WorldWideScience

Sample records for included primary air

  1. Primary zone air proportioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  2. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  3. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic...

  4. Computer Simulation of the Solidification Process Including Air Gap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach of numerical modelling of alloy solidification in permanent mold and transient heat transport between the casting and the mold in two-dimensional space. The gap of time-dependent width called "air gap", filled with heat conducting gaseous medium is included in the model. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the gas filling the space between the casting and the mold is small enough to introduce significant thermal resistance into the heat transport process. The mathematical model of heat transport is based on the partial differential equation of heat conduction written independently for the solidifying region and the mold. Appropriate solidification model based on the latent heat of solidification is also included in the mathematical description. These equations are supplemented by appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The formation process of air gap depends on the thermal deformations of the mold and the casting. The numerical model is based on the finite element method (FEM with independent spatial discretization of interacting regions. It results in multi-mesh problem because the considered regions are disconnected.

  5. Control of the Air: The Primary Air Power Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    air, p 8-9. 23. R Cargill Hall. Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment, Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998, “British Strategic Air...Relations with Special Reference to Kashmir. Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi. 2003. Hall, R. Cargill . Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment. Air

  6. Damping of double wall panels including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Stainhaouer, G.; Bakamidis, S.; Charalabopoulou, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of double wall panels, with emphasis on damping and sound radiation. It will be shown that a narrow air layer separating the two plates of a panel significantly alters the mentioned quantities by its viscothermal properties. Numerical and experimental

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  8. Mathematical modeling of a primary zinc/air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Z.; White, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model developed by Sunu and Bennion has been extended to include the separator, precipitation of both solid ZnO and K2Zn(OH)4, and the air electrode, and has been used to investigate the behavior of a primary Zn-Air battery with respect to battery design features. Predictions obtained from the model indicate that anode material utilization is predominantly limited by depletion of the concentration of hydroxide ions. The effect of electrode thickness on anode material utilization is insignificant, whereas material loading per unit volume has a great effect on anode material utilization; a higher loading lowers both the anode material utilization and delivered capacity. Use of a thick separator will increase the anode material utilization, but may reduce the cell voltage.

  9. Airports and Airfields, Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type, effective date, air strip name, city name, latitude, longitude, and elevation., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of 2008. Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type,...

  10. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  11. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service.

  12. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  13. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based

  14. 30 CFR 285.659 - What requirements must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or GAP regarding air quality? 285.659 Section 285.659 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... must I include in my SAP, COP, or GAP regarding air quality? (a) You must comply with the Clean Air Act...) For air quality modeling that you perform in support of the activities proposed in your plan, you...

  15. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  16. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  17. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  18. Pancreatic-type Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Included in Multiple Primary Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kurosawa, Manabu; Mise, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Miki; Higashide, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) in the stomach is extraordinarily rare. We pathologically examined two cases with multiple primary carcinomas, including gastric tumors. Gastric cancer specimens were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Both cases had cancer cells with acinar patterns, resembling pancreatic ACC. The cancer cells in the first case were positive for exocrine markers, including chymotrypsin, lipase and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), as well as neuroendocrine markers, including chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The cancer cells in the second case were positive for chymotrypsin and alpha-1 ACT, while being slightly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, cancer cells contained zymogen granules in both cases. The final diagnosis was pancreatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma and pure pancreatic ACC, respectively. We confirmed two cases with gastric pancreatic-type ACC included in multiple primary carcinomas. This type of double cancer has not been reported previously. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-05-08

    Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly α-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable β-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols.

  20. Air Filter Devices Including Nonwoven Meshes of Electrospun Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly α-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable β-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

  1. Analysis of the indoor air quality in Greek primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Dorizas, P. V.; Assimakopoulos, M. N.; Helmis, C.; Santamouris, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of children to indoor air pollutants in school classrooms might cause them adverse health effects. In order to confront this issue, the in-depth study and evaluation of the indoor air quality in classrooms is necessary. The aims of this study are to characterize the environmental factors that affect indoor air quality. Several indoor air pollutants such as the concentrations of the particulate matter (PM) of several different size ranges, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO...

  2. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live marine...

  3. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  4. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  5. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  6. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.15 Section 3.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  7. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  8. 75 FR 66798 - Ormet Primary Aluminum Corporation Including On-Site Temporary Workers, Hannibal, OH; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,743] Ormet Primary Aluminum... Ormet Primary Aluminum Corporation, including on-site temporary workers, Hannibal, Ohio (subject firm... primary and secondary aluminum to supplement that which was gathered during the initial investigation...

  9. Fungal communities including plant pathogens in near surface air are similar across northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; West, Jonathan S.; Sapkota, Rumakanta; Canning, Gail G.M.; Schoen, Cor; Justesen, Annemarie F.

    2017-01-01

    Information on the diversity of fungal spores in air is limited, and also the content of airborne spores of fungal plant pathogens is understudied. In the present study, a total of 152 air samples were taken from rooftops at urban settings in Slagelse, DK, Wageningen NL, and Rothamsted, UK together

  10. Clinical problems of multiple primary cancers including head and neck cancers. From the viewpoint of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masamichi; Myojin, Miyako; Nishiyama, Noriaki; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Takagi, Masaru; Tanaka, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    A total of 2144 head and neck cancers were treated by radiotherapy at the National Sapporo Hospital between 1974 and 2001. Of these, 313 (14.6%) were found to have other primary cancers besides head and neck cancer, in which double cancers were 79% and triple or more cancers were 21%. Frequency according to primary site of the first head and neck cancer was oral cavity: 107/603 (17.7%), epipharynx cancer: 7/117 (6.0%), oropharyngeal cancer: 63/257 (24.5%), hypopharyngeal cancer: 65/200 (32.5%), laryngeal cancer: 114/558 (20.4%), and nose/paranasal sinus: 4.9% respectively. Esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancer were very frequent as other primary sites combined with the head and neck. The first onset region was the head and neck in 233 out of 313 cases with multiple primary cancers. The five-year survival rate from the onset of head and neck cancers is 52%, 10-year: 30%, and 5-year cause-specific survival rate 82%, and 10-year: 78%, respectively. The treatment possibilities in multiple primary cancers tend to be limited because the treatment areas are sometimes overlapped. New approaches to the treatment of multiple primary cancers should be considered in the future. (author)

  11. Fungal Communities Including Plant Pathogens in Near Surface Air Are Similar across Northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Nicolaisen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diversity of fungal spores in air is limited, and also the content of airborne spores of fungal plant pathogens is understudied. In the present study, a total of 152 air samples were taken from rooftops at urban settings in Slagelse, DK, Wageningen NL, and Rothamsted, UK together with 41 samples from above oilseed rape fields in Rothamsted. Samples were taken during 10-day periods in spring and autumn, each sample representing 1 day of sampling. The fungal content of samples was analyzed by metabarcoding of the fungal internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1 and by qPCR for specific fungi. The metabarcoding results demonstrated that season had significant effects on airborne fungal communities. In contrast, location did not have strong effects on the communities, even though locations were separated by up to 900 km. Also, a number of plant pathogens had strikingly similar patterns of abundance at the three locations. Rooftop samples were more diverse than samples taken above fields, probably reflecting greater mixing of air from a range of microenvironments for the rooftop sites. Pathogens that were known to be present in the crop were also found in air samples taken above the field. This paper is one of the first detailed studies of fungal composition in air with the focus on plant pathogens and shows that it is possible to detect a range of pathogens in rooftop air samplers using metabarcoding.

  12. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  13. Proceedings of the second US-USSR symposium: air pollution effects on vegetation including forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald D. Noble; Juri L Martin; Keith F., eds. Jensen; Keith F. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    To commemorate the 10th year of cooperation between the US-USSR in the field of environmental protection, a symposium was organized, the major objectives of which were to acquaint US-USSR scientists with project accomplishments; to promote understanding of the nature of environmental problems that relate to air pollution effect on vegetation on a more global scale; to...

  14. Case Report: Synchronous primary malignancy including the breast and endometrium [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham-Sadat Bani-Mostafavi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast and endometrial cancer are the most common types of female cancers, but the incidence of both of these malignancies in a single patient is a rare event. Multiple primary malignancy has been increasingly reported over the past decade, and double primary cancer is considered as the most common type.  In this study, we present a 53-year-old woman with synchronous primary malignancy of breast and endometrium. This patient had a history of breast and endometrial cancer in her family. Mammography and chest CT of the patient revealed a mass in the right breast and left supraclavicular region. However, the patient did not want to initiate treatment. Subsequently, the patient returned with a chief complaint of persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Abdominopelvic CT scan of the patient revealed a huge soft tissue mass in the pelvic cavity. She underwent hysterectomy, and pathology revealed endometrioid carcinoma, which had invaded the full thickness of uterine wall. Since this type of malignancy is rare and several risk factors are associated with it, it is worth being considered by clinicians when making decisions about screening or strategy for prevention.

  15. 3-D Nanofilm Primary Li Air Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires a new primary battery capable of providing specific energy exceeding 2000Wh/kg over an operating temperature range of 0oC to 35oC with a shelf life...

  16. Electron Beam Adjustment in PLATO RTS 2 Including the Effect of Air Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, M C; Trindade, A; Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Beam characterization for electron dose calculations in PLATO RTS 2 treatment planning system requires the tuning of two adjustment parameters: sqx (the initial angular spread) and FMCS (a "fudge" multiple Coulomb scattering parameter). This work provides a set of suggestions to optimise electron dose calculations with PLATO, taking into account the effect of air gaps between the electron applicator and the patient skin. Material and Methods: Two adjustment criteria have been followed: one which uses just one input data set corresponding to the standard (null) air gap and another one that takes into account the whole range of clinically used distances between the electron applicator and the patient surface. The adjusted values of sqx were compared with experimental data and GEANT3 Monte Carlo code results. A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of both adjustment parameters on electron dose calculations in water. Comparisons of dose distributions and point dose values ha...

  17. Air Emissions of Selected Substances from Particular Sectors Including Metallurgy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargulewicz I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP, dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, Pb and Cd subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP. It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households. Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.

  18. Yields of primary products from chloroethylenes in air under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kojima, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of toxic primary irradiation products was carried out for the development of the purification technology of chloroethylenes/air mixtures using an electron beam (EB). Degradation of chloroethylenes in humid air proceeded through the formation of primary products retaining a carbon-carbon (C-C) bond such as chloroacetyl chlorides and chloroacetyl aldehyde as well as that of primary products of COCl 2 and HCOCl through C-C bond cleavage. Chloroethylenes having one carbon bonded to two Cl atoms was decomposed into the primary products retaining a C-C bond prior to breaking a C-C bond. The number of Cl atoms of a chloroethylene molecule enhanced the formation ratio of primary products retaining a C-C bond. On the other hand, chloroethylene having two carbons bonded to one Cl atom was degraded thought the scission of a C-C bond predominantly C-C bond maintenance. (author)

  19. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  20. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  1. Second primary malignancies after radiotherapy including HDR (252)Cf brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Janulionis, Ernestas; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Rivard, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Second primary malignancies (SPMs) are among the most serious late adverse effects after radiotherapy experienced over time by the increasing population of cancer survivors worldwide. The study aim was to determine the rate and distribution of SPMs for neutron- and photon-emitting brachytherapy (BT) sources for patients treated for cervical cancer. The cohort comprised 662 patients with invasive cervical cancer (Stages IIB and IIIB) and contributed 5,224 patient-years (PY) of observation. These patients were treated by radiotherapy during the 1989-1999 year period with cobalt-60 source ((60)Co) teletherapy. The first group of patients (N = 375; 3,154 PY) received high-dose-rate (HDR) californium-252 source ((252)Cf) BT, whereas the second group (N = 287; 2,070 PY) received HDR (60)Co BT. Over a 25-year period, 35 SPMs were observed, amounting to 5.3% of all observed patients: in 16 (2.4%) heavily, 2 (0.3%) moderately, 14 (2.1%) lightly irradiated body sites, and 3 (0.5%) other sites. Of these, 21 cases (5.6%) were observed in the HDR (252)Cf BT group, whereas 14 cases (4.9%) were observed in the HDR (60)Co BT group. Exposures received during (60)Co teletherapy and HDR BT with either (252)Cf or (60)Co had statistically equivalent (p = 0.68) effects on SPM development. Cure rates are improving, and therefore, there are more long-term survivors from cervical cancer. This study shows no significant difference in rates or distribution of SPMs in women treated with neutron BT compared with photon BT (p = 0.68). After reviewing related literature and our research results, it is evident that a detailed investigation of SPM frequency, localization, and dose to adjacent organs is a suitable topic for further research. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  3. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil

    2014-01-01

    are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase......This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects...

  4. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Mathematics Courses Included in the Primary School Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Mehmet Koray; Incikabi, Semahat

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics educators have reported on many issues regarding students' mathematical education, particularly students who received mathematics education at different departments such as engineering, science or primary school, including their difficulties with mathematical concepts, their understanding of and preferences for mathematical concepts.…

  5. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane index most primary studies but not abstracts included in orthopedic meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogean, Gerard P; Verma, Ashim; Giustini, Dean; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Mulpuri, Kishore

    2009-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that all primary studies used in orthopedic meta-analyses are indexed in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using MEDLINE from 1995 to 2005, we retrieved all published meta-analyses of orthopedic surgical interventions. The primary studies in each meta-analysis were defined as the "gold standard" set. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for each primary study, and a recall rate was calculated. Secondary searches were performed using Web of Science (WoS), the Cochrane databases, and CINAHL. High recall rates were achieved searching MEDLINE (90%) and EMBASE (81%) for the gold standard set, and the combined search retrieved 91%. Titles not indexed by MEDLINE or EMBASE included 45 abstracts, eight journal articles, and three unpublished studies. Searching the Cochrane databases yielded 36 titles not in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using all three databases produced 97% recall of the primary studies; WoS and CINAHL did not increase the recall rate. These results suggest that a very high percentage of primary research in orthopedics can be found using the major databases. Additional database searches are unlikely to increase the yield of published manuscripts; however, conference proceedings and journal supplements should still be searched to ensure that relevant remaining reports are identified.

  6. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark. More children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014......) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge....... There will be used a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11...

  7. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  8. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  9. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  10. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Larsson; Antti Rytinki; Istaq Ahmed; Ingvar Albinsson; Bengt-Erik Mellander

    2017-01-01

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the elec...

  11. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  12. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects...... are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase...... in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum...

  13. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  14. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  15. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  16. Modeling nucleation and growth of zinc oxide during discharge of primary zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Johannes; Varzi, Alberto; Latz, Arnulf; Horstmann, Birger

    2017-08-01

    Metal-air batteries are among the most promising next-generation energy storage devices. Relying on abundant materials and offering high energy densities, potential applications lie in the fields of electro-mobility, portable electronics, and stationary grid applications. Now, research on secondary zinc-air batteries is revived, which are commercialized as primary hearing aid batteries. One of the main obstacles for making zinc-air batteries rechargeable is their poor lifetime due to the degradation of alkaline electrolyte in contact with atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this article, we present a continuum theory of a commercial Varta PowerOne button cell. Our model contains dissolution of zinc and nucleation and growth of zinc oxide in the anode, thermodynamically consistent electrolyte transport in porous media, and multi-phase coexistance in the gas diffusion electrode. We perform electrochemical measurements and validate our model. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found and novel insights into the role of zinc oxide nucleation and growth and carbon dioxide dissolution for discharge and lifetime is presented. We demonstrate the implications of our work for the development of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  17. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  18. Key Factors Determining Indoor Air PM10Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Branislava; Rakic, Uros; Jovanovic, Verica; Dejanovic, Snezana; Djonovic, Nela

    2017-10-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is rated as a serious public health issue. Knowing children are accounted as more vulnerable to environmental health hazards, data are needed on air quality in schools. A project was conducted from 2007 until 2009 (SEARCH, School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children), aiming to verify links between IAQ and children's respiratory health. Study was conducted in ten primary schools on 735 children, in 44 classrooms. Children were randomly selected. Research tools and indicators used for children's exposure to school environment were indoor and outdoor pollutants, two standardized questionnaires for school and classroom characteristics. In both classroom air and ambient air in front of them we measured, during a 5-day exposure period for continuous 24h measuring: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, indoor air temperature, relative humidity, and PM 10 during classes. PM 10 concentrations were significantly most frequent in an interval of ≥80.1μg/m 3 , that is, in the interval above 50μg/m 3 . Mean PM 10 value was 82.24±42.43 μg/m 3 , ranging from 32.00μg/m 3 to of 197.00μg/m 3 . The increase of outdoor PM 10 concentration significantly affects the increase of indoor PM 10 . A statistically significant difference exists for average IAQ PM 10 concentrations vs. indicators of indoor thermal comfort zone (p75%), and indoor temperature beyond 23°C, as well as bad ventilation habits (keeping windows shut most of the time).

  19. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5.7-4.5), and increased conductivity (2.4-4.7mS/cm), soluble COD (2.66-15.5g/L), and volatile fatty acids (1.9-10.1g/L). To lower the COD and increase pH, fermentation supernatant was diluted with primary effluent before being used in the MFCs. The maximum power density was 0.32±0.01W/m2, compared to 0.24±0.03W/m2 with only primary effluent. Power densities were higher with phosphate buffer added to the supernatant (1.03±0.06W/m2) or the solution (0.87±0.05W/m2). Coulombic efficiencies ranged from 18% to 57%, and sCOD removals from 84% to 94%. These results demonstrated that sludge can effectively be used for power generation when fermented and then diluted with only primary effluent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A fast vibro-acoustic response analysis method for double wall structures including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Grooteman, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    The damping behaviour of a thin air layer between two flexible panels can be used to reduce sound radiation of structural excited panels. The numerical model of the double wall panels takes into account full acousto-elastic interaction and viscothermal wave propagation in the air layer. This means

  1. Trends in European background air reflect reductions in primary emissions of PCBs and PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Gioia, Rosalinda; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Scheringer, Martin; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-09-01

    Data are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) in passive air samplers (PAS) collected along a rural/remote latitudinal transect from southern UK to northern Norway during 2004-2008. This study is part of an ongoing campaign, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as PAS over two year intervals since 1994. Absolute sequestered amounts of selected PCB congeners have decreased in a first order fashion between 1994-2008, with the average time of 8.4+/-3.2 years for atmospheric concentrations to decline by 50%. PCBs have continued to fractionate with latitude during this period. PBDE concentrations declined by 50% between 2000 and 2008 every 2.2+/-0.4 years. Results are discussed in terms of sources, long-range atmospheric transport, global fractionation, and clearance processes. It is concluded that the spatial and temporal trends in background European air mainly reflect the strength of primary diffusive emissions of these compounds and subsequently their ongoing declines. The direct evidence for this is similar rates of decline at all the sites; similar rates of decline for all congeners; no systematic change in the fractionation pattern since 1994. The latest results indicate a reduction in the rate of decline for PCBs (and hence in primary emissions).

  2. Effect of primary air preheating and moisturesugarcane bagasse during fixed bed combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sánchez Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furnaces used to making jaggery have energ y losses due to incomplete combustion of sugarcane bagasse and sensible heat in the flue gases. During jaggery production process, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel, with mass fractions of humidity between 30% and 50%, which affect the combustion efficiency of a biomass in a fixed bed. Because the air preheating decreases the drying time, its implementation in many biomass combustion systems increases process efficiency. Therefore, in this investigation we studied the influence of the moisture content and the preheating of the primary air on the combustion of bagasse in a fixed bed furnace, by analyzing the profiles of temperature and concentration of the combustion gas. Results showed that increasing in bagasse moisture reduces the rate of combustion and conversion of carbon to CO2, diminishing the yield of process. When theprimary air is preheated to a temperature of 120 ºC, the combustion rate increased, however, only meant an increase in combustion efficiency to a mass fraction of 30% humidity.

  3. Human alveolar macrophage responses to air pollution particulates are associated with insoluble components of coarse material, including particulate endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, J M; Becker, S

    2001-02-15

    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM function others inhibit antimicrobial activity or cause cytokine and growth factor production leading to inflammation and tissue remodeling. This study has investigated the effects of water soluble (s) and insoluble (is) components of Chapel Hill, North Carolina ambient particulate matter in the size ranges 0.1-2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10) diameter, on human AM IL-6, TNFalpha, and MCP-1 cytokine production and host defense mechanisms including phagocytosis and oxidant production. Cytokines were found to be induced by isPM10 to a much higher extent (>50-fold) than sPM10, which in turn stimulated production better than isPM2.5, while sPM2.5 was inactive. Previous studies have indicated that endotoxin (ETOX) is a component of sPM10 responsible for cytokine production. Here, it is shown that inhibition of isPM10-induced cytokine production was partially achieved with polymyxin B and LPS-binding protein (LBP), but not with a metal chelator, implicating ETOX as a cytokine-inducing moiety also in isPM10. In addition to inducing cytokines, exposure to isPM10, but not the other PM fractions, also inhibited phagocytosis and oxidant generation in response to yeast. This inhibition was ETOX independent. The decrease in host defenses may be the result of apoptosis in the AM population, which was also found to be specifically caused by isPM10. These results show that the functional capacity of AM is selectively modulated by insoluble components of coarse PM, including the biocontaminant ETOX.

  4. Primary cicatricial alopecia: Lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias, including chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and Graham-Little syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Chantal; Sperling, Leonard C; Shapiro, Jerry

    2016-12-01

    Both primary and secondary forms of cicatricial alopecia have been described. The hair follicles are the specific target of inflammation in primary cicatricial alopecias. Hair follicles are destroyed randomly with surrounding structures in secondary cicatricial alopecia. This 2-part continuing medical education article will review primary cicatricial alopecias according to the working classification suggested by the North American Hair Research Society. In this classification, the different entities are classified into 3 different groups according to their prominent inflammatory infiltrate (ie, lymphocytic, neutrophilic, and mixed). Part I discusses the following lymphocytic primary cicatricial alopecias: chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and Graham-Little syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  6. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  7. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  8. Computation of aquatic primary production: Extended formalism to include effect of angular and spectral distribution of light

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Platt, T.

    and utilization by algal cells. Neglecting the effect of angular distribution on the light absorbed by phytoplankton can lead to underestimation of primary production. For the stations studied as examples, the minimum correction required is 5-l3% for daily, column-integrated...

  9. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Improving the energy efficiency of room air conditioners (RACs) while transitioning to low global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerants will be a critical step toward reducing the energy, peak load, and emissions impacts of RACs while keeping costs low. Previous research quantified the benefits of leapfrogging to high efficiency in tandem with the transition to low-GWP refrigerants for RACs (Shah et al., 2015) and identified opportunities for initial action to coordinate energy efficiency with refrigerant transition in economies constituting about 65% of the global RAC market (Shah et al., 2017). This report describes further research performed to identify the best-performing (i.e., most efficient and low-GWP-refrigerant using) RACs on the market, to support an understanding of the best available technology (BAT). Understanding BAT can help support market-transformation programs for high-efficiency and low-GWP equipment such as minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), labeling, procurement, and incentive programs. We studied RACs available in six economies—China, Europe, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States—that together account for about 70% of global RAC demand, as well as other emerging economies. The following are our key findings: • Highly efficient RACs using low-GWP refrigerants, e.g., HFC-32 (R-32) and HC-290 (R-290), are commercially available today at prices comparable to similar RACs using high-GWP HCFC-22 (R-22) or HFC-410A (R-410A). • High efficiency is typically a feature of high-end products. However, highly efficient, cost-competitive (less than 1,000 or 1,500 U.S. dollars in retail price, depending on size) RACs are available. • Where R-22 is being phased out, high GWP R-410A still dominates RAC sales in most mature markets except Japan, where R-32 dominates. • In all of the economies studied except Japan, only a few models are energy efficient and use low-GWP refrigerants. For example, in Europe, India, and Indonesia

  10. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Fallon, Acting Unit Chief, Air Colorado, Montana, North Quality Planning Unit, EPA Region Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and VIII, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO Wyoming. 80202-1129, (303) 312-6281. Doris Lo, Air... measures that reduce SO 2 can generally be expected to reduce people's exposures to all gaseous SO X . This...

  11. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides: Risk and Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfur oxides are one of the six major air pollutants for which EPA has issued air quality criteria and established national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) based on those criteria. The Clear Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, exis...

  12. Association of ambient air pollution and meteorological factors with primary care visits at night due to asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Yoda, Yoshiko; Oka, Katsumi; Kurosaka, Fumitake; Shimizu, Shigeta; Takahashi, Hironobu; Nakatani, Yuji; Nishikawa, Jittoku; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Mizumori, Yasuyuki; Mogami, Akira; Yamada, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuharu

    2013-09-01

    The association of outdoor air pollution and meteorological elements with primary care visits at night due to asthma attack was studied. A case-crossover study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Himeji City, Japan. The subjects were 956 children aged 0-14 years who visited the clinic with an asthma attack between the hours of 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. Daily concentrations of particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and a number of meteorological elements were measured, and a conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of primary care visits per unit increment of air pollutants or meteorological elements. The analyses took into consideration the effects of seasonality. Of the 956 children, 73 (7.6 %) were aged asthma attack at night in the spring or summer was found. An inverse relation between suspended particulate matter and primary care visits due to asthma attack was detected in the winter. ORs in the summer per degree increment in daily mean temperature was 1.31 [95 % confidential interval (CI) 1.09-1.56], and ORs in the autumn per hourly increment in daily hours of sunshine was 0.94 (95 % CI 0.90-0.99). The findings of our study fail to support any association between daily mean concentration of air pollutant and primary care visits at night. However, we did find evidence indicating that certain meteorological elements may be associated with primary care visits.

  13. Long-term creep properties, including irradiation effects, of DIN 1.4948 steel from SNR-300 primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    1986-01-01

    Since 1968, the ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft warmfeste Staehle in VDEH'', sponsored by KfK/PSB, performs creep tests on austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948. Wrought materials both in the solution-annealed condition and in weldments are investigated. The DIN 1.4948 steel was finally chosen for the permanent primary structures of the SNR-300, such as the reactor vessel, the grid plate and the primary piping. The chemical specification of DIN 1.4948 steel has been narrowed for application in the SNR-300. The long-term programme at KfK on SNR-300 heats has reached times to rupture of up to 90,000 h for parent metal. At 823 K, the operating temperature of the SNR-300, the mean creep rupture strengths of standard DIN 1.4948 and SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 are equal, but the scatter of data for standard DIN 1.4948 parent metal is twice as large as that for SNR-300-grade parent metal. The strength of SNR-300 weldments falls within the scatter band for parent metal. At times to rupture of more than 10 4 h, all parent metals have ductilities of between 10% and 20%, whereas the welded joints show ductilities below 1%. The neutron irradiation effects on SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 heats and weldments have been studied with times to rupture of up to 10,000 h in the range from 723 K to 923 K. After irradiation the creep strength is reduced to values below the minimum stress rupture values according to the ASME B + PV Code. The ductility values of parent metal after irradiation are in the range of 4% to 10%. The ductility of welded joints is sometimes below 1%. With increasing Larson-Miller parameter the reduction in creep strength decreases. Therefore, long-term post-irradiation creep tests have been started at KfK and ECN in order to verify experimentally the creep strength reduction factor due to irradiation, for times to rupture of between 10 4 and 5x10 4 h. (author)

  14. Practice makes perfect: the neural substrates of tactile discrimination by Mah-Jong experts include the primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda Manabu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has yet to be determined whether visual-tactile cross-modal plasticity due to visual deprivation, particularly in the primary visual cortex (V1, is solely due to visual deprivation or if it is a result of long-term tactile training. Here we conducted an fMRI study with normally-sighted participants who had undergone long-term training on the tactile shape discrimination of the two dimensional (2D shapes on Mah-Jong tiles (Mah-Jong experts. Eight Mah-Jong experts and twelve healthy volunteers who were naïve to Mah-Jong performed a tactile shape matching task using Mah-Jong tiles with no visual input. Furthermore, seven out of eight experts performed a tactile shape matching task with unfamiliar 2D Braille characters. Results When participants performed tactile discrimination of Mah-Jong tiles, the left lateral occipital cortex (LO and V1 were activated in the well-trained subjects. In the naïve subjects, the LO was activated but V1 was not activated. Both the LO and V1 of the well-trained subjects were activated during Braille tactile discrimination tasks. Conclusion The activation of V1 in subjects trained in tactile discrimination may represent altered cross-modal responses as a result of long-term training.

  15. Practice makes perfect: the neural substrates of tactile discrimination by Mah-Jong experts include the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke N; Okada, Tomohisa; Honda, Manabu; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2006-12-05

    It has yet to be determined whether visual-tactile cross-modal plasticity due to visual deprivation, particularly in the primary visual cortex (V1), is solely due to visual deprivation or if it is a result of long-term tactile training. Here we conducted an fMRI study with normally-sighted participants who had undergone long-term training on the tactile shape discrimination of the two dimensional (2D) shapes on Mah-Jong tiles (Mah-Jong experts). Eight Mah-Jong experts and twelve healthy volunteers who were naïve to Mah-Jong performed a tactile shape matching task using Mah-Jong tiles with no visual input. Furthermore, seven out of eight experts performed a tactile shape matching task with unfamiliar 2D Braille characters. When participants performed tactile discrimination of Mah-Jong tiles, the left lateral occipital cortex (LO) and V1 were activated in the well-trained subjects. In the naïve subjects, the LO was activated but V1 was not activated. Both the LO and V1 of the well-trained subjects were activated during Braille tactile discrimination tasks. The activation of V1 in subjects trained in tactile discrimination may represent altered cross-modal responses as a result of long-term training.

  16. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate.

  17. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Moscatelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruziinfection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate.

  18. Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g–7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 − and SO4 2− were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 − (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g–32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 2−. The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3 −, SO4 2−, and Pb2+, were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

  19. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J.; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    . Methods: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985–2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5–10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot......-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic...... in PM2.5. Conclusions: The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures....

  20. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Holtzer-Goor

    Full Text Available Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands.A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS located with the general practitioner (GP. This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer, home care, informal care, and implementation costs.With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%, or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved.Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting.

  2. Effects of air-polishing devices with different abrasives on bovine primary and second teeth and deciduous human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalefa, Mohammad; Finke, Christian; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the effect of air polishing using different combinations of devices and abrasive powders on bovine secondary and primary dentition and on human deciduous teeth. Lower incisors of freshly slaughtered calves and cows were partially embedded in polyurethane and polished flat. Human deciduous incisors and second molars were subjected to the same procedure. These various tooth types (bovine secondary, bovine primary, human deciduous) were then randomly assigned to 22 groups containing 10 teeth each. The specimens in each group were treated by a specific combination of an air-polishing device (n=2; PROPHYflex 3®, Air-Flow® Handy 2+) and an abrasive (n=3; Air-Flow® Pulver Classic, ClinPro™ Prophy Powder, PROPHYpearls®) applied from a distance of 5±0.5 mm at maximum setting for 60 s. Additional groups of specimens were polished with CCS® 40 or Cleanic® pastes applied with a rotating brush at low speed. A Perthometer PCV profilometer was used to analyze the degrees of surface roughness and enamel reduction in each group. PROPHYpearls® created significantly (pteeth than on bovine primary or human deciduous teeth, with no significant difference between the latter two. The degrees of surface roughness induced by air polishing surpassed the effect of CCS® 40 paste but resembled the effect of Cleanic® paste. Both Air-Flow® Handy 2+ and PROPHYflex 3® are appropriate devices to remove plaque and discoloration from the surface of deciduous teeth. PROPHYpearls® powder is excessively aggressive.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. H Appendix H to Part 50—Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and...

  4. Evaluation of the vibration attenuation properties of an air-inflated cushion with two different heavy machinery seats in multi-axis vibration environments including jolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoxu; Eger, Tammy R; Dickey, James P

    2017-03-01

    Seats and cushions can attenuate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and minimize health risks for heavy machine operators. We successfully developed neural network (NN) algorithms to identify the vibration attenuation properties for four different seating conditions (seat/cushion combinations), and implemented each of the NN models to predict the equivalent daily exposure A(8) values for various vehicles in the forestry and mining environments. We also evaluated the performance of the new prototype No-Jolt™ air-inflated cushion and the original cushion of each seat with jolt exposures. We observed that the air cushion significantly improved the vibration attenuation properties of the seat that initially had good performance, but not for the seat that had relatively poor vibration attenuation properties. In addition, operator's anthropometrics and sex influenced the performance of the air-inflated cushion when the vibration environment included jolt exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  6. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  7. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  8. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  9. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  10. 76 FR 76259 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... COS carbonyl sulfide CTE central tendency exposure EJ environmental justice EPA Environmental... acute exposure guideline levels AERMOD air dispersion model used by the HEM-3 model AMOS ample margin of... pollutants HEM-3 Human Exposure Model, Version 3 HEPA high efficiency particulate air HHRAP Human Health Risk...

  11. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire Hydrants, Fire hydrants outside the City of Wichita. Primary attributes include hydrant number and ID. Layer is under development by Sedgwick County Fire Department. Primary attributes include GPS status, feature-mapped-to, hydrants ID, address, situs city, mai, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire Hydrants dataset current as of 2008. Fire hydrants outside the City of Wichita. Primary attributes include hydrant number and ID. Layer is under development by...

  13. 77 FR 9532 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning Unit, EPA Region 8... NAAQS and design values have not exceeded 42 percent of the 2010 NO 2 NAAQS. After considering state and...

  14. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  15. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  16. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-01-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Low-Cost Mitigation Measures Implemented to Improve Air Quality in Nursery and Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Sá

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution mitigation measures are highly important due to the associated health impacts, especially on children, a risk group that spends significant time indoors. Thus, the main goal of the work here reported was the evaluation of mitigation measures implemented in nursery and primary schools to improve air quality. Continuous measurements of CO2, CO, NO2, O3, CH2O, total volatile organic compounds (VOC, PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Total Suspended Particles (TSP and radon, as well as temperature and relative humidity were performed in two campaigns, before and after the implementation of low-cost mitigation measures. Evaluation of those mitigation measures was performed through the comparison of the concentrations measured in both campaigns. Exceedances to the values set by the national legislation and World Health Organization (WHO were found for PM2.5, PM10, CO2 and CH2O during both indoor air quality campaigns. Temperature and relative humidity values were also above the ranges recommended by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. In general, pollutant concentrations measured after the implementation of low-cost mitigation measures were significantly lower, mainly for CO2. However, mitigation measures were not always sufficient to decrease the pollutants’ concentrations till values considered safe to protect human health.

  18. Class III Restoration of Anterior Primary Teeth: In Vitro Retention Comparison of Conventional, Modified and Air-abrasion Treated Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Asl Aminabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Anterior esthetic restoration is challenging in pediatric dentistry, due to limited durability and poor retention of the restoration.This study assessed the effect of air abrasion on tensile failure load of composite class III restorations using different preparation techniques. Materials and methods. 100 extracted human anterior primary teeth were divided, based on the preparation methods, into four groups each consisting of 25 subjects : conventional (A, labial surface bevel (B, conventional + air abrasion (C, and labial surface bevel + air abrasion (D. After restoring cavities, tensile failure load of samples was measured in Newton by Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests using SPSS software. Results. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and C (P = 0.003, groups A and B (P < 0.001, groups A and D (P < 0.001, groups B and C (P = 0.028, groups B and D (P = 0.027, and also groups C and D (P < 0.001. Group D demonstrated the highest mean tensile failure load. Conclusion. Labial surface bevel treated by air abrasion showed significantly more retention of composite restoration.

  19. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Lujan Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the

  20. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Piñol-Moreso, Josep L I; Martin-Vergara, Nuria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Pascual-Palacios, Irene; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Llopis, Estefania Aparicio; Basora-Gallisa, Maria T; Pedret-Llaberia, Roser

    2011-11-11

    There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain). 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant), comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Smoking cessation at 12 months. Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the intervention group than in the control group. Application of a motivational intervention based on structured information about spirometry results

  1. Simulation of the time structure of Extensive Air Showers with CORSIKA initiated by various primary particles at Alborz-I observatory level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Moghaddam, Saba Mortazavi

    2018-05-01

    A detailed simulation of showers with various zenith angles in atmosphere produced by different primary particles including gamma, proton, carbon, and iron at Alborz-I observatory level (35∘43‧N, 51∘20‧E, 1200 m a.s.l= 890 gcm-2), in the energy range 3 × 1013 eV-3 × 1015 eV, has been performed by means of the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code. The aim of this study is to examine the time structure of secondary particles in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by the different primary particles. For each primary particle, the distribution of the mean values of the time delays of secondary particles relative to the first particle hitting the ground level in each EAS, = , and the distribution of their mean standard deviations, in terms of distance from the shower core are obtained. The mean thickness and profile of showers as a function of their energy, primary mass, and zenith angle is described.

  2. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  3. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, S; Ramani, K; Karthi, A Geetha; Sekaran, G

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(2+)) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 degrees C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr(3+) to Cr(6+). The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm(2). The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  5. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarnalatha, S. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramani, K. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthi, A. Geetha [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekaran, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: ganesansekaran@hotmail.com

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 deg. C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr{sup 3+} to Cr{sup 6+}. The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm{sup 2}. The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  6. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sunyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development.We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories via computerized tests (n = 10,112. Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm] was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor and inside the classroom (indoor simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability, superior working memory (three-back detectability, and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error. Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024. Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%. Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely

  7. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer, Jordi; Esnaola, Mikel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Foraster, Maria; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Cirach, Marta; Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andrés; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is a suspected developmental neurotoxicant. Many schools are located in close proximity to busy roads, and traffic air pollution peaks when children are at school. We aimed to assess whether exposure of children in primary school to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with impaired cognitive development. We conducted a prospective study of children (n = 2,715, aged 7 to 10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) exposed to high and low traffic-related air pollution, paired by school socioeconomic index; children were tested four times (i.e., to assess the 12-mo developmental trajectories) via computerized tests (n = 10,112). Chronic traffic air pollution (elemental carbon [EC], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ultrafine particle number [UFP; 10-700 nm]) was measured twice during 1-wk campaigns both in the courtyard (outdoor) and inside the classroom (indoor) simultaneously in each school pair. Cognitive development was assessed with the n-back and the attentional network tests, in particular, working memory (two-back detectability), superior working memory (three-back detectability), and inattentiveness (hit reaction time standard error). Linear mixed effects models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal education, socioeconomic status, and air pollution exposure at home. Children from highly polluted schools had a smaller growth in cognitive development than children from the paired lowly polluted schools, both in crude and adjusted models (e.g., 7.4% [95% CI 5.6%-8.8%] versus 11.5% [95% CI 8.9%-12.5%] improvement in working memory, p = 0.0024). Cogently, children attending schools with higher levels of EC, NO2, and UFP both indoors and outdoors experienced substantially smaller growth in all the cognitive measurements; for example, a change from the first to the fourth quartile in indoor EC reduced the gain in working memory by 13.0% (95% CI 4.2%-23.1%). Residual confounding for social class could not be discarded completely; however

  8. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  9. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  11. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  12. Dissolved air flotation primary clarifier improves performance of biological waste treatment at a latex manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.R.; Kerecz, B.J.; Davis, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. operates a chemical manufacturing facility in Piedmont, SC which generates a high strength COD emulsion wastewater from latex manufacturing. The on-site wastewater treatment facility consisted of flow equalization, activated sludge treatment and gravity clarification. The inability of the biological system to assimilate the high strength emulsion wastwater loadings led to incomplete conversion within the activated sludge process and poor settling waste sludge with turbid final effluent high in COD, BOD and TSS. The facility installed a dissolved air flotation (DAF) clarifier to effectively remove greater than 99 percent of the wastewater emulsion solids ahead of the activated sludge system. An organic coagulant is used for emulsion destabilization instead of iron or aluminum metal coagulants, improving DAF clarifier performance and minimizing operational cost and system complexity. An innovative DAF float solids collection and handling system produces disposal solids concentrations of 50 - 60% total solids resulting in further waste disposal cost savings. By removing more than 99 percent of the emulsion solids with the DAF clarifier ahead of the activated sludge process, the waste-water treatment facility now consistently produces a high quality effluent low in COD, BOD, TSS and turbidity. Wastewater treatment performance improved dramatically, as evident by the facility receiving the Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority`s {open_quotes}Best Pollution Prevention Program{close_quotes} award. In addition, the wastewater treatment facility can now process three times the pre-DAF waste loads.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of the ignition of lean primary reference fuel/air mixtures with temperature inhomogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minhbau

    2013-10-01

    The effects of fuel composition, thermal stratification, and turbulence on the ignition of lean homogeneous primary reference fuel (PRF)/air mixtures under the conditions of constant volume and elevated pressure are investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a new 116-species reduced kinetic mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs were performed in a fixed volume with a two-dimensional isotropic velocity spectrum and temperature fluctuations superimposed on the initial scalar fields with different fuel compositions to elucidate the influence of variations in the initial temperature fluctuation and turbulence intensity on the ignition of three different lean PRF/air mixtures. In general, it was found that the mean heat release rate increases slowly and the overall combustion occurs fast with increasing thermal stratification regardless of the fuel composition under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. In addition, the effect of the fuel composition on the ignition characteristics of PRF/air mixtures was found to vanish with increasing thermal stratification. Chemical explosive mode (CEM), displacement speed, and Damköhler number analyses revealed that the high degree of thermal stratification induces deflagration rather than spontaneous ignition at the reaction fronts, rendering the mean heat release rate more distributed over time subsequent to thermal runaway occurring at the highest temperature regions in the domain. These analyses also revealed that the vanishing of the fuel effect under the high degree of thermal stratification is caused by the nearly identical propagation characteristics of deflagrations of different PRF/air mixtures. It was also found that high intensity and short-timescale turbulence can effectively homogenize mixtures such that the overall ignition is apt to occur by spontaneous ignition. These results suggest that large thermal stratification leads to smooth operation of homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI

  14. Preliminary study of the primary nozzle position of a supersonic air ejector with a constant-area mixing chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracik Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at investigating the primary nozzle position in a proposed supersonic air ejector device. The ejector is primarily made up of a supersonic primary nozzle, which is located in the axis of the ejector, a suction chamber or secondary stream inlet, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. The ejector design allows to translate the primary nozzle in the axis direction and fix it in a chosen distance from the beginning of the mixing chamber and hence influence the secondary mass flow rate. In a limit case, it is possible to set the nozzle to such a position where no secondary flow occurs. If we ignore the case where no secondary flow occurs, five different nozzle distances have been investigated in this paper. Some cases seem to be alike and there are no significant dissimilarities between them. Courses of relative back-pressure ratio are carried out against the entrainment ratio and transition between on-design and off-design regimes is determined. Measurements of the mixed flow based on the standard ISO 5167 are performed by means of orifice plate method. In addition, a comparison between experiments and simulations performed by Ansys Fluent software is presented in order to indicate further improvements to the numerical model.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Conditions in a Primary School with a Green Roof System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Barmparesos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results from a typical school building in Athens, equipped partly with a green roof system (GRS. Environmental monitoring took place in six classrooms located both under the concrete roof and the GRS sectors as well as in the immediate external environment during the warm and cold periods of a school year. Daily measurements of pollutants CO2, TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compound, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were performed in selected classes. Moreover, indoor ambient temperature (T and relative humidity (RH measurements were implemented in order to estimate the absolute humidity (AH and assess the indoor environmental conditions. The results highlight that during summer, the GRS reduces temperature in a classroom on the top floor by about 2.8 °C, in comparison with the respective classroom under the concrete roof and that AH remained relatively stable for both classrooms. Amid winter, a reverse behavior occurs only for temperature. Moreover, air exchange rates (AER were calculated by using the CO2 decay method for all of the classrooms. The results demonstrated insufficient ventilation for all experimental sights. Finally, concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, were found to be relatively decreased, with average values of 0.79, 3.39, and 27.80 μg m−3. Levels of CO2 and TVOCs were elevated during class hours ranging from 469 to 779 ppm and from 6.63 ppm to 13.33 ppm, respectively, but generally within the respective limits of exposure. The examination of the indoor/outdoor (I/O ratio of air pollutants, demonstrated that the outdoor meteorology affects only PM1 and PM2.5, as PM10 and TVOCs are strongly affected by internal sources and the activities of pupils.

  17. MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIETZ, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged locations

  18. MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIETZ,R.N.

    2002-01-01

    The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged

  19. Binding CO2from Air by a Bulky Organometallic Cation Containing Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Chen, Chen; Hong, Dan-Li; He, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Jing-Wen; Ding, Ting; Wang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Bai-Wang

    2018-03-21

    The organometallic cation 1 (Fe(bipy-NH 2 ) 3 2+ , bipy-NH 2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine), which was constructed in situ in solution, can bind CO 2 from air effectively with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:4 (1/CO 2 ), through the formation of "H-bonded CO 2 " species: [CO 2 -OH-CO 2 ] - and [CO 2 -CO 2 -OH] - . These two species, along with the captured individual CO 2 molecules, connected 1 into a novel 3D (three-dimensional) architecture, that was crystal 1·2(OH - )·4(CO 2 ). The adsorption isotherms, recycling investigations, and the heat capacity of 1 have been investigated; the results revealed that the organometallic cation 1 can be recycled at least 10 times for the real-world CO 2 capture applications. The strategies presented here may provide new hints for the development of new alkanolamine-related absorbents or technologies for CO 2 capture and sequestration.

  20. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... techniques, including, but not limited to, measures which (A) Reduce the volume of or eliminate pollutants... exemption for bag leak detection alarm time attributable to SSM from total allowed alarm time. For reasons...

  1. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of primary γ-rays by the characteristics of time-space structure of the cosmic-ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cunfeng; Zhang Xueyao; Wang Yonggang; Xue Liang; Ma Lina; Li Jinyu; Zhang Naijian

    2003-01-01

    The time-space structure of particles for individual air showers induced by primary γ-rays and protons at the observation level is analysed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that air showers induced by the primary γ-rays can be effectively separated from the air showers induced by protons (background) using the combination cuts on the arrival time fluctuation and the lateral distribution width of secondary particles in air showers. This method can be used for reducing the background of hadrons in searching for γ-ray point sources for ARGO experiment cooperated by China and Italy at Yangbajing. The effect of this method on the significance of γ-ray signals is also estimated

  3. Global Intraurban Intake Fractions for Primary Air Pollutants from Vehicles and Other Distributed Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We model intraurban intake fraction (iF) values for distributed ground-level emissions in all 3646 global cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants, encompassing a total population of 2.0 billion. For conserved primary pollutants, population-weighted median, mean, and interquartile range iF values are 26, 39, and 14–52 ppm, respectively, where 1 ppm signifies 1 g inhaled/t emitted. The global mean urban iF reported here is roughly twice as large as previous estimates for cities in the United States and Europe. Intake fractions vary among cities owing to differences in population size, population density, and meteorology. Sorting by size, population-weighted mean iF values are 65, 35, and 15 ppm, respectively, for cities with populations larger than 3, 0.6–3, and 0.1–0.6 million. The 20 worldwide megacities (each >10 million people) have a population-weighted mean iF of 83 ppm. Mean intraurban iF values are greatest in Asia and lowest in land-rich high-income regions. Country-average iF values vary by a factor of 3 among the 10 nations with the largest urban populations. PMID:22332712

  4. Data Bank 28IS(FF) - T-100 International Segment Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This CD presents nonstop operations (segments) as reported by U.S. air carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data fields contain informatio...

  5. Data Bank 28IS(FF) - T-100 International Segment Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This CD presents nonstop operations (segments) as reported by U.S. air carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data fields contain informatio...

  6. Outcome of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Including Cilostazol in Elderly Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from the INTERSTELLAR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Moon, Jeonggeun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kang, Woong Chol; Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel, triple antiplatelet therapy including cilostazol has a mortality benefit in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, whether the mortality benefit persists in elderly patients is not clear. From 2007 to 2014, 1278 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups by age (elderly, respectively) and antiplatelet strategy (triple or dual antiplatelet therapy). We compared the mortality rates between the triple and dual antiplatelet therapy groups. There were 1052 (male, 85%; mean age, 56.3 ± 10.4 years) patients in the young group and 241 (male, 52.7%; mean age, 80.3 ± 4.5 years) patients in the elderly group. In the young and elderly groups, 220 (20.9%) and 28 (12.3%) patients were treated with triple antiplatelet therapy. During a 1-year follow-up period, 80 patients died (4.2% in the young group vs. 15.5% in the elderly group). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that triple antiplatelet therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate in the young group (log-rank, p = 0.005). Although there were more angiographic high-risk patients in the elderly group, similar mortality rates were reported (log-rank, p = 0.803) without increased bleeding rates (1 vs. 3.6% in the elderly group, p = 0.217). Triple antiplatelet therapy might be a better antiplatelet regimen than dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Although this benefit was strong in patients aged elderly patients (aged ≥75 years).

  7. Neurologic Outcome After Resection of Parietal Lobe Including Primary Somatosensory Cortex: Implications of Additional Resection of Posterior Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, June Sic; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative neurologic outcomes after primary somatosensory cortex (S1) resection have not been well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the neurologic deterioration that follows resection of the S1 areas and to assess the risk factors associated with these morbidities. We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with medically intractable epilepsy who underwent resection of the S1 and/or the adjacent cortex. The 48 patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the resected area as seen on postoperative magnetic resonance images: group 1 (resection of S1 only; n = 4), 2 (the posterior parietal cortex [PPC] only; n = 24), 3 (S1 and PPC; n = 10), and 4 (S1 and precentral gyrus; n = 10). After the resection of S1 areas, 19 patients (40%) experienced neurologic worsening, including 6 (13%) with permanent and 13 (27%) with transient deficits. Patients with permanent deficits included 2 with motor dysphasia, 1 with dysesthesia, 2 with equilibrium impairments, and 1 with fine movement disturbance of the hand. The overall and permanent neurologic risks were 25% and 0% in group 1, 17% and 4% in group 2, 80% and 20% in group 3, and 60% and 30% in group 4, respectively. Multivariate analysis determined that the resection of both S1 and PPC was the only significant risk factor for neurologic deficits (P = 0.002). The neurologic risk of the resection of S1 and/or its adjacent cortical areas was 40%. The additional resection of the PPC was significantly associated with the development of postoperative neurologic impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detecting primary precursors of January surface air temperature anomalies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guirong; Ren, Hong-Li; Chen, Haishan; You, Qinglong

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to detect the primary precursors and impact mechanisms for January surface temperature anomaly (JSTA) events in China against the background of global warming, by comparing the causes of two extreme JSTA events occurring in 2008 and 2011 with the common mechanisms inferred from all typical episodes during 1979-2008. The results show that these two extreme events exhibit atmospheric circulation patterns in the mid-high latitudes of Eurasia, with a positive anomaly center over the Ural Mountains and a negative one to the south of Lake Baikal (UMLB), which is a pattern quite similar to that for all the typical events. However, the Eurasian teleconnection patterns in the 2011 event, which are accompanied by a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, are different to those of the typical events and the 2008 event. We further find that a common anomalous signal appearing in early summer over the tropical Indian Ocean may be responsible for the following late-winter Eurasian teleconnections and the associated JSTA events in China. We show that sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the preceding summer over the western Indian Ocean (WIO) are intimately related to the UMLB-like circulation pattern in the following January. Positive WIOSSTAs in early summer tend to induce strong UMLB-like circulation anomalies in January, which may result in anomalously or extremely cold events in China, which can also be successfully reproduced in model experiments. Our results suggest that the WIOSSTAs may be a useful precursor for predicting JSTA events in China.

  9. A conversion method of air kerma from the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations to effective dose for calculating x-ray shielding barriers in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Hedi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation

  10. Policy Assessment for the Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides, External Review Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfur oxides are one of the six major air pollutants for which EPA has issued air quality criteria and established national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) based on those criteria. The Clear Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, exis...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrello, Bruna [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Brazil); Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza de [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez [University of São Paulo (USP), Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Physics Institute of São Carlos (IFSC) (Brazil); Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Ximenes, Valdecir Farias, E-mail: vfximenes@fc.unesp.br [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were −10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and −5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  12. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  13. Construction of a laboratory for the implantation of primary standardization of the magnitude kerma in the air for the X-ray beams used in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, W.L.; Magalhes, L.A.A.M.F.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to diminish the uncertainty in each phase of the metrological chain, and the uncertainty in dosimetry processed at the X-ray beam applied in the mammography, is necessary that the LNMRI/IRD to develop a reference primary standard for the absolute form to the magnitude kerma in the air

  14. Monitoring and Modelling the Trends of Primary and Secondary Air Pollution Precursors: The Case of the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Salem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, processes of different scales have contributed greatly to the pollution and waste load on the environment. More specifically, airborne pollutants associated with chemical processes have contributed greatly on the ecosystem and populations health. In this communication, we review recent activities and trends of primary and secondary air pollutants in the state of Kuwait, a country associated with petroleum, petrochemical, and other industrial pollution. Trends of pollutants and impact on human health have been studied and categorized based on recent literature. More attention was paid to areas known to researchers as either precursor sensitive (i.e., nitrogen oxides (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs or adjacent to upstream- or downstream-related activities. Environmental monitoring and modelling techniques relevant to this study are also reviewed. Two case studies that link recent data with models associated with industrial sectors are also demonstrated, focusing mainly on chemical mass balance (CMB and Gaussian line source modelling. It is concluded that a number of the monitoring stations and regulations placed by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA need up-to-date revisions and better network placement, in agreement with previous findings.

  15. Immunofluorescence Microscopy and mRNA Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) Including Primary Cilia Associated Signaling Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maj Linea; Awan, Aashir; Warzecha, Caroline Becker

    2016-01-01

    onto 16-well glass chambers, and continuing with the general IFM and qPCR anlysis. The techniques are illustrated with results on cellular localization of transcriptional factors and components of the Hedgehog, Wnt, PDGF, and TGFβ signaling pathways to primary cilia in stem cell maintenance...

  16. Mold colonization during use of preservative-treated and untreated air filters, including HEPA filters from hospitals and commercial locations over an 8-year period (1996-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel L; Simmons, Robert B; Crow, Sidney A; Ahearn, Donald G

    2005-07-01

    High efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA; 99.97% efficient at 0.3 microm) filters, filters with ASHRAE particulate arrestance rating of 90-95% at 1 mum (90-95% filters), and lower efficiency cellulosic-polyester filters from air conditioning systems in hospitals and commercial buildings were removed from the systems and examined microscopically for mold colonization. Cellulosic-type filters from systems with water entrainment problems typically were colonized, or became colonized upon incubation in moisture chambers. Species of Acremonium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were most common. With air filters of all types, treatment of filter media with an antimicrobial preservative tended to reduce or delay colonization. Mold colonization of HEPA and 90-95% filters was observed most often on the load surfaces, but two untreated HEPA filters were permeated with fungi, one with Aspergillus flavus, the other with Cladosporium sp. Air filters in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, particularly those with chronic or periodic exposure to moisture, may serve as point sources for indoor molds.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...

  18. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular genetics and diversity of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, V.; Nowoisky, J.; Klose, M.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2007-02-01

    This study explores the applicability of molecular methods for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and total suspended particulates (TSP) have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze). From filter aliquots loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP) were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses. Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m-3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~105 haploid human genomes). Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42) and some from Actinobacteria (10) and Firmicutes (1). The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3) and Basidiomycetes (1), which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2) and moss spores (2), while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist). Over 80% of the 53 bacterial sequences could be matched with about 40% of the 19 T-RF peaks (58 to 494 base pair length) found in the investigated PM2.5 samples. The results demonstrate that the T

  20. Expression of IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR in gallbladder carcinoma. A systematic analysis including primary and corresponding metastatic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornprat, P; Rehak, P; Rüschoff, J; Langner, C

    2006-01-01

    Aims The insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in tumour development and progression. This study was designed to analyse the expression of the IGF‐I receptor (IGF‐IR) and its ligands (IGF‐I, IGF‐II) in gallbladder cancer. Methods IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR immunoreactivity was investigated in 57 gallbladder carcinomas and corresponding lymph node (n  =  11) and hepatic (n  =  7) metastases using a tissue microarray technique and correlated with tumour stage, grade, and patient outcome. Results Cancer tissue allowing a reliable evaluation of IGF‐I, IGF‐II, and IGF‐IR was present in 55 of 57 primary tumours and 17 of 18 metastases. IGF‐I and IGF‐II immunoreactivity was seen in 25 and 14 of the 55 primary tumours, in addition to six and three of the 17 metastases, respectively. No associations with tumour stage, grade, or prognosis were detected. IGF‐IR was expressed in 52 of 55 primary tumours and all 17 metastases. IGF‐IR staining intensity decreased with tumour cell dedifferentiation. Moreover, IGF‐IR expression in less than 50% of cancer cells was an independent marker of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis (risk ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 11.2; p  =  0.01). Conclusions The expression of IGF‐IR and its ligands provides evidence for the existence of an auto/paracrine loop of tumour cell stimulation in gallbladder cancer and makes this type of cancer a candidate for therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the IGF pathway. The recognition of IGF‐IR as a new independent prognostic biomarker may help to identify patients who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. PMID:16443739

  1. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  3. Contribution to the study of the distribution of air within the lung using xenon 133 during primary bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, P.; Vigne, J.; Feliciano, J.M.; Kleisbauer, J.P.; Poirier, R.; Lins, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    An Anger gamma-camera coupled with a two route integrator to record graphs giving the activity of each lung, and a computer with two analog-digital converters for storage of data on paper and magnetic tape, were used. 133 Xe is inhaled in a closed circuit, then a radioactive bolus is given intravenously and expired. The present programme includes a count for each lung, the percentage of ventilation between the right and left lung, the percentage of aerial distribution of the 9 different areas for each lung compared with the whole of the side under consideration, restoration of the distribution curves on inspiration and wash-out on expiration for each of these zones. Study of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma is made. The results are analyzed, typical cases are given, and the future prospects of the method, which may suggest a physical model reproducing the respiratory apparatus of a given subject, are discussed [fr

  4. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  5. GREX/COVER-PLASTEX: an experiment to analyze the space-time structure of extensive air showers produced by primary cosmic rays of 1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Ambrosio, M.; Beaman, J.; Barbarino, G.C.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Colesanti, L.; Dali, G.; Guarino, F.; Lauro, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Mangano, A.; Popova, L.; Watson, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    A novel experimental installation is described in which the traditional method of detecting extensive air showers with scintillation counters is significantly extended by the addition of limited streamer tube hodoscopes (LST) and layers of resistive plate counters (RPC). Runs with the scintillator array, GREX, at Haverah Park have demonstrated the power of the LST hodoscopes to determine the direction of arrival of muons, electrons and photons in air showers while the RPC system permits the relative arrival time of individual particles and the temporal thickness and structure of the shower disc to be obtained. The potential of these technical advances for studying the longitudinal profile of air showers produced by primaries of about 1000 TeV is briefly discussed. First measurements of thickness and time profile of EAS front are also reported. (orig.)

  6. PM2.5 chemical composition at a rural background site in Central Europe, including correlation and air mass back trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Karban, Jindřich; Chalupníčková, Eva; Havránek, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    of fresh, local aerosol and aged, long-range transport aerosol. The influences of different air masses were also investigated. The lowest concentrations of PM2.5 were recorded under the influence of marine air masses from the NW, which were also marked by increased concentrations of marine aerosol. In contrast, the highest concentrations of PM2.5 and most major chemical components were measured during periods when continental easterly air masses were dominant.

  7. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cutoff and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method was proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a miniarray. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19 eV at large core distances

  8. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  9. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  10. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  11. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  12. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  13. Eco-efficient production of spring barley in a changed climate: A Life Cycle Assessment including primary data from future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    and including earlier sowing and cultivar selection as measures of adaptation to a changed climate. A baseline scenario describing the current spring barley cultivation in Denmark was defined, and the expected main deviations were identified (differences in pesticide treatment index, modifications in nitrate...... leaching and change in crop yield). The main input data originate from experiments, where spring barley cultivars were cultivated in a climate phytotron under controlled and manipulated treatments. Effects of changed climate on both crop productivity and crop quality were represented, as well as impacts......The paper has two main objectives: (i) to assess the eco-efficiency of spring barley cultivation for malting in Denmark in a future changed climate (700 ppm [CO2] and +5 °C) through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (ii) to compare alternative future cultivation scenarios, both excluding...

  14. Determination of sulfur forms in wine including free and total sulfur dioxide based on molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide in the air-acetylene flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe; Okruss, Michael; Patz, Claus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the determination of sulfur forms in wine, i.e., free SO(2), total SO(2), bound SO(2), total S, and sulfate, is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the carbon monosulfide (CS) molecular absorption produced in a conventional air-acetylene flame using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry. Individual sulfur forms can be distinguished because of the different sensitivities of the corresponding CS molecular absorption. The sensitivity of free SO(2) is about three times higher than the value for bound SO(2) and sulfate. The method makes use of procedures similar to those used in classic reference methods. Its performance is verified by analyzing six wine samples. Relative standard deviations are between 5 and 13% for free SO(2) and between 1 and 3% for total SO(2). For the validation of the accuracy of the new method, the results are compared with those of reference methods. The agreement of the values for total SO(2) with values of the classic method is satisfactory: five out of six samples show deviations less than 16%. Due to the instability of free SO(2) in wine and the known problems of the used reference method, serious deviations of the free SO(2) results are found for three samples. The evaluation of the limits of detection focuses on the value for free SO(2), which is the sulfur form having by far the lowest concentration in wine. Here, the achievable limit of detection is 1.8 mg L(-1). [figure: see text] Detection of non-metal elements using continuum source flame absorption spectrometry.

  15. Epigenetics targeted protein-vorinostat nanomedicine inducing apoptosis in heterogeneous population of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells including refractory and relapsed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Kavalakatt, Anu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Vasanthakumari, Divya Rani Vikraman Nair; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Pavithran, Keechilat; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetics play a key role in the onset and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein we report in silico modelling based development of a novel, protein-vorinostat nanomedicine exhibiting selective and superior anti-leukemic activity against heterogeneous population of AML patient samples (n=9), including refractory and relapsed cases, and three representative cell lines expressing CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cell phenotype (KG-1a), promyelocytic phenotype (HL-60) and FLT3-ITD mutation (MV4-11). Nano-vorinostat having ~100nm size exhibited enhanced cellular uptake rendering significantly lower IC50 in AML cell lines and patient samples, and induced enhanced HDAC inhibition, oxidative injury, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis compared to free vorinostat. Most importantly, nanomedicine showed exceptional single-agent activity against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. Collectively, this epigenetics targeted nanomedicine appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British (FAB) classes of AML. Through the use of a protein-vorinostat agent, exceptional single-agent activity was demonstrated against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. The studied epigenetics targeted nanomedicine approach is a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British classes of acute myeloid leukemia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A conversion method of air-kerma from the primary, scatter and leakage radiations to ambient dose equivalent for calculating the mamography x-ray shielding barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, H.

    2005-01-01

    The primary, scatter, and leakage doses(in Gy), which constitute the data base for calculating shielding requirements for x-ray facilities, are often converted to the equivalent dose (in sievert) by using a constant of conversion of 1.145Sv/Gy. This constant is used for diagnostic radiology as well as for mammography spectra, and is derived by considering an exposure of 1 R corresponds to an air kerma of 8.73 m Gy, which renders by tradition an equivalent dose of 10 mSv. However, this conversion does not take into account the energy dependence of the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the equivalent dose as described in ICRU report. Moreover, current radiation protection standards propose the use of the quantity ambient dose equivalent in order to qualify the efficiently of given radiation shielding. Therefore, in this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation ambient dose equivalent from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to ambient dose equivalent for mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) laboratories. The calculation has been performed by the means of two methods which show a maximum deviation less than 10%2 for the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations. The results show that the conversion coefficients vary from 0.242 Sv/ Gy to 0.692 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.436 Sv/Gy for the primary and the scatter radiations, and form 0.156 Sv/Gy to 1.329 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.98 Sv/Gy for the leakage radiation. Simpkin et al. using an empirical approach propose a conversion value of 0.50 Sv/Gy for the mammography x-ray spectra. This value approximately coincides with the average conversion value of 0.436 Sv/Gy obtained in this work for

  17. Association between PM2.5 and primary care visits due to asthma attack in Japan: relation to Beijing's air pollution episode in January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Yoda, Yoshiko; Oka, Katsumi; Kurosaka, Fumitake; Shimizu, Shigeta; Takahashi, Hironobu; Nakatani, Yuji; Nishikawa, Jittoku; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Mizumori, Yasuyuki; Mogami, Akira; Yamada, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuharu

    2014-03-01

    In January 2013, extremely high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) were observed around Beijing, China. In Japan, the health effects of transboundary air pollution have been a matter of concern. We examined the association between the levels of outdoor PM2.5 and other air pollutants with primary care visits (PCVs) at night due to asthma attack in Himeji City, western Japan. A case-crossover study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Himeji City, Japan, involving 112 subjects aged 0-80 years who visited the clinic due to an asthma attack between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. during the period January-March, 2013. Daily concentrations of particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and some meteorological elements were measured, and a conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of PCVs per unit increment in air pollutants or meteorological elements. Of the 112 subjects, 76 (68 %) were aged asthma attack at night. A positive relation between ozone and PCVs due to asthma attack was detected. The OR per 10 ppb increment in daily mean ozone the day before the visit was 2.31 (95 % confidence interval 1.16-4.61). These findings do not support an association between daily mean concentration of PM2.5 and PCVs at night. However, we did find evidence suggesting that ozone is associated with PCVs.

  18. Populus GT43 family members group into distinct sets required for primary and secondary wall xylan biosynthesis and include useful promoters for wood modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Christine; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Naumann, Marcel; Duncranz, Mathilda Lönnäs; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gorzsás, András; Endo, Satoshi; Ezcurra, Ines; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    The plant GT43 protein family includes xylosyltransferases that are known to be required for xylan backbone biosynthesis, but have incompletely understood specificities. RT-qPCR and histochemical (GUS) analyses of expression patterns of GT43 members in hybrid aspen, reported here, revealed that three clades of the family have markedly differing specificity towards secondary wall-forming cells (wood and extraxylary fibres). Intriguingly, GT43A and B genes (corresponding to the Arabidopsis IRX9 clade) showed higher specificity for secondary-walled cells than GT43C and D genes (IRX14 clade), although both IRX9 and IRX14 are required for xylosyltransferase activity. The remaining genes, GT43E, F and G (IRX9-L clade), showed broad expression patterns. Transient transactivation analyses of GT43A and B reporters demonstrated that they are activated by PtxtMYB021 and PNAC085 (master secondary wall switches), mediated in PtxtMYB021 activation by an AC element. The high observed secondary cell wall specificity of GT43B expression prompted tests of the efficiency of its promoter (pGT43B), relative to the CaMV 35S (35S) promoter, for overexpressing a xylan acetyl esterase (CE5) or downregulating REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) family genes and thus engineering wood acetylation. CE5 expression was weaker when driven by pGT43B, but it reduced wood acetyl content substantially more efficiently than the 35S promoter. RNAi silencing of the RWA family, which was ineffective using 35S, was achieved when using GT43B promoter. These results show the utility of the GT43B promoter for genetically engineering properties of wood and fibres. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  20. The cosmic ray primary composition between $10^{15}$ and $10^{16}$ ev from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bergamasco, L; Bernardini, P; Bertaina, M; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiavassa, A; Choudhary, B C; Cini, G; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Di Sciascio, G; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fulgione, W; Fusco, P; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iacovacci, M; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mannocchi, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Morello, C; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Navarra, G; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Saavedra, O; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Stamerra, A; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Trinchero, G C; Vakili, M; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2003.10.004

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10/sup 15/ and 10/sup 16/ eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10/sup 5/ m/sup 2/ collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m/sup 2/ effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (N/sub e/) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (N /sub mu /) recorded by MACRO, The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees . The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual N/sub mu /-N/sub e/ studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming hea...

  1. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  2. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  3. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, C.; Mejia, G.R.; Yoshii, H.; Toyoda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 10 16 eV to 10 19 eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  4. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  5. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, N.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8×10 17 eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis of muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10 18 eV is in progress.

  6. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  7. Evaluation of Wall Correction Factor of INER's Air-Kerma Primary Standard Chamber and Dose Variation by Source Displacement for HDR 192Ir Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the wall effect of the self-made spherical graphite-walled cavity chamber with the Monte Carlo method for establishing the air-kerma primary standard of high-dose-rate (HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan. The Monte Carlo method established in this paper was also employed to respectively simulate wall correction factors of the 192Ir air-kerma standard chambers used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK for comparisons and verification. The chamber wall correction calculation results will be incorporated into INER's HDR 192Ir primary standard in the future. For the brachytherapy treatment in the esophagus or in the bronchi, the position of the isotope may have displacement in the cavity. Thus the delivered dose would differ from the prescribed dose in the treatment plan. We also tried assessing dose distribution due to the position displacement of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source in a phantom with a central cavity by the Monte Carlo method. The calculated results could offer a clinical reference for the brachytherapy within the human organs with cavity.

  8. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  9. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine Corps and allied air forces. Creech AFB is also the primary training site for the United States Air...Forces, Air National Guard, U.S. Air Force Reserve, Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and allied air forces. They are led by a Blue Forces commander who...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxov...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data affected by exceptional events, including natural events, are made according to the... concentration values fall, using the ranking and selection method specified in section 5 of this appendix... right being truncated with no further rounding. 3. Comparisons With the 1-Hour Primary SO2 NAAQS (a) The...

  12. [Primary documentation quality for paper-assisted digital mission data documentation. Initial results from the air rescue service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Hauke, J; Schlechtriemen, T; Renner, D; Lampl, L

    2009-01-01

    With the assistance of digital pen and paper technology in the field of prehospital data reporting, it seems to be possible to fulfill the requirements of "documentation" as well as the requirements of "quality management". The aim of this study was to determine the "primary documentation quality" (PDQ) of a data reporting system based on digital pen and paper technology (so-called DINO) within a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) over a 6-month period. The PDQ is defined as the proportion of prehospital documented data, which is primarily recorded correctly by the data reporting system. For the national uniform core dataset (so-called MIND2) the PDQ was 96.7%, for "checkbox" and "numeric data fields" the PDQ was 99.8% and 93.6%, respectively and for "vital data" the PDQ was 96.7% [heart rate (HF), measurement of blood pressure] and 84.1% [peripheral oxygen saturation (S(p)O2), end tidal carbon dioxide concentration (etCO2), oxygen administration (O2)]. For "measurements" the PDQ was 96.9% (time stamps) and 86.9% (time frames), for "drugs" the PDQ was 43.6% (drug name) and 69.8% (drug dosage) and for"placement of infusion" 42% (infusion name) and 85.3% (infusion time), respectively. The average time for the "verification process" after mission completion was 1.5+/-0.4 min/mission. The "primary documentation quality" of prehospital mission data reporting with the assistance of a digital pen and paper based documentation system (DINO) has been shown to completely fulfill the requirements of rapid and safe data documentation in actual missions, even at this early stage of development.

  13. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  14. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  15. Exposure to air pollution and meteorological factors associated with children's primary care visits at night due to asthma attack: case-crossover design for 3-year pooled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Yoda, Yoshiko; Oka, Katsumi; Kurosaka, Fumitake; Shimizu, Shigeta; Takahashi, Hironobu; Nakatani, Yuji; Nishikawa, Jittoku; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Mizumori, Yasuyuki; Mogami, Akira; Yamada, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuharu

    2015-05-03

    We examined the association of outdoor air pollution and meteorological parameters with primary care visits (PCVs) at night due to asthma attack. A case-crossover study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Himeji City, Japan. Participants were 1447 children aged 0-14 years who visited the clinic with an asthma attack from April 2010 until March 2013. Daily concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological parameters were measured. PCVs at night due to asthma attack. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate ORs of PCVs per unit increment of air pollutants or meteorological parameters (the per-unit increments of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM₂.₅) and ozone were 10 μg/m(3) and 10 ppb, respectively). Analyses took into consideration the effects of seasonality. We noted an association between PCVs and daily ozone levels on the day before a PCV (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.35; p=0.04), as well as between PCVs and 3-day mean ozone levels before a PCV (OR=1.29; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46; p=0.04), from April until June. We also observed an association between PCVs and daily PM₂.₅ levels on the day before a PCV from December until March (OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33; p=0.05). Meteorological parameters, such as hours of sunshine from September until November, atmospheric pressure from April until June, and temperature from April until August, were also found to be associated with PCVs. The findings in the present study supported an association between ozone and PCVs and suggest that certain meteorological items may be associated with PCVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO, made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA. Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species.

    At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m−3 and 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer

  17. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  18. The response of guinea pig primary utricular and saccular irregular neurons to bone-conducted vibration (BCV) and air-conducted sound (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S; Vulovic, Vedran; Burgess, Ann M; Sokolic, Ljiljana; Goonetilleke, Samanthi C

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to characterize the response of mammalian primary otolithic neurons to sound and vibration by measuring the resting discharge rates, thresholds for increases in firing rate and supra-threshold sensitivity functions of guinea pig single primary utricular and saccular afferents. Neurons with irregular resting discharge were activated in response to bone conducted vibration (BCV) and air conducted sound (ACS) for frequencies between 100 Hz and 3000 Hz. The location of neurons was verified by labelling with neurobiotin. Many afferents from both maculae have very low or zero resting discharge, with saccular afferents having on average, higher resting rates than utricular afferents. Most irregular utricular and saccular afferents can be evoked by both BCV and ACS. For BCV stimulation: utricular and saccular neurons show similar low thresholds for increased firing rate (around 0.02 g on average) for frequencies from 100 Hz to 750 Hz. There is a steep increase in rate change threshold for BCV frequencies above 750 Hz. The suprathreshold sensitivity functions for BCV were similar for both utricular and saccular neurons, with, at low frequencies, very steep increases in firing rate as intensity increased. For ACS stimulation: utricular and saccular neurons can be activated by high intensity stimuli for frequencies from 250 Hz to 3000 Hz with similar flattened U-shaped tuning curves with lowest thresholds for frequencies around 1000-2000 Hz. The average ACS thresholds for saccular afferents across these frequencies is about 15-20 dB lower than for utricular neurons. The suprathreshold sensitivity functions for ACS were similar for both utricular and saccular neurons. Both utricular and saccular afferents showed phase-locking to BCV and ACS, extending up to frequencies of at least around 1500 Hz for BCV and 3000 Hz for ACS. Phase-locking at low frequencies (e.g. 100 Hz) imposes a limit on the neural firing rate evoked by the stimulus since the

  19. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  20. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Benton, Nathanael [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Burns, Patrick [Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: High-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating, load/unload, or constant-speed compressor; and Compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  1. Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, V. R.; Nowoisky, J. F.; Klose, M.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2007-12-01

    This study explores the applicability of DNA analyses for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and total suspended particulates (TSP) have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze). From filter segments loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP) were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses. Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high-alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m-3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~108 haploid bacterial genomes or ~105 haploid human genomes, respectively). Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42) and some from Actinobacteria (10) and Firmicutes (1). The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3) and Basidiomycota (1), which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2) and moss spores (2), while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist). Over 80% of the 53 bacterial sequences could be matched to one of the 19 T-RF peaks found in the PM2.5 samples, but only 40% of the T-RF peaks

  2. Short-Term Associations between Air Pollution Concentrations and Respiratory Health-Comparing Primary Health Care Visits, Hospital Admissions, and Emergency Department Visits in a Multi-Municipality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Tahir; Malmqvist, Ebba; Stroh, Emilie; Oudin Åström, Daniel; Jakobsson, Kristina; Oudin, Anna

    2017-05-31

    Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health have traditionally been investigated with data on inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, and mortality. In this study, we aim to describe the total acute effects of air pollution on health care use for respiratory symptoms (ICD10-J00-J99). This will be done by investigating primary health care (PHC) visits, inpatient admissions, and emergency room visits together in five municipalities in southern Sweden, using a case-crossover design. Between 2005 and 2010, there were 81,019 visits to primary health care, 38,217 emergency room visits, and 25,271 inpatient admissions for respiratory symptoms in the study area. There was a 1.85% increase (95% CI: 0.52 to 3.20) in the number of primary health care visits associated with a 10 µg/m³ increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) levels in Malmö, but not in the other municipalities. Air pollution levels were generally not associated with emergency room visits or inpatient admissions, with one exception (in Helsingborg there was a 2.52% increase in emergency room visits for respiratory symptoms associated with a 10 µg/m³ increase in PM 10 ). In conclusion, the results give weak support for short-term effects of air pollution on health care use associated with respiratory health symptoms in the study area.

  3. Proposed specification for a primary standard of air kerma for sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Angliss, R; Nutbrown, R

    2001-01-01

    The three cavity chambers, the mean response of which constitutes the primary standard of air kerma for sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-rays in the United Kingdom, have been in continuous, almost daily, use at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) since 1956. These chambers were initially designed for use with 2 MV X-rays at therapy level air kerma rates. However since 1978 they have also been used for protection level air kerma rates, initially, with X-rays generated at 1 MV and 2 MV and more recently with sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-rays. They have been used for therapy level air kerma calibrations with sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-rays since 1997 following the demise of the NPL 2 MV Van de Graaff generator. This report describes the proposals for a new primary standard and the methods that will be used to give a better performance than the present standard when used with air kerma rates from as high as 1 Gy min sup - sup 1 down to 10 mGy hr sup - sup 1. The design will also seek to...

  4. Dynamics of dissolved oxygen isotopic ratios: a transient model to quantify primary production, community respiration, and air-water exchange in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteswaran, Jason J; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Schiff, Sherry L

    2007-08-01

    Dissolved O(2) is an important aquatic ecosystem health indicator. Metabolic and gas exchange (G) rates, which control O(2) concentration, are affected by nutrient loading and other environmental factors. Traditionally, aquatic metabolism has been reported as primary production:community respiration (P:R) ratios using diel measurements and interpretations of dissolved O(2) and/or CO(2) concentrations, and recently using stable isotopes (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O) and steady state assumptions. Aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers and ponds, are not at steady state and exhibit diel changes, so steady state approaches are often inappropriate. A dynamic O(2) stable isotope model (photosynthesis-respiration-gas exchange; PoRGy) is presented here, requiring a minimum of parameters to quantify daily averaged P, R, and G rates under transient field conditions. Unlike steady state approaches, PoRGy can address scenarios with 100% O(2) saturation but with delta(18)O-O(2) values that are not at air equilibrium. PoRGy successfully accounts for isotopic G when applied to an oxygen isotope equilibration laboratory experiment. PoRGy model results closely matched the diel O(2) and delta(18)O-O(2) data from three field sites with different P:R:G ratios and various P, R and G rates. PoRGy provides a new research tool to assess ecosystem health and to pose environmental impact-driven questions. Using daily averaged rates was successful and thus they can be used to compare ecosystems across seasons and landscapes.

  5. Safety profile of modafinil across a range of prescribing indications, including off-label use, in a primary care setting in England: results of a modified prescription-event monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Miranda; Wilton, Lynda; Shakir, Saad

    2013-04-01

    Modafinil (Provigil) was marketed in the UK in 1998 to promote wakefulness in the treatment of narcolepsy. In April 2004, the licence was extended to include chronic pathological conditions; 2 years later, the prescription of modafinil was restricted to patients with shift work sleep disorder, narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Following a recent review of the safety data, the licence has been further restricted to only treat patients with narcolepsy. The review highlighted the degree of off-label usage of modafinil, including patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine the safety profile of modafinil in real-world clinical usage and across a range of prescribing indications, including multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted using the observational cohort technique of Modified Prescription-Event Monitoring. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians from July 2004 to August 2005. Patient demographics and information on prescribing behaviour were included in the questionnaire sent to the prescribing general practitioner (GP) 6 months after the initial prescription for each patient. The questionnaire sought data on any events that patient may have experienced during that time, reasons for stopping treatment with modafinil, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), potential interaction with contraceptives, and pregnancies. Incidence densities (IDs) were calculated for all events, and stratified according to indication and dose. Specific events were evaluated by requesting further information. Of the 4,023 questionnaires sent to GPs, 2,416 were returned (response rate 60.1 %). Of these, only those patients issued modafinil after April 2004 (with the associated broadening of the indications for treatment) were included in the study, resulting in a final cohort of 1,096 patients: 497 (45.3 %) male, median age of 52 years (interquartile range [IQR] 41-63), and 599 (54.7

  6. Air quality assessment in Salim Slam Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Hashisho, Z.; Saikaly, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Vehicle emissions constitute a serious occupational environmental hazard particularly in confined spaces such as tunnels and underground parking garages. these emissions at elevated concentrations, can cause adverse health effects, which range from nausea and eye irritation to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and even death. This paper presents an environmental air quality assessment in a tunnel located in a highly congested urban area. For this purpose, air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of primary air pollutants, priority metals, and volatile organic carbons. Air quality modeling was conducted to simulate variations of pollutant concentrations in the tunnel under worst case scenarios including traffic congestion and no air ventilation. Field measurements and mathematical simulation results were used to develop a strategy for proper air quality management in tunnels

  7. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  8. Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Després

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the applicability of DNA analyses for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and total suspended particulates (TSP have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze.

    From filter segments loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses.

    Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high-alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m−3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~108 haploid bacterial genomes or ~105 haploid human genomes, respectively.

    Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42 and some from Actinobacteria (10 and Firmicutes (1. The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3 and Basidiomycota (1, which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2 and moss spores (2, while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist.

  9. Triple malignancy in a single patient including a cervical carcinoma, a basal cell carcinoma of the skin and a neuroendocrine carcinoma from an unknown primary site: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of multiple primary cancers is rare. Only a few cases and patient reviews of an association of triple malignancy have been reported. Case presentation We report here a case of a 78-year-old Moroccan woman presenting initially with a synchronous double malignancy, the first in her cervix and the second in her skin. Our patient was treated with radiation therapy for both tumors and remained in good control for 17 years, when she developed a metastatic disease from a neuroendocrine carcinoma of an unknown primary site. Conclusions Although the association of multiple primary cancers can be considered a rare occurrence, improving survival in cancer patients has made this situation more frequent.

  10. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  11. Primary and oxidative DNA damage in salivary leukocytes as a tool for the evaluation of air pollution early biological effects in children: current status of the MAPEC (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Vannini

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions - The main objective of the MAPEC study is to evaluate the associations in children between air pollutants and early biological effects, and to propose a model for estimating the global genotoxic risk.

  12. Soils, County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu symbol and ID, state symbol, name, category, percolation rate and passing percentage., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils dataset current as of 2008. County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu...

  13. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  14. 77 FR 63827 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards... health-based) air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ). DATES: Nominations should be... ``criteria'' air pollutants, including oxides of nitrogen. As a Federal Advisory Committee, the CASAC...

  15. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber; Estabelecimento de um sistema padrao primario para raios-X de energias baixas com uma camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-08-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  16. Hazardous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the requirements of Title 3 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The following topics are included: listed air toxics; sources covered by the program; standards for regulation of air toxics; area source program; air toxics permit program; prevention of accidental releases; and duties of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission

  17. High-Efficiency Co/CoxSy@S,N-Codoped Porous Carbon Electrocatalysts Fabricated from Controllably Grown Sulfur- and Nitrogen-Including Cobalt-Based MOFs for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwen; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Guozhong; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhang, Haimin

    2017-10-04

    Developing bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts with superior catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen revolution reaction (OER) is crucial to their practical energy storage and conversion applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of Co/Co x S y @S,N-codoped porous carbon structures with various morphologies, specific surface areas, and pore structures, derived from controllably grown Co-based metal-organic frameworks with S- and N-containing organic ligands (thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate, Tdc; and 4,4'-bipyridine, bpy) utilizing solvent effect (e.g., water and methanol) under room temperature and hydrothermal conditions. The results demonstrate that Co/Co x S y @S,N-codoped carbon fibers fabricated at a pyrolytic temperature of 800 °C (Co/Co x S y @SNCF-800) from Co-MOFs fibers fabricated in methanol under hydrothermal conditions as electrocatalysts exhibit superior bifunctional ORR and OER activities in alkaline media, endowing them as air cathodic catalysts in rechargeable zinc-air batteries with high power density and good durability.

  18. Primary production of phytoplankton of Chascomus Pond (Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)). Critical evaluation of photosynthesis values obtained by O2 and 14 C methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.C.; Arenas, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The primary production of the phytoplankton of Chascomus pound was estimated with the dissolved oxygen and the assimilation of 14 CO 2 techniques, the laboratory, at light saturation. The bicarbonate consumptions by the phytoplankton was corrected by the excretion values, anaplerotic uptake of CO 2 by heterotrophic bacteria and for adsorption on suspended material. Gross production primary values fluctuated within 619,5 and 168,9 mg C.m -3 . h -1 , the net primary production within 564,8 (summer) and 93,8 (winter) mg C.m -3 . h -1 . Steemann Nielsen's technique subestimated the primary production in an average of the 21%; during the months of December, January and February those differences were only of the 8,6 and 1% respectively, implying that carrying out the respective corrections, both methods equalize themselves. (author)

  19. Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Merchant

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W, the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio. Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot lines. These coverages are maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include Parcel IDS (Control, Key, and PIN), platted lot and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2008. Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot...

  1. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewings, J.

    2001-10-01

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  2. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  3. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable antennas and radomes, temporary shelters, pneumatic muscles and actuators, inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags...

  4. Discussion in primary ecological environmental problems and relevant countermeasures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of sufficient statistical data, the primary ecological environmental problems, including water/soil loss and dissertation, water resource shortage and water pollution, deterioration of air quality and air pollution, despoilation of biodiversity, and environmental pollution, are listed in this paper. In addition, the causes of these problems are analyzed. Finally, relevant strategies and measures for environmental protection are brought forward. (authors)

  5. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  6. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...

  7. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    While air pollution control devices and programs are the primary method of reducing emissions, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies, including vegetation preservation and planting, building design and development, installing roadside and near-source structures, and modifying surrounding terrain features.

  8. A Linear Regression Model Identifying the Primary Factors Contributing to Maintenance Man Hours for the C-17 Globemaster III in the Air National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    BRAKE , MULTIPLE DISK 23A00 ENGINE, BASIC (F117-PW) 42BA0 BATTERY, STORAGE (MXK-860/A24A-55) 57GC0 BATTERY UNIT, POWER SUPPLY - IRU 57KC0 DISPLAY UNIT... Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Logistics James M. Nasman, BBA, MS Major, DCANG...territories. The primary mission of these units is to train during peacetime for both State and Federal missions. The Guard is a unique animal in that

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  10. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Péter; Fernando Holguin; Lisa G. Wood; Jane E. Clougherty; Daniel Raederstorff; Magda Antal; Peter Weber; Manfred Eggersdorfer

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors?including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)?as well as l...

  11. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  12. Design Fabrication And Partial-Analysis Of A 2-Wheeler Prototype That Runs On Compressed Air

    OpenAIRE

    P Vinay; Srivatsa G R; Venkatesh Datta; Dinesh Kumar A; Ramesha N; Dr. H K Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective of the project is to create a prototype of a purely air powered motorcycle by retrofitting its internal combustion engine to run on compressed air. Firstly the conventional spark plug was replaced with a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve was initially actuated using a reed switch and magnet duo but then later replaced with an optical crank position sensor circuit due to reasons that include lack of control over the amount of air injected during each stroke and ...

  13. Procedures and findings of examination of air contamination by alpha-active plutonium aerosols: primary and secondary products of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, Ya.I.; Petrenko, G.I.; Chumichyev, V.B.; Valetova, N.K.; Shkuro, V.N.; Polukhina, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric contamination pattern by Pu-radionuclides over a 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1987-1988 has been examined. Aerosol samples were analyzed for isotopic composition by using gamma- and alpha-spectrometric, and radiochemical methods. Preliminary analysis of isotopic and fractional composition of aerosols carried out earlier indicated that over the first few months after the Chernobyl accident the relative contribution of 238,239,240 Pu to air contamination was lowered as compared with beta-active products. At present, however, alpha-active plutonium isotopes became the dominant radioactive contaminants of the atmosphere and the concentrations of 238,239,240 Pu inhaled fractions turned out to be lower than the limiting permissible values based on the USSR radiation safety standards for radioactive contamination of the atmosphere for the limited part of population exposed to radionuclides. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know even moderate levels of atmospheric contamination by Pu-radionuclides, since their long impacts on the personnel operating in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP and population residing in the adjavent regions have not been studied properly. So, the risks for population health of such impacts cannot be generally excluded from consideration. (author) 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  14. Implementation of the Brazilian primary standard for x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.G.P.; Almeida, C.E.V. de

    2002-01-01

    In the field of ionizing radiation metrology, a primary standard of a given physical quantity is essentially an experimental set-up which allows one to attribute a numerical value to a particular sample of that quantity in terms of a unit given by an abstract definition. The absolute measurement of the radiation quantity air kerma, is performed with a free-air ionization chamber. A great deal of research to determine the absolute measurement resulted in different designs for primary standard free-air ionization chambers such as cilindrics or plane parallel chambers. The implementation of primary standard dosimetry with free-air ionization chambers is limited to the National Metrology Institutes - NMIs. Since 1975, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures - BIPM has been conducting comparisons of NMIs primary free-air standard chambers in the medium energy x-rays range. These comparisons are carried out indirectly through the calibration at both the BIPM and at the NMI of one or more transfer ionization chambers at a series of four reference radiation qualities. The scientific work programme of the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology - LNMRI of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD, which belongs to the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN, includes the establishment of a primary standard for x-rays of medium energy x-ray range. This activity is justified by the demand to calibrate periodically Brazilian network of the secondary standards without losing quality of the measurement. The LNMRI decided to implement four reference radiation qualities establishing the use of a transfer chamber calibrated at BIPM. The LNMRI decided to implement the primary standard dosimetry using a free-air ionization chamber with variable volume, made by Victoreen, model 480. Parameters related to the measurement of the quantity air kerma were evaluated, such as: air absorption, scattering inside the ionization chamber, saturation, beam

  15. Facile Synthesis of Defect-Rich and S/N Co-Doped Graphene-Like Carbon Nanosheets as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Primary and All-Solid-State Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Huang; Zhu, Jiawei; Hu, Pei; Hang, Chao; Yang, Jinlong; Peng, Tao; Mu, Shichun; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-07-26

    Developing facile and low-cost porous graphene-based catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains an important matter for fuel cells. Here, a defect-enriched and dual heteroatom (S and N) doped hierarchically porous graphene-like carbon nanomaterial (D-S/N-GLC) was prepared by a simple and scalable strategy, and exhibits an outperformed ORR activity and stability as compared to commercial Pt/C catalyst in an alkaline condition (its half-wave potential is nearly 24 mV more positive than Pt/C). The excellent ORR performance of the catalyst can be attributed to the synergistic effect, which integrates the novel graphene-like architectures, 3D hierarchically porous structure, superhigh surface area, high content of active dopants, and abundant defective sites in D-S/N-GLC. As a result, the developed catalysts are used as the air electrode for primary and all-solid-state Zn-air batteries. The primary batteries demonstrate a higher peak power density of 252 mW cm -2 and high voltage of 1.32 and 1.24 V at discharge current densities of 5 and 20 mA cm -2 , respectively. Remarkably, the all-solid-state battery also exhibits a high peak power density of 81 mW cm -2 with good discharge performance. Moreover, such catalyst possesses a comparable ORR activity and higher stability than Pt/C in acidic condition. The present work not only provides a facile but cost-efficient strategy toward preparation of graphene-based materials, but also inspires an idea for promoting the electrocatalytic activity of carbon-based materials.

  16. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  17. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  18. Project Earth, A Curriculum Guide, Kindergarten-Primary-Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.

    This conservation curriculum guide contains units on the air, water, soil, plants, and animals. The guide is organized by grade levels--kindergarten, primary, intermediate. Objectives and concepts are listed and suggested activities are complete with a statement of procedure and necessary materials. A resource appendix includes books, films, and…

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Primary NAAQS REVIEW: Integrated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NOx Integrated Review Plan is the first document generated as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process. The Plan presents background information, the schedule for the review, the process to be used in conducting the review, and the key policy-relevant science issues that will guide the review. The integrated review plan also discusses the frameworks for the various assessment documents to be prepared by the EPA as part of the review, including an Integrated Science Assessment (ISA), and as warranted, a Risk/Exposure Assessment (REA), and a Policy Assessment (PA). The primary purpose of the NOx Integrated Review Plan is to highlight the key policy-relevant issues to be considered in the Review of the NO2 primary NAAQS. A draft of the integrated review plan will be the subject of an advisory review with the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) and made available to the public for review and comment.

  1. The Role of an Organized Exercise and Diet Program in the Primary Prevention of Ischemic Coronary Artery Disease in the U.S. Air Force Aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    significantly weights and machine gym equipment, for improves TC/HDL levels.20 60-80 min sessions 3 times per week. Study 13: 9 months of aerobic treadmill...clinics participants as they are for patients 3. Base gym for exercise program (including 3. Available at each base instruction) C. Equipment: 1. PC...Monaco PA. Effect of dietary cholesterol and degree of fat unsaturation on plasm lipid levels, lipoprotein composition, and fecal steroid excretion in

  2. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  3. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  4. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  5. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  6. Calculation of the correction factors for the primary standard of kerma in the air at the LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Calculo de fatores de correcao para o padrao primario em kerma no ar do LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da, E-mail: cosme@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    In order to determine the primary standardization in terms of kerma in the air, a graphite ionization chamber is used for calculation some correction factors. A program was elaborated, using the Monte Carlo Penelope for simulate the CC01-110 at the LNMRI/IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  7. Construction of a laboratory for the implantation of primary standardization of the magnitude kerma in the air for the X-ray beams used in mammography; Construcao de um laboratorio para a implantacao da padronizacao primaria da grandeza kerma no ar para os feixes de raios X empregados em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, W.L.; Magalhes, L.A.A.M.F.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: wagnerlc@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    Aiming to diminish the uncertainty in each phase of the metrological chain, and the uncertainty in dosimetry processed at the X-ray beam applied in the mammography, is necessary that the LNMRI/IRD to develop a reference primary standard for the absolute form to the magnitude kerma in the air

  8. The Clean Air Act Amendments and California Air Quality Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, Z.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Clean Air Act Ammendments (CAAA) which were enacted in 1990 and represents the most significant federal effort in over a decade to improve air quality. The CAAA thoroughly overhauled the previous Clean Air Act of 1977 and focused on several issues of growing concern, including: ozone, air toxics, and acid rain. Provisions for attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are described in Title I of the CAAA

  9. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  10. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  11. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State... primary deficiencies for Rule 502 pertain to an inadequate definition of the term ``Regulated NSR...

  12. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  13. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Airforce. His hobbies include reading books and listening to music. Keywords. Indoor air pollution. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Indoor Air Pollution. Danger at Home ... concentration of. VOCs and it is also a source of stable inorganic gases. GENERAL I ARTICLE which homes are built. Radon is a product of radioactive decay.

  14. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  15. Prevalence of schistosomiasis infection among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence of schistosomiasis infection was carried out among primary schools pupils in Awgu LGA, Enugu State, Nigeria. The primary schools include; Central Primary School Agbaogugu, Akegbi Primary School, Ogbaku Primary School, Ihe Primary School and Owelli-Court Primary School between ...

  16. Parents' Guide to School Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This parents' guide presents articles on school indoor air pollution, children's health and the symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how schools can improve their air quality. Also included are tips on what to do if the school ignores air quality problems, and some examples of what school districts should be doing to improve their air quality.…

  17. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  18. Calidad del aire interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  19. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  20. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  1. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  2. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  3. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range; Determinacao dos coeficientes de conversao medios entre kerma no ar e H*(10) usando feixes de raios-X primarios, secundarios e transmitidos na faixa de energia da radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  4. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... A patient with primary lymphocytic lymphoma of the gall bladder is presented, and cases of primary lymphoma of this organ reported in the English literature are reviewed. Primary lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary drainage system is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice and has a poor prognosis. S. Air.

  5. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  6. Medics in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify…

  7. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  8. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  9. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    ion 15 14% Nasogastric Tube 12 11% Foley 10 9% Tracheostomy Care 10 9% Immobilization 8 7% Incubator 3 2% Other 11 10% Total Patients Needing Special...Results indicated that trauma patients travelling to larger medical centers were the primary patient category. Generally, Registered Nurses accompanied...minimal knowledge level of each inflight attendant, and instructor qualifications are not indicated . Further, volunteer air ambulance services are

  10. Acceptance test report for 241-AW process air system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The acceptance test procedure (ATP) for the compressed air system at building 241-AW-273 was completed on March 11, 1993. The system was upgraded to provide a reliable source of compressed air to the tank farm. The upgrade included the demolition of the existing air compressor and associated piping, as well as the installation of a new air compressor with a closed loop cooling system. A compressed air cross-tie was added to allow the process air compressor to function as a back-up to the existing instrument air compressor. The purpose of the ATP was to achieve three primary objectives: verify system upgrade in accordance with the design media; provide functional test of system components and controls; and prepare the system for the Operational Test. The ATP was successfully completed with thirteen exceptions, which were resolved prior to completing the acceptance test. The repaired exceptions had no impact to safety or the environment and are briefly summarized. Testing ensured that the system was installed per design, that its components function as required and that it is ready for operational testing and subsequent turnover to operations

  11. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  12. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  13. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitkolov, N.; Musijchuk, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs

  14. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  15. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    nutrients and ample solar radiation frequently trigger phytoplankton blooms in coastal polynias during Antarctic summer. Energy transfer model for primary productivity has been used to derive potential exploitable fishery resources in the Indian Ocean....

  16. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  17. Air Pollution and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R.; Shah, Anoop S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with “traditional” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. PMID:29402072

  18. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  19. Large Number of Air Vehicles Simulation (LNAVSIM) Phase II Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary goal of LNAVSIM has been to model air war campaigns. LNAVSIM provides an environment in which operators are able to sit at consoles capable of controlling multiple air vehicles (a pod...

  20. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  1. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    anthropogenic total, and residential combustion was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  3. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  4. Integrating Primary Oral Health Care into Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Primary oral health care, and the scope of services it includes, are defined. The proposed scope of services is a set of basic dental services used by the Indian Health Service. Policy recommendations for improving the integration of primary oral health services with primary health care and delivery are offered. (Author/MSE)

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  6. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  7. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olden, K.; Guthrie, J. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of close/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early warning signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  9. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  10. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  11. Calculation note: project W-320 primary ventilation air flow requirements for mitigation of steady state flammable gas concentrations in the headspaces of tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-106 is analyzed prior to sluicing; tank 241-AY-102 is analyzed both prior to and after completion of sluicing. Specific analyses, using both best estimated and bounding hydrogen generation rates, include the minimum primary ventilation flow rates required in the tanks to ensure that the steady state hydrogen concentration in the respective tank headspace does not exceed 25% and 100% of the LFL. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of time as well as the time required to reach 25% and 100% of LFL upon complete loss of active ventilation, starting from the steady state hydrogen concentration based on a 200 CFM minimum flow rate in tank 241-C-106 and a 100 CFM minimum flow rate in tank241-AY-102. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of thee following partial loss of active ventilation (i.e., step changes to l60, l20, 80, and 40 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-C-106, staffing from a 200 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 200 CFM flow rate. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of the following partial loss of active ventilation i.e., step changes to 80, 60, 40, and 20 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-AY-102, starting from a 100 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 100 CFM flow rate

  12. Primary immunodeficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the spectrum of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) diagnosed at Red. Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Setting. Tertiary, referral hospital. Patients. All patients investigated by the immunology service because of suspected PlDs, between January.

  13. Operating manual for Ford's Farm Range air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Halverson, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    An air-sampling program was designed for a target enclosure at the Ford's Farm Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, where the Army test-fires tungsten and depleted-uranium armor penetrators. The primary potential particle inhalation hazard is depleted uranium. The sampling program includes workplace and filtered exhaust air sampling. Conventional isokinetic stack sampling was employed for the filtered exhaust air. Because of the need for rapid monitor response to concentration increases and decreases, conventional radioactive particle monitors were not used. Instead, real-time aerosol monitors employing a light-scattering technique were used for monitors requiring a fast response. For other monitoring functions, piezoelectric and beta-attenuation respirable-particle sampling techniques were used. The application of these technologies to the monitoring of airborne radioactive contaminants is addressed. Sampler installation and operation are detailed

  14. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    , and personal protection methods. Engineering methods that are usually carried out by the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system function to prevent the spread of airborne infectious pathogens by diluting (dilution ventilation) and removing (exhaust ventilation) contaminated air from a room, controlling the direction of airflow and the air flow patterns in a building. However, general wear and tear over time may compromise the HVAC system’s effectiveness to maintain adequate indoor air quality. Likewise, economic issues may curtail the completion of necessary renovations to increase its effectiveness. Therefore, when exposure to airborne infectious pathogens is a risk, the use of an in-room air cleaner to reduce the concentration of airborne pathogens and prevent the spread of airborne infectious diseases has been proposed as an alternative to renovating a HVAC system. Airborne transmission is the spread of infectious pathogens over large distances through the air. Infectious pathogens, which may include fungi, bacteria, and viruses, vary in size and can be dispersed into the air in drops of moisture after coughing or sneezing. Small drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplet nuclei. Droplet nuclei are about 1 to 5μm in diameter. This small size in part allows them to remain suspended in the air for several hours and be carried by air currents over considerable distances. Large drops of moisture carrying infectious pathogens are called droplets. Droplets being larger than droplet nuclei, travel shorter distances (about 1 metre) before rapidly falling out of the air to the ground. Because droplet nuclei remain airborne for longer periods than do droplets, they are more amenable to engineering infection control methods than are droplets. Droplet nuclei are responsible for the airborne transmission of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, chicken pox (varicella), measles (rubeola), and dessiminated herpes

  15. Application of the total etching technique or self-etching primers on primary teeth after air abrasion Aplicação da técnica de condicionamento total ou de "primers" autocondicionantes em dentes decíduos após abrasão a ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of air abrasion has grown in pediatric dentistry, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of shear bond strength testing, the need to use the total etching technique or self-etching primers on dentin of primary teeth after air abrasion. Twenty-five exfoliated primary molars had their occlusal dentin exposed by trimming and polishing. Specimens were treated by: Air abrasion + Scotchbond MultiPurpose adhesive (G1; 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G2; Clearfil SE (G3; Air abrasion + 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G4; Air abrasion + Clearfil SE (G5. On the treated surface, a cylinder of 2 mm by 6 mm was made using a composite resin (Z100. Duncan's test showed that: (G2 = G3 = G5 > (G1 = G4. The use of a self-etching primer on air abraded dentin is recommended to obtain higher bond strengths.Como o uso da abrasão a ar tem aumentado em odontopediatria, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da resina composta Z100 sobre a superfície dentinária de dentes decíduos após abrasionamento a ar associado ou não a técnica de condicionamento total (ácido fosfórico + Scotchbond Multi Purpose ou "primer" autocondicionante (Clearfil SE Bond. A superfície oclusal de 25 molares decíduos foi removida para exposição completa da superfície dentinária. Após polimento com lixas abrasivas, foram divididos em 5 grupos (5 espécimes em cada tratados por abrasão + adesivo Scotchbond (G1; condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G2; adesivo Clearfil (G3; abrasão a ar + condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G4; abrasão a ar + adesivo Clearfil (G5. Uma matriz bipartida foi adaptada à superfície dentinária e preenchida com resina composta. Após polimerização, corpos-de-prova de 2 mm x 6 mm foram obtidos. O teste de Duncan mostrou a desigualdade (G1 = G4 < (G2 = G3 = G5. Desse modo, conclui-se que, após o abrasionamento dentinário, deve ser utilizado o sistema de

  16. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  17. Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Biliary Cholangitis Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis) View or ...

  18. Model for calculation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations in ambient air from geographic information, including biofuel burning and traffic; Modell foer beraekning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifraan geografisk information om bland annat biobraensleeldning och trafik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modig, Lars; Hagenbjoerk-Gustafsson, Annika; Jonsson, Lennart; Olsson, David; Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Stroemgren, Magnus [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Social Sciences, Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply a type of statistical calculation model, 'Land Use Regression (LUR)', to predict the concentrations of air pollutants benzene and 1,3-butadiene in a number of urban areas with a high proportion of small-scale biofuel burning in and around Umeaa.

  19. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  20. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  1. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  2. Brain responses associated with consciousness of breathlessness (air hunger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotti, M; Brannan, S; Egan, G; Shade, R; Madden, L; Abplanalp, B; Robillard, R; Lancaster, J; Zamarripa, F E; Fox, P T; Denton, D

    2001-02-13

    Little is known about the physiological mechanisms subserving the experience of air hunger and the affective control of breathing in humans. Acute hunger for air after inhalation of CO(2) was studied in nine healthy volunteers with positron emission tomography. Subjective breathlessness was manipulated while end-tidal CO(2-) was held constant. Subjects experienced a significantly greater sense of air hunger breathing through a face mask than through a mouthpiece. The statistical contrast between the two conditions delineated a distributed network of primarily limbic/paralimbic brain regions, including multiple foci in dorsal anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, insula/claustrum, amygdala/periamygdala, lingual and middle temporal gyrus, hypothalamus, pulvinar, and midbrain. This pattern of activations was confirmed by a correlational analysis with breathlessness ratings. The commonality of regions of mesencephalon, diencephalon and limbic/paralimbic areas involved in primal emotions engendered by the basic vegetative systems including hunger for air, thirst, hunger, pain, micturition, and sleep, is discussed with particular reference to the cingulate gyrus. A theory that the phylogenetic origin of consciousness came from primal emotions engendered by immediate threat to the existence of the organism is discussed along with an alternative hypothesis by Edelman that primary awareness emerged with processes of ongoing perceptual categorization giving rise to a scene [Edelman, G. M. (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (Penguin, London)].

  3. Technology & Mechanics Overview of Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable radomes, shelters, pneumatic muscles, inflatable boats, bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags and landing cushions for space vehicles...

  4. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A.; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA—and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort—MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology. PMID:27741981

  5. PBX 9502 air-gap tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Campbell, Christopher Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A small number of simple air-gap tests were performed on 1-inch diameter PBX 9502 cylinders to determine an approximate threshold for detonation failure. The primary diagnostics were streak imaging and dent measurements in a steel witness plate. Relight was found to occur, with negligible excess transit time, for air gaps up to 1 mm. Relight did not occur with a 3-mm air gap.

  6. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  7. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  9. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  10. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  11. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  12. Dirty air or shelter air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The life-saving function of a shelter especially against radioactive radiation depends above all on its ventilation-air filter system. It has to function without a mistake. As the structure itself assures radiation protection only in part even when it has very thick concrete walls and a total protection equipment it does not have any effect when the ventilation-air filter system installation has some defects. Its exact calculation, installation and subsequent permanent control assure optimal protection. The problem concerning the efficiency of the technical installations in shelters and the maintenance of this function is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  14. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  15. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  16. Indoor airPLUS Videos, Podcasts, Webinars and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Webinar presentations will help you discover how Indoor airPLUS homes are designed to improve indoor air quality and increase energy efficiency and learn about the key design and construction features included in Indoor airPLUS homes.

  17. Air quality information system (AQIS) for Gauteng: defining best practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, 2004 (Act No 39 of 2004), need for national framework. The national framework will include the norms and standards for air quality information management. NAQIS (National Air Quality...

  18. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  19. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...marked by periods of crescendo, air warfare will consist of a succession of actions of great violence , with periods of almost complete calm between...influence of time, if it should require fif- teen seconds for each airplane to take off, and one minute to land, the commander of a group of 100 airplanes

  20. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  1. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; García-Martín, Antonia

    2018-03-23

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinological process, characterized by chronic elevation of serum concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Many years ago, the most frequent forms of clinical presentation were symptomatic renal or skeletal disease with moderate or severe hypercalcemia; however, currently, most patients have few symptoms and mild hypercalcemia. A new form of presentation called normocalcemic PHPT has also been described but clinical consequences are not well established. The biochemical profile of PHPT is characterized by hypercalcemia and high or inappropriately normal PTH concentrations. Parathyroidectomy is the only definitive cure. Medical treatment with the calcimimetic cinacalcet has been shown to normalize calcemia in a high percentage of cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Interpretation of PAMZ air quality data and assessment of the PAMZ air quality monitoring program January 2000 to December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since December 1999, passive monitors have been in use to support the Air Quality Monitoring Program begun that year. It currently includes 33 passive stations throughout the zone, which measure nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone. There are also four continuous monitoring stations, two stations operated by Parkland Airshed Management Zone (PAMZ) (Caroline and portable), one operated by Alberta Environment at Red Deer, as well as one station operated by West Central Airshed Society at Hightower Ridge. In 2000 and 2001, the portable station was operated at seven locations within the zone. There were four objectives to this study: (1) provide a summary of the PAMZ air quality monitoring data for the period January 2000 to December 2001, (2) provide an interpretation of that data with regard to emission sources and PAMZ's high priority issues, (3) provide an assessment of the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program performance with respect to the primary objective of the program, and (4) make recommendations on improving or expanding the Air Quality Program. It was found that the ambient concentrations of the different compounds and parameters were below the guidelines established by the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAAQG) and Canada-wide Standards, with some exceptions which were listed. Ozone concentrations proved to be higher in the Foothills, rather than in an east-west pattern, and lower in the vicinity of transportation corridors (Highway 2). Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were also high in the transportation corridor. The eastern half of the zone was exposed to higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide due to the more dense population and the presence of industries and major highways. Most of the terms of reference of the Technical Working Group appear to be met by the PAMZ Air Quality Monitoring Program. Some recommendations were included in the report, such as the addition of a fifth continuous Air Quality Monitoring station that is portable

  4. Air versus gas tamponade in retinal detachment surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of air tamponade with gas tamponade in primary vitrectomy for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods We examined the records of 524 cases of 523 patients that underwent primary vitrectomy for RRD with air or sulphur hexafluoride 20% gas

  5. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  6. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  7. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  8. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (≥60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  9. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  10. Assessment of socio-economic consequences of the Commission's thematic strategy for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, H.; Skou Andersen, M.; Illerup, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission has presented a thematic strategy on air pollution and has completed an Impact Assessment, which describes the costs and benefits for the member states. The thematic strategy is to result in a revised air quality directive as well as a revised NEC-directive that determines maximum emissions for a number of air pollution components, the so-called emission ceilings. The air pollution components include sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO X ), volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia (NH 3 ) and particulate matters (PM 2,5 ). The thematic strategy draws up targets for reductions of the Danish emissions for these components, which have to be met by 2020. These reductions will contribute to a lowering of PM 2,5 concentrations both in Denmark and in neighbouring countries. The concentration of PM 2,5 in the air includes both primary particles that come from emission of particles from e.g. incineration processes, and so-called secondary particles that are generated from emissions of NO X , SO 2 and NH 3 , and from releases from e.g. vegetation. A very large part of the secondary particles in the air in Denmark stems from emissions of these components in the rest of Europe. A very important condition for a reduction in the concentration of PM 2,5 in the air is thus a reduction of the emissions of these components in all of Europe. (au)

  11. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  13. Design Fabrication And Partial-Analysis Of A 2-Wheeler Prototype That Runs On Compressed Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vinay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of the project is to create a prototype of a purely air powered motorcycle by retrofitting its internal combustion engine to run on compressed air. Firstly the conventional spark plug was replaced with a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve was initially actuated using a reed switch and magnet duo but then later replaced with an optical crank position sensor circuit due to reasons that include lack of control over the amount of air injected during each stroke and also for more precise control over the opening and closing of the valve. The torque brake power indicated power air consumption rate of the engine under load are calculated. Separate mounts for the modified engine and the cylindrical storage unit are designed and analysed using Catia v4. Also possible ways of future scope of the prototype are mentioned.

  14. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  15. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  16. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  17. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  18. Other primary headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Bahra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ′Other Primary Headaches′ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ′alarm clock headache′, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.

  19. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  20. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  1. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  2. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  3. Primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCusker Christine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID refers to a heterogeneous group of over 130 disorders that result from defects in immune system development and/or function. PIDs are broadly classified as disorders of adaptive immunity (i.e., T-cell, B-cell or combined immunodeficiencies or of innate immunity (e.g., phagocyte and complement disorders. Although the clinical manifestations of PIDs are highly variable, most disorders involve at least an increased susceptibility to infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are imperative for preventing significant disease-associated morbidity and, therefore, consultation with a clinical immunologist is essential. PIDs should be suspected in patients with: recurrent sinus or ear infections or pneumonias within a 1 year period; failure to thrive; poor response to prolonged use of antibiotics; persistent thrush or skin abscesses; or a family history of PID. Patients with multiple autoimmune diseases should also be evaluated. Diagnostic testing often involves lymphocyte proliferation assays, flow cytometry, measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig levels, assessment of serum specific antibody titers in response to vaccine antigens, neutrophil function assays, stimulation assays for cytokine responses, and complement studies. The treatment of PIDs is complex and generally requires both supportive and definitive strategies. Ig replacement therapy is the mainstay of therapy for B-cell disorders, and is also an important supportive treatment for many patients with combined immunodeficiency disorders. The heterogeneous group of disorders involving the T-cell arm of the adaptive system, such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, require immune reconstitution as soon as possible. The treatment of innate immunodeficiency disorders varies depending on the type of defect, but may involve antifungal and antibiotic prophylaxis, cytokine replacement, vaccinations and bone marrow transplantation. This article

  4. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force's Computer Network in the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courville, Shane P

    2007-01-01

    .... Wynne and Air Force Chief of Staff General T. Michael Moseley wrote a joint letter to all airmen of the Air Force, which defined a new mission statement that included the concept of "cyberspace...

  5. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  6. Ultrahigh Sensitivity Heavy Noble Gas Detectors for Long-Term Monitoring and for Monitoring Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Valentine

    2005-07-28

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment.

  7. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  8. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  9. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  10. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  11. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  12. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  13. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Joy; Chapman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphata...

  14. Operational test procedure for Bldg 241-A-701 air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    This document is an Operability Test Procedure (OTP) which will verify and record that the 241-A-701 air compressor and associated equipment operates within their intended design parameters. The activities defined in this OTP will be performed to ensure the daily operation of the new compressed air system can be reliable and efficient. The Compressed Air System (CAS) for 241-A-701 supplies process and instrument air to the A, AX, AY, and AZ tank farms. The primary use of the CAS is for tank farms instrumentation, air operated valves, and air lift circulators

  15. Status of air kerma and absorbed dose standards in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayam, M.; Ramanathan, G.; Patki, V.S.; Soman, A.T.; Shigwan, J.B.; Vinatha, S.P.; Jadhavgaonkar, P.S.; Kadam, V.D.; Shaha, V.V.; Abani, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Safety Systems Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India maintains Primary and Secondary Standards of various parameters of radiation measurements and provides calibration services to various users of radiation in the country. This is an apex laboratory in India and plays a pivotal role in ensuring accurate radiological measurements. The laboratory coordinates national intercomparisons of radiation measurements to maintain their uniformity and traceability and is linked through various programmes with the other International organizations such as Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Paris, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna, Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) Taiwan. It is the recognized Regional Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of IAEA/WHO (World Health Organisation). This paper brings out the status of various primary and secondary standards for radiological measurements maintained at BARC. 1. Primary Exposure/Air-kerma standard at Co-60 energy (therapy level): The primary standard for exposure/ air-kerma measurements maintained at BARC is a graphite cavity chamber of volume 4.362 cc with an internal diameter of 1.8 cm, internal height of 1.78 cm and wall thickness of 704.3mg/cm 2 . Correction factors for the difference between electron stopping powers, photon mass energy absorption coefficients of air and graphite wall, correction for recombination, radiation field non-uniformity, stem scatter and polarity effect are applied and the maximum overall uncertainty in the realisation of exposure/air-kerma is around ±1%. This standard has been intercompared with IAEA and BIPM through transfer standard and the agreement in the results are better than ±1%. An intercomparison under the APMP programme is to be held during May, 2002. 2. Primary Exposure/Air-kerma standard at protection and brachytherapy level: A set of three spherical graphite-walled cavity chambers of different air

  16. Allegheny County Primary Care Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...

  17. Primary Productivity (PP_Master)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included primary production for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came...

  18. Effect of body repositioning after venous air embolism. An echocardiographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, H. J.; Allen, S. J.; Mehlhorn, U.; Davis, K. L.; Morris, W. P.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) may include the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position, although its effectiveness has been questioned. This study used transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the effect of body repositioning on intracardiac air and acute cardiac dimension changes. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized dogs in the supine position received a venous air injection of 2.5 ml/kg at a rate of 5 ml/ s. After 1 min the dogs were repositioned into either the LLR, LLR 10 degrees head down (LLR-10 degrees), right lateral recumbence, or remained in the supine position. RESULTS: Repositioning after VAE resulted in relocation of intracardiac air to nondependent areas of the right heart. Peak right ventricular (RV) diameter increase and mean arterial pressure decrease were greater in the repositioned animals compared with those in the supine position (P dogs, body repositioning after VAE provided no benefit in hemodynamic performance or cardiac dimension changes, although relocation of intracardiac air was demonstrated. Right ventricular air did not appear to result in significant RV outflow obstruction, as pulmonary artery pressure increased uniformly in all groups and was not influenced by the relocation of intracardiac air. The combination of increased RV afterload and arterial hypotension, possibly with subsequent RV ischemia rather than RV outflow obstruction by an airlock appeared to be the primary mechanism for cardiac dysfunction after VAE.

  19. Capillaroscopic Findings in Primary Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambova, Sevdalina; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2017-06-07

    Although Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is observed in a significant proportion of patients with primary fibromyalgia, the available data on capillaroscopic findings in primary fibromyalgia are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capillaroscopic pattern in patients with primary fibromyalgia. 26 patients with primary fibromyalgia (25 women and 1 man) were included in the study. Mean age was 55±10 years. As control groups were examined 31 patients with primary RP and 35 healthy volunteers. Capillaroscopic examination was performed with a videocapillaroscope Videocap 3.0 (DS Medica), magnification 200x. The following capillaroscopic parameters were evaluated: distribution, shape, width, length, mean capillary density, presence of avascular areas, haemorrhages, neoangiogenesis, visibility of subpapillary plexus. RP was present in 65% (17/26) of the patients with primary fibromyalgia. The most frequent finding in patients with primary fibromyalgia was presence of dilated capillaries in 85% (22/26) of cases, including patients with RP as well as patients without peripheral vasospasm. However, the mean diameter of the arterial and the venous limb were significantly higher in the subgroup of fibromyalgia patients with clinical symptoms of RP. Analogous changes - the presence of dilated capillaries - were found in 96.6% (29/30) of patients with primary RP. In the group of primary fibromyalgia, signs of microangiopathy characteristic of connective tissue diseases could not be observed. In our study, the most frequent capillaroscopic finding in patients with primary fibromyalgia was presence of dilated capillaries analogous to primary RP. Capillaroscopic signs suggestive of connective tissue disease could not be found in primary fibromyalgia patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  1. Screening methods for the development of air-toxics emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, J.T.

    1991-09-01

    Under the program the literature has been surveyed to determine the applicability of existing methodology. The primary goal was to use methodology applicable to the largest number of analytes listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments with the full realization that a broad coverage by a methodology may require some sacrifice of sensitivity and accuracy. The need for validation of proposed methodologies has been recognized. Assignments of analytes to a specific methodology have been made on the basis of previous validation studies and/or physical properties (available physical properties for the chemicals of the Clean Air Act list are supplied in an appendix). The range of applicability of a given sampling or analytical method, when available, is included as a part of the method description. Tables are included which summarize the potentially applicable sampling and analytical methods for chemicals listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments. General information on cost for the sampling and analysis procedures is presented

  2. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  3. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  4. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice ...

  5. Factors affecting storage of compressed air in porous-rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Erikson, R.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents a review and evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of porous medium (aquifer) storage. These aspects include geologic, petrologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and geochemical characteristics of porous rock masses and their interactions with compressed air energy storage (CAES) operations. The primary objective is to present criteria categories for the design and stability of CAES in porous media (aquifers). The document will also describe analytical, laboratory, and field-scale investigations that have been conducted.

  6. Primary amenorrhea: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Courtney A; Grimstad, Frances W

    2014-10-01

    Puberty is a defining time of many adolescents' lives. It is a series of events that includes thelarche, pubarche, and menarche. Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menarche. There are numerous etiologies including outflow tract obstructions, gonadal dysgenesis, and anomalies of the hypothalamic axis. This review's aims are to define primary amenorrhea and describe the various causes, their workups, associated comorbidities, and treatment options. At the end, a generalist should be able to perform an assessment of an adolescent who presents with primary amenorrhea and, if warranted, begin initial treatment.

  7. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  8. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  9. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  10. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...... to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on farm animals in warm conditions includes several thermal indices which incorporate the effect of air velocities. But, surprisingly none of them predicts a decreased influence of air velocity when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. This study reviewed published investigations...

  11. Las fronteras de la medicalización: tensiones en torno a la identificación y valoración de la desnutrición infantil en un centro de atención primaria de la ciudad de Buenos Aires The frontiers of medicalization: tensions surrounding the identification and appreciation of child malnutrition in a primary healthcare center of the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Herkovits

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La medicalización de la vida y sus implicancias en cuanto a la producción de subjetividades han sido fenómenos destacados por las ciencias humanas en el estudio de la salud y la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el análisis de sus expresiones locales permanece insuficientemente tratado. El presente trabajo tiene como propósito avanzar en esta dirección mediante el estudio etnográfico del proceso de medicalización de la desnutrición infantil en un centro sanitario de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Abordaremos las singularidades involucradas en la percepción valorativa del cuerpo y su contexto alimentario por parte de los profesionales de la salud y los destinatarios de sus acciones terapéuticas. Destacamos que los criterios de percepción y los valores morales que animan las posiciones sociales de los profesionales del sector salud y los destinatarios de sus acciones imposibilitaron la institucionalización de la visión médica. Concluimos que el proceso analizado subraya la necesidad de exceder los enfoques que abordan la medicalización exclusivamente desde el ángulo de la imposición. La historia social de los grupos involucrados y los modos de relacionamiento que establecen en escenarios locales constituyen elementos esenciales para comprender las singularidades de estos procesos.The medicalization of life and its implications for the production of subjectivities are phenomena that have been highlighted by the human sciences in the study of health and disease. Nevertheless, the analysis of its local expressions has been insufficiently covered. The scope of this paper is to explore this field by an ethnographical study of the medicalization process of child malnutrition in a primary healthcare center of the city of Buenos Aires. We will describe analytically the singularities involved in the body perception and the alimentary context by health professionals and their patients. We emphasize that the criteria of perception and moral values that

  12. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  13. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  14. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  15. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  16. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  17. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Stansfeld

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs. Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  18. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  19. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...-2010-0211] RIN 2105-AE07 Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport... incidents involving animals during air transport, 14 CFR 234.13, to expand the reporting requirement to U.S... seats, to expand the definition of ``animal'' to include all cats and dogs transported by the carrier...

  20. Clean Air Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Markets implements regulatory programs such as the Acid Rain Program and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce air pollution from the power sector that contributes to human health and environmental issues.

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  2. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  3. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  4. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  5. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  6. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  7. Primary Intrathoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular goiter is a common disease in Taiwan, and substernal or intrathoracic goiters are not infrequent. However, intrathoracic goiters are mainly of the secondary type and primary intrathoracic goiters are rarely seen. We report a 55-year-old woman who was incidentally found to have an ectopic goiter located in the anterior upper mediastinum with the initial presenting symptom of productive cough. Imaging studies including chest X-ray and computed tomography identified the lesion, and 131I-uptake scan showed weak uptake in the thorax. Surgical removal via thoracotomy was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed by pathology. A primary intrathoracic goiter, although rare, should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumor.

  8. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  9. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  10. Air: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students explore air and its properties. Some of the topics discussed include alternative energy, bacteria, carbon dioxide, motion, weather, and flight. Experiments include: blowing a balloon up in a bottle; seeing air in water; making a lunch-bag kite, weather vanes, and paper glider;…

  11. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  12. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  13. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  14. Air and Waste Management Association 86th annual meeting and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents conference abstracts from the 1993 meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association. General topics include air pollutants and their modeling, transport, monitoring, and control; atmospheric chemistry; air pollution sources, including mobile and stationary pollutant sources; health risks of air pollution; waste management, processing, and disposal; urban air quality; remedial actions for contaminated sites; air pollution in Europe; meteorolgy and terrain considerations in air pollution

  15. Raynaud's phenomenon (primary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Janet

    2013-10-10

    Raynaud's phenomenon is an episodic, reversible vasospasm of the peripheral arteries (usually digital). It causes pallor, followed by cyanosis and/or redness, often with pain and, at times, paraesthesia. On rare occasions, it can lead to ulceration of the fingers and toes (and, in some cases, of the ears or nose). This review focuses on primary (idiopathic) Raynaud's phenomenon, occurring in the absence of an underlying disease. The prevalence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon varies by sex, country, and exposure to workplace vibration. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of drug treatments for primary Raynaud's phenomenon? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 9 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amlodipine, diltiazem, nicardipine, and nifedipine.

  16. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  17. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  18. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  19. Flux of atmospheric muons: Comparison between AIRES simulations and CAPRICE98 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P.; Carlson, P.; Mocchiutti, E.; Sciutto, S. J.; Boezio, M.

    2003-11-01

    We report on a comparison between the flux of muons in the atmosphere measured by the CAPRICE98 experiment and simulations performed with the air shower simulation program AIRES. To reduce systematic uncertainties we have used as input the primary fluxes of protons and helium nuclei also measured by the CAPRICE98 experiment. Heavy nuclei are also taken into account in the primary flux, and their contribution to the muon flux is discussed. The results of the simulations show a very good agreement with the experimental data, at all altitudes and for all muon momenta. With the exception of a few isolated points, the relative differences between measured data and simulations are smaller than 20%; and in all cases compatible with zero within two standard deviations. The influence of the input cosmic ray flux on the results of the simulations is also discussed. This report includes also an extensive analysis of the characteristics of the simulated fluxes.

  20. Insomnia (primary) in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Alessi, Cathy; Vitiello, Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Up to 40% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include medical and psychiatric illnesses, psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal.Primary insomnia is a chronic and relapsing condition that may increase the risks of accidents.Primary insomnia is chronic insomnia without specific underlying medical, psychiatric, or other sleep ...

  1. Yield Surface for Bars Including Warping Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Kreyenhagen Stragetic Air Command Columbia University ATTN: NRI-STINFO Library ATTN: H. Bleich ATTN: F. Dimaggio DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY University of Denver...TIC-Library SRI International ATTN: G. Abrahamson M & T Company ATTN: W. Wilkinson ATTN: D. McNaight ATTN: A. Florence Management Science Associates

  2. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide differential gene expression in children exposed to air pollution in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D M; van Herwijnen, M H M; Pedersen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Teplice area in the Czech Republic is a mining district where elevated levels of air pollution including airborne carcinogens, have been demonstrated, especially during winter time. This environmental exposure can impact human health; in particular children may be more vulnerable. To study....... This suggests an effect of air pollution on the primary structural unit of the condensed DNA. In addition, several other pathways were modulated. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis represents a promising biomarker for environmental carcinogenesis....... the impact of air pollution in children at the transcriptional level, peripheral blood cells were subjected to whole genome response analysis, in order to identify significantly modulated biological pathways and processes as a result of exposure. Using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated...

  4. Exergy analysis of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Improve and optimize efficiency of HVAC and related energy systems from an exergy perspective. From fundamentals to advanced applications, Exergy Analysis of Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration provides readers with a clear and concise description of exergy analysis and its many uses. Focusing on the application of exergy methods to the primary technologies for heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning, Ibrahim Dincer and Marc A. Rosen demonstrate exactly how exergy can help improve and optimize efficiency, environmental performance, and cost-effectiveness. The book also discusses the analysis tools available, and includes many comprehensive case studies on current and emerging systems and technologies for real-world examples. From introducing exergy and thermodynamic fundamentals to presenting the use of exergy methods for heating, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems, this book equips any researcher or practicing engineer with the tools needed to learn and master the application of exergy...

  5. Aire and T cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S; Su, Maureen A

    2011-04-01

    In the thymus, developing T cells that react against self-antigens with high affinity are deleted in the process of negative selection. An essential component of this process is the display of self-antigens, including those whose expression are usually restricted to specific tissues, to developing T cells within the thymus. The Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) gene plays a crucial role in the expression of tissue specific self-antigens within the thymus, and disruption of Aire function results in spontaneous autoimmunity in both humans and mice. Recent advances have been made in our understanding of how Aire influences the expression of thousands of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. Additional roles of Aire, including roles in chemokine and cytokine expression, have also been revealed. Factors important in the differentiation of Aire-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells have been defined. Finally, the identity of antigen presenting cells in negative selection, including the role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in displaying tissue specific antigens to T cells, has also been clarified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Near-Source Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollution (GMAP) vehicle – an all-electric vehicle measuring real-time concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants – was used to map air pollution levels near the Port of Charleston in South Carolina. High-resolution monitoring was performed along driving routes near several port terminals and rail yard facilities, recording geospatial coordinates and concentrations of pollutants including black carbon, size-resolved particle count ranging from ultrafine to coarse (6 nm to 20 um), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Additionally, a portable meteorological station was used to characterize local conditions. The primary objective of this work is to characterize the impact of port facilities on local scale air quality. It is found that elevated concentration measurements of Black Carbon and PM correlate to periods of increased port activity and a significant elevation in concentration is observed downwind of ports. However, limitations in study design prevent a more complete analysis of the port effect. As such, we discuss the ways in which this study is limited and how future work could be improved. Mobile monitoring is an emerging strategy to characterize spatially and temporally variable air pollution in areas near sources. EPA’s Geospatial Monitoring of Air Pollut

  7. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 2. Outdoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, David; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    AIR POLLUTION CONTRIBUTES TO PREVENTABLE ILLNESS AND DEATH. Subgroups of patients who appear to be more sensitive to the effects of air pollution include young children, the elderly and people with existing chronic cardiac and respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is unclear whether air pollution contributes to the development of asthma, but it does trigger asthma episodes. Physicians are in a position to identify patients at particular risk of health effects from air pollution exposure and to suggest timely and appropriate actions that these patients can take to protect themselves. A simple tool that uses the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) can help physicians take patients' environmental exposure histories to assess those who may be at risk. As public health advocates, physicians contribute to the primary prevention of illness and death related to air pollution in the population. In this article we review the origins of air pollutants, the pathophysiology of health effects, the burden of illness and the clinical implications of smog exposure using the illustrative case of an adolescent patient with asthma. PMID:12000251

  8. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues

  9. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  10. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  11. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test are conduc......This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling......). This observation is interesting as the parameter of total surface area of air voids normally is not included in air void analysis. The following reason for the finding is suggested: In the air voids conditions are favourable for ice nucleation. When a capillary pore is connected to an air void, ice formation...

  12. Monitoring Distribusi Air Bersih

    OpenAIRE

    Sutono Sutono

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak - Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pilihan solusi permasalahan penyaluran air pada Wilayah Babakan Irigasi yang memiliki masalah terbatasnya Kuota Air Bersih untuk memenuhi kebutuhan penggunaan air sehari-hari. Pemanfaatan Mikrokontroler Arduino Atmega328 pada Arduino UNO yang dirancang dengan menambahkan beberapa komponen pendukung seperti Sensor Flowmeter, Selenoid Valve dan Pompa Air dibuat menjadi sistem kran air otomatis. Sistem ini bekerja dengan dikontrol oleh timer da...

  13. A manual on methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments: including a chapter on bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vollenweider, Richard A; Talling, J. F; Westlake, D. F

    1969-01-01

    The present manual starts from methods used to assess standing crops of phytoplankton, periphyton and higher aquatic, and proceeds to techniques of rate measurement currently available for these three...

  14. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C2) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX

    1989-01-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  15. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  16. Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-09-01

    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NS-CHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NS-CHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal non-HLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal non-HLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL.

  17. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  18. Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Emberson, LD

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. A review of air pollution and its impact...

  19. Assessment of corrective factors for the LNHB reference measurement in terms of Kr air for iodine 125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouriou, J.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Cutarella, D.; Plagnard, J.

    2010-01-01

    The LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) is currently developing a new primary reference for low dose rate curietherapy with iodine 125 in terms of reference kerma in air. This includes an innovative sensor: an ionization chamber with a toroidal air wall. The authors present Monte Carlo calculations performed for the determination of corrective factors to be applied to come down to reference conditions or to correct possible measurement errors. Calculations have been performed for the specific geometries of BEBIG sources which are used for ophthalmic and prostatic curietherapy treatments

  20. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  1. Fireplace with preheated secondary air supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, P. E.

    1985-09-24

    A fireplace cap is positioned outside the firebox of the fireplace. The cap has a framework comprised of first and second side members, an upper cross member and a lower damper section. A pair of hinged doors are mounted to this framework. Dampers selectively control the passage of primary combustion air directly to the firebox. A mantel overlies the upper cross member and a secondary air deflector baffle extends downwardly from the underside of the mantel. This baffle, together with the upper cross member, defines a transversely extending secondary air preheating chamber. Preheated air from the chamber is directed by the baffle across the doors prior to passing into the firebox. In one embodiment, secondary air enters the chamber through a space between the mantel and upper cross member. A valve controls the flow of secondary air to this space. In another embodiment, the damper section and side members define passageways which direct outside combustion air upwardly along the sides of the cap and into the chamber. Valves in the side passageways control the flow of air to the chamber.

  2. Analyzing the United States Air Force Organizational Structure - A Case for Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    for the Employment of the Air Service, authored by the Air Service, discussed primary 10 Charles A. Ravenstein , The Organization and Lineage of the...Missions: A History, 88. 37 Ravenstein , The Organization and Lineage of the United States Air Force, 7. 11...AFA, History of the United States Air Force, 1907-1957, 85). 39 Trest, Air Force Roles and Missions: A History, 106. 40 Ravenstein , The Organization

  3. Air quality and climate change co-benefits in Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and greenhouse gas emissions. The potential to include climate change considerations in air quality policy in South Africa includes the use of local air quality management plans (AQMPs). A case study investigating the opportunities for air pollution and climate...

  4. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  5. Physical Profiling Performance of Air Force Primary Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    laboratory, radiology, and specialty consult orders; and provider type . PCP sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were...Limitations Encounter Type Restriction Type Restriction by PCP? Restriction by SME? Chi-Square p- value Yes No PHA Duty Yes 36 5 219.090...number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 9 Aug 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES

  6. Detection of primary coolant leaks in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.; Bakalov, I.; Vassilev, H.

    2001-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic analyses of the SG box behaviour of Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4 in case of small primary circuit leaks and during normal operation of the existing ventilation systems in order to determine the detectable leakages from the primary circuit by analysing different parameters used for the purposes of 'Leak before break' concept, performed by ENPRO Consult Ltd. are presented. The following methods for leak detection: measurement of relative air humidity in SG box (can be used for detection of leaks with flow rate 3.78 l/min within one hour at ambient parameters - temperature 40 0 - 60 0 C and relative humidity form 30% to 60%); measurement of water level in SG box sumps (can not be used for reliable detection of small primary circuit leakages with flow rate about 3.78 l/min); measurement of gaseous radioactivity in SG box( can be used as a general global indication for detection of small leakages from the primary circuit); measurement of condensate flow after the air coolers of P-1 venting system (can be used for primary circuit leak detection) are considered. For determination of the confinement behaviour, a model used with computer code MELCOR has been developed by ENPRO Consult Ltd. A brief summary based on the capabilities of the different methods of leak detection, from the point of view of the applicability of a particular method is given. For both Units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy NPP a qualified complex system for small leak detection is planned to be constructed. Such a system has to unite the following systems: acoustic system for leak detection 'ALUS'; system for control of the tightness of the main primary circuit pipelines by monitoring the local humidity; system for primary circuit leakage detection by measuring condensate run-off in collecting tank after ventilation system P-1 air coolers

  7. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  8. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  9. The Interplay of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Orru, H.; Ebi, K. L.; Forsberg, B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: Air pollution significantly affects health, causing up to 7 million premature deaths annually with an even larger number of hospitalizations and days of sick leave. Climate change could alter the dispersion of primary pollutants, particularly particulate matter, and intensify the formation of secondary pollutants, such as near-surface ozone. The purpose of the review is to evaluate the recent evidence on the impacts of climate change on air pollution and air pollution-relat...

  10. Air Support Control Officer Individual Position Training Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    release. Distribution is unlimited. AIR SUPPORT CONTROL OFFICER INDIVIDUAL POSITION TRAINING SIMULATION by Kathleen M. Haggard June 2017...REPORT DATE June 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR SUPPORT CONTROL OFFICER INDIVIDUAL POSITION TRAINING...of the Marine Corps’ primary air control agencies and is responsible for the procedural control of aircraft in support of combat operations. The

  11. The transfer of radon from domestic water to indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental literature dealing with the release of radon from water to air is reviewed and synthesized. Primary emphasis is placed on releases from domestic water supplies to indoor air within the context of a general indoor radon problem. The widely used assumption of 1 rhoCi/L increment in indoor air per 10 000 rhoCi/L in the water supply is valid, but regional and individual variations are important

  12. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  13. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems

  14. Development of measure methods of radon in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, L.T.; Pela, C.A.; Navas, E.A.; Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The development of some conventional measuring methods, aiming obtain an estimation of radon concentration in air, mainly in indoor air is described, including the charcoal absorption collector, Lucas cell and thermoluminescent dosemeters. (C.G.C)

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Calibration subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level-1B calibration subset including clear cases, special calibration sites, random nadir spots, and high clouds. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)...

  16. Wizardry for Air Campaigns Signals Intelligence Support to the Cockpit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    2001-01-01

    In order for all applications of airpower -- including counter-air, deep interdiction strike, air landing, and combat search and rescue -- to succeed, they must be informed by comprehensive data on targets...

  17. Laser system detects air turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, W. K.; Dunkin, J. A.; Weaver, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Laser beam is emitted from pod on side of aircraft. Some scattered light returns to aircraft, but at shifted frequency caused by Doppler effect from local air speeds. Current work focuses on extending range, including investigations of effects of particle density, focusing, back scatter efficiency, absorption, and other factors.

  18. Speech profile of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Katia Ignacio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Alonso, Nivaldo; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-10-26

    To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy. Patients were divided into two groups: early intervention group (EIG) - 43 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty before 2 years of age and late intervention group (LIG) - 54 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty after 2 years of age. All patients underwent speech-language pathology assessment. The following parameters were assessed: resonance classification, presence of nasal turbulence, presence of weak intraoral air pressure, presence of audible nasal air emission, speech understandability, and compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). At statistical significance level of 5% (p≤0.05), no significant difference was observed between the groups in the following parameters: resonance classification (p=0.067); level of hypernasality (p=0.113), presence of nasal turbulence (p=0.179); presence of weak intraoral air pressure (p=0.152); presence of nasal air emission (p=0.369), and speech understandability (p=0.113). The groups differed with respect to presence of compensatory articulation disorders (p=0.020), with the LIG presenting higher occurrence of altered phonemes. It was possible to assess the general profile and speech characteristics of the study participants. Patients submitted to early primary palatoplasty present better speech profile.

  19. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  20. Analysis of Volatile Organic and Sulfur Compounds in Air Near a Pulp Paper Mill in North-Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, N. A. C.; Bundy, B. A.; Andrew, J. P.; Grimm, B. K.; Ketcherside, D.; Rivero-Zevallos, J. A.; Uhlorn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lewiston, Idaho is a small city in the Snake River Valley bordering North-Central Idaho and Southeastern Washington, with a population of over 40,000 including the surrounding areas. One of the main industries and employers in the region is a kraft paper mill in North Lewiston, which results in odorous levels of sulfur air pollutants there. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has an air monitoring station in Lewiston but measures only air particulate matter (PM). Surprisingly, not much long-term data exists on this area for specific air constituents such as volatile organics, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfur compounds. One year-long study conducted in 2006-2007 by the Nez Perce Tribe found high formaldehyde levels in the area, and warranted further study in July of 2016-2017. Our ongoing study began in the fall of 2016 and investigates the seasonal air composition in the Lewiston area. Specifically, active air sampling via sorbent tubes and analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). was utilized to measure over 50 volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfurous compounds in ambient air (adapted from EPA Method TO-17). Seasonal, diurnal, and spatial variations in air composition were explored with weekly to monthly grab sampling. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were the primary sulfur compounds detected, and these varied considerably depending on time of day, season, location and meteorology. DMS was more prevalent in the summer months, while DMDS was more prevalent in the spring. Elevated concentrations of benzene and chloroform were found in the region during 2017, with average values of short term grab samples over three times the acceptable ambient concentrations in Idaho. These levels did not persist during longer term sampling of 12-hours, however further monitoring is needed to assess a potential health concern.

  1. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  2. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  3. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    OpenAIRE

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, ...

  4. Nanoaerosols Including Radon Decay Products in Outdoor and Indoor Air at a Suburban Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smerajec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5–1000 nm of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly.

  5. Nanoaerosols including radon decay products in outdoor and indoor air at a suburban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerajec, Mateja; Vaupotič, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoaerosols have been monitored inside a kitchen and in the courtyard of a suburban farmhouse. Total number concentration and number size distribution (5-1000 nm) of general aerosol particles, as measured with a Grimm Aerosol SMPS+C 5.400 instrument outdoors, were mainly influenced by solar radiation and use of farming equipment, while, indoors, they were drastically changed by human activity in the kitchen. In contrast, activity concentrations of the short-lived radon decay products (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Bi, both those attached to aerosol particles and those not attached, measured with a Sarad EQF3020-2 device, did not appear to be dependent on these activities, except on opening and closing of the kitchen window. Neither did a large increase in concentration of aerosol particles smaller than 10 or 20 nm, with which the unattached radon products are associated, augment the fraction of the unattached decay products significantly.

  6. Heat transfer behavior including thermal wake effects in forced air cooling of arrays of rectangular blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, S.; Faghri, M.; Lessmann, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study thermal wake effects in arrays of rectangular blocks encountered in electronic equipment. Data were obtained for a series of channel heights and flow velocities. The temperature rise due to wake effects behind a single heated module was found to be fairly independent of the channel height and the position of the heated block, for a given approach velocity. The adiabatic temperature rise data for a module due to a heated element immediately upstream of it for different inter-module spacings were found to correlate well in terms of a new parameter called the surface packing density. This paper reports that it was reported by the authors in an earlier paper that both the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient nd pressure-drop data for regular in-line arrays correlated well in terms of a composite geometric parameter called the column packing density. These experiments have been extended to a higher Reynolds number. Empirical correlations are presented here for friction factor and Nusselt number in terms of the volume packing density, and for the thermal wake effects in terms of the surface packing density. Data from literature for arrays with widely different geometric parameters are shown to agree with these correlations

  7. 75 FR 3617 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Update To Include New Jersey State Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... pollution control, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide... Subchapter 2--Control and Prohibition of Open Burning (Effective 6/20/94) N.J.A.C. 7:27-2.1. Definitions N.J....C. 7:27-3.1. Definitions N.J.A.C. 7:27-3.2. Smoke emissions from stationary indirect heat exchangers...

  8. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Michael Davis, J.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM 2.5 particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM 2.5 data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM 2.5 .samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM 2.5 data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for 'secondary smoke' (industry), 'soil', 'smoke' and 'seaspray'. Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from 'secondary industry', 'smoke', 'soil' and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer fingerprints could explain the summer-time peaks in isotopic ratio at both sites and, at the rural site, be associated with meteorological influences. Nevertheless, the SOM results indicate that there are multiple overlapping 'weak' sources

  9. A new air quality monitoring and early warning system: Air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongshan; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common. In this paper, we propose a new air quality monitoring and early warning system, including an assessment module and forecasting module. In the air quality assessment module, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to determine the main pollutants and evaluate the degree of air pollution more scientifically. In the air pollutant concentration prediction module, a novel hybridization model combining complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition, a modified cuckoo search and differential evolution algorithm, and an Elman neural network, is proposed to improve the forecasting accuracy of six main air pollutant concentrations. To verify the effectiveness of this system, pollutant data for two cities in China are used. The result of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation shows that the major air pollutants in Xi'an and Jinan are PM 10 and PM 2.5 respectively, and that the air quality of Xi'an is better than that of Jinan. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed hybrid model is remarkably superior to all benchmark models on account of its higher prediction accuracy and stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  11. Air medical transport of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebag, Vidal; Halabi, Abdul R; Churchill-Smith, Michael; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2003-11-01

    The air medical transport of cardiac patients is a rapidly expanding practice. For various medical, social, and economic indications, patients are being flown longer distances at commercial altitudes, including international and intercontinental flights. There are data supporting the use of short-distance helicopter flights early in the course of a cardiac event for patients needing emergent transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention or aortocoronary bypass. When considering elective long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients for social or economic reasons, it is necessary to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of flight. A few recent studies suggest that long-distance air medical transport is safe under certain circumstances. Current guidelines for air travel after myocardial infarction do not address the use of medical escorts or air ambulances equipped with intensive care facilities. Further research using larger prospective studies is needed to better define criteria for safe long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients.

  12. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  13. Airport activity statistics of certificated air carriers : summary tables : twelve months ending December 31, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Air Carriers: Summary Tables presents summary data for all scheduled and nonscheduled service by large certified U.S. air carriers--including the volume of passenger, freight, and mail enplanements, and air...

  14. Managing air toxics under the new Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, W.; Miller, M.J.; Fortune, J.; Behrens, G.; Rubin, E.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been regulating air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments. To date, EPA has established emission standards for seven hazardous air pollutants. They include arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, vinyl chloride and radionuclides. EPA had determined that the low risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant radionuclide emissions did not justify regulation under Section 112. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 greatly expand EPA's rulemaking authority over toxic or hazardous air pollutants. The law lists 189 chemicals that would be subject to control. Sources that emit 10 tons/yr or more of any one pollutant, or 25 tons/yr or more of any combination thereof, must apply maximum available control technology (MACT). By definition, MACT is at least as stringent as best available control technology (BACT) for similar sources. However, consideration of the cost and feasibility of control, energy impacts and environmental factors will be given in MACT. Under the new amendments, the EPA will conduct a three-year study of the public health hazards from exposure to toxic emissions from utilities and report to Congress. EPA can regulate such emissions only if the regulations are appropriate based on this study. Two additional studies addressing mercury are also required. The first directs the EPA to conduct a four-year study of mercury emissions from electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources. Included in this paper are evaluations of the rate and mass of such emissions, of health and environmental effects, and of the available control technologies and their costs

  15. [Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivacow, Francisco R; Sapag Durán, Ana; Zanchetta, María B

    2014-01-01

    This report shows our conclusions on the clinical, biochemical and densitometry characteristics of 35 normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. This condition is defined by a high level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTHI) with persistently normal serum and ionized calcium in the absence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our selection consisted of 30 women (90%) and 5 men (10%). The control group of 55 hypercalcemic patients with primary hyperparathyroidism included 51 women (93%) and 4 men (7%). The average age at diagnosis of normocalcemic PHPT was 61.4 ± 11.7 years and 56.4 ± 11.3 years in hypercalcemic PHPT. Besides the expected differences in serum calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus and 24 h urinary calcium, we found no significant changes in other biochemical variables, and no differences in densitometry evaluations such as the presence of osteopenia or osteoporosis and the number of fractures in the two types of PHPT. But there was a significant difference in the presence of renal lithiasis between normocalcemic PHPT (11.4%) and clasic PHPT (49.1%) p < 0.0005, to some extent associated to the presence of hypercalciuria in classic PHPT. Two of the 35 patients with normocalcemic PHPT became classic hypercalcemic PHPT over a 4 year follow-up period. Our findings support the hypothesis that the normocalcemic PHPT could be an early stage of the classic PHPT, both having similar clinical effects to metabolic renal and bone levels.

  16. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Air Data - Concentration Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  19. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  20. Nonequilibrium Air Plasma Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruger, Charles

    2002-01-01

    .... The goal of the Air Plasma Ramparts program is to investigate energy efficient methods for creating and sustaining large volume atmospheric air plasmas with electron number densities greater than 10(exp 13...

  1. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  2. Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  3. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  4. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  6. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  7. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... EPA is using indicators such as ambient air quality analysis, air quality trends including air.... The air quality analysis displayed past air quality trends and provided information regarding future... past monitoring in the Billings area (the area in which conditions conducive to ozone formation are...

  8. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Hensen, Arjan; Vermeulen, Alex

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM.

  9. Agricultural air quality in Europe and the future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.

    2008-08-01

    Agricultural emissions in Europe are important to several atmospheric transport-related environmental issues. These include local and regional air quality problems, such as PM exposure, eutrophication and acidification, toxics and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in a number of environmental impacts. Over Europe, agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and the contribution to the different issues are variable. Most important are ammonia (90%), PM (20%) and methane and nitrous oxide (both 5%). Policies have been developed to combat some of the emissions with success in some countries. However, future, national and European policies are necessary to successfully decrease emissions and its related problems. Current research issues include the quantification of non-point sources, the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of ammonia, the quantification of landscape processes and the primary and secondary emissions of PM

  10. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  11. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  12. Variable sweep geometry primary structure actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; White, Edward V.; Valentino, Michael

    2004-07-01

    Several corporations including QorTek and Boeing have both independently proposed variable sweep primary structures for future adaptive airframe structures as to enable miniaturized area dominance munitions and UAVs. Various new vehicle concepts must insert a high power actuator to overcome low speed aerodynamic forces within a limited packaging availability. In order to meet requirements for this and other UAV/UCAV/MMT missions, require a re-thinking on how to accomplish large motor torque/lb (rather than energy/lb) while integrating the speed and torque capability in a small package. The difficulty is highlighted by considering that piezo devices are nicely compact but can only deliver is typically 1-2ft-lb/lb; whereas SMA has potential of being lighter solution and can deliver 100-200 ft-lb/lb but has two problems: slow recovery and large weight penalty for thermal components. Fortunately, some munition applications have relatively modest control surface actuation bandwidth requirements. However, until now, the thermal aspect has been prohibitive. QorTek will present a new SMA-based motor that provides high torque/lb for UAV/UCAV/MMT systems. This unique motor design has eliminated the need for additional power components for thermal excitation (transient heating) of the SMA elements as to accomplish phase transition. The resulting package is the desirable lightweight and compact packaged solution to many air vehicle and munition needs. Moreover, the design eliminates the undesirable "snapping" action associated with SMA phase transition.

  13. Characterization of a free air ionization chamber for low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Xavier, Marcos; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: nsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Free air ionization chambers are used by most primary metrology laboratories as primary standards of the quantities air kerma and exposure in X-ray beams. The free air ionization chamber for low energies of the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN showed in a characterization test a problem in the set responsible for the variation of its sensitive volume. After a modification in the support of the micrometers used for the movement of the internal cylinder and the establishment of a new alignment system protocol, the tests were redone. The objective of this work was to present the results obtained in the new condition. (author)

  14. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the risks to health may be greater due to indoor air pollution than the outdoor air. ... materials, furnishings, wet or damp carpets, household chemical products, air cond itioners, dehumidifiers and outdoor sources such as radon and pesticides. ... organic compounds are emitted from construction materials, furnishings and ...

  16. Clean Air Act Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  17. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  18. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  19. Optimization of multipollutant air quality management strategies: A case study for five cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting

    2015-06-01

    Developing regional air quality management strategies is a difficult task because formation of air pollutants is interdependent and air quality at different locations may have different responses to emissions from common sources. We developed an optimization-based model, OPtimal integrated Emission Reduction Alternatives (OPERA), which allows for identifications of least-cost control strategies for attaining multipollutant air quality targets at multiple locations simultaneously. To implement OPERA, first, sensitivities of air quality to precursor emission changes are quantified. Second, cost functions of emission reductions are estimated using a cost analysis tool that includes a pool of available control measures. The third step is to determine desired reductions in concentrations of air pollutants. The last step is to identify the optimal control strategies by minimizing costs of emission controls using the sensitivities of air pollutants to emission changes, cost functions, and constraints for feasible emission reduction ratios. A case study that investigates ozone and PM2.5 air quality in the summer of 2007 for five major cities in the eastern United States is presented in this paper. The results of the OPERA calculations show that reductions in regional NOx and VOC as well as local primary PM2.5 emissions were more cost-effective than SO2 controls for decreasing ozone and total PM2.5 concentrations in the summer of 2007. This was because reductions in SO2 emissions would only decrease PM2.5 concentrations, and reductions in primary PM2.5 emissions were more cost-effective than SO2 emission controls. We developed an optimization-based model, OPtimal integrated Emission Reduction Alternatives (OPERA), which allows for identification of least-cost emission control strategies for attaining multipollutant air quality targets at multiple locations simultaneously. A major strength of OPERA is its flexibility, which allows for changes in air quality regulations

  20. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  1. 76 FR 10895 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... standards, research related to air quality, sources of air pollution, and the strategies to attain and... 12, 2008 primary and secondary Ozone NAAQS to ensure they are scientifically sound and protective of...

  2. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  3. Electrostatic precipitator for air cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertsson, P.; Eriksson, R.; Vlastos, A.

    1981-03-31

    An electrostatic precipitator is disclosed for air cleaning wherein the air passes through in two steps: first passing through a charging portion and next through a separation portion. The charging portion includes wires positioned parallel to and between parallel metal sheets, the wires having an electric potential other than that of the metal sheets. The separation portion includes plural parallel metal sheets, each of which has an electric potential other than that of adjacent metal sheets. The charging portion includes two or more wires between each pair of metal sheets, and the metal sheets of the charging portion extend through and constitute some of the metal sheets of the separation portion, between which are disposed addition metal sheets of an odd number.

  4. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  5. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  6. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  7. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  8. LaGuardia air traffic control tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate FAA and its LaGuardia Airport employees past, : present, and future this booklet outlines the airports history and accomplishments and includes copies of some of the photographs in the : air traffic control towers history g...

  9. Indoor air in schools and lung function of Austrian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Piegler, Kathrin; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Fröhlich, Marina; Damberger, Bernhard; Tappler, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2012-07-01

    The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) of WHO focuses (inter alia) on improving indoor environments where children spend most of their time. At present, only little is known about air pollution in schools and its effect on the lung function of school children. Our project was set up as an Austrian contribution to CEHAPE. In a cross-sectional approach, differences in indoor pollution in nine elementary all-day schools were assessed and 34 of these pollutants were analyzed for a relationship with respiratory health determined by spirometry using a linear regression model. Overall 596 children (aged 6-10 years) were eligible for the study. Spirometry was performed in 433 children. Socio-economic status, area of living (urban/rural), and smoking at home were included in the model as potential confounders with school-related average concentration of air pollutants as the variable of primary interest. A negative association with flow volumes (MEF(75)) was found for formaldehyde in air samples, benzylbutylphthalate and the sum of polybrominated diphenylethers in school dust. FVC and FEV(1) were negatively associated with ethylbenzene and xylenes in air samples and tris(1,3-dichlor-2-propyl)-phosphate on particulates. Although, in general, the quality of school indoor air was not worse than that reported for homes, effects on the respiratory health of children cannot be excluded. A multi-faceted strategy to improve the school environment is needed.

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  11. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  13. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  14. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  15. A zinc paste primary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

    1983-03-01

    It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

  16. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... submit regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS...

  17. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  18. Air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions - 'Namea-Air' - February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, the SOeS (Monitoring and Statistics Directorate of France's Ministry of the Environment) is publishing air pollutant emissions accounts in the National Accounting Matrix Including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) format for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008 to 2014. Namea-Air is an inventory format breaking down emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants into 64 branches of economic activity and identifying a 'direct household emissions' category. (author)

  19. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica MacKenzie-Feder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common condition that affects 0.3% of the general population. Primary and tertiary care specialists can encounter patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and prompt recognition and treatment can greatly reduce morbidity and mortality from this disease. In this paper we will review the basic physiology of calcium homeostasis and then consider genetic associations as well as common etiologies and presentations of primary hyperparathyroidism. We will consider emerging trends in detection and measurement of parathyroid hormone as well as available imaging modalities for the parathyroid glands. Surgical indications and approach will be reviewed as well as medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism with bisphosphonates and calcimimetics.

  20. Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E.; Silverberg, Shonni J.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism, a common endocrine disorder, is traditionally defined by hypercalcemia and elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). A newer presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism has been described over the past decade, in which PTH is elevated but serum calcium is consistently normal, in the absence of secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism, such as renal disease or vitamin D deficiency. Recognition of this phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, supports a biphasic chronological time course in some individuals in which PTH levels are first elevated but serum calcium is normal, followed by the development of frank hypercalcemia. This review focuses on the available literature regarding this newly described phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:23374739

  1. Review of failures in nuclear air cleaning systems (1975--1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    During the period from January 1, 1975 through June 30, 1978, over 9,000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) pertaining to the operation of commercial light water nuclear power plants in the US were reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Of these reports, over 1,200 (approximately 13%) pertained to failures in air monitoring, ventilating and cleaning systems. For BWR installations, over half of the reported events related to failures in equipment for monitoring the performance of air cleaning systems as contrasted to failures in the systems themselves. In PWR installations, failures in monitoring equipment amounted to about 32% of the total. Reported problem areas in BWR installations included the primary containment and standby gas treatment and off-gas systems, as well as the High Pressure Coolant Injection and Reactor Core Isolation Systems. For PWR installations, reported problem areas included primary containment and associated spray systems and waste processing equipment. Although data on reported failures in power reactor installations can be interpreted in a variety of ways, one message is clear. There is a need for research on the development of more reliable equipment for sampling and monitoring air systems. Equipment that provides inaccurate data on the performance of such systems can lead to as many problems as inadequacies in the systems themselves

  2. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  3. Air-sea fluxes of momentum and mass in the presence of wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zülicke, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    An air-sea interaction model (ASIM) is developed including the effect of wind waves on momentum and mass transfer. This includes the derivation of profiles of dissipation rate, flow speed and concentration from a certain height to a certain depth. Simplified assumptions on the turbulent closure, skin - bulk matching and the spectral wave model allow for an analytic treatment. Particular emphasis was put on the inclusion of primary (gravity) waves and secondary (capillary-gravity) waves. The model was tuned to match wall-flow theory and data on wave height and slope. Growing waves reduce the air-side turbulent stress and lead to an increasing drag coefficient. In the sea, breaking waves inject turbulent kinetic energy and accelerate the transfer. Cross-reference with data on wave-related momentum and energy flux, dissipation rate and transfer velocity was sufficient. The evaluation of ASIM allowed for the analytical calculation of bulk formulae for the wind-dependent gas transfer velocity including information on the air-side momentum transfer (drag coefficient) and the sea-side gas transfer (Dalton number). The following regimes have been identified: the smooth waveless regime with a transfer velocity proportional to (wind) × (diffusion)2-3, the primary wave regime with a wind speed dependence proportional to (wind)1-4 × (diffusion)1-2-(waveage)1-4 and the secondary wave regime including a more-than-linear wind speed dependence like (wind)15-8 × (diffusion)1-2 × (waveage)5-8. These findings complete the current understanding of air-sea interaction for medium winds between 2 and 20 m s^-1.

  4. Radio detection of extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Radio detection of extensive air showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere has made tremendous progress in the last decade. Today, radio detection is routinely used in several cosmic-ray observatories. The physics of the radio emission in air showers is well-understood, and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the arrival direction, the energy and an estimate for the mass of the primary particle from the radio measurements. The achieved resolutions are competitive with those of more traditional techniques. In this article, I shortly review the most important achievements and discuss the potential for future applications.

  5. A new air-conditioning terminal combines variable air flow rate and induction; Un nouveau terminal de ''clim'' combine debit d'air variable et induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    The air conditioning of an administrative building of Clermont-Ferrand (France) is ensured by a centralized system which uses an innovative air flow rate regulation system made of a nozzle and a moving cone. The nozzle/cone system allows to adjust the flow rate of the primary cold air before its mixing with the recycled air taken from the room. This system works at a constant pressure and the temperature is regulated by simply adjusting the cold-air/recycled air ratio. The use of 'very' cold air (around 10 deg. C) allows to reduce the size of the distribution ducts. The hot and cold batteries of the air treatment systems are supplied by a air/water reversible heat pump. (J.S.)

  6. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  7. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  8. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  9. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  10. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  11. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  12. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included

  13. Diseases of the abdomen including the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, C.; Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the following diseases: fatty liver; cystic disease of the liver; liver abscess; liver cirrhosis; hepatic hemangioma; cholelithiasis; primary liver cancer; cholangioma; cancer of the common bile duct; pancreatic cyst; pancreatic calculi; chronic pancreatitis; pancreatic pseudocyst; chronic pancreatitis: pancreatic fatty degeneration; cancer of the pancreas; nonfunctioning kidney: chalk kidney; polycystic kidney; perirenal calcified abscess; renal infarct; cancer of the renal pelvis; adrenal pheochromocytoma; adenoma of the adrenal cortex; leiomyosarcoma of the stomach; malignant mesothelioma; intraperitoneal abscess; perityphlic abscess; retroperitoneal reticulum cell sarcoma; and retroperitoneal cyst

  14. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, nonspecific autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophilic antibody, antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on radiographic studies, are the hallmarks of the disease. No effective medical therapy is currently available, although clinical studies are in progress. Ursodeoxycholic acid at high doses (28 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day is the most promising agent but is unproven so far. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrent disease can be observed in the transplanted liver. The multiple complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, peristomal varices, bacterial cholangitis, dominant biliary strictures, gallbladder stones and polyps, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of PSC.

  15. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  16. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    of ambient air can be supplied, thus improving the indoor air quality still further. Reheating of air is not necessary when using Binary Ice. The introduction of chilled air into a room requires a different type of air outlet, however. When using Binary Ice, energy savings are high for climates with low...... ambient air enthalpies and lower for high ambient air enthalpies. The cooling demand can be reduced up to 50% and the energy demand of the refrigeration plant is also affected positively. When using Binary Ice the annual operating costs, including depreciation of the investment, are ultimately lower....... Binary Ice as secondary refrigerant for air-conditioning purposes is an economical and technically feasible solution in any climate. Whatever chilled water can do in an air-conditioning installation ? Binary Ice can do it better....

  17. Decreased AIRE expression and global thymic hypofunction in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flavia A; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Ramos, Patrícia L; Brentani, Helena; Lima, Leandro de A; Arrais, Magaly; Bento-de-Souza, Luiz C; Bento-de-Souza, Luciana; Duarte, Maria I; Coutinho, Antonio; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2011-09-15

    The Down syndrome (DS) immune phenotype is characterized by thymus hypotrophy, higher propensity to organ-specific autoimmune disorders, and higher susceptibility to infections, among other features. Considering that AIRE (autoimmune regulator) is located on 21q22.3, we analyzed protein and gene expression in surgically removed thymuses from 14 DS patients with congenital heart defects, who were compared with 42 age-matched controls with heart anomaly as an isolated malformation. Immunohistochemistry revealed 70.48 ± 49.59 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in DS versus 154.70 ± 61.16 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in controls (p genes significantly hypoexpressed in DS, most of which were related, according to network transcriptional analysis (FunNet), to cell division and to immunity. Immune response-related genes included those involved in 1) Ag processing and presentation (HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB3, CD1A, CD1B, CD1C, ERAP) and 2) thymic T cell differentiation (IL2RG, RAG2, CD3D, CD3E, PRDX2, CDK6) and selection (SH2D1A, CD74). It is noteworthy that relevant AIRE-partner genes, such as TOP2A, LAMNB1, and NUP93, were found hypoexpressed in DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. These findings on global thymic hypofunction in DS revealed molecular mechanisms underlying DS immune phenotype and strongly suggest that DS immune abnormalities are present since early development, rather than being a consequence of precocious aging, as widely hypothesized. Thus, DS should be considered as a non-monogenic primary immunodeficiency.

  18. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  19. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  20. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.