamamoto, Shuhei


    The clinical usefulness of quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 myocardial emission computed tomography (ECT) was evaluated in coronary artery disease (CAD). The subjects consisted of 20 CAD patients and five normal controls. All CAD patients underwent coronary angiography. Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial imaging was performed with a rotating gamma camera, and long-axial and short-axial myocardial images of the left ventricle were reconstructed. The tomographic images were interpreted quantitatively using circumferential profile analysis. Based on features of regional myocardial thallium-201 kinetics, two types of abnormalities were studied: (1) diminished initial distribution (stress defect) and (2) slow washout of thallium-201, as evidenced by patients' initial thallium-201 uptake and 3-hour washout rate profiles which fell below the normal limits, respectively. Two diagnostic criteria including the stress defect and a combination of the stress defect and slow washout were used to detect coronary artery lesions of significance (>=75 % luminal narrowing). The ischemic volumes were also evaluated by quantitative analysis using thallium-201 ECT. The diagnostic accuracy of the stress defect criterion was 95 % for left anterior descending, 90 % for right, and 70 % for left circumflex coronary artery lesions. The combined criteria of the stress defect and slow washout increased detection sensitivity with a moderate loss of specificity for identifying individual coronary artery lesion. A relatively high diagnostic accuracy was obtained using the stress defect criterion for multiple vessel disease (75 %). Ischemic myocardial volume was significantly larger in triple vessel than in single vessel disease (p < 0.05) using the combined criteria. It was concluded that quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 myocardial ECT images proves useful for evaluating coronary artery lesions. (author)

  14. Multimodality comparison of quantitative volumetric analysis of the right ventricle. (United States)

    Sugeng, Lissa; Mor-Avi, Victor; Weinert, Lynn; Niel, Johannes; Ebner, Christian; Steringer-Mascherbauer, Regina; Bartolles, Ralf; Baumann, Rolf; Schummers, Georg; Lang, Roberto M; Nesser, Hans-Joachim


    We undertook volumetric analysis of the right ventricle (RV) by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) on images obtained in RV-shaped phantoms and in patients with a wide range of RV geometry. Assessment of the RV by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography remains challenging due to its unique geometry and limitations of the current analysis techniques. RT3DE, CMR, and CCT, which can quantify RV volumes, promise to overcome the limitations of 2D echocardiography. Images were analyzed using RV Analysis software. Volumes measured in vitro were compared with the true volumes. The human protocol included 28 patients who underwent RT3DE, CMR, and CT on the same day. Volumetric analysis of CMR images was used as a reference, against which RT3DE and CCT measurements were compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. To determine the reproducibility of the volumetric analysis, repeated measurements were performed for all 3 imaging modalities in 11 patients. The in vitro measurements showed that: 1) volumetric analysis of CMR images yielded the most accurate measurements; 2) CCT measurements showed slight (4%) but consistent overestimation; and 3) RT3DE measurements showed small underestimation, but considerably wider margins of error. In humans, both RT3DE and CCT measurements correlated highly with the CMR reference (r=0.79 to 0.89) and showed the same trends of underestimation and overestimation noted in vitro. All interobserver and intraobserver variability values were <14%, with those of CMR being the highest. Volumetric quantification of RV volume was performed on CMR, CCT, and RT3DE images. Eliminating analysis-related intermodality differences allowed fair comparisons and highlighted the unique limitations of each modality. Understanding these differences promises to aid in the functional assessment of the RV. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  15. Characterising Ageing in the Human Brainstem Using Quantitative Multimodal MRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLambert


    Full Text Available Ageing is ubiquitous to the human condition. The MRI correlates of healthy ageing have been extensively investigated using a range of modalities, including volumetric MRI, quantitative MRI and DTI. Despite this, the reported brainstem related changes remain sparse. This is, in part, due to the technical and methodological limitations in quantitatively assessing and statistically analysing this region. By utilising a new method of brainstem segmentation, a large cohort of 100 healthy adults were assessed in this study for the effects of ageing within the human brainstem in vivo. Using quantitative MRI (qMRI, tensor based morphometry (TBM and voxel based quantification (VBQ, the volumetric and quantitative changes across healthy adults between 19-75 years were characterised. In addition to the increased R2* in substantia nigra corresponding to increasing iron deposition with age, several novel findings were reported in the current study. These include selective volumetric loss of the brachium conjunctivum, with a corresponding decrease in magnetisation transfer (MT and increase in proton density (PD, accounting for the previously described midbrain shrinkage. Additionally, we found increases in R1 and PD in several pontine and medullary structures. We consider these changes in the context of well-characterised, functional age-related changes, and propose potential biophysical mechanisms. This study provides detailed quantitative analysis of the internal architecture of the brainstem and provides a baseline for further studies of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterised by early, pre-clinical involvement of the brainstem, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

  16. Quantitative analysis of particulate burden in lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, J.P.; Stettler, L.E.; Shelburne, J.D.


    Numerous methods have been used in the preparation and analysis of the particulate matter deposited in human lungs. Preparation techniques include those for particle isolation and for in situ analysis. Analytical techniques include bulk and particle-by-particle analysis. In this paper, a general discussion of many of these methods is presented along with examples of how two specific techniques have been used. In one study, individual particles from the lungs of 75 randomly selected autopsy cases were analyzed using an automated scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) system. An average of 613 million particles, of exogenous origin, per gram of dry lung tissue were found, the major classes of particles being silica, talc, aluminum silicates, and rutile. In the second study, lungs from 50 randomly selected autopsy cases were analyzed using gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The median total particulate material was 0.33 grams, for cases in which samples were prepared by high temperature ashing, and 0.41 grams, for those in which nitric acid digestion was used. The median amount of quartz for all cases, was 0.044 grams. Samples of eighteen of the 75 lungs previously analyzed by automated SEM/EDX were also analyzed using gravimetric and XRD analysis. A good correlation was seen between the results of the two procedures (r = 0.91 for number of exogenous particles versus grams of particulate matter and r = 0.97 for number of silica particles versus amount of quartz). 121 references

  17. Quantitative analysis of the secretion of the MCP family of chemokines by muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kratchmarova, Irina


    The plasticity of skeletal muscle allows the body to adapt to various physiological demands such as growth, exercise and tissue regeneration and repair. The secreted factors from muscle exert their action via auto-, para-, and endocrine mechanisms, thereby influencing the maintenance of total body...... by other tissues are still very limited. In order to comprehensively characterize the low abundant low molecular weight secreted proteins during the course of muscle differentiation we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy. The application of the triple encoding Stable Isotope Labeling...... by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) method for quantitative analysis resulted in the identification and generation of quantitative profiles of 59 growth factors and cytokines, including 9 classical chemokines. The members of the CC chemokine family of proteins such as monocyte chemotactic proteins 1, 2...

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that transmissible gastroenteritis virus activates the JAK-STAT1 signaling pathway. (United States)

    An, Kang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xie, Lilan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo


    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets. In this study, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled to isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed cellular proteins after TGEV infection in PK-15 cells. In total, 162 differentially expressed cellular proteins were identified, including 60 upregulated proteins and 102 downregulated proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, the innate immune response, etc. Interestingly, many upregulated proteins were associated with interferon signaling, especially signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Immunoblotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that TGEV infection induces STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, as well as ISG expression. This study for the first time reveals that TGEV induces interferon signaling from the point of proteomic analysis.

  19. Quantitative mineralogical analysis of small samples of china clay using x ray diffractometry.


    Salt, P D


    The quantitative mineralogical analysis of small samples (less than 20 mg) of china clay has been investigated using x ray diffractometry to determine kaolinite, mica, quartz, and feldspar. A method has been developed and applied to the quantitative analysis of airborne dust samples and of other small discrete samples. Determinations were made either on samples after collection on a membrane filter or on samples after deposition from aqueous suspension on to a silver substrate. Quantitative a...

  20. The role of sulfur and sulfur isotope dilution analysis in quantitative protein analysis. (United States)

    Rappel, Christina; Schaumlöffel, Dirk


    The element sulfur is almost omnipresent in all natural proteomes and plays a key role in protein quantification. Incorporated in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, it has been served as target for many protein-labeling reactions in classic quantitative proteomic approaches based on electrospray or MALDI mass spectrometry. This critical review discusses the potential and limitations of sulfur isotope dilution analysis (IDA) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for absolute protein quantification. The development of this approach was made possible due to the improved sensitivity and accuracy of sulfur isotope ratio measurement by ICP-MS in recent years. The unique feature of ICP-MS, compound-independent ionization, enables compound (species)-unspecific sulfur IDA. This has the main advantage that only one generic sulfur standard (i.e., one isotopically labeled sulfur spike) is required to quantify each peptide or protein in a sample provided that they are completely separated in chromatography or electrophoresis and that their identities are known. The principles of this approach are illustrated with selected examples from the literature. The discussion includes also related fields of P/S and metal/S ratio measurements for the determination of phosphorylation degrees of proteins and stoichiometries in metalloproteins, respectively. Emerging new areas and future trends such as protein derivatization with metal tags for improved sensitivity of protein detection in ICP-MS are discussed.

  1. Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data

    KAUST Repository

    Tekwe, C. D.


    MOTIVATION: Protein abundance in quantitative proteomics is often based on observed spectral features derived from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS experiments. Peak intensities are largely non-normal in distribution. Furthermore, LC-MS-based proteomics data frequently have large proportions of missing peak intensities due to censoring mechanisms on low-abundance spectral features. Recognizing that the observed peak intensities detected with the LC-MS method are all positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests, and the parametric survival model and accelerated failure time-model with log-normal, log-logistic and Weibull distributions were used to detect any differentially expressed proteins. The statistical operating characteristics of each method are explored using both real and simulated datasets. RESULTS: Survival methods generally have greater statistical power than standard differential expression methods when the proportion of missing protein level data is 5% or more. In particular, the AFT models we consider consistently achieve greater statistical power than standard testing procedures, with the discrepancy widening with increasing missingness in the proportions. AVAILABILITY: The testing procedures discussed in this article can all be performed using readily available software such as R. The R codes are provided as supplemental materials. CONTACT:

  2. Quantitative comparison of performance analysis techniques for modular and generic network-on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Neuenhahn


    Full Text Available NoC-specific parameters feature a huge impact on performance and implementation costs of NoC. Hence, performance and cost evaluation of these parameter-dependent NoC is crucial in different design-stages but the requirements on performance analysis differ from stage to stage. In an early design-stage an analysis technique featuring reduced complexity and limited accuracy can be applied, whereas in subsequent design-stages more accurate techniques are required.

    In this work several performance analysis techniques at different levels of abstraction are presented and quantitatively compared. These techniques include a static performance analysis using timing-models, a Colored Petri Net-based approach, VHDL- and SystemC-based simulators and an FPGA-based emulator. Conducting NoC-experiments with NoC-sizes from 9 to 36 functional units and various traffic patterns, characteristics of these experiments concerning accuracy, complexity and effort are derived.

    The performance analysis techniques discussed here are quantitatively evaluated and finally assigned to the appropriate design-stages in an automated NoC-design-flow.

  3. Gene Level Meta-Analysis of Quantitative Traits by Functional Linear Models. (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Boehnke, Michael; Chen, Wei; Li, Yun; Ren, Haobo; Lobach, Iryna; Xiong, Momiao


    Meta-analysis of genetic data must account for differences among studies including study designs, markers genotyped, and covariates. The effects of genetic variants may differ from population to population, i.e., heterogeneity. Thus, meta-analysis of combining data of multiple studies is difficult. Novel statistical methods for meta-analysis are needed. In this article, functional linear models are developed for meta-analyses that connect genetic data to quantitative traits, adjusting for covariates. The models can be used to analyze rare variants, common variants, or a combination of the two. Both likelihood-ratio test (LRT) and F-distributed statistics are introduced to test association between quantitative traits and multiple variants in one genetic region. Extensive simulations are performed to evaluate empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The proposed LRT and F-distributed statistics control the type I error very well and have higher power than the existing methods of the meta-analysis sequence kernel association test (MetaSKAT). We analyze four blood lipid levels in data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies. The proposed methods detect more significant associations than MetaSKAT and the P-values of the proposed LRT and F-distributed statistics are usually much smaller than those of MetaSKAT. The functional linear models and related test statistics can be useful in whole-genome and whole-exome association studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Semi-quantitative metabolic values on FDG PET/CT including extracardiac sites of disease as a predictor of treatment course in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Ishiyama, Mitsutomi; Soine, Laurie A; Vesselle, Hubert J


    Cardiac sarcoidosis is associated with major adverse cardiac events including cardiac arrest, for which anti-inflammatory treatment is indicated. Oral corticosteroid is the mainstay among treatment options; however, adverse effects are a major concern with long-term use. It would be beneficial for providers to predict treatment response and prognosis for proper management strategy of sarcoidosis, though it remains challenging. Fluorine (F)-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography(CT) has an advantage over anatomical imaging in providing semi-quantitative functional parameters such as standard uptake value (SUV), metabolic volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), which are well-established biomarkers in oncology. However, the relationship between these parameters and treatment response has not been fully investigated in cardiac sarcoidosis. Also, the prognostic value of extracardiac active inflammation noted on FDG-PET/CT in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis is unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic value of semi-quantitative values of both cardiac and extracardiac disease sites derived from FDG-PET/CT in predicting treatment course in cardiac sarcoidosis. Sixteen consecutive patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, who demonstrated abnormal myocardial activity on cardiac-inflammation FDG-PET/CT encompassing the entire chest/upper abdomen and subsequently underwent corticosteroid therapy for diagnosis of active cardiac sarcoidosis, were included. Semi-quantitative values of hypermetabolic lesions were derived from all visualized organ system and were compared to daily corticosteroid dose at 6 months.  Of the 16 patients, 81.3% (13/16) of the patients showed extracardiac involvement. The lesion with the greatest SUV was identified in the heart in 11 patients (68.7%), in the liver in 1 patient (6.3%), and in lymph nodes in 4 patients (25%). The maximum SUV across all visualized

  5. Geographical classification of Epimedium based on HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with multi-ingredients quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhou, Guofu; Li, Xiaojuan; Lu, Heng; Meng, Fanyun; Zhai, Huaqiang


    A reliable and comprehensive method for identifying the origin and assessing the quality of Epimedium has been developed. The method is based on analysis of HPLC fingerprints, combined with similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-ingredient quantitative analysis. Nineteen batches of Epimedium, collected from different areas in the western regions of China, were used to establish the fingerprints and 18 peaks were selected for the analysis. Similarity analysis, HCA and PCA all classified the 19 areas into three groups. Simultaneous quantification of the five major bioactive ingredients in the Epimedium samples was also carried out to confirm the consistency of the quality tests. These methods were successfully used to identify the geographical origin of the Epimedium samples and to evaluate their quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.


    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  7. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto


    Nov 16, 2017 ... enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitative accident prediction [45]. One deterministic methodology is the stringency level (SL) approach, which is recognized as a valuable decision tool in the selection of standardized materials specifications to prevent potential failures [3].

  8. Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.


    A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how...

  9. Quantitative analysis of soluble elements in environmental waters by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Adachi, M.; Tsuji, M.; Hattori, T.


    We have started PIXE research for environmental science at Van de Graaff accelerator facility in Tokyo Institute of Technology. Quantitative measurements of soluble fractions in river waters have been carried out using the preconcentrate method developed in Tohoku University. We reveal that this PIXE target preparation can be also applied to waste water samples. (author)

  10. Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 17, 2012 ... these techniques can examine epistasis and interactions of. QTL with genetic background, which underline quantitative traits. Second generation mapping resources. The second generation mapping resources propose to address many of the limitations associated with conventional map- ping populations.

  11. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis (United States)

    Boose, David L.


    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  12. Quantitative morphometrical analysis of a North African population ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 23, 2008 ... Genetic variability of quantitative traits was investigated in a Moroccan population of Drosophila melanogaster, with an isofe- male line design. Results were compared with data previously obtained from French populations. Although the environmental and thermal conditions are very different in France and ...

  13. Quantitative morphometrical analysis of a North African population ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic variability of quantitative traits was investigated in aMoroccan population of Drosophila melanogaster, with an isofemale line design. Results were compared with data previously obtained from French populations. Although the environmental and thermal conditions are very different in France and Morocco, only two ...

  14. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle ... Key words: Fat percent, Iranian Holstein cattle, microsatellites, milking days, protein percent, quantitative trait locus (QTL).

  15. Quantitative analysis of gai pattern in hemiparetic patients | Zverev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To characterise gait pattern in hemiparetic patients quantitatively using clinical footprint method. Design: A case control study. Subjects: Sixteen hemiparetic patients (12 males and 4 females) aged 16 to 64 years who attended neurological clinic at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi.

  16. Quantitative Analysis by Isotopic Dilution Using Mass Spectroscopy: The Determination of Caffeine by GC-MS. (United States)

    Hill, Devon W.; And Others


    Describes a laboratory technique for quantitative analysis of caffeine by an isotopic dilution method for coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Discusses caffeine analysis and experimental methodology. Lists sample caffeine concentrations found in common products. (MVL)

  17. Calibration strategy for semi-quantitative direct gas analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Carter, Kimberly E.


    A process is described by which an ICP-MS equipped with an Octopole Reaction System (ORS) is calibrated using liquid phase standards to facilitate direct analysis of gas phase samples. The instrument response to liquid phase standards is analyzed to produce empirical factors relating ion generation and transmission efficiencies to standard operating parameters. Empirical factors generated for liquid phase samples are then used to produce semi-quantitative analysis of both mixed liquid/gas samples and pure gas samples. The method developed is similar to the semi-quantitative analysis algorithms in the commercial software, which have here been expanded to include gas phase elements such as Xe and Kr. Equations for prediction of relative ionization efficiencies and isotopic transmission are developed for several combinations of plasma operating conditions, which allows adjustment of limited parameters between liquid and gas injection modes. In particular, the plasma temperature and electron density are calculated from comparison of experimental results to the predictions of the Saha equation. Comparisons between operating configurations are made to determine the robustness of the analysis to plasma conditions and instrument operating parameters. Using the methods described in this research, the elemental concentrations in a liquid standard containing 45 analytes and treated as an unknown sample were quantified accurately to ± 50% for most elements using 133 Cs as a single internal reference. The method is used to predict liquid phase mercury within 12% of the actual concentration and gas phase mercury within 28% of the actual concentration. The results verify that the calibration method facilitates accurate semi-quantitative, gas phase analysis of metal species with sufficient sensitivity to quantify metal concentrations lower than 1 ppb for many metallic analytes.

  18. Microchromatography of hemoglobins. VIII. A general qualitative and quantitative method in plastic drinking straws and the quantitative analysis of Hb-F. (United States)

    Schroeder, W A; Pace, L A


    The microchromatographic procedure for the quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin components in a hemolysate uses columns of DEAE-cellulose in a plastic drinking straw with a glycine-KCN-NaCl developer. Not only may the method be used for the quantitative analysis of Hb-F but also for the analysis of the varied components in mixtures of hemoglobins.

  19. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.


    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  20. [Optimization of experimental parameters for quantitative NMR (qNMR) and its application in quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicines]. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Zou, Ping-Ping; Lei, Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong


    Quantitative NMR (qNMR) is a technology based on the principle of NMR. This technology does not need the references of the determined components, which supplies a solution for the problem of reference scarcity in the quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, this technology has the advantages of easy operation, non-destructiveness for the determined sample, high accuracy and repeatability, in comparison with HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS. NMR technology has achieved quantum leap in sensitivity and accuracy with the development of NMR hardware. In addition, the choice of appropriate experimental parameters of the pre-treatment and measurement procedure as well as the post-acquisition processing is also important for obtaining high-quality and reproducible NMR spectra. This review summarizes the principle of qHNMR, the various experimental parameters affecting the accuracy and the precision of qHNMR, such as signal to noise ratio, relaxation delay, pulse width, acquisition time, window function, phase correction and baseline correction, and their corresponding optimized methods. Moreover, the application of qHNMR in the fields of quantitation of single or multi-components of traditional Chinese medicines, the purity detection of references, and the quality analysis of foods has been discussed. In addition, the existing questions and the future application prospects of qNMR in natural product areas are also presented.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.


    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  2. Chemical comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii and Tripterygium hypoglaucum based on quantitative analysis and chemometrics methods. (United States)

    Guo, Long; Duan, Li; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping


    Tripterygium wilfordii (T. wilfordii) and Tripterygium hypoglaucum (T. hypoglaucum), two commonly used Chinese herbal medicines derived from Tripterygium genus, have been widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other related inflammatory diseases in clinical therapy. In the present study, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS(n)) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 19 bioactive compounds including four catechins, three sesquiterpene alkaloids, four diterpenoids, and eight triterpenoids in these two similar herbs. The method validation results indicated that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. Quantitative analysis results showed that there were significant differences in the content of different types of compounds in T. wilfordii and T. hypoglaucum. Moreover, chemometrics methods such as one-way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the two Tripterygium herbs based on the quantitative data of analytes, and it was proven straightforward and reliable to differentiate T. wilfordii and T. hypoglaucum samples from different origins. In conclusion, simultaneous quantification of multiple-active component by RRLC-ESI-MS(n) coupled with chemometrics analysis could be a well-acceptable strategy to compare and evaluate the quality of T. wilfordii and T. hypoglaucum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorov, N B; Popov, A M; Zaytsev, S M; Labutin, T A


    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references

  4. Public Library System in Ankara: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Yılmaz


    Full Text Available This study investigates 42 public libraries in 25 central districts within the boundaries of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in respect of five factors according to national and international standards quantitatively. The findings show that public libraries in Ankara are insufficient with respect to the number of buildings, users, staff and collection and also in terms of standards. Therefore, it has been suggested that an urgent planning is necessary for public libraries in Ankara.

  5. Geometrical conditions at the quantitative neutronographic texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobisch, J.; Kleinstueck, K.


    The beam geometry for measuring quantitative pole figures by a neutronographic texture diffractometer is explained for transmission and reflection arrangement of spherical samples and sheets. For given dimensions of counter aperture the maximum possible cross sections of the incident beam are calculated as a function of sample dimensions and the Bragg angle theta. Methods for the calculation of absorption factors and volume correction are given. Under special conditions advantages result in the transmission case for sample motion into the direction +α. (author)

  6. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings of pancreatic diseases: quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Fei; Liu Qi; Wang Li; Gong Jianguo; Jin Aiguo; Zeng Hao


    Objective: To study the MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) characteristics of different pancreatic diseases, and to identify the diagnostic value of MRCP for pancreatic diseases. Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with suspected pancreatic diseases underwent MRCP examination. The MRCP sequences included thick-slice turbo spin echo (TSE) and thin-slice half-Fourier acquisition single shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequences. The pancreatic diseases included pancreatic carcinoma (n=46), chronic pancreatitis (n=39), peri-ampullar carcinoma (n=23), and choledocholith (n=3). Results: (1) The abnormal manifestation of pancreatic duct was observed in 37 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 24 cases of chronic pancreatitis, and 12 cases of peri-ampullar carcinoma. Dilated pancreatic duct with smooth and regular caliber was observed in 33 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 0 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 12 cases of peri-ampullar carcinoma, and statistical analysis showed significant difference (χ 2 =57.911, P 2 =60.343, P 2 =61.217, P 2 =34.654, P 2 =54.593, P<0.01). Conclusion: Different MRI characteristics were observed in various pancreatic diseases respectively. MRCP can show the subtle differences among the pancreatic diseases, and is very helpful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

  7. Fluorescent microscopy approaches of quantitative soil microbial analysis (United States)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Polyanskaya, Lubov


    Classical fluorescent microscopy method was used during the last decades in various microbiological studies of terrestrial ecosystems. The method provides representative results and simple application which is allow to use it both as routine part of amplitudinous research and in small-scaled laboratories. Furthermore, depending on research targets a lot of modifications of fluorescent microscopy method were established. Combination and comparison of several approaches is an opportunity of quantitative estimation of microbial community in soil. The first analytical part of the study was dedicated to soil bacterial density estimation by fluorescent microscopy in dynamic of several 30-days experiments. The purpose of research was estimation of changes in soil bacterial community on the different soil horizons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with adding nutrients in two experimental sets: cellulose and chitin. Was modified the nalidixic acid method for inhibition of DNA division of gram-negative bacteria, and the method provides the quantification of this bacterial group by fluorescent microscopy. Established approach allowed to estimate 3-4 times more cells of gram-negative bacteria in soil. The functions of actinomyces in soil polymer destruction are traditionally considered as dominant in comparison to gram-negative bacterial group. However, quantification of gram-negative bacteria in chernozem and peatland provides underestimation of classical notion for this bacterial group. Chitin introduction had no positive effect to gram-negative bacterial population density changes in chernozem but concurrently this nutrient provided the fast growing dynamics at the first 3 days of experiment both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This is confirming chitinolytic activity of gram-negative bacteria in soil organic matter decomposition. At the next part of research modified method for soil gram-negative bacteria quantification was compared to fluorescent in situ

  8. Quantitative proteomics and integrative network analysis identified novel genes and pathways related to osteoporosis. (United States)

    Zeng, Yong; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Chao; He, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Tian, Qing; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Hu, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Li-Shu; Deng, Hong-Wen


    Osteoporosis is mainly characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), and can be attributed to excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts. Migration of circulating monocytes from blood to bone is important for subsequent osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Identification of those genes and pathways related to osteoclastogenesis and BMD will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of osteoporosis. In this study, we applied the LC-nano-ESI-MS(E) (Liquid Chromatograph-nano-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry) for quantitative proteomic profiling in 33 female Caucasians with discordant BMD levels, with 16 high vs. 17 low BMD subjects. Protein quantitation was accomplished by label-free measurement of total ion currents collected from MS(E) data. Comparison of protein expression in high vs. low BMD subjects showed that ITGA2B (p=0.0063) and GSN (p=0.019) were up-regulated in the high BMD group. Additionally, our protein-RNA integrative analysis showed that RHOA (p=0.00062) differentially expressed between high vs. low BMD groups. Network analysis based on multiple tools revealed two pathways: "regulation of actin cytoskeleton" (p=1.13E-5, FDR=3.34E-4) and "leukocyte transendothelial migration" (p=2.76E-4, FDR=4.71E-3) that are functionally relevant to osteoporosis. Consistently, ITGA2B, GSN and RHOA played crucial roles in these two pathways respectively. All together, our study strongly supported the contribution of the genes ITGA2B, GSN and RHOA and the two pathways to osteoporosis risk. Mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics study integrated with network analysis identified novel genes and pathways related to osteoporosis. The results were further verified in multiple level studies including protein-RNA integrative analysis and genome wide association studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitation of DNA methylation by melt curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michael E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of DNA is a common mechanism for silencing genes, and aberrant methylation is increasingly being implicated in many diseases such as cancer. There is a need for robust, inexpensive methods to quantitate methylation across a region containing a number of CpGs. We describe and validate a rapid, in-tube method to quantitate DNA methylation using the melt data obtained following amplification of bisulfite modified DNA in a real-time thermocycler. Methods We first describe a mathematical method to normalise the raw fluorescence data generated by heating the amplified bisulfite modified DNA. From this normalised data the temperatures at which melting begins and finishes can be calculated, which reflect the less and more methylated template molecules present respectively. Also the T50, the temperature at which half the amplicons are melted, which represents the summative methylation of all the CpGs in the template mixture, can be calculated. These parameters describe the methylation characteristics of the region amplified in the original sample. Results For validation we used synthesized oligonucleotides and DNA from fresh cells and formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue, each with known methylation. Using our quantitation we could distinguish between unmethylated, partially methylated and fully methylated oligonucleotides mixed in varying ratios. There was a linear relationship between T50 and the dilution of methylated into unmethylated DNA. We could quantitate the change in methylation over time in cell lines treated with the demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and the differences in methylation associated with complete, clonal or no loss of MGMT expression in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Conclusion We have validated a rapid, simple in-tube method to quantify methylation which is robust and reproducible, utilizes easily designed primers and does not need proprietary algorithms or software. The

  10. Beyond nutrient-based food indices: a data mining approach to search for a quantitative holistic index reflecting the degree of food processing and including physicochemical properties. (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Lakhssassi, Sanaé; Briffaz, Aurélien


    Processing has major impacts on both the structure and composition of food and hence on nutritional value. In particular, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is associated with increased risks of obesity and diabetes. Unfortunately, existing food indices only focus on food nutritional content while failing to consider either food structure or the degree of processing. The objectives of this study were thus to link non-nutrient food characteristics (texture, water activity (a w ), glycemic and satiety potentials (FF), and shelf life) to the degree of processing; search for associations between these characteristics with nutritional composition; search for a holistic quantitative technological index; and determine quantitative rules for a food to be defined as UPF using data mining. Among the 280 most widely consumed foods by the elderly in France, 139 solid/semi-solid foods were selected for textural and a w measurements, and classified according to three degrees of processing. Our results showed that minimally-processed foods were less hyperglycemic, more satiating, had better nutrient profile, higher a w , shorter shelf life, lower maximum stress, and higher energy at break than UPFs. Based on 72 food variables, multivariate analyses differentiated foods according to their degree of processing. Then technological indices including food nutritional composition, a w , FF and textural parameters were tested against technological groups. Finally, a LIM score (nutrients to limit) ≥8 per 100 kcal and a number of ingredients/additives >4 are relevant, but not sufficient, rules to define UPFs. We therefore suggest that food health potential should be first defined by its degree of processing.

  11. Does Working Memory Training Transfer? A Meta-Analysis Including Training Conditions as Moderators (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Matthias; Fischer, Frank; Bühner, Markus


    A meta-analysis was undertaken to reexamine near- and far-transfer effects following working-memory training and to consider potential moderators more systematically. Forty-seven studies with 65 group comparisons were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed near-transfer effects to short-term and working-memory skills that were sustained at…

  12. A review of the reliability analysis of LPRS including the components repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.


    The reliability analysis of low pressure recirculation system in its long-term recicurlation phase before 24hs is presented. The possibility of repairing the components out of the containment is included. A general revision of analysis of the short-term recirculation phase is done. (author) [pt

  13. Scalp Surgery: Quantitative Analysis of Follicular Unit Growth (United States)

    Caruana, Giorgia


    Background: Over the years, different kinds of hair transplantation have been compared in an attempt to overcome male pattern alopecia and, at the same time, maximize both the survival and growth rate of grafted hair. In this study, we have assessed the survival and growth rate of follicular units (FU) in an in vitro model, as compared with that of conventional hair micrografts, to experimentally evaluate and elaborate on the differences between these 2 approaches in hair transplantation procedures. Methods: Group A (control; n = 100 follicles) was composed of hair micrografts, whereas FUs were assigned to Group B (experimental; n = 100 follicles, n = 35 FUs). Each group was cultured for a period of 10 days; the total stretch of follicles was measured soon after the harvest and 10 days later. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks test was used to perform statistical analysis. Results: The growth rate of follicles from Group A (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.30 mm) proved to be statistically different compared with that of Group B (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.23 mm). Conversely, our data did not show any significant difference between the survival rate of hair grafts from these 2 groups. Conclusions: Our data highlighted a reduced FU shaft growth compared with that of hair micrografts, corroborating, to a certain extent, the hypothesis that a significant amount of adipose tissue surrounding the follicle included in the graft may result in an inadequate nourishment supply to follicular cells. PMID:26579345

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev


    problem was the basis for an inverse problem, i.e. revealing depth of a body occurrence, its location in a space as well as determining physical properties. At the same time, this method has not received a wide practical application taking into account complexity of real geological media. Careful analysis piezo- and seismoelectric anomalies shows the possibility of application of quantitative analysis of these effects advanced methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting for complex physical-geological conditions (Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001, 2010; Eppelbaum, 2010; 2011, 2015). Employment of these methodologies (improved modifications of tangents, characteristic points areal methods) for obtaining quantitative characteristics of ore bodies, environmental features and archaeological targets (models of horizontal circular cylinder, sphere, thin bed, thick bed and thin horizontal plate were utilized) have demonstrated their effectiveness. Case study at the archaeological site Tel Kara Hadid Field piezoelectric observations were conducted at the ancient archaeological site Tel Kara Hadid with gold-quartz mineralization in southern Israel within the Precambrian terrain at the northern extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Neishtadt et al., 2006). The area of the archaeological site is located eight kilometers north of the town of Eilat, in an area of strong industrial noise. Ancient river alluvial terraces (extremely heterogeneous at a local scale, varying from boulders to silt) cover the quartz veins and complicate their identification. Piezoelectric measurements conducted over a quartz vein covered by surface sediments (approximately of 0.4 m thickness) produced a sharp (500 μV ) piezoelectric anomaly. Values recorded over the host rocks (clays and shales of basic composition) were close to zero. The observed piezoelectric anomaly was successfully interpreted by the use of methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting. For effective integration of piezo- and

  15. Quantitative Proteomics for the Comprehensive Analysis of Stress Responses of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19. (United States)

    Schott, Ann-Sophie; Behr, Jürgen; Geißler, Andreas J; Kuster, Bernhard; Hahne, Hannes; Vogel, Rudi F


    Lactic acid bacteria are broadly employed as starter cultures in the manufacture of foods. Upon technological preparation, they are confronted with drying stress that amalgamates numerous stress conditions resulting in losses of fitness and survival. To better understand and differentiate physiological stress responses, discover general and specific markers for the investigated stress conditions, and predict optimal preconditioning for starter cultures, we performed a comprehensive genomic and quantitative proteomic analysis of a commonly used model system, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei TMW 1.1434 (isogenic with F19) under 11 typical stress conditions, including among others oxidative, osmotic, pH, and pressure stress. We identified and quantified >1900 proteins in triplicate analyses, representing 65% of all genes encoded in the genome. The identified genes were thoroughly annotated in terms of subcellular localization prediction and biological functions, suggesting unbiased and comprehensive proteome coverage. In total, 427 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in at least one condition. Most notably, our analysis suggests that optimal preconditioning toward drying was predicted to be alkaline and high-pressure stress preconditioning. Taken together, we believe the presented strategy may serve as a prototypic example for the analysis and utility of employing quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based proteomics to study bacterial physiology.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.


    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  17. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter


    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s −1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is c p = 0.15. The v 3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively. (paper)

  18. Quantitative analysis of error mode, error effect and criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng; Chen Guohua


    The quantitative method of human error mode, effect and criticality is developed in order to reach the ultimate goal of Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The criticality identification matrix of human error mode and task is built to identify the critical human error mode and task and the critical organizational root causes on the basis of the identification of human error probability, error effect probability and the criticality index of error effect. Therefore, this will be beneficial to take targeted measures to reduce and prevent the occurrence of critical human error mode and task. Finally, the application of the technique is explained through the application example. (authors)

  19. Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.


    A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how...... the design tradeoffs in closed-loop roll reduction can be approximated using this formula before a controller is designed. The robust roll and course keeping controllers designed are then tested using a nonlinear simulation....

  20. Quantitative analysis of water heavy by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Gil, V.


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has been applied to a wide variety of quantitative problems. A typical example has been the determination of isotopic composition. In this paper two different analytical methods for the determination of water in deuterium oxide are described. The first one, employs acetonitril as an internal standard compound and in the second one calibration curve of signal integral curve versus amount of D 2 O is constructed. Both methods give results comparable to those of mass spectrometry of IR spectroscopy. (Author) 5 refs

  1. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model (United States)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter


    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s-1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is cp = 0.15. The v3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively.

  2. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. (United States)

    Lyko, Frank; Stach, Dirk; Brenner, Axel; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Döhner, Hartmut; Wirtz, Michaela; Wiessler, Manfred; Schmitz, Oliver J


    Changes in the genomic DNA methylation level have been found to be closely associated with tumorigenesis. In order to analyze the relation of aberrant DNA methylation to clinical and biological risk factors, we have determined the cytosine methylation level of 81 patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The analysis was based on DNA hydrolysis followed by derivatization of the 2'-desoxyribonucleoside-3'-monophosphates with BODIPY FL EDA. Derivatives were separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and laser-induced fluorescence was used for detection. We analyzed potential correlations between DNA methylation levels and numerous patient parameters, including clinical observations and biological data. As a result, we observed a significant correlation with the immunoglobulin variable heavy chain gene (VH) mutation status. This factor has been repeatedly proposed as a reliable prognostic marker for CLL, which suggests that the methylation level might be a valuable factor in determining the prognostic outcome of CLL. We are now in the process of refining our method to broaden its application potential. In this context, we show here that the oxidation of the fluorescence marker in the samples and the evaporation of methanol in the electrolytes can be prevented by a film of paraffin oil. In summary, our results thus establish capillary electrophoresis as a valuable tool for analyzing the DNA methylation status of clinical samples.

  3. Quantitative video-based gait pattern analysis for hemiparkinsonian rats. (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Yu; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Liang, Jen-I; Yeh, Ming-Long; Chen, Jia-Jin J


    Gait disturbances are common in the rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by administrating 6-hydroxydopamine. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed spatiotemporal gait indices and the kinematic information of PD rats during overground locomotion. This study utilized a simple, accurate, and reproducible method for quantifying the spatiotemporal and kinematic changes of gait patterns in hemiparkinsonian rats. A transparent walkway with a tilted mirror was set to capture underview footprints and lateral joint ankle images using a high-speed and high-resolution digital camera. The footprint images were semi-automatically processed with a threshold setting to identify the boundaries of soles and the critical points of each hindlimb for deriving the spatiotemporal and kinematic indices of gait. Following PD lesion, asymmetrical gait patterns including a significant decrease in the step/stride length and increases in the base of support and ankle joint angle were found. The increased footprint length, toe spread, and intermediary toe spread were found, indicating a compensatory gait pattern for impaired locomotor function. The temporal indices showed a significant decrease in the walking speed with increased durations of the stance/swing phase and double support time, which was more evident in the affected hindlimb. Furthermore, the ankle kinematic data showed that the joint angle decreased at the toe contact stage. We conclude that the proposed gait analysis method can be used to precisely detect locomotor function changes in PD rats, which is useful for objective assessments of investigating novel treatments for PD animal model.

  4. Diagnostic value of semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of functional parameters in multiparametric MRI of the prostate. (United States)

    Hauth, Elke; Halbritter, Daniela; Jaeger, Horst; Hohmuth, Horst; Beer, Meinrad


    To determine the diagnostic value of semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters of three functional techniques in multiparametric (mp)-MRI of the prostate. Mp-MRI was performed in 110 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCA) before transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided core biopsy. Peak-enhancement, initial and post-initial enhancement, initial area under gadolinium curve, Ktrans (forward rate constant), Kep (efflux rate constant), Ve (extracellular volume), ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) and MR spectroscopy ratio were obtained for malignant and benign lesions. For iAUGC, Ktrans, Kep and Ve we evaluated median, mean and the difference (Diff) between mean and median. For ADC we evaluated mean, median, Diff between mean and median, and min. In addition, we evaluated these parameters in dependence of Gleason score in PCA. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and area under curve (AUC) were determined. ADC min and Kep Diff were the best predictors of malignancy in all lesions (AUC: 0.765). ADC min was the best predictor of malignancy for lesions in peripheral zone (PZ) (AUC: 0.7506) and Kep Diff was the best predictor of malignancy for lesions in transitional zone (AUC: 0.7514). Peak enhancement was the best parameter in differentiation of low-grade PCA with Gleason score 6 from high-grade PCA with Gleason score ≥ 7 (AUC: 0.7692). ADC min can differentiate PCA from benign prostate lesions in PZ. Kep Diff could possibly improve prostate cancer detection in. Peak enhancement might be able to differentiate low grade from high-grade PCA. Semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters may be useful for the functional techniques in mp-MRI. Advances in knowledge: ADC min can differentiate PCA from benign prostate lesions in PZ. Peak enhancement might be able to differentiate low grade from high-grade PCA.

  5. MCM - 2 and Ki - 67 as proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma: A quantitative and semi - quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Mehdi, Muhammad Zain; Nagi, Abdul Hanan; Naseem, Nadia


    Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are markers of proliferation which are closely linked to grade. Therefore, they

  6. The usefulness of 3D quantitative analysis with using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youn Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MRI 3D quantitative analysis for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head in comparison with MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen. For 3 months at our hospital, 14 femoral head specimens with osteonecrosis were obtained after total hip arthroplasty. The patients preoperative MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for quantitative analysis of the size of the necrosis. Each necrotic fraction of the femoral head was measured by 2D quantitative analysis with using mid-coronal and mid-sagittal MRIs, and by 3D quantitative analysis with using serial continuous coronal MRIs and 3D reconstruction software. The necrotic fraction of the specimen was physically measured by the fluid displacement method. The necrotic fraction according to MRI 2D or 3D quantitative analysis was compared with that of the specimen by using Spearman's correlation test. On the correlative analysis, the necrotic fraction by MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen showed moderate correlation (r = 0.657); on the other hand, the necrotic fraction by MRI 3D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.952) ({rho} < 0.05). MRI 3D quantitative analysis was more accurate than 2D quantitative analysis using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, it may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome and deciding the proper treatment option.

  7. The usefulness of 3D quantitative analysis with using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Park, Youn Soo


    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MRI 3D quantitative analysis for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head in comparison with MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen. For 3 months at our hospital, 14 femoral head specimens with osteonecrosis were obtained after total hip arthroplasty. The patients preoperative MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for quantitative analysis of the size of the necrosis. Each necrotic fraction of the femoral head was measured by 2D quantitative analysis with using mid-coronal and mid-sagittal MRIs, and by 3D quantitative analysis with using serial continuous coronal MRIs and 3D reconstruction software. The necrotic fraction of the specimen was physically measured by the fluid displacement method. The necrotic fraction according to MRI 2D or 3D quantitative analysis was compared with that of the specimen by using Spearman's correlation test. On the correlative analysis, the necrotic fraction by MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen showed moderate correlation (r = 0.657); on the other hand, the necrotic fraction by MRI 3D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.952) (ρ < 0.05). MRI 3D quantitative analysis was more accurate than 2D quantitative analysis using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, it may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome and deciding the proper treatment option

  8. Value of quantitative phase analysis for the detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, M.H.; Brunotte, F.; Thouvenot, P.; Itty, C.; Robert, J.; Boursier, M.; Gilgenkrantz, J.M.


    The objective of the study was to express in quantitative data the differences observed in the phase image, at rest and during exercise, between normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. The quantitative analysis of phase image provided interesting informations about myocardial ischemia but its performances were not better than usual radionuclide ventriculography investigation [fr

  9. An Inexpensive Electrodeposition Device and Its Use in a Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Exercise (United States)

    Parker, Richard H.


    An experimental procedure, using an apparatus that is easy to construct, was developed to incorporate a quantitative electrogravimetric determination of the solution nickel content into an undergraduate or advanced high school quantitative analysis laboratory. This procedure produces results comparable to the procedure used for the gravimetric…

  10. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of In Vitro Assembled Chromatin* (United States)

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Fedisch, Andreas; Schilcher, Pierre; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel


    The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help to establish and maintain a largely DNA sequence-independent but surprisingly stable structure. Chromatin is extensively disassembled and reassembled during DNA replication, repair, recombination or transcription in order to allow the necessary factors to gain access to their substrate. Despite such constant interference with chromatin structure, the epigenetic information is generally well maintained. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that coordinate chromatin assembly and ensure proper assembly are not particularly well understood. Here, we use label free quantitative mass spectrometry to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The use of a data independent acquisition method for proteome wide quantitation allows a time resolved comparison of in vitro chromatin assembly. A comparison of our in vitro data with proteomic studies of replicative chromatin assembly in vivo reveals an extensive overlap showing that the in vitro system can be used for investigating the kinetics of chromatin assembly in a proteome-wide manner. PMID:26811354

  11. Quantitative Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of carrot bioactives. (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Sansom, Catherine E; Lill, Ross E; Eason, Jocelyn R; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B


    Rapid quantitative near-infrared Fourier transform Raman analyses of the key phytonutrients in carrots, polyacetylenes and carotenoids, are reported here for the first time. Solvent extracts of 31 carrot lines were analyzed for these phytonutrients by conventional methods, polyacetylenes by GC-FID and carotenoids by visible spectrophotometry. Carotenoid concentrations were 0-5586 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW). Polyacetylene concentrations were 74-4846 μg g(-1) DW, highest in wild carrots. The polyacetylenes were falcarinol, 6-1237 μg g(-1) DW; falcarindiol, 42-3475 μg g(-1) DW; and falcarindiol 3-acetate, 27-649 μg g(-1) DW. Strong Raman bands for carotenoids gave good correlation to results by visible spectrophotometry. A chemometric model capable of quantitating carotenoids from Raman data was developed. A classification model for rapidly distinguishing carrots with high and low polyacetylene (limit of detection = 1400 μg g(-1)) concentrations based on Raman spectral intensity in the region of 2250 cm(-1) was produced.

  12. Chemical Fingerprint Analysis and Quantitative Analysis of Rosa rugosa by UPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanawar Mansur


    Full Text Available A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD was developed for quantitative analysis of five active compounds and chemical fingerprint analysis of Rosa rugosa. Ten batches of R. rugosa collected from different plantations in the Xinjiang region of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used UPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA of China. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regression (R2 = 0.9995 within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 94.2%–103.8%. The similarities of liquid chromatography fingerprints of 10 batches of R. rugosa were more than 0.981. The developed UPLC fingerprint method is simple, reliable, and validated for the quality control and identification of R. rugosa. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive ingredients in the R. rugosa samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the UPLC fingerprint, as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis, can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of R. rugosa.

  13. Transportation and quantitative analysis of socio-economic development of relations (United States)

    Chen, Yun


    Transportation has a close relationship with socio-economic. This article selects the indicators which can measure the development of transportation and socio-economic, using the method of correlation analysis, regression analysis, intensity of transportation analysis and transport elastic analysis, to analyze the relationship between them quantitatively, so that it has the fact guiding sense in the national development planning for the future.

  14. Genome-wide quantitative analysis of DNA methylation from bisulfite sequencing data (United States)

    Akman, Kemal; Haaf, Thomas; Gravina, Silvia; Vijg, Jan; Tresch, Achim


    Summary: Here we present the open-source R/Bioconductor software package BEAT (BS-Seq Epimutation Analysis Toolkit). It implements all bioinformatics steps required for the quantitative high-resolution analysis of DNA methylation patterns from bisulfite sequencing data, including the detection of regional epimutation events, i.e. loss or gain of DNA methylation at CG positions relative to a reference. Using a binomial mixture model, the BEAT package aggregates methylation counts per genomic position, thereby compensating for low coverage, incomplete conversion and sequencing errors. Availability and implementation: BEAT is freely available as part of Bioconductor at The package is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License 3.0. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24618468

  15. Quantitative analysis of abused drugs in physiological fluids by gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, R.L.


    Methods have been developed for quantitative analysis of commonly abused drugs in physiological fluids using gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The methods are being evaluated in volunteer analytical and toxicological laboratories, and analytical manuals describing the methods are being prepared. The specific drug and metabolites included in this program are: Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, methadone, phencyclidine, methaqualone, morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam, and N-desmethyldiazepam. The current analytical methods utilize relatively conventional instrumentation and procedures, and are capable of measuring drug concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml. Various newer techniques such as sample clean-up by high performance liquid chromatography, separation by glass capillary chromatography, and ionization by negative ion chemical ionization are being investigated with respect to their potential for achieving higher sensitivity and specificity, as well as their ability to facilitate simultaneous analysis of more than one drug and metabolite. (Auth.)

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Human Pluripotency and Neural Specification by In-Depth (PhosphoProteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Singec


    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be utilized for precise analysis of cell type identities during early development. We established a highly efficient neural induction strategy and an improved analytical platform, and determined proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of hESCs and their specified multipotent neural stem cell derivatives (hNSCs. This quantitative dataset (nearly 13,000 proteins and 60,000 phosphorylation sites provides unique molecular insights into pluripotency and neural lineage entry. Systems-level comparative analysis of proteins (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, kinase families, phosphorylation sites, and numerous biological pathways allowed the identification of distinct signatures in pluripotent and multipotent cells. Furthermore, as predicted by the dataset, we functionally validated an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by demonstrating that the secreted protein midkine is a regulator of neural specification. This resource is freely available to the scientific community, including a searchable website, PluriProt.

  17. Bridging the gaps for global sustainable development: a quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Udo, Victor E; Jansson, Peter Mark


    Global human progress occurs in a complex web of interactions between society, technology and the environment as driven by governance and infrastructure management capacity among nations. In our globalizing world, this complex web of interactions over the last 200 years has resulted in the chronic widening of economic and political gaps between the haves and the have-nots with consequential global cultural and ecosystem challenges. At the bottom of these challenges is the issue of resource limitations on our finite planet with increasing population. The problem is further compounded by pleasure-driven and poverty-driven ecological depletion and pollution by the haves and the have-nots respectively. These challenges are explored in this paper as global sustainable development (SD) quantitatively; in order to assess the gaps that need to be bridged. Although there has been significant rhetoric on SD with very many qualitative definitions offered, very few quantitative definitions of SD exist. The few that do exist tend to measure SD in terms of social, energy, economic and environmental dimensions. In our research, we used several human survival, development, and progress variables to create an aggregate SD parameter that describes the capacity of nations in three dimensions: social sustainability, environmental sustainability and technological sustainability. Using our proposed quantitative definition of SD and data from relatively reputable secondary sources, 132 nations were ranked and compared. Our comparisons indicate a global hierarchy of needs among nations similar to Maslow's at the individual level. As in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, nations that are struggling to survive are less concerned with environmental sustainability than advanced and stable nations. Nations such as the United States, Canada, Finland, Norway and others have higher SD capacity, and thus, are higher on their hierarchy of needs than nations such as Nigeria, Vietnam, Mexico and other

  18. Digital quantitative analysis of mast cell infiltration in interstitial cystitis. (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Daichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Yamada, Yukio; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Goto, Akiteru; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio


    To evaluate the significance of mast cell infiltration in interstitial cystitis (IC) by comparison with equally inflamed controls using a digital quantification technique. Bladder biopsy specimens from 31 patients with Hunner type IC and 38 patients with non-Hunner type IC were analyzed. Bladder biopsy specimens from 37 patients without IC, including 19 non-specific chronic cystitis ("non-IC cystitis") specimens and 18 non-inflamed bladder ("normal bladder") specimens, were used as controls. Mast cell tryptase-, CD3-, CD20-, and CD138-immunoreactive cells were quantified using digital image analysis software to evaluate both mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities. Mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities were counted independently in the entire lamina propria and detrusor areas and compared among the four groups. In the lamina propria, there were no significant differences in mast cell and lymphoplasmacytic cell densities between Hunner type IC and non-IC cystitis or between non-Hunner type IC and normal bladder specimens. In the detrusor, the mast cell densities were not significantly different among the four groups. Mast cell density was correlated with lymphoplasmacytic cell density, but not with clinical parameters. Mast cell density is not significantly different between IC specimens and non-IC control specimens with a similar degree of background inflammation. The intensity of mast cell infiltration generally correlated with that of lymphoplasmacytic cells. We conclude that mast cell count is of no value in the differential diagnosis between IC and other etiologies. © 2017 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung


    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...... describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two...

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune


    Histone proteins are subject to a range of post-transcriptional modifications in living cells. The combinatorial nature of these modifications constitutes the "histone code" that dictates chromatin structure and function during development, growth, differentiation, and homeostasis of cells....... Deciphering of the histone code is hampered by the lack of analytical methods for monitoring the combinatorial complexity of reversible multisite modifications of histones, including acetylation and methylation. To address this problem, we used LC-MSMS technology and Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... software for qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of histones extracted from human small cell lung cancer cells. A total of 32 acetylations, methylations, and ubiquitinations were located in the human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, including seven novel modifications. An LC-MSMS-based method...

  1. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.


    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  2. Operation Iraqi Freedom 04 - 06: Opportunities to Apply Quantitative Methods to Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Eric C


    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the need for a quantitative analytical capability within organizations and staffs that provide intelligence analysis to Army, Joint, and Coalition Force headquarters...

  3. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Quantitative Phase Imaging and Applications in Live Cell Analysis (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Kosmeier, Sebastian; Schlichthaber, Frank; Remmersmann, Christian; von Bally, Gert; Rommel, Christina; Dierker, Christian; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    The analysis of complex processes in living cells creates a high demand for fast and label-free methods for online monitoring. Widely used fluorescence methods require specific labeling and are often restricted to chemically fixated samples. Thus, methods that offer label-free and minimally invasive detection of live cell processes and cell state alterations are of particular interest. In combination with light microscopy, digital holography provides label-free, multi-focus quantitative phase imaging of living cells. In overview, several methods for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) are presented. First, different experimental setups for the recording of digital holograms and the modular integration of DHM into common microscopes are described. Then the numerical processing of digitally captured holograms is explained. This includes the description of spatial and temporal phase shifting techniques, spatial filtering based reconstruction, holographic autofocusing, and the evaluation of self-interference holograms. Furthermore, the usage of partial coherent light and multi-wavelength approaches is discussed. Finally, potentials of digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell imaging are illustrated by results from selected applications. It is shown that DHM can be used for automated tracking of migrating cells and cell thickness monitoring as well as for refractive index determination of cells and particles. Moreover, the use of DHM for label-free analysis in fluidics and micro-injection monitoring is demonstrated. The results show that DHM is a highly relevant method that allows novel insights in dynamic cell biology, with applications in cancer research and for drugs and toxicity testing.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness (QASA): modelling and measuring situation awareness using signal detection theory. (United States)

    Edgar, Graham K; Catherwood, Di; Baker, Steven; Sallis, Geoff; Bertels, Michael; Edgar, Helen E; Nikolla, Dritan; Buckle, Susanna; Goodwin, Charlotte; Whelan, Allana


    This paper presents a model of situation awareness (SA) that emphasises that SA is necessarily built using a subset of available information. A technique (Quantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness - QASA), based around signal detection theory, has been developed from this model that provides separate measures of actual SA (ASA) and perceived SA (PSA), together with a feature unique to QASA, a measure of bias (information acceptance). These measures allow the exploration of the relationship between actual SA, perceived SA and information acceptance. QASA can also be used for the measurement of dynamic ASA, PSA and bias. Example studies are presented and full details of the implementation of the QASA technique are provided. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a new model of situation awareness (SA) together with an associated tool (Quantitative Analysis of Situation Awareness - QASA) that employs signal detection theory to measure several aspects of SA, including actual and perceived SA and information acceptance. Full details are given of the implementation of the tool.

  5. Applying quantitative benefit-risk analysis to aid regulatory decision making in diagnostic imaging: methods, challenges, and opportunities. (United States)

    Agapova, Maria; Devine, Emily Beth; Bresnahan, Brian W; Higashi, Mitchell K; Garrison, Louis P


    Health agencies making regulatory marketing-authorization decisions use qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess expected benefits and expected risks associated with medical interventions. There is, however, no universal standard approach that regulatory agencies consistently use to conduct benefit-risk assessment (BRA) for pharmaceuticals or medical devices, including for imaging technologies. Economics, health services research, and health outcomes research use quantitative approaches to elicit preferences of stakeholders, identify priorities, and model health conditions and health intervention effects. Challenges to BRA in medical devices are outlined, highlighting additional barriers in radiology. Three quantitative methods--multi-criteria decision analysis, health outcomes modeling and stated-choice survey--are assessed using criteria that are important in balancing benefits and risks of medical devices and imaging technologies. To be useful in regulatory BRA, quantitative methods need to: aggregate multiple benefits and risks, incorporate qualitative considerations, account for uncertainty, and make clear whose preferences/priorities are being used. Each quantitative method performs differently across these criteria and little is known about how BRA estimates and conclusions vary by approach. While no specific quantitative method is likely to be the strongest in all of the important areas, quantitative methods may have a place in BRA of medical devices and radiology. Quantitative BRA approaches have been more widely applied in medicines, with fewer BRAs in devices. Despite substantial differences in characteristics of pharmaceuticals and devices, BRA methods may be as applicable to medical devices and imaging technologies as they are to pharmaceuticals. Further research to guide the development and selection of quantitative BRA methods for medical devices and imaging technologies is needed. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1 ... gene mapping; QTL analysis; multiparent intercross population; MAGIC; AMPRIL; association mapping. ... In conventional QTL analysis, F2, backcross populations, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines and double haploids from biparental crosses are ...

  7. A Quantitative Analysis of Dressing Dynamics for Robotic Dressing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Chance


    Full Text Available Assistive robots have a great potential to address issues related to an aging population and an increased demand for caregiving. Successful deployment of robots working in close proximity with people requires consideration of both safety and human–robot interaction (HRI. One of the established activities of daily living where robots could play an assistive role is dressing. Using the correct force profile for robot control will be essential in this application of HRI requiring careful exploration of factors related to the user’s pose and the type of garments involved. In this paper, a Baxter robot was used to dress a jacket onto a mannequin and human participants considering several combinations of user pose and clothing type (base layers, while recording dynamic data from the robot, a load cell, and an IMU. We also report on suitability of these sensors for identifying dressing errors, e.g., fabric snagging. Data were analyzed by comparing the overlap of confidence intervals to determine sensitivity to dressing. We expand the analysis to include classification techniques such as decision tree and support vector machines using k-fold cross-validation. The 6-axis load cell successfully discriminated between clothing types with predictive model accuracies between 72 and 97%. Used independently, the IMU and Baxter sensors were insufficient to discriminate garment types with the IMU showing 40–72% accuracy, but when used in combination this pair of sensors achieved an accuracy similar to the more expensive load cell (98%. When observing dressing errors (snagging, Baxter’s sensors and the IMU data demonstrated poor sensitivity but applying machine learning methods resulted in model with high predicative accuracy and low false negative rates (≤5%. The results show that the load cell could be used independently for this application with good accuracy but a combination of the lower cost sensors could also be used without a significant loss in

  8. Quantitative image analysis of microstructure development during pressure sintering of CoO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, A; Notis, M R


    An automatic system for quantitative image analysis was developed to study the transition from intermediate to final stage pore structure in pressure-sintered CoO. One of the significant results from this study indicates that the projected length is a good parameter to observe the transition from open cylindrical to closed porosity. Quantitative image analysis indicates that the Zener relationship (r/G approx. P) is obeyed through the entire sintering process.

  9. Quantitative image analysis in the assessment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; Martin, David R; Myers, Orrin B; Czuchlewski, David R; Hunt, Kristin E


    Proliferation rates in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been associated with conflicting outcomes in the literature, more often with high proliferation associated with poor prognosis. In most studies, the proliferation rate was estimated by a pathologist using an immunohistochemical stain for the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. We hypothesized that a quantitative image analysis algorithm would give a more accurate estimate of the proliferation rate, leading to better associations with survival. In all, 84 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were selected according to the World Health Organization criteria. Ki-67 percentage positivity estimated by the pathologist was recorded from the original report. The same slides were then scanned using an Aperio ImageScope, and Ki-67 percentage positivity was calculated using a computer-based quantitative immunohistochemistry nuclear algorithm. In addition, chart review was performed and survival time was recorded. The Ki-67 percentage estimated by the pathologist from the original report versus quantitative image analysis was significantly correlated (Pquantitative image analysis (P=0.021). There was less agreement at lower Ki-67 percentages. Comparison of Ki-67 percentage positivity versus survival did not show significant association either with pathologist estimate or quantitative image analysis. However, although not significant, there was a trend of worse survival at higher proliferation rates detected by the pathologist but not by quantitative image analysis. Interestingly, our data suggest that the Ki-67 percentage positivity as assessed by the pathologist may be more closely associated with survival outcome than that identified by quantitative image analysis. This may indicate that pathologists are better at selecting appropriate areas of the slide. More cases are needed to assess whether this finding would be statistically significant. Due to the good correlation between pathologist estimate and quantitative image

  10. The cutting edge - Micro-CT for quantitative toolmark analysis of sharp force trauma to bone


    Norman, D. G.; Watson, Derrick G.; Burnett, B.; Fenne, P. M.; Williams, M. A. (Mark A.)


    Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle ca...

  11. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.


    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations are synthe......A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations...

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis of nitric oxide-responsive phosphoproteins in cotton leaf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Fan

    Full Text Available Knowledge of phosphorylation events and their regulation is crucial to understanding the functional biology of plant proteins, but very little is currently known about nitric oxide-responsive phosphorylation in plants. Here, we report the first large-scale, quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum treated with sodium nitroprusside (nitric oxide donor by utilizing the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method. A total of 1315 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1528 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1020 cotton phosphoproteins. Among them, 183 phosphopeptides corresponding to 167 phosphoproteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated in response to sodium nitroprusside. Several of the phosphorylation sites that we identified, including RQxS, DSxE, TxxxxSP and SPxT, have not, to our knowledge, been reported to be protein kinase sites in other species. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, RNA metabolism, intracellular transport and so on. This study reveals unique features of the cotton phosphoproteome and provides new insight into the biochemical pathways that are regulated by nitric oxide.

  13. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping


    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  14. Quantitative real-time PCR data analysis with R


    Machado de Souza, Ignacio Nicolás


    This dissertation covers an introduction to the field of qPCR data analysis using the state-of-the-art R programming language. qPCR analyses genomic data based on the DNA replication. After showing a set of basic biological and statistics concepts, the roots of qPCR technology, together with its principal data analysis modelisations (visualisation, filtering, clustering, ...) are shown. A web application has been developed to ease and extend qPCR data analysis functionalities to other areas s...

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung


    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  16. [Device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation]. (United States)

    Arita, Hideko; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Hanaoka, Kazuo


    The article describes an analysing device that measures the perception and intensity of pain quantitatively. While it is not necessarily true that psychological aspect is totally irrelevant to pain measurement, this device is remarkable in that it is capable of measuring the intensity of pain felt by the patient more objectively by using electric stimuli. The feature of this device is that it uses a non-pain heteresthesia for measuring the intensity of pain. The device is compact, light-weight, and portable. Unlike VAS that requires only a scale, the device requires a person to carry out the measurement. Nevertheless, as the National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage has been approved, introduction of the device may be facilitated in terms of budget for the purchase and labor. The device is useful to better understand not only the intensity of pain but also the pathological conditions, resulting in more appropriate treatment, by (1) comparing degree of pain or VAS values taken by a multicenter study with those of a patient; (2) using both degree of pain and VAS; and (3) multiple measurements of degree of pain and VAS in one case.

  17. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China (United States)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  18. Quantitative Image Analysis Techniques with High-Speed Schlieren Photography (United States)

    Pollard, Victoria J.; Herron, Andrew J.


    Optical flow visualization techniques such as schlieren and shadowgraph photography are essential to understanding fluid flow when interpreting acquired wind tunnel test data. Output of the standard implementations of these visualization techniques in test facilities are often limited only to qualitative interpretation of the resulting images. Although various quantitative optical techniques have been developed, these techniques often require special equipment or are focused on obtaining very precise and accurate data about the visualized flow. These systems are not practical in small, production wind tunnel test facilities. However, high-speed photography capability has become a common upgrade to many test facilities in order to better capture images of unsteady flow phenomena such as oscillating shocks and flow separation. This paper describes novel techniques utilized by the authors to analyze captured high-speed schlieren and shadowgraph imagery from wind tunnel testing for quantification of observed unsteady flow frequency content. Such techniques have applications in parametric geometry studies and in small facilities where more specialized equipment may not be available.

  19. Quantitative analysis of the thermal damping of coherent axion oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.


    Unruh and Wald have recently discussed a new mechanism for damping coherent axion oscillations, ''thermal damping,'' which occurs due to the temperature dependence of the axion mass and neutrino viscosity. We investigate the effect quantitatively and find that the present energy density in axions can be written as rho/sub a/ = rho/sub a0//(1+J/sub UW/), where rho/sub a/0 is what the axion energy density would be in the absence of the thermal-damping effect and J/sub UW/ is an integral whose integrand depends upon (dm/sub a//dT) 2 . As a function of f(equivalentPeccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale) J/sub UW/ achieves its maximum value for f/sub PQ/approx. =3 x 10 12 GeV; unless the axion mass turn-on is very sudden, Vertical Bar(T/m/sub a/)(dm/sub a//dT)Vertical Bar>>1, J/sub UW/ is <<1, implying that this damping mechanism is not significant

  20. Quantitative analysis of complexes in electron irradiated CZ silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Ohyama, H.; Goto, Y.; Sugiyama, T.


    Complexes in helium or electron irradiated silicon are quantitatively analyzed by highly sensitive and accurate infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. Carbon concentration (1x10 15 -1x10 17 cm -3 ) and helium dose (5x10 12 -5x10 13 cm -2 ) or electron dose (1x10 15 -1x10 17 cm -2 ) are changed by two orders of magnitude in relatively low regime compared to the previous works. It is demonstrated that the carbon-related complex in low carbon concentration silicon of commercial grade with low electron dose can be detected clearly. Concentration of these complexes is estimated. It is clarified that the complex configuration and thermal behavior in low carbon and low dose samples is simple and almost confined within the individual complex family compared to those in high concentration and high dose samples. Well-established complex behavior in electron-irradiated sample is compared to that in He-irradiated samples, obtained by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) or cathodoluminescence (CL), which had close relation to the Si power device performance

  1. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A


    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  2. Software system for X-ray diffraction quantitative phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, L.; Herrera, V.; Rubio, E.


    A system of experimental methods and computer programs for X-ray diffraction analysis is presented. The most important cases occurring in practice are considered. Program MARIA for spectral analysis is described. The external standard method for powder analysis is presented. Program STANDEXT calculates the sample absorption coefficient, the concentrations and standard deviations by a least squares method. For the case of partly identified samples, the internal standard method is developed. All measured peak are considered in the calculations. Program STANDINT solves the concentrations of the identified phases, their errors and the sample's absorption coefficient. A modification is introduced in the so-called direct method for massive sample analysis. The effect of texture is characterized by model representation of the inverse pole figure associated to the sample diffracting surface. Program DIREC is proposed for titting texture-modulated theoretical diffraction patterns to experimental ones, thus calculating phase concentrations and corresponding errors. Examples are given in some applications

  3. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  4. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting. (United States)

    Eaton, Samantha L; Roche, Sarah L; Llavero Hurtado, Maica; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Wishart, Thomas M


    Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB) to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls) are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate that normalisation

  5. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  6. [CIPA (Comprehensive Individualized Process Analysis)--a method for combining quantitative and qualitative individual case analysis]. (United States)

    Regli, D; Grawe, K; Gassmann, D; Dick, A


    The main question of psychotherapy research nowadays is how psychotherapy works. Hence, interest focuses mainly on the process of psychotherapy. General change mechanisms as well as the therapeutic interaction are in the center of research interest. On the basis of process outcome findings (Orlinsky, Grawe, Parks 1994) and the schema theory of Grawe (1987) we developed a research instrument allowing the analysis of therapies from a theoretically and quantitative approaches. The research instrument (CIPA-Comprehensive Individualized Process Analysis) consist of three parts: The scales of the first part assess the general working mechanisms and the therapeutic relationship. The second part allows a rating of the patient's interactions inside and outside the therapy. In the third part the individual schemata are rated. The instrument and the research strategy are being illustrated by means of a selected therapy recorded completely on video tape. The results are interpreted on the basis of the individual schema structure as well as the therapy outcome. The possibility offered by the new instrument to combine quantitative and qualitative research strategies is discussed.

  7. Quantitative analysis of some volatile components in Mimusops elengi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantana Aromdee


    Full Text Available Dried pikul flower (Mimusops elengi L., Sapotaceae is used in many recipes of Thai traditional medicine i.e. cardiotonic and stomachic. In this study, fresh and dried pikul flowers were investigated. The odour of pikul flower, even when it was dried, is very strong and characteristic. The constituents of volatile oils in fresh and dried pikul flowers extracted by ether were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Phenylethanol, 4-hydroxybenzenemethanol and cinnamyl alcohol were mainly found in fresh flower, 10.49, 8.69 and 6.17%, respectively. Whereas those mainly found in dried flowers were long chain carboxylic acid ester and (Z-9-octadecenoic acid, 5.37 and 4.71% of ether extract, respectively.An analytical method simultaneously determining benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben was developed by using the GC-FID method. The percent recoveries were 91.66, 104.59 and 105.28%, respectively. The intraday variations(% RSD were 7.22, 6.67 and 1.86%; and the interday variation were 3.12, 2.52 and 3.55%, respectively. Detection limits were 0.005, 0.014 and 0.001 ppm, and quantitation limits were 0.015, 0.048 and 0.003 ppm, respectively. Benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and methyl paraben content of dried flowers (9 samples from various drug stores in Thailand and one sample from China were 6.40-13.46, 17.57-196.57 and 27.35-355.53 ppm, respectively.

  8. Quantitative Change and Use Analysis of Agricultural Land in China (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Chou, J.; Dong, W.


    Climatic change, economic and scientific development and political guidance irritate the change of land use. With the index of crop sown area, this paper mainly explores the agricultural land use situation in these years of China. Accumulated temperature and urbanization rate are used to analyze space-time difference and its impact mechanism of crop sown area, for the quantitative change of agricultural land. While cropping index reflected agricultural land use is considered to obtain the actual use of cultivated land and its surplus capacity. Some results are concluded as follows: (1) from 1949 to 2010, crop sown area has a generally slow growth in China, however, with obvious space diversity. Most quickly increase and decrease are reflected in Xinjiang and North China, and the size of agricultural land ranks from the midland to the east and to the west of China. (2) Based on the relationship of accumulated temperature and cropping system, effect of climatic change, urbanization and other factors aggregated on crop sown area increase are considered. It is confirmed that warming promotes much little, urbanization restrains mainly in South China, northeast China, Xinjiang and southwest China, and other factors aggregated accelerate agricultural land of the rest of China. (3) From 1980 to 2009, agricultural land use degree keeps unceasing deepening. By the common influence of decreased cultivated area and less potential cropping index than actual cropping index, surplus capacity of cultivated area induces, from 6.27*107 hm2 in 1980 to 3.85*107 hm2 in 2009. However, it still accounts for about 20 percent of agricultural land to the full potential, which verifies the necessary of sufficient and reasonable use in further.

  9. Quantitative genetic analysis of anxiety trait in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Contreras, J; Hare, E; Chavarría, G; Raventós, H


    Bipolar disorder type I (BPI) affects approximately 1% of the world population. Although genetic influences on bipolar disorder are well established, identification of genes that predispose to the illness has been difficult. Most genetic studies are based on categorical diagnosis. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the use of quantitative endophenotypes, as has been done for other medical disorders. We studied 619 individuals, 568 participants from 61 extended families and 51 unrelated healthy controls. The sample was 55% female and had a mean age of 43.25 (SD 13.90; range 18-78). Heritability and genetic correlation of the trait scale from the Anxiety State and Trait Inventory (STAI) was computed by using the general linear model (SOLAR package software). we observed that anxiety trait meets the following criteria for an endophenotype of bipolar disorder type I (BPI): 1) association with BPI (individuals with BPI showed the highest trait score (F = 15.20 [5,24], p = 0.009), 2) state-independence confirmed after conducting a test-retest in 321 subjects, 3) co-segregation within families 4) heritability of 0.70 (SE: 0.060), p = 2.33 × 10 -14 and 5) genetic correlation with BPI was 0.20, (SE = 0.17, p = 3.12 × 10 -5 ). Confounding factors such as comorbid disorders and pharmacological treatment could affect the clinical relationship between BPI and anxiety trait. Further research is needed to evaluate if anxiety traits are specially related to BPI in comparison with other traits such as anger, attention or response inhibition deficit, pathological impulsivity or low self-directedness. Anxiety trait is a heritable phenotype that follows a normal distribution when measured not only in subjects with BPI but also in unrelated healthy controls. It could be used as an endophenotype in BPI for the identification of genomic regions with susceptibility genes for this disorder. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. ImatraNMR: Novel software for batch integration and analysis of quantitative NMR spectra (United States)

    Mäkelä, A. V.; Heikkilä, O.; Kilpeläinen, I.; Heikkinen, S.


    Quantitative NMR spectroscopy is a useful and important tool for analysis of various mixtures. Recently, in addition of traditional quantitative 1D 1H and 13C NMR methods, a variety of pulse sequences aimed for quantitative or semiquantitative analysis have been developed. To obtain actual usable results from quantitative spectra, they must be processed and analyzed with suitable software. Currently, there are many processing packages available from spectrometer manufacturers and third party developers, and most of them are capable of analyzing and integration of quantitative spectra. However, they are mainly aimed for processing single or few spectra, and are slow and difficult to use when large numbers of spectra and signals are being analyzed, even when using pre-saved integration areas or custom scripting features. In this article, we present a novel software, ImatraNMR, designed for batch analysis of quantitative spectra. In addition to capability of analyzing large number of spectra, it provides results in text and CSV formats, allowing further data-analysis using spreadsheet programs or general analysis programs, such as Matlab. The software is written with Java, and thus it should run in any platform capable of providing Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or newer, however, currently it has only been tested with Windows and Linux (Ubuntu 10.04). The software is free for non-commercial use, and is provided with source code upon request.

  11. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis in kidney glomeruli using microdissection techniques. (United States)

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Cornillie, Pieter; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Burvenich, Christian; Van den Broeck, Wim


    The introduction of new tools for molecular analysis, such as RT-qPCR and microarrays, has provided researchers with powerful applications to study renal disease and development. However, the high cellular heterogeneity of the renal tissue complicates the molecular analysis of specific cells and cell groups such as glomerular or tubular cells. In the past, glomerular sieving and manual dissection were used for the isolation of glomeruli. However, these techniques cannot be used for the isolation of specific glomeruli or for the co-isolation of additional tissue fractions. In recent decades, new microdissection techniques such as laser-assisted microdissection have been developed. These applications allow the isolation of small cell groups from heterogeneous tissue for molecular analysis, including microarray and RT-qPCR. Although very promising, some drawbacks are associated with these techniques. The isolated sample material is generally small and requires sensitive assays. In addition, the long sample processing time may result in a considerable loss of RNA integrity. Careful optimization and rigorous quality analysis should overcome these drawbacks. In the present paper, the recent literature on the application of microdissection techniques in kidney research is reviewed, together with a discussion of the critical issues that are essential for the application of quantitative mRNA expression analysis with RT-qPCR on microdissected samples.

  12. [Multiple dependent variables LS-SVM regression algorithm and its application in NIR spectral quantitative analysis]. (United States)

    An, Xin; Xu, Shuo; Zhang, Lu-Da; Su, Shi-Guang


    In the present paper, on the basis of LS-SVM algorithm, we built a multiple dependent variables LS-SVM (MLS-SVM) regression model whose weights can be optimized, and gave the corresponding algorithm. Furthermore, we theoretically explained the relationship between MLS-SVM and LS-SVM. Sixty four broomcorn samples were taken as experimental material, and the sample ratio of modeling set to predicting set was 51 : 13. We first selected randomly and uniformly five weight groups in the interval [0, 1], and then in the way of leave-one-out (LOO) rule determined one appropriate weight group and parameters including penalizing parameters and kernel parameters in the model according to the criterion of the minimum of average relative error. Then a multiple dependent variables quantitative analysis model was built with NIR spectrum and simultaneously analyzed three chemical constituents containing protein, lysine and starch. Finally, the average relative errors between actual values and predicted ones by the model of three components for the predicting set were 1.65%, 6.47% and 1.37%, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9940, 0.8392 and 0.8825, respectively. For comparison, LS-SVM was also utilized, for which the average relative errors were 1.68%, 6.25% and 1.47%, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9941, 0.8310 and 0.8800, respectively. It is obvious that MLS-SVM algorithm is comparable to LS-SVM algorithm in modeling analysis performance, and both of them can give satisfying results. The result shows that the model with MLS-SVM algorithm is capable of doing multi-components NIR quantitative analysis synchronously. Thus MLS-SVM algorithm offers a new multiple dependent variables quantitative analysis approach for chemometrics. In addition, the weights have certain effect on the prediction performance of the model with MLS-SVM, which is consistent with our intuition and is validated in this study. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize

  13. A quantitative method for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A. J. J.; Meesters, A. J.; Klingenberg, W.; Hicks, C.


    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is commonly used for designing maintenance routines by analysing potential failures, predicting their effect and facilitating preventive action. It is used to make decisions on operational and capital expenditure. The literature has reported that despite its

  14. Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment involves analysis of chloroquine using ultra violet spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet range (200- 400nm) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) in which the samples were dissolved in various solvents and their various absorbance, peak area at various wavelength were determined and ...

  15. Bayesian analysis of interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7×Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA2184 was used for genome-wide linkage analysis for yield traits in tomato. The genetic map, spanning the tomato genome of 808.4 cM long was constructed with 112 SSR markers distributing on 16 linkage ...

  16. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography: application of multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, D.V.


    A new method for the analysis of high resolution EM autoradiographs is described. It identifies labelled cell organelle profiles in sections on a strictly statistical basis and provides accurate estimates for their radioactivity without the need to make any assumptions about their size, shape and spatial arrangement. (author)

  17. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Marcel; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Quist, Marcel


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the

  18. Regression Commonality Analysis: A Technique for Quantitative Theory Building (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.


    When it comes to multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), it is common for social and behavioral science researchers to rely predominately on beta weights when evaluating how predictors contribute to a regression model. Presenting an underutilized statistical technique, this article describes how organizational researchers can use commonality…

  19. Stochastic filtering of quantitative data from STR DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    due to the apparatus used for measurements). Pull-up effects (more systematic increase caused by overlap in the spectrum) Stutters (peaks located four basepairs before the true peak). We present filtering techniques for all three technical artifacts based on statistical analysis of data from...

  20. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katica Boric

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  1. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.


    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  2. Quantitative analysis of natural resource management options at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.


    Natural capital (land, water, air) consists of many resources, each with its own quality, dynamics and renewability, but with strong interactions. The increasing competition for the natural resources, especially land and water, calls for a basic redirection in the analysis of land use. In this

  3. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk


    pectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT) enables the mapping of chromophore concentrations and image contrast enhancement in tissue. Acquisition of depth resolved spectra by sOCT requires analysis methods with optimal spectral/spatial resolution and spectral recovery. In this article, we

  4. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Faber, Dirk J.


    Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT) enables the mapping of chromophore concentrations and image contrast enhancement in tissue. Acquisition of depth resolved spectra by sOCT requires analysis methods with optimal spectral/spatial resolution and spectral recovery. In this article, we

  5. Fecal 13C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; MacLean, W.C. Jr.; Watkins, J.B.


    Use of 14 CO 2 breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of radioisotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and geriatric subjects. Here we report a fecal 13 C analysis that can be used in conjunction with 14 CO 2 breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. Simultaneous cholyglycine 13 CO 2 breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis

  6. Lipopeptides as therapeutics: applications and in vivo quantitative analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemenová, J.; Sýkora, D.; Maletínská, L.; Kuneš, Jaroslav


    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 215-230 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immunomethods * LC-MS * lipopeptides Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  7. Lipopeptides as therapeutics: applications and in vivo quantitative analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemenová, Jana; Sýkora, D.; Maletínská, Lenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav


    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 215-230 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : immunomethods * LC-MS * lipopeptides Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  8. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 19, 2014 ... Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. .... The effects of genotype, environment, and the genotype × environment interaction are significant (Wang and Murphy 1994; Hoeck et al. 2000; Lee et al. 2003 ...

  9. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Methods: AM1 semiempirical quantum chemical calculation method was used to find the optimum 3D geometry of the studied molecules. Two types of molecular descriptors, including the 2D .... i and j respectively; w is the average value of property; L is the number of nonzero values in the sum, N is the number of atoms.

  10. Quantitative Safety and Security Analysis from a Communication Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, Boris; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Jung, Oliver


    This paper introduces and exemplifies a trade-off analysis of safety and security properties in distributed systems. The aim is to support analysis for real-time communication and authentication building blocks in a wireless communication scenario. By embedding an authentication scheme into a real......-time communication protocol for safety-critical scenarios, we can rely on the protocol’s individual safety and security properties. The resulting communication protocol satisfies selected safety and security properties for deployment in safety-critical use-case scenarios with security requirements. We look...... at handover situations in a IEEE 802.11 wireless setup between mobile nodes and access points. The trade-offs involve application-layer data goodput, probability of completed handovers, and effect on usable protocol slots, to quantify the impact of security from a lower-layer communication perspective...

  11. Quantitative Safety and Security Analysis from a Communication Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Malinowsky


    Full Text Available This paper introduces and exemplifies a trade-off analysis of safety and security properties in distributed systems. The aim is to support analysis for real-time communication and authentication building blocks in a wireless communication scenario. By embedding an authentication scheme into a real-time communication protocol for safety-critical scenarios, we can rely on the protocol’s individual safety and security properties. The resulting communication protocol satisfies selected safety and security properties for deployment in safety-critical use-case scenarios with security requirements. We look at handover situations in a IEEE 802.11 wireless setup between mobile nodes and access points. The trade-offs involve application-layer data goodput, probability of completed handovers, and effect on usable protocol slots, to quantify the impact of security from a lower-layer communication perspective on the communication protocols. The results are obtained using the network simulator ns-3.

  12. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Hayden, R T; Yan, X; Wick, M T; Rodriguez, A B; Xiong, X; Ginocchio, C C; Mitchell, M J; Caliendo, A M


    While viral load testing has gained widespread acceptance, a primary limitation remains the variability of results, particularly between different laboratories. While some work has demonstrated the importance of standardized quantitative control material in reducing this variability, little has been done to explore other important factors in the molecular amplification process. Results of 185 laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2009 viral load proficiency testing (PT) survey (VLS) were examined. This included 165 labs (89.2%) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 99 (53.5%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 64 (34.6%) for BK virus (BKV). At the time of PT, laboratories were asked a series of questions to characterize their testing methods. The responses to these questions were correlated to mean viral load (MVL) and result variability (RV). Contribution of individual factors to RV was estimated through analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling and the use of backward selection of factors to fit those models. Selection of the quantitative calibrator, commercially prepared primers and probes, and amplification target gene were found most prominently associated with changes in MVL or RV for one or more of the viruses studied. Commercially prepared primers and probes and amplification target gene made the largest contribution to overall variability. Factors contributing to MVL and RV differed among viruses, as did relative contribution of each factor to overall variability. The marked variability seen in clinical quantitative viral load results is associated with multiple aspects of molecular testing design and performance. The reduction of such variability will require a multifaceted approach to improve the accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility of these important tests.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study


    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de


    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  14. Watershed Planning within a Quantitative Scenario Analysis Framework. (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P


    There is a critical need for tools and methodologies capable of managing aquatic systems within heavily impacted watersheds. Current efforts often fall short as a result of an inability to quantify and predict complex cumulative effects of current and future land use scenarios at relevant spatial scales. The goal of this manuscript is to provide methods for conducting a targeted watershed assessment that enables resource managers to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for use within a scenario analysis management framework. Sites are first selected for inclusion within the watershed assessment by identifying sites that fall along independent gradients and combinations of known stressors. Field and laboratory techniques are then used to obtain data on the physical, chemical, and biological effects of multiple land use activities. Multiple linear regression analysis is then used to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for predicting aquatic conditions. Lastly, methods for incorporating cumulative effects models within a scenario analysis framework for guiding management and regulatory decisions (e.g., permitting and mitigation) within actively developing watersheds are discussed and demonstrated for 2 sub-watersheds within the mountaintop mining region of central Appalachia. The watershed assessment and management approach provided herein enables resource managers to facilitate economic and development activity while protecting aquatic resources and producing opportunity for net ecological benefits through targeted remediation.

  15. Quantitative analysis of uncertainty from pebble flow in HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao, E-mail: [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Fu, Li; Jiong, Guo; Ximing, Sun; Lidong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)


    Highlights: • An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis model for pebble flow has been built. • Experiment and random walk theory are used to identify uncertainty of pebble flow. • Effects of pebble flow to the core parameters are identified by sensitivity analysis. • Uncertainty of core parameters due to pebble flow is quantified for the first time. - Abstract: In pebble bed HTR, along the deterministic average flow lines, randomness exists in the flow of pebbles, which is not possible to simulate with the current reactor design codes for HTR, such as VSOP, due to the limitation of current computer capability. In order to study how the randomness of pebble flow will affect the key parameters in HTR, a new pebble flow model was set up, which has been successfully transplanted into the VSOP code. In the new pebble flow model, mixing coefficients were introduced into the fixed flow line to simulate the randomness of pebble flow. Numerical simulation and pebble flow experiments were facilitated to determine the mixing coefficients. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to achieve the conclusion that the key parameters of pebble bed HTR are not sensitive to the randomness in pebble flow. The uncertainty of maximum power density and power distribution caused by the randomness in pebble flow is very small, especially for the “multi-pass” scheme of fuel circulation adopted in the pebble bed HTR.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Rat Condylar Chondrocytes during Postnatal Development. (United States)

    Jiang, Li Ting; Xie, Yin Yin; Wei, Li; Zhou, Qi; Shen, Xing; Gao, Yi Ming; Jiang, Xin Quan

    To investigate differentially expressed proteins in rat mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) chondrocytes caused by initial mastication for short postnatal periods. Four groups of protein samples were extracted from primary cultured rat MCC chondrocytes, harvested from eigthy postnatal SD rats aged 1,7,14 and 28 days, with twenty in each group. Total proteins were labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) reagents. Two-dimensional nano-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight/ time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry analysis with iTRAQ technique were performed. All data were analysed by MASCOT software with the SWISSPROT protein database. Furthermore, bioinformatics and statistical analysis were performed to classify their cellular components, biological processes, molecular functions and metabolic pathway by the PANTHER database. In total, 137 differentially expressed proteins were identified during MCC growth and were assigned to one or more cellular components. According to the PANTHER analysis, a significant proportion of proteins are involved in the metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, developmental process and response to stimulus. The most extensive molecular function was 43% in catalytic activity. In addition, it was found that proteins in MCC chondrocytes change markedly on the growth stage of eruption of the teeth. This study provides an integrated perspective of molecular mechanisms regulating early normal postnatal growth and development of rat MCC at the protein level.

  17. Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin analysis. I. Comparison of an immunoradiometric assay and a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.I.; Wu, T.F.; Ballon, S.C.; Lamb, E.J.


    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the quantitative analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The results were compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) used in our laboratory. The IRMA is a solid-phase, double-antibody immunoassay that sandwiches the intact hCG molecule between the two antibodies. It has specificity, accuracy, and precision which are similar to those of the RIA. The RIA is based upon the assumptions that the antigenicity of the tracer is not altered by the iodination process and that the antibody reacts equally with all of the antigens, including the radiolabeled antigen. The IRMA does not use radiolabeled antigens and thus is free of the assumptions made in the conventional RIA. The IRMA may be more accurate at the lower limits of the assay because it does not require logarithmic transformations. Since the IRMA does not measure the free beta-subunit of hCG, it cannot be endorsed as the sole technique to quantitate hCG in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia until the significance of the free beta-subunit in these patients is determined

  18. Severity of pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer: analysis using quantitative lobar emphysema scoring. (United States)

    Bae, Kyungsoo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Ho Cheol; Ha, Ji Young; Park, Sung Eun; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Bo Hwa; Cho, Soo Buem; Moon, Jin Il


    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between lobar severity of emphysema and lung cancer using automated lobe segmentation and emphysema quantification methods.This study included 78 patients (74 males and 4 females; mean age of 72 years) with the following conditions: pathologically proven lung cancer, available chest computed tomographic (CT) scans for lobe segmentation, and quantitative scoring of emphysema. The relationship between emphysema and lung cancer was analyzed using quantitative emphysema scoring of each pulmonary lobe.The most common location of cancer was the left upper lobe (LUL) (n = 28), followed by the right upper lobe (RUL) (n = 27), left lower lobe (LLL) (n = 13), right lower lobe (RLL) (n = 9), and right middle lobe (RML) (n = 1). Emphysema ratio was the highest in LUL, followed by that in RUL, LLL, RML, and RLL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that upper lobes (odds ratio: 1.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.11, P = 0.048) and lobes with emphysema ratio ranked the 1st or the 2nd (odds ratio: 2.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.48-4.15, P lung cancer development.In emphysema patients, lung cancer has a tendency to develop in lobes with more severe emphysema.

  19. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching. (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun


    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the "wedding flower". However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  20. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao


    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  1. Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method. (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee


    Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is (252)Cf or (241)Am-Be. In this study, (252)Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10(6)n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with (3)He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of approximately 0.947g/cc and area of 40cmx25cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei.

  2. Predicting Automotive Interior Noise Including Wind Noise by Statistical Energy Analysis


    Yoshio Kurosawa


    The applications of soundproof materials for reduction of high frequency automobile interior noise have been researched. This paper presents a sound pressure prediction technique including wind noise by Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis (HSEA) in order to reduce weight of acoustic insulations. HSEA uses both analytical SEA and experimental SEA. As a result of chassis dynamo test and road test, the validity of SEA modeling was shown, and utility of the method was confirmed.

  3. Quantitation of Surface Coating on Nanoparticles Using Thermogravimetric Analysis. (United States)

    Dongargaonkar, Alpana A; Clogston, Jeffrey D


    Nanoparticles are critical components in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutic applications. Some nanoparticles, such as metallic nanoparticles, consist of a surface coating or surface modification to aid in its dispersion and stability. This surface coating may affect the behavior of nanoparticles in a biological environment, thus it is important to measure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to determine the amount of coating on the surface of the nanoparticle. TGA experiments run under inert atmosphere can also be used to determine residual metal content present in the sample. In this chapter, the TGA technique and experimental method are described.

  4. Quantitative analysis of overlapping XPS peaks by spectrum reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, Peter C.J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    parameters. The values obtained for the oxide film thickness were compared with thickness values determined from the intensity of the corresponding O 1s spectra and with thickness values resulting from ellipsometric analysis. The sensitivity of the reconstruction procedure with regard to film thickness...... contributions in the spectra owing to inelastic scattering of signal electrons were calculated from the depth distributions of these constituents and their reference spectra. In the reconstruction procedure the film thickness and the concentrations of Fe/sup 2+/ and Fe/sup 3+/ in the oxide film were used as fit...

  5. Quantitative risk analysis in two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Euclides [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador , BA (Brazil)


    Transportation risk analysis techniques were used to study two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. The Pipeline A is for the simultaneous transportation of diesel, gasoline and LPG and comprises three parts, all of them crossing rural areas. The Pipeline B is for oil transportation and one of its ends is located in an area of a high density population. Both pipelines had their risk studied using the PHAST RISK{sup R} software and the individual risk measures, the only considered measures for license purposes for this type of studies, presented level far below the maximum tolerable levels considered. (author)

  6. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study. (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de


    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  7. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo


    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  8. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide with special emphasis on biosensors. (United States)

    Pundir, Chandra S; Deswal, Ritu; Narwal, Vinay


    Determination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has become essential in pharmaceutical, biological, clinical and environmental studies. The conventional detection methods of H 2 O 2 such as colourimetry, titration, chromatography, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, chemiluminescence have limited success, due to their poor selectivity and sensitivity, long analysis time and lack of long-term reliability and reproducibility. The biosensors overcome these limitations because of their simplicity, rapidity, selectivity and high sensitivity. This review describes the principle, analytic parameters, merits and demerits of various methods of H 2 O 2 determination with special emphasis on biosensors. The classification of biosensors based on various materials/nanomaterials and electrodes have been described in detail. The recent advances in vivo sensing and bio-sensing of H 2 O 2 by hemoglobin nanoparticles are also presented. The significant challenges and future perspective for highly selective H 2 O 2 detection are discussed.

  9. Quantitative image measurements for outcome analysis of lung nodule treatment (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Lee, Ki-Nam; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Huang, H. K.


    In this study, we designed and implemented a temporal image database for outcome analysis of lung nodules based on spiral CT images. The software package is composed of three parts. They are, respectively, a database management system which stores patient image data and nodule information; a user-friendly graphical user interface which allows a user to interface with the image database; and image processing tools that are designed to segment out lung nodules in the CT image with a simple mouse click anywhere inside a nodule. The image database uses the relational Sybase database system. Patient images and nodule information are stored in separate tables. Software interface has been designed to allow a user to retrieve any patient study from the picture archiving and communication system into the image database.

  10. Quantitative analysis of fish wake dynamics using volumetric PIV data (United States)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra


    In the study of swimming hydrodynamics, the fluid impulse in the wake is used to quantify the momentum transferred by the fish as it swims. This impulse is typically computed from planar PIV measurements of the wake circulation and geometry by assuming an axisymmetric vortex ring model. However, in many propulsive and maneuvering scenarios, three-dimensional effects are of substantial importance, and wake features are not often an isolated, symmetric vortex ring. Volumetric PIV data provides a complete measure of the vortex geometry and orientation, and circulation can be determined over multiple planar slices through the volume. Using sample datasets obtained from synthetic aperture PIV (SAPIV), we demonstrate how the availability of volumetric PIV data enables more detailed analysis of hydrodynamic impulse and characterize the uncertainty created by planar measurements. Special attention is paid to unsteady maneuvering behaviors that generate asymmetric and linked wake features.

  11. Quantitative Analysis and Stability of the Rodenticide TETS ... (United States)

    Journal Article The determination of the rodenticide tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) in drinking water is reportable through the use of automated sample preparation via solid phase extraction and detection using isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was characterized over twenty-two analytical batches with quality control samples. Accuracies for low and high concentration quality control pools were 100 and 101%, respectively. The minimum reporting level (MRL) for TETS in this method is 0.50 ug/L. Five drinking waters representing a range of water quality parameters and disinfection practices were fortified with TETS at ten times the MRL and analyzed over a 28 day period to determine the stability of TETS in these waters. The amount of TETS measured in these samples averaged 100 ± 6% of the amount fortified suggesting that tap water samples may be held for up to 28 days prior to analysis.

  12. Quantitative analysis of caffeine applied to pharmaceutical industry (United States)

    Baucells, M.; Ferrer, N.; Gómez, P.; Lacort, G.; Roura, M.


    The direct determination of some compounds like caffeine in pharmaceutical samples without sample pretreatment and without the separation of these compounds from the matrix (acetyl salicylic acid, paracetamol,…) is very worthwhile. It enables analysis to be performed quickly and without the problems associated with sample manipulation. The samples were diluted directly in KBr powder. We used both diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) and transmission techniques in order to measure the intensity of the peaks of the caffeine in the pharmaceutical matrix. Limits of detection, determination, relative standard deviation and recovery using caffeine in the same matrix as in the pharmaceutical product are related. Two methods for the quantification of caffeine were used: calibration line and standard addition techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Krebs


    Full Text Available Dual-Phase (DP steels are composed of martensite islands dispersed in a ductile ferrite matrix, which provides a good balance between strength and ductility. Current processing conditions (continuous casting followed by hot and cold rolling generate 'banded structures' i.e., irregular, parallel and alternating bands of ferrite and martensite, which are detrimental to mechanical properties and especially for in-use properties. We present an original and simple method to quantify the intensity and wavelength of these bands. This method, based on the analysis of covariance function of binary images, is firstly tested on model images. It is compared with ASTM E-1268 standard and appears to be more robust. Then it is applied on real DP steel microstructures and proves to be sufficiently sensitive to discriminate samples resulting from different thermo-mechanical routes.

  14. Global tractography with embedded anatomical priors for quantitative connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia eLemkaddem


    Full Text Available The main assumption of fiber-tracking algorithms is that fiber trajectories are represented by paths of highest diffusion, which is usually accomplished by following the principal diffusion directions estimated in every voxel from the measured diffusion MRI data. The state-of-the-art approaches, known as global tractography, reconstruct all the fiber tracts of the whole brain simultaneously by solving a global energy minimization problem. The tractograms obtained with these algorithms outperform any previous technique but, unfortunately, the price to pay is an increased computational cost which is not suitable in many practical settings, both in terms of time and memory requirements. Furthermore, existing global tractography algorithms suffer from an important shortcoming that is crucial in the context of brain connectivity analyses. As no anatomical priors are used during in the reconstruction process, the recovered fiber tracts are not guaranteed to connect cortical regions and, as a matter of fact, most of them stop prematurely in the white matter. This does not only unnecessarily slow down the estimation procedure and potentially biases any subsequent analysis but also, most importantly, prevents the de facto quantification of brain connectivity. In this work, we propose a novel approach for global tractography that is specifically designed for connectivity analysis applications by explicitly enforcing anatomical priors of the tracts in the optimization and considering the effective contribution of each of them, i.e. volume, to the acquired diffusion MRI image. We evaluated our approach on both a realistic diffusion MRI phantom and in-vivo data, and also compared its performance to existing tractography aloprithms.

  15. Quantitative analysis of antimicrobial use on British dairy farms. (United States)

    Hyde, Robert M; Remnant, John G; Bradley, Andrew J; Breen, James E; Hudson, Christopher D; Davies, Peers L; Clarke, Tom; Critchell, Yvonne; Hylands, Matthew; Linton, Emily; Wood, Erika; Green, Martin J


    Antimicrobial resistance has been reported to represent a growing threat to both human and animal health, and concerns have been raised around levels of antimicrobial usage (AMU) within the livestock industry. To provide a benchmark for dairy cattle AMU and identify factors associated with high AMU, data from a convenience sample of 358 dairy farms were analysed using both mass-based and dose-based metrics following standard methodologies proposed by the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project. Metrics calculated were mass (mg) of antimicrobial active ingredient per population correction unit (mg/PCU), defined daily doses (DDDvet) and defined course doses (DCDvet). AMU on dairy farms ranged from 0.36 to 97.79 mg/PCU, with a median and mean of 15.97 and 20.62 mg/PCU, respectively. Dose-based analysis ranged from 0.05 to 20.29 DDDvet, with a median and mean of 4.03 and 4.60 DDDvet, respectively. Multivariable analysis highlighted that usage of antibiotics via oral and footbath routes increased the odds of a farm being in the top quartile (>27.9 mg/PCU) of antimicrobial users. While dairy cattle farm AMU appeared to be lower than UK livestock average, there were a selection of outlying farms with extremely high AMU, with the top 25 per cent of farms contributing greater than 50 per cent of AMU by mass. Identification of these high use farms may enable targeted AMU reduction strategies and facilitate a significant reduction in overall dairy cattle AMU. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.


    The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel (B ampersand PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of student textbook summary writing (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra; Allie, Saalih; Low, Michael; Taylor, Julian


    The majority of "special access" students at the University of Cape Town are second language English speakers for whom reading the physics textbook is daunting. As a strategy to encourage meaningful engagement with the text, students wrote textbook summaries due the day material was covered in class. The summaries were returned, and they could bring them or re-write them for use during their examinations. A framework was developed to analyze the summaries based on Waywood, defining three cognitive levels seen in mathematics journaling: recounting, summarizing, and dialoging. This framework was refined, expanded, and tested. Interviews with students were conducted for their views on summary writing and survey questions were included on their final exams. The study was carried out in the 2007 spring semester of the "Foundation Physics Course," a component of the special access program.

  18. Quantitative analysis of access strategies to remoteinformation in network services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted


    of analytic models to compute different performance metrics for these approaches, with special focus on the so-called mismatch probability. The results of the analytic models allow for design decisions on which strategy to implement for specific input parameters (change rate of the information element......Remote access to dynamically changing information elements is a required functionality for various network services, including routing and instances of context-sensitive networking. Three fundamentally different strategies for such access are investigated in this paper: (1) a reactive approach...... initiated by the requesting entity, and two versions of proactive approaches in which the entity that contains the information element actively propagates its changes to potential requesters, either (2) periodically or triggered by changes of the information element (3). This paper first develops a set...

  19. 'Including health in systems responsible for urban planning': a realist policy analysis research programme. (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew


    Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as collaborators, throughout. We outline our research translation

  20. Quantitative image analysis for the detection of motion artefacts in coronary artery computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristanto, Wisnumurti; van Ooijen, Peter M.; Dikkers, Riksta; Greuter, Marcel J.; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Multi detector-row CT (MDCT), the current preferred method for coronary artery disease assessment, is still affected by motion artefacts. To rule out motion artefacts, qualitative image analysis is usually performed. Our study aimed to develop a quantitative image analysis for motion artefacts

  1. A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinet, C.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Werf, van der W.


    In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three

  2. Quantitative analysis of antipyretics and analgesics in solid dosage forms by powder X-Ray diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Frýbort, O.; Bezdička, Petr; Pekárek, T.


    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2008), s. 187-200 ISSN 0009-2223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : rietveld analysis * prefered orientation * quantitative analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.564, year: 2008

  3. Limitations for qualitative and quantitative neutron activation analysis using reactor neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Abbady, W.H.; El-Tanahy, Z.H.; El-Hagg, A.A.; Hassan, A.M.


    In this work, the most important limitations for qualitative and quantitative analysis using reactor neutrons for activation are reviewed. Each limitation is discussed using different examples of activated samples. Photopeak estimation, nuclear reactions interference and neutron flux measurements are taken into consideration. Solutions for high accuracy evaluation in neutron activation analysis applications are given. (author)

  4. Quantitative terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and analysis in chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    crystals and biological material. In order to obtain quantitative results great care in the analysis of the experimental data is required. I will discuss common pitfalls in the analysis of THz-TDS data as well as the influence of electronic and laser noise on the results of a THz-TDS experiment....

  5. Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents (United States)

    Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank


    Quantitative analysis of carbohydrates is a fundamental analytical tool used in many aspects of biology and chemistry. We have adapted a technique developed by Mathews et al. using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity using both the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose. Breakdown…

  6. [Quantitative analysis of seven phenolic acids in eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations by quantitative analysis of multi-components with single-marker]. (United States)

    Wang, Jun-jun; Zhang, Li; Guo, Qing; Kou, Jun-ping; Yu, Bo-yang; Gu, Dan-hua


    The study aims to develop a unified method to determine seven phenolic acids (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) contained in honeysuckle flower that is the monarch drug of all the eight Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations using quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS). Firstly, chlorogenic acid was used as a reference to get the average relative correction factors (RCFs) of the other phenolic acids in ratios to the reference; columns and instruments from different companies were used to validate the durability of the achieved RCFs in different levels of standard solutions; and honeysuckle flower extract was used as the reference substance to fix the positions of chromatographic peaks. Secondly, the contents of seven phenolic acids in eight different Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations samples were calculated based on the RCFs durability. Finally, the quantitative results were compared between QAMS and the external standard (ES) method. The results have showed that the durability of the achieved RCFs is good (RSD during 0.80% - 2.56%), and there are no differences between the quantitative results of QAMS and ES (the relative average deviation quantitative control of honeysuckle flower principally prescribed in Yinqiao Jiedu serial preparations.

  7. [Study on the multivariate quantitative analysis method for steel alloy elements using LIBS]. (United States)

    Gu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan


    Quantitative analysis of steel alloys was carried out using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) taking into account the complex matrix effects in steel alloy samples. The laser induced plasma was generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and repeated frequency of 10 Hz. The LIBS signal was coupled to the echelle spectrometer and recorded by a high sensitive ICCD detector. To get the best experimental conditions, some parameters, such as the detection delay, the CCDs integral gate width and the detecting position from the sample surface, were optimized. The experimental results showed that the optimum detection delay time was 1.5 micros, the optimal CCDs integral gate width was 2 micros and the best detecting position was 1.5 mm below the alloy sample's surface. The samples used in the experiments are ten standard steel alloy samples and two unknown steel alloy samples. The quantitative analysis was investigated with the optimum experimental parameters. Elements Cr and Ni in steel alloy samples were taken as the detection targets. The analysis was carried out with the methods based on conditional univariate quantitative analysis, multiple linear regression and partial least squares (PLS) respectively. It turned out that the correlation coefficients of calibration curves are not very high in the conditional univariate calibration method. The analysis results were obtained with the unsatisfied relative errors for the two predicted samples. So the con- ditional univariate quantitative analysis method can't effectively serve the quantitative analysis purpose for multi-components and complex matrix steel alloy samples. And with multiple linear regression method, the analysis accuracy was improved effectively. The method based on partial least squares (PLS) turned out to be the best method among all the three quantitative analysis methods applied. Based on PLS, the correlation coefficient of calibration curve for Cr is 0

  8. Quantitative analysis of soil chromatography. I. Water and radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Francis, C.W.; Duguid, J.O.


    Soil chromatography has been used successfully to evaluate relative mobilities of pesticides and nuclides in soils. Its major advantage over the commonly used suspension technique is that it more accurately simulates field conditions. Under such conditions the number of potential exchange sites is limited both by the structure of the soil matrix and by the manner in which the carrier fluid moves through this structure. The major limitation of the chromatographic method, however, has been its qualitative nature. This document represents an effort to counter this objection. A theoretical basis is specified for the transport both of the carrier eluting fluid and of the dissolved constituent. A computer program based on this theory is developed which optimizes the fit of theoretical data to experimental data by automatically adjusting the transport parameters, one of which is the distribution coefficient k/sub d/. This analysis procedure thus constitutes an integral part of the soil chromatographic method, by means of which mobilities of nuclides and other dissolved constituents in soils may be quantified

  9. Quantitative analysis of gait in the visually impaired. (United States)

    Nakamura, T


    In this comparative study concerning characteristics of independent walking by visually impaired persons, we used a motion analyser system to perform gait analysis of 15 late blind (age 36-54, mean 44.3 years), 15 congenitally blind (age 39-48, mean 43.8 years) and 15 sighted persons (age 40-50, mean 44.4 years) while walking a 10-m walkway. All subjects were male. Compared to the sighted, late blind and congenitally blind persons had a significantly slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time in the stance phase of gait. However, the relationships between gait parameters in the late and congenitally blind groups were maintained, as in the sighted group. In addition, the gait of the late blind showed a tendency to approximate the gait patterns of the congenitally blind as the duration of visual loss progressed. Based on these results we concluded that the gait of visually impaired persons, through its active use of non-visual sensory input, represents an attempt to adapt to various environmental conditions in order to maintain a more stable posture and to effect safe walking.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the individual dynamics of Psychology theses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles, Jaime R.


    Full Text Available Three cohorts of undergraduate psychology theses (n = 57 performed by last year undergraduate psychology students from Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, were monitored using 5 longitudinal measurements of progression. A Generalized Additive Model, to predict the completion time of the theses, is tested against two completion times: early and delayed. Effect size measures favor a multiple dimension model over a global progress model. The trajectory of the indicators through the 5 measurements allows the differentiation between early and delayed completion. The completion probabilities estimated by the dimensional model allow the identification of differential oscillation levels for the distinct completion times. The initial progression indicators allow the prediction of early completion with a 71% success rate, while the final measurement shows a success rate of 89%. The results support the effectiveness of the supervisory system and the analysis of the progression dynamics of the theses from a task-delay model, focused on the relationship between the amount of task completion and the deadlines

  11. Preliminary results of standard quantitative analysis by ED-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Alessandro L. de; Franca, Alana C.; Neto, Manoel R.M.; Paschuk, Sergei A.


    A comparison between the results of elemental concentration proposed by XRS-FP software , using data obtained by EDXRF technique with those obtained by stoichiometric calculation was performed. For this purpose, five standard samples of known compounds were produced: two lead- oxide, magnesium chloride and iodine in controlled amounts. The compounds were subsequently mixed and compressed to form tablets. The samples were irradiated in three endpoints, according to an orientation. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory for Radiological UTFPR using X-123SDD the Amptek detector and X-ray tube with silver target from the same manufacturer. The operating conditions tube were 05μA current to a 40 kV voltage. Finally, the 15 spectra analyzed with the software to determine the concentration of chlorine, iodine and lead. Data from this analysis were compared with results expected in stoichiometric calculations. The data provided by the program, a convergence of results, indicating homogeneity of the samples was found. Compared to the stoichiometric calculation, a considerable discrepancy that may be the result of a misconfiguration or contamination of the sample was found. At the end, we created a proposal for continuation of the work using an auxiliary calculation should be developed in the next step

  12. Quantitative analysis of soil chromatography. I. Water and radionuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, M.; Francis, C.W.; Duguid, J.O.


    Soil chromatography has been used successfully to evaluate relative mobilities of pesticides and nuclides in soils. Its major advantage over the commonly used suspension technique is that it more accurately simulates field conditions. Under such conditions the number of potential exchange sites is limited both by the structure of the soil matrix and by the manner in which the carrier fluid moves through this structure. The major limitation of the chromatographic method, however, has been its qualitative nature. This document represents an effort to counter this objection. A theoretical basis is specified for the transport both of the carrier eluting fluid and of the dissolved constituent. A computer program based on this theory is developed which optimizes the fit of theoretical data to experimental data by automatically adjusting the transport parameters, one of which is the distribution coefficient k/sub d/. This analysis procedure thus constitutes an integral part of the soil chromatographic method, by means of which mobilities of nuclides and other dissolved constituents in soils may be quantified.

  13. Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data (United States)

    Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.


    The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Criteria in University Building Maintenance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Ashola Abdul-Lateef


    Full Text Available University buildings are a significant part of university assets and considerable resources are committed to their design, construction and maintenance. The core of maintenance management is to optimize productivity and user satisfaction with optimum resources. An important segment in the maintenance management system is the analysis of criteria that influence building maintenance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify quantify, rank and discuss the criteria that influence maintenance costs, maintenance backlogs, productivity and user satisfaction in Malaysian university buildings. The paper reviews the related literature and presents the outcomes of a questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were administered on 50 university maintenance organizations. Thirty-one criteria were addressed to the university maintenance organizations to evaluate the degree to which each of the criteria influences building maintenance management. With a 66% response rate, it was concluded that the consideration of the criteria is critical to the university building maintenance management system. The quality of components and materials, budget constraints and the age of the building were found to be the most influential criteria but information on user performance satisfaction, problems associated with in-house workforce and shortage of materials and components were the least influential criteria. The paper also outlined that maintenance management is a strategic function in university administration.

  15. Leukoaraiosis is associated with arterial wall thickness: a quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Auriel, Eitan; Csiba, Laszlo; Berenyi, Ervin; Varkonyi, Ildiko; Mehes, Gabor; Kardos, Laszlo; Karni, Arnon; Bornstein, Natan M


    Leukoaraiosis refers to an age-related, abnormal appearance of the brain white matter on neuroimaging. The association between leukoaraiosis and cerebrovascular disease suggests that ischemia may be an important contributing factor; however, the pathogenesis of the condition remains controversial. We hypothesized that physical abnormalities of blood vessels might be culpable and compared the external and internal measurements of blood vessel walls between brains that demonstrated leukoaraiosis on imaging and normal control brains. Fourteen brains of individuals who had been diagnosed as having severe leukoaraiosis and five non-leukoaraiosis control brains were studied. Arterial cross-sections were evaluated by length measurements with an image analysis device. Arterial wall thickness and the ratio of the outer and inner diameters of the vessel were measured. We measured a total of 108 vessels in the leukoaraiosis group and 95 vessels in the control group. The vessel walls of the leukoaraiosis patients were an average of 5.5 µm thicker than the walls of control vessels of the same inside diameter (P = 0.0000, 95% CI 3.01-8.08) and an average of 2.3 µm thicker than walls of control vessels of the same outside diameter (P = 0.016, 95% CI 0.48-4.17). Our data provide evidence that leukoaraiosis is associated with vessel wall thickening in an additive fashion and indicate that structural vascular abnormalities are associated with leukoaraiosis. © 2011 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  16. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C


    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis for clinical decision making support (United States)

    Wu, Jie Ying; Beland, Michael; Konrad, Joseph; Tuomi, Adam; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek


    We propose a general ultrasound (US) texture-analysis and machine-learning framework for detecting the presence of disease that is suitable for clinical application across clinicians, disease types, devices, and operators. Its stages are image selection, image filtering, ROI selection, feature parameterization, and classification. Each stage is modular and can be replaced with alternate methods. Thus, this framework is adaptable to a wide range of tasks. Our two preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis and adenomyosis diagnosis. For steatosis, we collected US images from 288 patients and their pathology-determined values of steatosis (%) from biopsies. Two radiologists independently reviewed all images and identified the region of interest (ROI) most representative of the hepatic echotexture for each patient. To parameterize the images into comparable quantities, we filter the US images at multiple scales for various texture responses. For each response, we collect a histogram of pixel features within the ROI, and parameterize it as a Gaussian function using its mean, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skew to create a 36-feature vector. Our algorithm uses a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Using a threshold of 10%, we achieved 72.81% overall accuracy, 76.18% sensitivity, and 65.96% specificity in identifying steatosis with leave-ten-out cross-validation (p<0.0001). Extending this framework to adenomyosis, we identified 38 patients with MR-confirmed findings of adenomyosis and previous US studies and 50 controls. A single rater picked the best US-image and ROI for each case. Using the same processing pipeline, we obtained 76.14% accuracy, 86.00% sensitivity, and 63.16% specificity with leave-one-out cross-validation (p<0.0001).

  18. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.


    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  19. Quantitative histological analysis of bovine small intestines before and after processing into natural sausage casings. (United States)

    Wijnker, Joris J; Tersteeg, M H G; Berends, B R; Vernooij, J C M; Koolmees, P A


    A histological study was undertaken to determine the efficiency in the removal of the mucosa and Peyer's patches by standard processing of bovine intestines into natural sausage casings. The second objective was to calculate the quantity of lymphoid and nervous tissue per consumable sausage. For the histological analysis, intestinal samples were collected from 80 beef cattle during the slaughter process. Fresh and cleaned intestines were compared in analyzing the thickness of the intestinal wall, weight reduction during cleaning, removal of the mucosal layer, and the presence of lymphoid and neural tissue after cleaning. The obtained data indicate a weight reduction of about 50% during standard cleaning procedures, as 90% of the mucosa and 48% of the lymphoid tissue are removed. Based on the quantitative histological image analysis, it was calculated that 1 m of cleaned casings, weighing on average 64 g, contains about 2.8 g of mucosa, 0.3 g of lymphoid tissue, and 0.1 g of neural tissue. Assuming, in a worst-case scenario, that the sausage casing is ingested when consuming 200 g of sausage at one meal, this consumption includes 0.09 g of lymphoid tissue and 0.02 g of neural tissue as part of the sausage casing. These data can be included in a risk assessment on the potentialexposure of consumers to bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity after eating sausages in beef casings.

  20. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied


    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  1. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program. (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K


    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caifeng; Du Jing; Fang Hua; Li Fenghua; Wang Lin


    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Methods: Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3–5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Results: Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (p z1 ), 0.768 (A z2 ) and 0.926(A z3 ) respectively. The values of A z1 and A z3 were significantly higher than that for A z2 (p = 0.024 and p = 0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A z1 and A z3 (p = 0.625). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy.

  3. From "weight of evidence" to quantitative data integration using multicriteria decision analysis and Bayesian methods. (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Massey, Olivia; Keisler, Jeff; Rusyn, Ivan; Hartung, Thomas


    "Weighing" available evidence in the process of decision-making is unavoidable, yet it is one step that routinely raises suspicions: what evidence should be used, how much does it weigh, and whose thumb may be tipping the scales? This commentary aims to evaluate the current state and future roles of various types of evidence for hazard assessment as it applies to environmental health. In its recent evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System assessment process, the National Research Council committee singled out the term "weight of evidence" (WoE) for critique, deeming the process too vague and detractive to the practice of evaluating human health risks of chemicals. Moving the methodology away from qualitative, vague and controversial methods towards generalizable, quantitative and transparent methods for appropriately managing diverse lines of evidence is paramount for both regulatory and public acceptance of the hazard assessments. The choice of terminology notwithstanding, a number of recent Bayesian WoE-based methods, the emergence of multi criteria decision analysis for WoE applications, as well as the general principles behind the foundational concepts of WoE, show promise in how to move forward and regain trust in the data integration step of the assessments. We offer our thoughts on the current state of WoE as a whole and while we acknowledge that many WoE applications have been largely qualitative and subjective in nature, we see this as an opportunity to turn WoE towards a quantitative direction that includes Bayesian and multi criteria decision analysis.

  4. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana


    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  5. Quantitative measurement of carbon nanotubes released from their composites by thermal carbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, I; Ata, S; Honda, K; Kotake, M


    The release of free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNTs partly embedded in matrix debris into the air may occur during mechanical and abrasion processes involving CNT composites. Since the harmful effects of CNT-matrix mixtures have not yet been fully evaluated, it is considered that any exposure to CNTs, including CNT-matrix mixtures, should be measured and controlled. Thermal carbon analysis, such as Method 5040 of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one of the most reliable quantitative methods for measuring CNTs in the air. However, when CNTs are released together with polymer matrices, this technique may be inapplicable. In this study, we evaluated the potential for using thermal carbon analysis to determine CNTs in the presence of polymer matrices. Our results showed that thermal carbon analysis was potentially capable of determining CNTs in distinction from polyamide 12, polybutylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and polyoxymethylene. However, it was difficult to determine CNTs in the presence of polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone, or polyamide 6. (paper)

  6. Quantitative diagnosis of bladder cancer by morphometric analysis of HE images (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Nebylitsa, Samantha V.; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu


    In clinical practice, histopathological analysis of biopsied tissue is the main method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The diagnosis is performed by a pathologist based on the morphological features in the image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sample. This manuscript proposes algorithms to perform morphometric analysis on the HE images, quantify the features in the images, and discriminate bladder cancers with different grades, i.e. high grade and low grade. The nuclei are separated from the background and other types of cells such as red blood cells (RBCs) and immune cells using manual outlining, color deconvolution and image segmentation. A mask of nuclei is generated for each image for quantitative morphometric analysis. The features of the nuclei in the mask image including size, shape, orientation, and their spatial distributions are measured. To quantify local clustering and alignment of nuclei, we propose a 1-nearest-neighbor (1-NN) algorithm which measures nearest neighbor distance and nearest neighbor parallelism. The global distributions of the features are measured using statistics of the proposed parameters. A linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to classify the high grade and low grade bladder cancers. The results show using a particular group of nuclei such as large ones, and combining multiple parameters can achieve better discrimination. This study shows the proposed approach can potentially help expedite pathological diagnosis by triaging potentially suspicious biopsies.

  7. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3


    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  8. Slideline verification for multilayer pressure vessel and piping analysis including tangential motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gulick, L.A.


    Nonlinear finite element method (FEM) computer codes with slideline algorithm implementations should be useful for the analysis of prestressed multilayer pressure vessels and piping. This paper presents closed form solutions including the effects of tangential motion useful for verifying slideline implementations for this purpose. The solutions describe stresses and displacements of a long internally pressurized elastic-plastic cylinder initially separated from an elastic outer cylinder by a uniform gap. Comparison of closed form and FEM results evaluates the usefulness of the closed form solution and the validity of the sideline implementation used

  9. Analysis Technique for Exhaust Gas Including PFCs from Microelectronics Manufacturing Processes (United States)

    Tomita, Nobuyasu; Isaki, Ryuichiro

    In the manufacturing processes of Semiconductor and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Perfluorocompounds (PFCs), Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) and Nitrogenfluoride (NF3), which have high Green house effect,are used in large quantities. As emission reduction of these gases, the following countermeasures are taken. 1. Opimization of PFCs usage 2. Utilization of alternative gas 3. Instllation of Scrubber for exhaust gas treatment To inspect the effect of countermeasure that are introduced for these PFCs emission reduction, it is necessary to analyze PFCs in exhaust gas. In this report, we will discribe about analysis technique for exhaust gas including PFCs from microelectornics manufacturing processes.

  10. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available Follicular fluid (FF accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, <4 mm; and large, >8 mm, a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  11. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development. (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Huang, Yulin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fumei; Huang, Delun; Lu, Yangqing; Liang, Xianwei; Zhang, Ming


    Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, 8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  12. An improved UPLC-MS/MS platform for quantitative analysis of glycerophosphoinositol in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grauso

    Full Text Available The glycerophosphoinositols constitute a class of biologically active lipid-derived mediators whose intracellular levels are modulated during physiological and pathological cell processes. Comprehensive assessment of the role of these compounds expands beyond the cellular biology of lipids and includes rapid and unambiguous measurement in cells and tissues. Here we describe a sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of the most abundant among these phosphoinositide derivatives in mammalian cells, the glycerophosphoinositol (GroPIns. The method has been developed in mouse Raw 264.7 macrophages with limits of quantitation at 3 ng/ml. Validation on the same cell line showed excellent response in terms of linear dynamic range (from 3 to 3,000 ng/ml, intra-day and inter-day precision (coefficient of variation ≤ 7.10% and accuracy (between 98.1 and 109.0% in the range 10-320 ng/ml. As proof of concept, a simplified analytical platform based on this method and external calibration was also tested on four stimulated and unstimulated cell lines, including Raw 264.7 macrophages, Jurkat T-cells, A375MM melanoma cells and rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. The results indicate a wide variation in GroPIns levels among different cell lines and stimulation conditions, although the measurements were always in line with the literature. No significant matrix effects were observed thus indicating that the here proposed method can be of general use for similar determinations in cells of different origin.

  13. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.


    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  14. Analysis of initial events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. Investigation of chromosome aberration including translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying


    To investigate the contribution of chromosome aberrations in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis, chromosome G-banding analysis of the lymphoma cells (8 groups and 34 kinds of cells), of which each group was derived from a single donor by intra-thymic injection of a limited number of prelymphoma cells, was performed. Many numerical and structural aberrations were observed in the donor-derived T cell lymphomas. Common aberrations including translocations were found almost in the lymphomas of all groups. Translocations between chromosomes 11 and 12, 12 and 15, 7 and 10, 1 and 13, 6 and X were found in D, E, F, G, H, groups, respectively. There were also common aberrations such as trisomy 15 in A and F groups. These results indicate that chromosome aberrations including translocations may be important candidates of initiating events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis

  15. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)


    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  16. Scientific production on surgical nursing: analysis of the quantitative studies carried out between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria de Azevedo Ponte


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of quantitative studies of nursing scientific publication in the surgical area. Research with quantitative approach carried out in the Virtual Healthcare Library with articles of quantitative nature, published from 2005 to 2009, in journals classified as A1, A2 and B1 by the Capes Nursing Qualis system 2008, full-text available on-line and in Portuguese. 28 articles were analyzed and it was detected that most of them are descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional and retrospective. The most adopted instrument of data collection was the form; as disposition of data analysis, the use of tables and of simple and relative frequency; as database, the Excel program; and as statistical tests, the chi-square and Fisher. Researches with quantitative approach in surgical nursing area have been published in journals of national impact with the main characteristics of this type of approach.

  17. A new technique for quantitative analysis of hair loss in mice using grayscale analysis. (United States)

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Gulati, Rohan; Gensure, Robert


    Alopecia is a common form of hair loss which can occur in many different conditions, including male-pattern hair loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and alopecia areata. Alopecia can also occur as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, our goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method to quantify hair loss in mice, which will allow investigators to accurately assess and compare new therapeutic approaches for these various forms of alopecia. The method utilizes a standard gel imager to obtain and process images of mice, measuring the light absorption, which occurs in rough proportion to the amount of black (or gray) hair on the mouse. Data that has been quantified in this fashion can then be analyzed using standard statistical techniques (i.e., ANOVA, T-test). This methodology was tested in mouse models of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, alopecia areata and alopecia from waxing. In this report, the detailed protocol is presented for performing these measurements, including validation data from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains of mice. This new technique offers a number of advantages, including relative simplicity of application, reliance on equipment which is readily available in most research laboratories, and applying an objective, quantitative assessment which is more robust than subjective evaluations. Improvements in quantification of hair growth in mice will improve study of alopecia models and facilitate evaluation of promising new therapies in preclinical studies.

  18. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Rumlow

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  19. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian


    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhubarbs by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wei, Shao-yin; Yao, Wen-xin; Ji, Wen-yuan; Wei, Jia-qi; Peng, Shi-qi


    Rhubarb is well known in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) mainly due to its effective purgative activity. Anthraquinones, including anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides, are thought to be the major active components in rhubarb. To improve the quality control method of rhubarb, we studied on the extraction method, and did qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely used rhubarbs, Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. and Rheum palmatum L., by HPLC-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-mass spectrum (HPLC-MS) on a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). Amount of five anthraquinones was viewed as the evaluating standard. A standardized characteristic fingerprint of rhubarb was provided. From the quantitative analysis, the rationality was demonstrated for ancestors to use these two species of rhubarb equally. Under modern extraction methods, the amount of five anthraquinones in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. is higher than that in Rheum palmatum L. Among various extraction methods, ultrasonication with 70% methanol for 30 min is a promising one. For HPLC analysis, mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water with a gradient program, the detection wavelength at 280nm for fingerprinting analysis and 254 nm for quantitative analysis are good choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John


    algorithms using appropriate cases to measure performance and robustness; conducting observer studies with which to evaluate radiologists in the diagnostic task without and with the use of the computer aid; and ultimately assessing performance with a clinical trial. Medical physicists also have an important role in quantitative imaging, by validating the quantitative integrity of scanners and developing imaging techniques, and image analysis tools that extract quantitative data in a more accurate and automated fashion. As imaging systems become more complex and the need for better quantitative information from images grows, the future includes the combined research efforts from physicists working in CAD with those working on quantitative imaging systems to readily yield information on morphology, function, molecular structure, and more--from animal imaging research to clinical patient care. A historical review of CAD and a discussion of challenges for the future are presented here, along with the extension to quantitative image analysis.

  2. A critical appraisal of semi-quantitative analysis of 2-deoxyglucose autoradiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.T.; McCulloch, J.


    Semi-quantitative analysis (e.g. optical density ratios) of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiograms is widely used in neuroscience research. The authors demonstrate that a fixed ratio of 14 C-concentrations in the CNS does not yield a constant optical density ratio but is dependent upon the exposure time in the preparation of the autoradiograms and the absolute amounts of 14 C from which the concentration ratio is derived. The failure of a fixed glucose utilization ratio to result in a constant optical density ratio represents a major interpretative difficulty in investigations where only semi-quantitative analysis of [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiograms is undertaken. (Auth.)

  3. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression. (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B


    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A multimethod analysis of shared decision-making in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings including family caregivers. (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Oliver, Debra Parker; Gage, L Ashley; Albright, David L; Demiris, George


    Much of the existing research on shared decision-making in hospice and palliative care focuses on the provider-patient dyad; little is known about shared decision-making that is inclusive of family members of patients with advanced disease. We sought to describe shared decision-making as it occurred in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings that included family caregivers as participants using video-conferencing technology. We conducted a multimethod study in which we used content and thematic analysis techniques to analyze video-recordings of hospice interdisciplinary team meetings (n = 100), individual interviews of family caregivers (n = 73) and hospice staff members (n = 78), and research field notes. Participants in the original studies from which data for this analysis were drawn were hospice family caregivers and staff members employed by one of five different community-based hospice agencies located in the Midwestern United States. Shared decision-making occurred infrequently in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings that included family caregivers. Barriers to shared decision-making included time constraints, communication skill deficits, unaddressed emotional needs, staff absences, and unclear role expectations. The hospice philosophy of care, current trends in healthcare delivery, the interdisciplinary nature of hospice teams, and the designation of a team leader/facilitator supported shared decision-making. The involvement of family caregivers in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings using video-conferencing technology creates a useful platform for shared decision-making; however, steps must be taken to transform family caregivers from meeting attendees to shared decision-makers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Diversity of Pseudomonas Genomes, Including Populus-Associated Isolates, as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis. (United States)

    Jun, Se-Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam; Timm, Collin M; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Schadt, Christopher W; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W


    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches, including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants. Their diversity influences the phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity of these communities. On the basis of average amino acid identity, comparative genome analysis of >1,000 Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) trees resulted in consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes clustered together, and these were clearly distinct from other Pseudomonas species groups on the basis of pangenome and core genome analyses. In contrast, the genomes of Pseudomonas fluorescens were organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Most of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the major P. fluorescens group, supported by pathway profile analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas putida. Genes specific to Populus-associated subgroups were identified. Genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems that act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor. Genes specific to subgroup 2 contain hypothetical genes, and genes specific to subgroup 3 were annotated with hydrolase activity. This study justifies the need to sequence multiple isolates, especially from P. fluorescens, which displays the most genetic variation, in order to study functional capabilities from a pangenomic perspective. This information will prove useful when choosing Pseudomonas strains for use to promote growth and increase disease resistance in plants. Copyright © 2015 Jun et al.

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Salih, Erdjan


    The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology. This chapter deals with the experimental details of preanalytical steps using multidimensional protein separation combined with MS analysis of WS and GCF to achieve detailed protein composition at qualitative and quantitative levels. These approaches are interfaced with gold standard "stable-isotope" labeling technologies for large-scale quantitative MS analysis which is a prerequisite to determine accurate alterations in protein levels as a function of disease progression. The latter incorporates two stable-isotope chemistries one specific for cysteine containing proteins and the other universal amine-specific reagent in conjunction with oral fluids in health and periodontal disease to perform quantitative MS analysis. In addition, specific preanalytical steps demanded by the oral fluids such as GCF and WS for sample preparations to overcome limitations and uncertainties are elaborated for reliable large-scale quantitative MS analysis.

  7. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of fetal lungs to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity. (United States)

    Bonet-Carne, E; Palacio, M; Cobo, T; Perez-Moreno, A; Lopez, M; Piraquive, J P; Ramirez, J C; Botet, F; Marques, F; Gratacos, E


    To develop and evaluate the performance of a novel method for predicting neonatal respiratory morbidity based on quantitative analysis of the fetal lung by ultrasound. More than 13,000 non-clinical images and 900 fetal lung images were used to develop a computerized method based on texture analysis and machine learning algorithms, trained to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity risk on fetal lung ultrasound images. The method, termed 'quantitative ultrasound fetal lung maturity analysis' (quantusFLM™), was then validated blindly in 144 neonates, delivered at 28 + 0 to 39 + 0 weeks' gestation. Lung ultrasound images in DICOM format were obtained within 48 h of delivery and the ability of the software to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity, defined as either respiratory distress syndrome or transient tachypnea of the newborn, was determined. Mean (SD) gestational age at delivery was 36 + 1 (3 + 3) weeks. Among the 144 neonates, there were 29 (20.1%) cases of neonatal respiratory morbidity. Quantitative texture analysis predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 86.2%, 87.0%, 62.5% and 96.2%, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound fetal lung maturity analysis predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with an accuracy comparable to that of current tests using amniotic fluid. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Optimal climate policy is a utopia. From quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.


    The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate-economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that does more harm than good. An alternative approach is to focus the attention on extreme events, structural change and complexity. It is argued that a qualitative rather than a quantitative CBA that takes account of these aspects can support the adoption of a minimax regret approach or precautionary principle in climate policy. This means: implement stringent GHG reduction policies as soon as possible

  9. Quantitative morphometric analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma: development of a programmed algorithm and preliminary application. (United States)

    Yap, Felix Y; Bui, James T; Knuttinen, M Grace; Walzer, Natasha M; Cotler, Scott J; Owens, Charles A; Berkes, Jamie L; Gaba, Ron C


    The quantitative relationship between tumor morphology and malignant potential has not been explored in liver tumors. We designed a computer algorithm to analyze shape features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tested feasibility of morphologic analysis. Cross-sectional images from 118 patients diagnosed with HCC between 2007 and 2010 were extracted at the widest index tumor diameter. The tumor margins were outlined, and point coordinates were input into a MATLAB (MathWorks Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, USA) algorithm. Twelve shape descriptors were calculated per tumor: the compactness, the mean radial distance (MRD), the RD standard deviation (RDSD), the RD area ratio (RDAR), the zero crossings, entropy, the mean Feret diameter (MFD), the Feret ratio, the convex hull area (CHA) and perimeter (CHP) ratios, the elliptic compactness (EC), and the elliptic irregularity (EI). The parameters were correlated with the levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as an indicator of tumor aggressiveness. The quantitative morphometric analysis was technically successful in all cases. The mean parameters were as follows: compactness 0.88±0.086, MRD 0.83±0.056, RDSD 0.087±0.037, RDAR 0.045±0.023, zero crossings 6±2.2, entropy 1.43±0.16, MFD 4.40±3.14 cm, Feret ratio 0.78±0.089, CHA 0.98±0.027, CHP 0.98±0.030, EC 0.95±0.043, and EI 0.95±0.023. MFD and RDAR provided the widest value range for the best shape discrimination. The larger tumors were less compact, more concave, and less ellipsoid than the smaller tumors (P < 0.0001). AFP-producing tumors displayed greater morphologic irregularity based on several parameters, including compactness, MRD, RDSD, RDAR, entropy, and EI (P < 0.05 for all). Computerized HCC image analysis using shape descriptors is technically feasible. Aggressively growing tumors have wider diameters and more irregular margins. Future studies will determine further clinical applications for this morphologic analysis.

  10. Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis.

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    Antonia E Dalziel

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are able to persist in the environment, in-between the transmission of the virus among its natural hosts. Quantifying the environmental factors that affect the persistence of avian influenza virus is important for influencing our ability to predict future outbreaks and target surveillance and control methods. We conducted a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of the environmental factors that affect the decay of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV in water. Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of LPAIV have been investigated for nearly 40 years, yet published data was produced by only 26 quantitative studies. These studies have been conducted by a small number of principal authors (n = 17 and have investigated a narrow range of environmental conditions, all of which were based in laboratories with limited reflection of natural conditions. The use of quantitative meta-analytic techniques provided the opportunity to assess persistence across a greater range of conditions than each individual study can achieve, through the estimation of mean effect-sizes and relationships among multiple variables. Temperature was the most influential variable, for both the strength and magnitude of the effect-size. Moderator variables explained a large proportion of the heterogeneity among effect-sizes. Salinity and pH were important factors, although future work is required to broaden the range of abiotic factors examined, as well as including further diurnal variation and greater environmental realism generally. We were unable to extract a quantitative effect-size estimate for approximately half (50.4% of the reported experimental outcomes and we strongly recommend a minimum set of quantitative reporting to be included in all studies, which will allow robust assimilation and analysis of future findings. In addition we suggest possible means of increasing the applicability of future studies to the natural

  11. Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Dalziel, Antonia E; Delean, Steven; Heinrich, Sarah; Cassey, Phillip


    Avian influenza viruses are able to persist in the environment, in-between the transmission of the virus among its natural hosts. Quantifying the environmental factors that affect the persistence of avian influenza virus is important for influencing our ability to predict future outbreaks and target surveillance and control methods. We conducted a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of the environmental factors that affect the decay of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in water. Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of LPAIV have been investigated for nearly 40 years, yet published data was produced by only 26 quantitative studies. These studies have been conducted by a small number of principal authors (n = 17) and have investigated a narrow range of environmental conditions, all of which were based in laboratories with limited reflection of natural conditions. The use of quantitative meta-analytic techniques provided the opportunity to assess persistence across a greater range of conditions than each individual study can achieve, through the estimation of mean effect-sizes and relationships among multiple variables. Temperature was the most influential variable, for both the strength and magnitude of the effect-size. Moderator variables explained a large proportion of the heterogeneity among effect-sizes. Salinity and pH were important factors, although future work is required to broaden the range of abiotic factors examined, as well as including further diurnal variation and greater environmental realism generally. We were unable to extract a quantitative effect-size estimate for approximately half (50.4%) of the reported experimental outcomes and we strongly recommend a minimum set of quantitative reporting to be included in all studies, which will allow robust assimilation and analysis of future findings. In addition we suggest possible means of increasing the applicability of future studies to the natural environment, and

  12. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns. (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun


    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  13. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 Preliminary Determination Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.


    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, Standard 90.1-2010, or 2010 edition) would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007(ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Standard 90.1-2007, or 2007 edition). The preliminary analysis considered each of the 109 addenda to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 that were included in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 16 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s preliminary determination. However, out of the 109 addenda, 34 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.

  14. INSPIIRED: A Pipeline for Quantitative Analysis of Sites of New DNA Integration in Cellular Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sherman


    Full Text Available Integration of new DNA into cellular genomes mediates replication of retroviruses and transposons; integration reactions have also been adapted for use in human gene therapy. Tracking the distributions of integration sites is important to characterize populations of transduced cells and to monitor potential outgrow of pathogenic cell clones. Here, we describe a pipeline for quantitative analysis of integration site distributions named INSPIIRED (integration site pipeline for paired-end reads. We describe optimized biochemical steps for site isolation using Illumina paired-end sequencing, including new technology for suppressing recovery of unwanted contaminants, then software for alignment, quality control, and management of integration site sequences. During library preparation, DNAs are broken by sonication, so that after ligation-mediated PCR the number of ligation junction sites can be used to infer abundance of gene-modified cells. We generated integration sites of known positions in silico, and we describe optimization of sample processing parameters refined by comparison to truth. We also present a novel graph-theory-based method for quantifying integration sites in repeated sequences, and we characterize the consequences using synthetic and experimental data. In an accompanying paper, we describe an additional set of statistical tools for data analysis and visualization. Software is available at

  15. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Final Determination Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.


    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The final analysis considered each of the 44 addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007. All 44 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2007 from Standard 90.1-2004 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 15 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 44 addenda, 9 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.

  16. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica


    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  17. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis in vernalization-treated faba bean (Vicia faba L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ying Cao

    Full Text Available Vernalization is classically defined as the induction of flowering process by exposure of the plants to a prolonged cold condition. Normally, it is considered as a precondition of flowering. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba bean, belongs to family Fabaceae. It is one of the plant species that has been cultivated in the earliest human settlements. In this study, an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomic analysis has been conducted to compare the vernalized faba bean seedlings and its corresponding control. In total, 91 proteins from various functional categories were observed to be differentially accumulated in vernalized faba bean seedlings. Subsequent gene ontology analysis indicated that several biological processes or metabolic pathways including photosynthesis and phytic acid metabolism were differentially respond to vernalization in comparison to the control sample. Further investigation revealed that a family of proteins nominated as glycine-rich RNA-binding factor was accumulated in vernalized seedlings, indicating an extra layer of regulation by alternative splicing on transcript abundance in response to vernalization. These findings raise a possibility that these candidate proteins could be important to represent the responsive network under vernalization process. Therefore, we propose that the regulation of vernalization in faba bean not only occurs at the transcriptional level as previously reported, but also at the post-transcriptional level.

  18. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of mangostin derivatives in Tetragonula pagdeni propolis extracts

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    Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon


    Full Text Available Propolis has been used as indigenous medicine for curing numerous maladies. The one that is of ethnopharmacological use is stingless bee propolis from Tetragonula pagdeni. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC investigation was developed and validated to determine the contents of bioactive compounds: 3-isomangostin, gamma-mangostin, beta-mangostin, and alpha-mangostin. HPLC analysis was effectively performed using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, with the gradient elution of methanol–0.2% formic acid and a flow rate of 1 ml/min, at 25 °C and detected at 245 nm. Parameters for the validation included accuracy, precision, linearity, and limits of quantitation and detection. The developed HPLC technique was precise, with lower than 2% relative standard deviation. The recovery values of 3-isomangostin, gamma-mangostin, beta-mangostin, and alpha-mangostin in the extracts were 99.98%, 99.97%, 98.98% and 99.19%, respectively. The average contents of these mixtures in the propolis extracts collected from different seasons were 0.127%, 1.008%, 0.323% and 2.703% (w/w, respectively. The developed HPLC technique was suitable and practical for the simultaneous analysis of these mangostin derivatives in T. pagdeni propolis and would be a valuable guidance for the standardization of its pharmaceutical products.

  19. Groping for Quantitative Digital 3-D Image Analysis: An Approach to Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Thick Tissue Sections of Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rodenacker


    Full Text Available In molecular pathology numerical chromosome aberrations have been found to be decisive for the prognosis of malignancy in tumours. The existence of such aberrations can be detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The gain or loss of certain base sequences in the desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA can be estimated by counting the number of FISH signals per cell nucleus. The quantitative evaluation of such events is a necessary condition for a prospective use in diagnostic pathology. To avoid occlusions of signals, the cell nucleus has to be analyzed in three dimensions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is the means to obtain series of optical thin sections from fluorescence stained or marked material to fulfill the conditions mentioned above. A graphical user interface (GUI to a software package for display, inspection, count and (semi‐automatic analysis of 3‐D images for pathologists is outlined including the underlying methods of 3‐D image interaction and segmentation developed. The preparative methods are briefly described. Main emphasis is given to the methodical questions of computer‐aided analysis of large 3‐D image data sets for pathologists. Several automated analysis steps can be performed for segmentation and succeeding quantification. However tumour material is in contrast to isolated or cultured cells even for visual inspection, a difficult material. For the present a fully automated digital image analysis of 3‐D data is not in sight. A semi‐automatic segmentation method is thus presented here.

  20. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

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    Faqir Muhammad


    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  1. Determining the Probability of Achieving a Successful Quantitative Analysis for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Pinkerton, David K; Reaser, Brooke C; Berrier, Kelsey L; Synovec, Robert E


    A new approach is presented to determine the probability of achieving a successful quantitative analysis for gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The proposed theory is based upon a probabilistic description of peak overlap in GC-MS separations to determine the probability of obtaining a successful quantitative analysis, which has its lower limit of chromatographic resolution R s at some minimum chemometric resolution, R s *; that is to say, successful quantitative analysis can be achieved when R s ≥ R s *. The value of R s * must be experimentally determined and is dependent on the chemometric method to be applied. The approach presented makes use of the assumption that analyte peaks are independent and randomly distributed across the separation space or are at least locally random, namely, that each analyte represents an independent Bernoulli random variable, which is then used to predict the binomial probability of successful quantitative analysis. The theoretical framework is based on the chromatographic-saturation factor and chemometric-enhanced peak capacity. For a given separation, the probability of quantitative success can be improved via two pathways, a chromatographic-efficiency pathway that reduces the saturation of the sample and a chemometric pathway that reduces R s * and improves the chemometric-enhanced peak capacity. This theory is demonstrated through a simulation-based study to approximate the resolution limit, R s *, of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). For this study, R s * was determined to be ∼0.3, and depending on the analytical expectations for the quantitative bias and the obtained mass-spectral match value, a lower value of R s * ∼ 0.2 may be achievable.

  2. Correlation between Parameters of Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound and Hip Structural Analysis in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

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    Licheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS, which is used in the evaluation of osteoporosis, is believed to be intimately associated with the characteristics of the proximal femur. However, the specific associations of calcaneal QUS with characteristics of the hip sub-regions remain unclear.A cross-sectional assessment of 53 osteoporotic patients was performed for the skeletal status of the heel and hip.We prospectively enrolled 53 female osteoporotic patients with femoral fractures. Calcaneal QUS, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and hip structural analysis (HSA were performed for each patient. Femoral heads were obtained during the surgery, and principal compressive trabeculae (PCT were extracted by a three-dimensional printing technique-assisted method. Pearson's correlation between QUS measurement with DXA, HSA-derived parameters and Young's modulus were calculated in order to evaluate the specific association of QUS with the parameters for the hip sub-regions, including the femoral neck, trochanteric and Ward's areas, and the femoral shaft, respectively.Significant correlations were found between estimated BMD (Est.BMD and BMD of different sub-regions of proximal femur. However, the correlation coefficient of trochanteric area (r = 0.356, p = 0.009 was higher than that of the neck area (r = 0.297, p = 0.031 and total proximal femur (r = 0.291, p = 0.034. Furthermore, the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI was significantly correlated with the HSA-derived parameters of the trochanteric area (r value: 0.315-0.356, all p<0.05 as well as with the Young's modulus of PCT from the femoral head (r = 0.589, p<0.001.The calcaneal bone had an intimate association with the trochanteric cancellous bone. To a certain extent, the parameters of the calcaneal QUS can reflect the characteristics of the trochanteric area of the proximal hip, although not specifically reflective of those of the femoral neck or shaft.

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis provides novel insights into cold stress responses in petunia seedlings

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    Wei eZhang


    Full Text Available Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5d. Of the 2,430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which oxidation-reduction process was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation.

  4. Quantitative analysis of SPECT imaging parameters in patients with resting perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Asopa, Ramesh; Rajan, M.G.R.; Basu, Sandip


    Functional status/contractile behaviour of hibernating myocardium was analyzed objectively by analyzing the available quantitative parameters obtained on gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using Emory cardiac toolbox (ECTB) software. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 70 patients with perfusion defects on 99 Tc-Sestamibi MPI (12 females, 58 males) who also underwent 18 F-FDG Cardiac PET study for assessment of hibernating myocardium were included for analysis. Patients were divided in three categories based on summed rest score (SRS) obtained from ECTB software, depicting the extent of perfusion defects. In a study population matched for extent of perfusion defects, quantitative parameters obtained from ECTB software such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV), left ventricular end systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular stroke volume (SV) were compared between patients showing evidence of hibernating myocardium and patients showing no evidence of hibernating myocardium. Student 't' test was applied on the given observations and a P-value <0.05 was considered as a significant difference between the means in two categories. Results: There was no significant difference in LVEF, EDV, ESV and SV measurements between those who demonstrate hibernating myocardium and those who show no evidence of hibernating myocardium across all the categories of patients. Few trends were evident in the present study in LVEF, EDV and ESV measurements i.e., fall in mean LVEF with increasing SRS and rise in mean EDV and ESV with increasing SRS. Conclusions: The findings were consistent with the nature of hibernating myocardium i.e., non-contractile and dysfunctional. The fall in the LVEF was suggestive of deteriorating myocardial function with increasing extent of perfusion defects. The increasing left ventricular EDV and ESV with increasing extent of perfusion defects was suggestive of rising incidence of

  5. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer. (United States)

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian


    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  6. Global quantitative analysis of the human brain proteome in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Ping, Lingyan; Duong, Duc M.; Yin, Luming; Gearing, Marla; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.


    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) often have overlap in clinical presentation and brain neuropathology suggesting that these two diseases share common underlying mechanisms. Currently, the molecular pathways linking AD and PD are incompletely understood. Utilizing Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) isobaric labeling and synchronous precursor selection-based MS3 (SPS-MS3) mass spectrometry, we performed an unbiased quantitative proteomic analysis of post-mortem human brain tissues (n=80) from four different groups defined as controls, AD, PD, and co-morbid AD/PD cases across two brain regions (frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus). In total, we identified 11 840 protein groups representing 10 230 gene symbols, which map to ~65% of the protein coding genes in brain. The utility of including two reference standards in each TMT 10-plex assay to assess intra- and inter-batch variance is also described. Ultimately, this comprehensive human brain proteomic dataset serves as a valuable resource for various research endeavors including, but not limited to, the identification of disease-specific protein signatures and molecular pathways that are common in AD and PD.

  7. Quantitative analysis of iris parameters in keratoconus patients using optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bonfadini


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the relationship between quantitative iris parameters and the presence of keratoconus.Methods:Cross-sectional observational study that included 15 affected eyes of 15 patients with keratoconus and 26 eyes of 26 normal age- and sex-matched controls. Iris parameters (area, thickness, and pupil diameter of affected and unaffected eyes were measured under standardized light and dark conditions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. To identify optimal iris thickness cutoff points to maximize the sensitivity and specificity when discriminating keratoconus eyes from normal eyes, the analysis included the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves.Results:Iris thickness and area were lower in keratoconus eyes than in normal eyes. The mean thickness at the pupillary margin under both light and dark conditions was found to be the best parameter for discriminating normal patients from keratoconus patients. Diagnostic performance was assessed by the area under the ROC curve (AROC, which had a value of 0.8256 with 80.0% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity, using a cutoff of 0.4125 mm. The sensitivity increased to 86.7% when a cutoff of 0.4700 mm was used.Conclusions:In our sample, iris thickness was lower in keratoconus eyes than in normal eyes. These results suggest that tomographic parameters may provide novel adjunct approaches for keratoconus screening.

  8. A Data Analysis Pipeline Accounting for Artifacts in Tox21 Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays. (United States)

    Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sedykh, Alexander; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Tice, Raymond R


    A main goal of the U.S. Tox21 program is to profile a 10K-compound library for activity against a panel of stress-related and nuclear receptor signaling pathway assays using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach. However, assay artifacts, including nonreproducible signals and assay interference (e.g., autofluorescence), complicate compound activity interpretation. To address these issues, we have developed a data analysis pipeline that includes an updated signal noise-filtering/curation protocol and an assay interference flagging system. To better characterize various types of signals, we adopted a weighted version of the area under the curve (wAUC) to quantify the amount of activity across the tested concentration range in combination with the assay-dependent point-of-departure (POD) concentration. Based on the 32 Tox21 qHTS assays analyzed, we demonstrate that signal profiling using wAUC affords the best reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.91) in comparison with the POD (0.82) only or the AC(50) (i.e., half-maximal activity concentration, 0.81). Among the activity artifacts characterized, cytotoxicity is the major confounding factor; on average, about 8% of Tox21 compounds are affected, whereas autofluorescence affects less than 0.5%. To facilitate data evaluation, we implemented two graphical user interface applications, allowing users to rapidly evaluate the in vitro activity of Tox21 compounds. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis. (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C


    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.


    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

  11. Global analysis of Solar neutrino oscillation evidence including SNO and implications for Borexino

    CERN Document Server

    Aliani, P; Picariello, M; Torrente-Lujan, E


    An updated analysis of all available neutrino oscillation evidence in Solar experiments including the latest $SNO$ data is presented. Predictions for total rates and day-night asymmetry in Borexino are calculated. Our analysis features the use of exhaustive computation of the neutrino oscillation probabilities and the use of an improved statistical $\\chi^2$ minimization. In the framework of two neutrino oscillations we conclude that the best fit to the data is obtained in the LMA region with parameters $(\\Delta m^2, \\tan^2\\theta) = (5.2 \\times 10^{-5} \\eV^2, 0.47)$, ($\\chi^2_{min}/n=0.82$, $n=38$ degrees of freedom). Although less favored, solutions in the LOW and VAC regions are still possible with a reasonable statistical significance. The best possible solution in the SMA region gets as maximum a statistical significance as low as $\\sim 3%$. We study the implications of these results for the prospects of Borexino and the possibility of discriminating between the different solutions. The expected normalized...

  12. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. (United States)

    Greensmith, David J


    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Whole slide image with image analysis of atypical bile duct brushing: Quantitative features predictive of malignancy. (United States)

    Collins, Brian T; Weimholt, R Cody


    Whole slide images (WSIs) involve digitally capturing glass slides for microscopic computer-based viewing and these are amenable to quantitative image analysis. Bile duct (BD) brushing can show morphologic features that are categorized as indeterminate for malignancy. The study aims to evaluate quantitative morphologic features of atypical categories of BD brushing by WSI analysis for the identification of criteria predictive of malignancy. Over a 3-year period, BD brush specimens with indeterminate diagnostic categorization (atypical to suspicious) were subjected to WSI analysis. Ten well-visualized groups with morphologic atypical features were selected per case and had the quantitative analysis performed for group area, individual nuclear area, the number of nuclei per group, N: C ratio and nuclear size differential. There were 28 cases identified with 17 atypical and 11 suspicious. The average nuclear area was 63.7 µm(2) for atypical and 80.1 µm(2) for suspicious (+difference 16.4 µm(2); P = 0.002). The nuclear size differential was 69.7 µm(2) for atypical and 88.4 µm(2) for suspicious (+difference 18.8 µm(2); P = 0.009). An average nuclear area >70 µm(2) had a 3.2 risk ratio for suspicious categorization. The quantitative criteria findings as measured by image analysis on WSI showed that cases categorized as suspicious had more nuclear size pleomorphism (+18.8 µm(2)) and larger nuclei (+16.4 µm(2)) than those categorized as atypical. WSI with morphologic image analysis can demonstrate quantitative statistically significant differences between atypical and suspicious BD brushings and provide objective criteria that support the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  14. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail:; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  15. Quantitative analysis of crossflow model of the COBRA-IV.1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, C.A.B.O.


    Based on experimental data in a rod bundle test section, the crossflow model of the COBRA-IV.1 code was quantitatively analysed. The analysis showed that is possible to establish some operational conditions in which the results of the theoretical model are acceptable. (author) [pt

  16. A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White (United States)

    Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.


    A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

  17. Theory of quantitative trend analysis and its application to the South African elections

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM


    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses a quantitative theory of trend analysis. Often trends are based on qualitative considerations and subjective assumptions. In the current approach the author makes use of extensive data bases to optimise the so...

  18. Meta-Analysis of Results from Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Studies on Pig Chromosome 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Silva, De K.M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.; Merks, J.W.M.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, R.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Meta-analysis of results from multiple studies could lead to more precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) position estimates compared to the individual experiments. As the raw data from many different studies are not readily available, the use of results from published articles may be helpful. In this

  19. Meta-analysis for quantitative microbiological risk assessments and benchmarking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.


    Meta-analysis studies are increasingly being conducted in the food microbiology area to quantitatively integrate the findings of many individual studies on specific questions or kinetic parameters of interest. Meta-analyses provide global estimates of parameters and quantify their variabilities, and

  20. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya


    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

  1. On the Need for Quantitative Bias Analysis in the Peer-Review Process. (United States)

    Fox, Matthew P; Lash, Timothy L


    Peer review is central to the process through which epidemiologists generate evidence to inform public health and medical interventions. Reviewers thereby act as critical gatekeepers to high-quality research. They are asked to carefully consider the validity of the proposed work or research findings by paying careful attention to the methodology and critiquing the importance of the insight gained. However, although many have noted problems with the peer-review system for both manuscripts and grant submissions, few solutions have been proposed to improve the process. Quantitative bias analysis encompasses all methods used to quantify the impact of systematic error on estimates of effect in epidemiologic research. Reviewers who insist that quantitative bias analysis be incorporated into the design, conduct, presentation, and interpretation of epidemiologic research could substantially strengthen the process. In the present commentary, we demonstrate how quantitative bias analysis can be used by investigators and authors, reviewers, funding agencies, and editors. By utilizing quantitative bias analysis in the peer-review process, editors can potentially avoid unnecessary rejections, identify key areas for improvement, and improve discussion sections by shifting from speculation on the impact of sources of error to quantification of the impact those sources of bias may have had. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Quantitative phase analysis of uranium carbide from x-ray diffraction data using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Krishnan, K.


    Quantitative phase analysis of a uranium carbide sample was carried out from the x-ray diffraction data by Rietveld profile fitting method. The method does not require the addition of any reference material. The percentage of UC, UC 2 and UO 2 phases in the sample were determined. (author)

  3. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears


    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  4. Dispersal of Invasive Forest Insects via Recreational Firewood: A Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Roger D. Magarey; William D. Smith


    Recreational travel is a recognized vector for the spread of invasive species in North America. However, there has been little quantitative analysis of the risks posed by such travel and the associated transport of firewood. In this study, we analyzed the risk of forest insect spread with firewood and estimated related dispersal parameters for application in...

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India (United States)

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.


    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  6. A borax fusion technique for quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.


    A borax fusion technique to cast glass discs for quantitative X-ray analysis is described in detail. The method is based on the “nonwetting” properties of a Pt/Au alloy towards molten borax, on the favourable composition of the flux and finally on the favourable form of the casting mould. The

  7. A Quantitative Features Analysis of Recommended No- and Low-Cost Preschool E-Books (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Luthin, Katie


    In recent years, recommended e-books have drawn increasing attention from early childhood education professionals. This study applied a quantitative descriptive features analysis of cost (n = 70) and no-cost (n = 60) e-books recommended by the Texas Computer Education Association. While t tests revealed no statistically significant differences…

  8. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N


    conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...

  9. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different environments in soybean. G Guang-yu, S Rui, H Meng, G Yong-xin, X Da-wei, J Hong-wei, L Chun-yan, H Guo-hua, C Qing-shan ...

  10. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of metabolites using ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bas, R.; Jespersen, S.; Verheij, E.; Werf, M.J. van der; Hankemeier, T.


    We have developed an analytical method, consisting of ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IP-LC-ESI-MS), for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of several key classes of polar metabolites, like nucleotides, coenzyme A esters, sugar nucleotides,

  11. Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.


    In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium (United States)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.


    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  13. Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pests introduction for the EU territory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Roques, A.; Werf, van der W.


    The aim of this report is to provide EFSA with probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory through non-edible plant products or plants. We first provide a conceptualization of two types of pathway models. The individual based PM simulates an

  14. Quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigraphy in patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saridin, Carrol P.; Raijmakers, Pieter; Becking, Alfred G.


    This study compares quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigrams with visual interpretation in patients having unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and normal control subjects. The possibility of using a bony structure in a region near the condyle as an objective measurement of bone activity is

  15. Quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigraphy in patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saridin, C.P.; Raijmakers, P.; Becking, A.G.


    Objective This study compares quantitative analysis of planar bone scintigrams with visual interpretation in patients having unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and normal control subjects. The possibility of using a bony structure in a region near the condyle as an objective measurement of bone

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of "Ataque de Nervios" in Puerto Rico: Further Examination of a Cultural Syndrome (United States)

    Febo San Miguel, Vivian E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa J.; Ramirez, Rafael R.


    The authors present a quantitative analysis and assessment of the symptoms of "ataque de nervios." A sample of 121 individuals living in Puerto Rico provided qualitative and structured data on "ataques de nervios" and psychiatric correlates. A total of 77 participants reported having an "ataque de nervios" during…

  17. Teaching Fundamental Skills in Microsoft Excel to First-Year Students in Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Rubin, Samuel J.; Abrams, Binyomin


    Despite their technological savvy, most students entering university lack the necessary computer skills to succeed in a quantitative analysis course, in which they are often expected to input, analyze, and plot results of experiments without any previous formal education in Microsoft Excel or similar programs. This lack of formal education results…

  18. Complex and Unstable Simple Elbow Dislocations: A Review and Quantitative Analysis of Individual Patient Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim)


    textabstractThe primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of

  19. Complex and unstable simple elbow dislocations: a review and quantitative analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels; Tuinebreijer, Wim; den Hartog, Dennis


    The primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of patients with

  20. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Faber, Dirk J.


    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on "Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography." We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of

  1. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk


    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of

  2. An educationally inspired illustration of two-dimensional Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) and sensitivity analysis. (United States)

    Vásquez, G A; Busschaert, P; Haberbeck, L U; Uyttendaele, M; Geeraerd, A H


    Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a structured methodology used to assess the risk involved by ingestion of a pathogen. It applies mathematical models combined with an accurate exploitation of data sets, represented by distributions and - in the case of two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations - their hyperparameters. This research aims to highlight background information, assumptions and truncations of a two-dimensional QMRA and advanced sensitivity analysis. We believe that such a detailed listing is not always clearly presented in actual risk assessment studies, while it is essential to ensure reliable and realistic simulations and interpretations. As a case-study, we are considering the occurrence of listeriosis in smoked fish products in Belgium during the period 2008-2009, using two-dimensional Monte Carlo and two sensitivity analysis methods (Spearman correlation and Sobol sensitivity indices) to estimate the most relevant factors of the final risk estimate. A risk estimate of 0.018% per consumption of contaminated smoked fish by an immunocompromised person was obtained. The final estimate of listeriosis cases (23) is within the actual reported result obtained for the same period and for the same population. Variability on the final risk estimate is determined by the variability regarding (i) consumer refrigerator temperatures, (ii) the reference growth rate of L. monocytogenes, (iii) the minimum growth temperature of L. monocytogenes and (iv) consumer portion size. Variability regarding the initial contamination level of L. monocytogenes tends to appear as a determinant of risk variability only when the minimum growth temperature is not included in the sensitivity analysis; when it is included the impact regarding the variability on the initial contamination level of L. monocytogenes is disappearing. Uncertainty determinants of the final risk indicated the need of gathering more information on the reference growth rate and the minimum

  3. Quantitative analysis of the cervical texture by ultrasound in the mid-pregnancy is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. (United States)

    Baños, Núria; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Julià, Carla; Murillo-Bravo, Clara; Coronado, David; Gratacos, Eduard; Deprest, Jan; Palacio, Montse


    New tools are required to identify women at increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Quantitative texture analysis by ultrasound has been used to extract robust features from the ultrasound image of a given tissue to detect subtle changes in its microstructure. This may also be applied to the cervix. We aimed to determine if there is an association between quantitative analysis of the cervical texture (CTx) by ultrasound in the mid-trimester of pregnancy and sPTB quantitative analysis of the CTx. A learning algorithm was developed to obtain the best combination of cervical textures features associated with sPTB based on feature transformation and discriminant analysis-regression. The ability of the learning algorithm to predict sPTB was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation technique, obtaining a CTx-based score for each individual. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the optimal cut-off based on the ROC curve. The results were compared to those obtained with the CL. At all points the investigators studying the images were blinded to pregnancy outcome. Images of 310 women (27 cases and 283 controls) were of sufficient quality and included in the study. Median CTx-based score (-1.01 vs -0.07, p = Quantitative analysis of the cervical texture is able to extract information from the ultrasound images related to sPTB and generate a CTx-based score which is independently associated to sPTB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic value of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 scintimammography for differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions: Comparison of visual and semi-quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Xie, Qian; Zhao, Min; Chen, Bin; Gao, Shi; Zhang, Haishan; Xing, Hua; Ma, Qingjie


    To compare the diagnostic value of visual and semi-quantitative analysis of technetium-99m-poly-ethylene glycol, 4-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ((99m)Tc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMG) for better differentiation of benign from malignant breast masses, and also investigate the incremental role of semi-quantitative index of SMG. A total of 72 patients with breast lesions were included in the study. Technetium-99m-3PRGD2 SMG was performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) at 60 min after intravenous injection of 749 ± 86MBq of the radiotracer. Images were evaluated by visual interpretation and semi-quantitative indices of tumor to non-tumor (T/N) ratios, which were compared with pathology results. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal visual grade, to calculate cut-off values of semi-quantitative indices, and to compare visual and semi-quantitative diagnostic values. Among the 72 patients, 89 lesions were confirmed by histopathology after fine needle aspiration biopsy or surgery, 48 malignant and 41 benign lesions. The mean T/N ratio of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SMG in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (Pvalue for the detection of primary breast cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 81.3%, 70.7%, and 76.4%, respectively. When a T/N ratio of 2.01 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 79.2%, 75.6%, and 77.5%, respectively. According to ROC analysis, the area under the curve for semi-quantitative analysis was higher than that for visual analysis, but the statistical difference was not significant (P=0.372). Compared with visual analysis or semi-quantitative analysis alone, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of visual analysis combined with semi-quantitative analysis in diagnosing primary breast cancer were higher, being: 87.5%, 82.9%, and 85.4%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.891. Results of

  5. Correlation analysis of dual-energy CT iodine maps with quantitative pulmonary perfusion MRI. (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Apfaltrer, Paul; Zoellner, Frank G; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Weisser, Gerald; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I


    To correlate dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) pulmonary angiography derived iodine maps with parameter maps of quantitative pulmonary perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eighteen patients with pulmonary perfusion defects detected on DECT derived iodine maps were included in this prospective study and additionally underwent time-resolved contrast-enhanced pulmonary MRI [dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI]. DCE-MRI data were quantitatively analyzed using a pixel-by-pixel deconvolution analysis calculating regional pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in visually normal lung parenchyma and perfusion defects. Perfusion parameters were correlated to mean attenuation values of normal lung and perfusion defects on DECT iodine maps. Two readers rated the concordance of perfusion defects in a visual analysis using a 5-point Likert-scale (1 = no correlation, 5 = excellent correlation). In visually normal pulmonary tissue mean DECT and MRI values were: 22.6 ± 8.3 Hounsfield units (HU); PBF: 58.8 ± 36.0 mL/100 mL per minute; PBV: 16.6 ± 8.5 mL; MTT: 17.1 ± 10.3 s. In areas with restricted perfusion mean DECT and MRI values were: 4.0 ± 3.9 HU; PBF: 10.3 ± 5.5 mL/100 mL per minute, PBV: 5 ± 4 mL, MTT: 21.6 ± 14.0 s. The differences between visually normal parenchyma and areas of restricted perfusion were statistically significant for PBF, PBV and DECT (P < 0.0001). No linear correlation was found between MRI perfusion parameters and attenuation values of DECT iodine maps (PBF: r = 0.35, P = 0.15; PBV: r = 0.34, P = 0.16; MTT: r = 0.41, P = 0.08). Visual analysis revealed a moderate correlation between perfusion defects on DECT iodine maps and the parameter maps of DCE-MRI (mean score 3.6, κ 0.45). There is a moderate visual but not statistically significant correlation between DECT iodine maps and perfusion parameter maps of DCE-MRI.

  6. Quantitative proteomics and bioinformatic analysis provide new insight into protein function during avian eggshell biomineralization. (United States)

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël


    Gallus gallus eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate in calcitic form and 3.5% extracellular organic matrix. The calcification process occurs in the uterine fluid where biomineralization follows a temporal sequence corresponding to the initiation, growth and termination stages of crystal growth. Eggshell texture and its ultrastructure are regulated by organic matrix proteins, which control mineralization process and influence the eggshell biomechanical properties. We performed proteomic qualitative analyses and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Quantitative analysis showed differential abundances at the three stages of shell biomineralization for 64 of them. Cluster analysis revealed a first group of proteins related to mineralization and mainly present at the onset of calcification including OVOT, OVAL, OC-17, and two novel calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, MFGE8). A second group of proteins mainly present at the initiation and termination of shell formation was potentially involved in the regulation of the activity of the uterine fluid proteins (e.g. molecular chaperones, folding proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors). OCX21, a protein highly concentrated in the fluid and the shell, belongs to this group. A third group equally represented at all stages of shell mineralization corresponded to antibacterial proteins that could protect the forming egg against microbial invasion. The calcitic avian eggshell protects the developing embryo and, moreover, ensures that the nutritious table egg remains free of pathogens. The eggshell is formed by nucleation upon a fibrous scaffold (the eggshell membranes) followed by an interaction between the growing mineral crystals and the shell organic matrix. This interaction leads to a highly ordered shell microstructure and texture which contribute to its exceptional mechanical properties. Shell mineralization occurs in three distinct phases of calcification (initiation, growth and termination), which

  7. Evaluating multiplexed quantitative phosphopeptide analysis on a hybrid quadrupole mass filter/linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer. (United States)

    Erickson, Brian K; Jedrychowski, Mark P; McAlister, Graeme C; Everley, Robert A; Kunz, Ryan; Gygi, Steven P


    As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38 247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11 000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628 000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h.

  8. Intelligent simultaneous quantitative online analysis of environmental trace heavy metals with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence. (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Ping


    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  9. Intelligent Simultaneous Quantitative Online Analysis of Environmental Trace Heavy Metals with Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma


    Full Text Available Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  10. Electroencephalography reactivity for prognostication of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A comparison of quantitative analysis and visual analysis. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yingying; Jiang, Mengdi; Chen, Weibi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhou; Gao, Daiquan


    Electroencephalogram reactivity (EEG-R) is a positive predictive factor for assessing outcomes in comatose patients. Most studies assess the prognostic value of EEG-R utilizing visual analysis; however, this method is prone to subjectivity. We sought to categorize EEG-R with a quantitative approach. We retrospectively studied consecutive comatose patients who had an EEG-R recording performed 1-3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during normothermia after therapeutic hypothermia. EEG-R was assessed via visual analysis and quantitative analysis separately. Clinical outcomes were followed-up at 3-month and dichotomized as recovery of awareness or no recovery of awareness. A total of 96 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 38 (40%) patients recovered awareness at 3-month followed-up. Of 27 patients with EEG-R measured with visual analysis, 22 patients recovered awareness; and of the 69 patients who did not demonstrated EEG-R, 16 patients recovered awareness. The sensitivity and specificity of visually measured EEG-R were 58% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the quantitative analysis was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97), with the best cut-off value of 0.10. EEG-R through quantitative analysis might be a good method in predicting the recovery of awareness in patients with post-anoxic coma after CPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method. (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana


    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  12. A novel iris transillumination grading scale allowing flexible assessment with quantitative image analysis and visual matching. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Brancusi, Flavia; Valivullah, Zaheer M; Anderson, Michael G; Cunningham, Denise; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Power, Bradley; Simeonov, Dimitre; Gahl, William A; Zein, Wadih M; Adams, David R; Brooks, Brian


    To develop a sensitive scale of iris transillumination suitable for clinical and research use, with the capability of either quantitative analysis or visual matching of images. Iris transillumination photographic images were used from 70 study subjects with ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. Subjects represented a broad range of ocular pigmentation. A subset of images was subjected to image analysis and ranking by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. Quantitative ordering of images was compared with ordering by visual inspection. Images were binned to establish an 8-point scale. Ranking consistency was evaluated using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (Kendall's tau). Visual ranking results were assessed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W) analysis. There was a high degree of correlation among the image analysis, expert-based and non-expert-based image rankings. Pairwise comparisons of the quantitative ranking with each reviewer generated an average Kendall's tau of 0.83 ± 0.04 (SD). Inter-rater correlation was also high with Kendall's W of 0.96, 0.95, and 0.95 for nonexpert, expert, and all reviewers, respectively. The current standard for assessing iris transillumination is expert assessment of clinical exam findings. We adapted an image-analysis technique to generate quantitative transillumination values. Quantitative ranking was shown to be highly similar to a ranking produced by both expert and nonexpert reviewers. This finding suggests that the image characteristics used to quantify iris transillumination do not require expert interpretation. Inter-rater rankings were also highly similar, suggesting that varied methods of transillumination ranking are robust in terms of producing reproducible results.

  13. Quantitative analysis of γ–oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC–image analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirak Sakunpak


    Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  14. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.


    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  15. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values


    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn


    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) ...

  16. Quantitative analysis of Esophageal Transit of Radionuclide in Patients with Dermatomyositis-Polymyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Hae [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Esophageal transit of radionuclide was quantitatively analyzed in 29 patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis Fourteen patients (48.3%) showed retention of tracer in oropharynx. The mean value of percent retention of oropharynx was 15.5+16.6%. Esophageal dysfunction was found in 19 patients (65.5%). Among them 4 showed mild, 12 showed moderate and 3 showed severe esophageal dysfunction. Dysphagia was found in 11 patients (37.9%), which was closely related to percent retention of oropharynx. Quantitative analysis of esophageal transit of radionuclide seemed to be a useful technique for evaluation of dysphagia in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis.

  17. Tannin structural elucidation and quantitative ³¹P NMR analysis. 2. Hydrolyzable tannins and proanthocyanidins. (United States)

    Melone, Federica; Saladino, Raffaele; Lange, Heiko; Crestini, Claudia


    An unprecedented analytical method that allows simultaneous structural and quantitative characterization of all functional groups present in tannins is reported. In situ labeling of all labile H groups (aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyls and carboxylic acids) with a phosphorus-containing reagent (Cl-TMDP) followed by quantitative ³¹P NMR acquisition constitutes a novel fast and reliable analytical tool for the analysis of tannins and proanthocyanidins with significant implications for the fields of food and feed analyses, tannery, and the development of natural polyphenolics containing products.

  18. Quantitative trait loci identification and meta-analysis for rice panicle-related traits. (United States)

    Wu, Yahui; Huang, Ming; Tao, Xingxing; Guo, Tao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Wuming


    Rice yield is a complex trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the past three decades, thousands of QTLs for rice yield traits have been detected, but only a very small percentage has been cloned to date, as identifying the QTL genes requires a substantial investment of time and money. Meta-analysis provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for integrating information from multiple QTL studies across various environmental and genetic backgrounds, detecting consistent QTLs powerfully and estimating their genetic positions precisely. In this study, we aimed to locate consistent QTL regions associated with rice panicle traits by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. We first conducted a QTL analysis of 5 rice panicle traits using 172 plants in 2011 and 138 plants in 2012 from an F2 population derived from a cross between Nipponbare and H71D rice cultivators. A total of 54 QTLs were detected, and these were combined with 1085 QTLs collected from 82 previous studies to perform a meta-analysis using BioMercator v4.2. The integration of 82 maps resulted in a consensus map with 6970 markers and a total map length of 1823.1 centimorgan (cM), on which 837 QTLs were projected. These QTLs were then integrated into 87 meta-quantitative trait loci (MQTLs) by meta-analysis, and the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of them were smaller than the mean value of the original QTLs. Also, 30 MQTLs covered 47 of the 54 QTLs detected from the cross between Nipponbare and H71D in this study. Among them, the two major and stable QTLs, spp10.1 and sd10.1, were found to be included in MQTL10.4. The three other major QTLs, pl3.1, sb2.1, and sb10.1, were included in MQTL3.3, MQTL2.2, and MQTL10.3, respectively. A total of 21 of the 87 MQTLs' phenotypic variation were >20 %. In total, 24 candidate genes were found in 15 MQTLs that spanned physical intervals <0.2 Mb, including genes that have been cloned previously, e.g., EP3, LP, MIP1, HTD1, DSH1, and Os

  19. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.


    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

  20. Piping failure analysis for the Korean nuclear piping including the effect of in-service inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.(KAERI), Daejeon (Korea); Choi, Y.H. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety(KINS), Daejeon (Korea)


    The purposes of this paper are to perform piping failure analysis for the failed safety class piping in Korean nuclear power plants(NPPs) and evaluate the effect of an in-service inspection(ISI) on the piping failure probability. For data collection, a database for piping failure events was constructed with 135 data fields including population data, event data, and service history data. A total of 6 kinds of events with 25 failure cases up to June 30, 2003 were identified from Korean NPPs. The failed systems were main feedwater system, CVCS, primary sampling system, essential service water system, and CANDU purification system. Piping failure analyses such as evaluation of the impact on nuclear safety and piping integrity and the root cause analysis were performed and the piping failure frequencies for the failed piping were calculated by using population data. The result showed that although the integrity was not maintained in the failed piping, the safety of the plants was maintained for all the events. And the root causes of the events were analyzed as FAC, vibration, thermal fatigue, corrosion, and/or an improper weld joint. The piping failure frequencies ranged from 6.08E-5/Cr-Yr to 1.15E-3/Cr-Yr for the events. According to the ASME Code sec. XI requirements, the small bore piping less than the nominal diameter of 4 inch is exempt from ISI. There, however, were many piping failures reported in the small bore piping. The effect of ISI considering the pipe size on the piping failure probability was investigated by using the Win-PRAISE program based on probabilistic fracture mechanics. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the small and large bore piping from the viewpoint of the ISI effect on the piping failure probability. It means that ISI for a small bore piping is recommended as well as the large bore piping. (orig.)