Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a debtor's...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal interviews. 540.63 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR... interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...; or (3) An agreement for payment might be negotiated. (b) The NRC shall grant an interview with a...
Hilliard, Thomas; Macan, Therese
The authors examined individual difference and self-regulatory variables to understand how an interviewer rates a candidate's personality. Participants were undergraduate students at a large midwestern university in the United States who completed measures of individual differences, read an employment interview transcript involving a candidate applying for a customer service job, and rated the candidate's personality. Participants' agreeableness, social skills, and communion striving were positively associated with their ratings of the candidate's helpfulness and obedience. The authors provide a foundation for further research on interviewer effectiveness and the processes underlying the employment interview.
Bye, Hege H; Sandal, Gro M
We investigated how job applicants' personalities influence perceptions of the structural and social procedural justice of group selection interviews (i.e., a group of several applicants being evaluated simultaneously). We especially addressed trait interactions between neuroticism and extraversion (the affective plane) and extraversion and agreeableness (the interpersonal plane). Data on personality (pre-interview) and justice perceptions (post-interview) were collected in a field study among job applicants ( N = 97) attending group selection interviews for positions as teachers in a Norwegian high school. Interaction effects in hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceptions of social and structural justice increased with levels of extraversion among high scorers on neuroticism. Among emotionally stable applicants, however, being introverted or extraverted did not matter to justice perceptions. Extraversion did not impact on the perception of social justice for applicants low in agreeableness. Agreeable applicants, however, experienced the group interview as more socially fair when they were also extraverted. The impact of applicant personality on justice perceptions may be underestimated if traits interactions are not considered. Procedural fairness ratings for the group selection interview were high, contrary to the negative reactions predicted by other researchers. There was no indication that applicants with desirable traits (i.e., traits predictive of job performance) reacted negatively to this selection tool. Despite the widespread use of interviews in selection, previous studies of applicant personality and fairness reactions have not included interviews. The study demonstrates the importance of previously ignored trait interactions in understanding applicant reactions.
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.
Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40–.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders. PMID:23281671
Griffin, B.; Wilson, I.
Given the accumulating evidence that performance in medical school and beyond is related to personality, it is important for research to consider how personality assessment can be included as part of the process of selecting medical students. Interviews are one way of measuring personality and this study extends prior research investigating…
Gjerde, L C; Czajkowski, N; Røysamb, E; Orstavik, R E; Knudsen, G P; Ostby, K; Torgersen, S; Myers, J; Kendler, K S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T
Personality disorders (PDs) have been shown to be modestly heritable. Accurate heritability estimates are, however, dependent on reliable measurement methods, as measurement error deflates heritability. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of DSM-IV avoidant and dependent personality disorder, by including two measures of the PDs at two time points. Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of young adult Norwegian twins, of whom 8045 had completed a self-report questionnaire assessing PD traits. 2794 of these twins subsequently underwent a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Questionnaire items predicting interview results were selected by multiple regression, and measurement models of the PDs were fitted in Mx. The heritabilities of the PD factors were 0.64 for avoidant PD and 0.66 for dependent PD. No evidence of common environment, that is, environmental factors that are shared between twins and make them similar, was found. Genetic and environmental contributions to avoidant and dependent PD seemed to be the same across sexes. The combination of both a questionnaire- and an interview assessment of avoidant and dependent PD results in substantially higher heritabilities than previously found using single-occasion interviews only. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
José Miguel Rodríguez Molina
Full Text Available Transsexuality is an emerging phenomenon. There are therefore few psychological assessment tools for it. The purpose of this article is to show the professional clinical psychology and social intervention community a tool that could facilitate this task. We begin with a brief introduction to the phenomenon of transsexuality and psychological assessment in this field, which almost always concentrates on diagnosis or other variables, generally personality (personality traits, depression, anxiety, etc.. Then we approach the main problems found in a transsexual person during the transition. These problems are a potential or real source of psychological conflict. After this we briefly describe behavioral assessment which has been quite forgotten in this area. Finally, we propose a new instrument for this assessment. The main result is the Interview Guideline for Functional Behavior Sequence Analysis (FBSA. We conclude that there is a need for more behavior assessment in this field.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by questionnaires and personal interviews are heritable. However, we know neither how much unreliability of measurement impacts on heritability estimates nor whether the genetic and environmental risk factors assessed by these two methods are the same. We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods. A total of 3334 young adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel (NIPHTP) completed a questionnaire containing 91 PD items. One to 6 years later, 1386 of these pairs were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Self-report items predicting interview results were selected by regression. Measurement models were fitted using Mx. In the best-fit models, the latent liabilities to paranoid personality disorder (PPD), schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) were all highly heritable with no evidence of shared environmental effects. For PPD and STPD, only unique environmental effects were specific to the interview measure whereas both environmental and genetic effects were found to be specific to the questionnaire assessment. For SPD, the best-fit model contained genetic and environmental effects specific to both forms of assessment. The latent liabilities to the cluster A PDs are highly heritable but are assessed by current methods with only moderate reliability. The personal interviews assessed the genetic risk for the latent trait with excellent specificity for PPD and STPD and good specificity for SPD. However, for all three PDs, the questionnaires were less specific, also indexing an independent set of genetic risk factors.
Jerant, Anthony; Griffin, Erin; Rainwater, Julie; Henderson, Mark; Sousa, Francis; Bertakis, Klea D; Fenton, Joshua J; Franks, Peter
To examine relationships among applicant personality, Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) performance, and medical school acceptance offers. The authors conducted an observational study of applicants who participated in the MMI at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine during the 2010-2011 admissions cycle and responded to the Big Five Inventory measuring their personality factors (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness). Individuals' MMI performance at 10 stations was summarized as a total score. Regression analyses examined associations of personality factors with MMI score, and associations of personality factors and MMI score with acceptance offers. Covariates included sociodemographic and academic performance measures. Among the 444 respondents, those with extraversion scores in the top (versus bottom) quartile had significantly higher MMI scores (adjusted parameter estimate = 5.93 higher, 95% CI: 4.27-7.59; P Adoption of the MMI may affect diversity in medical student personalities, with potential implications for students' professional growth, specialty distribution, and patient care.
Jeong, Jeong Hee; Jeong, Ihn Sook
The aims of this study were to develop a motivational interviewing program for exercise improvement in persons with physical disabilities and to examine the effect of this motivational interviewing intervention. The study employed a nonequivalent control group pretest and posttest design. A total of 62 persons with physical disabilities (30 in the experimental group, 32 in the control group) were recruited from 2 community rehabilitation centers. The experimental group received 8 sessions of a group motivational interviewing program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 60 minutes. Test measures were completed before the intervention, immediately after the end of the intervention, 2 weeks later, and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention. Measures included self-efficacy for exercise, decisional balance for exercise, stage of change for exercise, regularity of exercise, exercise maintenance, and independent living ability. Data were analyzed using the χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, Independent samples t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA, conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 18. The experimental group showed a significant increase in self-efficacy for exercise (F=50.98, pmotivational interviewing program has the potential to improve exercise levels in persons with physical disabilities. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Griffin, B; Wilson, I
Given the accumulating evidence that performance in medical school and beyond is related to personality, it is important for research to consider how personality assessment can be included as part of the process of selecting medical students. Interviews are one way of measuring personality and this study extends prior research investigating whether the multiple mini interview (MMI) is related to the five factor model of personality. In contrast to prior results (Kulasegaram et al. in Adv Health Sci Edu 15:415-423, 2010), examination of MMI scores for 868 applicants to an Australian medical school over 3 years showed significant uncorrected correlations every year with extraversion (.19, .19, .30) and conscientiousness (.20, .22, .25) and with agreeableness in 2 years (.17, .19). Investigation of personality at a facet-level revealed differing relationships with the MMI within the five factors of personality. MMI scores were also correlated in 2 years (.17, .22) with a situational judgment test of interpersonal understanding (UMAT Section 2) but were unrelated to tests of logical reasoning ability (UMAT Section 1), non-verbal reasoning (Section 3), or past academic performance (Higher School Certificate results).
Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid
According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight.
Trull, T J; Widiger, T A; Burr, R
The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment.
Cederwall, Carl-Johan; Olausson, Sepideh; Rose, Louise; Naredi, Silvana; Ringdal, Mona
To determine: 1) if the three elements of person-centred care (initiating, working and safeguarding the partnership) were present, and 2) to identify evidence of barriers to person-centred care during prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Secondary analysis of semi structured interviews with 19 critical care nurses using theoretical thematic analysis. This study was conducted in three Swedish intensive care units, one in a regional hospital and two in a university hospital. Three themes and nine subthemes related to person-centred care were identified. The three themes included: 1) 'finding a person behind the patient' related to the 'initiating the partnership' phase, 2) 'striving to restore patient́s sense of control' related to 'working the partnership' phase and 3) 'impact of patient involvement' related to 'safeguarding the partnership' phase of person-centred care'. Additionally a further theme 'barriers to person-centred care' was identified. We found evidence of all three person-centred care routines. Barriers to person-centred care comprised of lack team collaboration and resources. Facilitating patients to actively participate in decision-making during the weaning process may optimise weaning outcomes and warrants further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Association du personnel
New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the âﾜpeople at CERNâ the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.
Lourinho, Isabel; Moreira, André; Mota-Cardoso, Rui; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
Personality has became popular in medical student's selection. However, few research exists about the association between the big five personality traits and the existent medical school selection tools. Our aim was to study which personality traits were selected by a medical school admission interview. One hundred ninety four graduate applicants that had applied to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto through the graduate entry approach, after ranked on previous achievement, were interviewed between the academic years of 2011 and 2013. From these, 181 (93.3%) answered to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory that assesses high order personality traits of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Admission interview corresponded to the second phase of the seriation process. Every applicant was interviewed and scored by three interviewers on seven dimensions asesssed by Lickert scale (1-10). Interview score was the sum of the dimensions. Linear mixed effects model and respective regression coefficients were used to estimate the association between personality traits from each interviewer's score. Final models were adjusted for gender, interviewers and previous achievement. Openness to experience (Beta = 0.18: CI 95%: 0.05; 0.30) had the strongest association with interview score followed by the interaction effect between the extraversion and conscientiousness traits (Beta = 0.14; CI 95%: 0.02; 0.25). Also, applicants scored higher when their gender was opposite to the interviewers. Previous achievement and interview score had no association. Our admission interview selected different personality traits when compared to other selection tools. Medical schools should be aware of the implications of the adopted selection tools on the admitted medical student's personality because it can help providing beneficial interventions.
Abraham Zaleznik focuses on some things that might seem old-fashioned: talent, the individual mind, and a fascination with the content, the product, the nuts and bolts of the business. He is the great champion of the individual in corporate life. There has been a lot of discussion about the difference between managers and leaders. It was Zaleznik who started the discussion some 15 years ago in a seminal Harvard Business Review article called "Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?" A lot of his colleagues at Harvard, prime developers of the profession of management, thought he was nuts. He argued that management and leadership involve completely different mindsets, and that great business enterprises suffer when they are given over to professional managers. His ideas strike sparks against those of other people we have interviewed in this series. He questions the value of the total quality movement, and the importance of teamwork. Where Russell Ackoff spoke of democracy and free markets within the corporation, Zaleznik praises hierarchy. Where Terry Deal found cohesion and motivation in the meanings and rituals of the workplace, Zaleznik dismisses workplace ritual as a waste of time and energy.
Morgan C. MacDonald
Full Text Available The investigation of multiple sources in household water management is considered overly complicated and time consuming using paper and pen interviewing (PAPI. We assess the advantages of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI in Pacific Island Countries (PICs. We adapted an existing PAPI survey on multiple water sources and expanded it to incorporate location of water use and the impacts of extreme weather events using SurveyCTO on Android tablets. We then compared the efficiency and accuracy of data collection using the PAPI version (n = 44 with the CAPI version (n = 291, including interview duration, error rate and trends in interview duration with enumerator experience. CAPI surveys facilitated high-quality data collection and were an average of 15.2 min faster than PAPI. CAPI survey duration decreased by 0.55% per survey delivered (p < 0.0001, whilst embedded skip patterns and answer lists lowered data entry error rates, relative to PAPI (p < 0.0001. Large-scale household surveys commonly used in global monitoring and evaluation do not differentiate multiple water sources and uses. CAPI equips water researchers with a quick and reliable tool to address these knowledge gaps and advance our understanding of development research priorities.
Kongerslev, Mickey T; Bach, Bo; Olsen, Cecilie Westergaard
The chapter outlines the rationale for using structured clinical interviews to diagnose personality disorder, provides an overview of the changes from SCID-II to SCID-5-PD, and describes the translation procedures used for the Danish version...
This article is a response to an article by Eileen Thorsos in which she describes how non-academic jobs can be explored through personal interviews. The response emphasizes the importance of finding people, rather than job titles, to interview. The same title can mean very different things in differ...
This SOP describes the general method for collecting personal interview data from the child's parent (and the day care center staff, if applicable). Study participants, both parents and day care center teachers, will be interviewed by the project staff at a scheduled appointment ...
Heggestad, Anne Kari T; Nortvedt, Per; Slettebø, Åshild
The aim of this article is to show the importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in research. The article presents and discusses ethical challenges encountered when a total of 15 persons with dementia from two nursing homes and seven proxies were included in a qualitative study. The examples show that the ethical challenges may be unpredictable. As researchers, you participate with the informants in their daily life and in the interviews, and it is not possible to plan all that may happen during the research. A procedural proposal to an ethical committee at the beginning of a research project based on traditional research ethical principles may serve as a guideline, but it cannot solve all the ethical problems one faces during the research process. Our main argument in this article is, therefore, that moral sensitivity is required in addition to the traditional research ethical principles throughout the whole process of observing and interviewing the respondents.
Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte
contained relevant information about dyadic interviewing but only very subtle topics about ethics and 8 articles addressed both dyadic interviewing and ethical considerations. Findings were divided into three different types of ethical challenges for: 1. The researcher/interviewer. 2. The planning of joint...... interviews 3. Participants wellbeing Conclusion Ethical considerations’ doing joint interviews could include themes as; privacy and confidentiality, informed consent, harm, dual role and over-involvement, politics and power. Joint interview provides insight to shared accounts and communication patterns......Background Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) at the same time poses different considerations than interviews with one person, among others due to the relation between the informants. Aim To provide an overview on ethical perspectives conducting joint interviews with interrelated...
Full Text Available The study explores the relative contribution of interviewers’ personality and interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s personality in predicting interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s job suitability and examines the moderating effect of interviewers’ personality on the relationship between ratings of candidate’s personality and job suitability. Results showed that ratings of candidate’s Big Five personality traits were related to ratings of candidate’s job suitability, as well as were interviewers’ Agreeableness and Extraversion. Interviewers’ Openness and Agreeableness had a moderating effect on the relationship between interviewers’ ratings of candidate’s personality traits and ratings of candidate’s job suitability. Results reveal the role that interviewer’s Agreeableness, Extraversion and Openness play in the assessment of candidate in the selection interview.
Ainsworth, M S
This interview took place in Charlottesville, Virginia, on August 20, 1991, at the home of Mary Salter Ainsworth. One of the foremost exponents of attachment theory and a colleague of the late John Bowlby, Dr. Ainsworth is best known for her innovative Strange Situation procedure, an experimental method to test the strength and styles of infants' attachments to their primary caregiver. She is the author of numerous papers and books, including Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love (1967), Patterns of Attachment (1978), and, with John Bowlby, Child Care and the Growth of Love (2nd ed., 1965).
... organizations are not proper subjects for inquiry. Department of Defense representatives conducting personal interviews should always be prepared to explain the relevance of their inquiries. Adverse inferences shall... rights or discourage lawful political activity in any of its forms, or intimidate free expression, it is...
This qualitative case study examines the reading acumen of a cohort of twenty-six senior football players at a Midwestern public research university. Data related to three indices--ACT scores, interview responses, and personal preferences--were collected as part of a larger IRB-approved study aimed at determining the factors that led to the entire…
Personality, biographical characteristics, and job interview success: a longitudinal study of the mediating effects of interviewing self-efficacy and the moderating effects of internal locus of causality.
Tay, Cheryl; Ang, Soon; Van Dyne, Linn
In this study, the authors developed and tested a model of performance in job interviews that examines the mediating role of interviewing self-efficacy (I-SE; job applicants' beliefs about their interviewing capabilities) in linking personality and biographical background with interview success and the moderating role of locus of causality attributions in influencing the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. The authors tested their model (over 5 months' duration) with matched data from 229 graduating seniors, firms, and university records. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated I-SE mediated the effects of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and leadership experience on interview success. Locus of causality attributions for interview outcomes moderated the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah
"This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. The authors take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behavior and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behavior and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and int...
Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E; Baer, John; Atkins, David C
Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, "felt sense" of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High-empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared with low-empathy sessions (p<.01), and overall, average LSS was notably higher in high-empathy versus low-empathy sessions (d=0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with a 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high-empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio=2.4; 95% CI: 1.36; 4.24, p<.01). These findings suggest empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.
Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166
Bach, Bo; Anderson, Jaime; Simonsen, Erik
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III offers an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), including 25 pathological personality trait facets organized into 5 trait domains. To maintain continuity with the categorical PD...... diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated...... with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders. We investigated whether the DSM-5 Section III facet-profiles would be associated with their respective Section II counterparts, as well as determining whether additional facets could augment the prediction of the Section II disorders. Results...
Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W
In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless
Taipale, Heidi; Tanskanen, Antti; Koponen, Marjaana; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Background PRE2DUP is a modeling method that generates drug use periods (ie, when drug use started and ended) from drug purchases recorded in dispensing-based register data. It is based on the evaluation of personal drug purchasing patterns and considers hospital stays, possible stockpiling of drugs, and package information. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate person-level agreement between self-reported drug use in the interview and drug use modeled from dispensing data with PRE2DUP method for various drug classes used by older persons. Methods Self-reported drug use was assessed from the GeMS Study including a random sample of persons aged ≥75 years from the city of Kuopio, Finland, in 2006. Drug purchases recorded in the Prescription register data of these persons were modeled to determine drug use periods with PRE2DUP modeling method. Agreement between self-reported drug use on the interview date and drug use calculated from register-based data was compared in order to find the frequently used drugs and drug classes, which was evaluated by Cohen’s kappa. Kappa values 0.61–0.80 were considered to represent good and 0.81–1.00 as very good agreement. Results Among 569 participants with mean age of 82 years, the agreement between interview and register data was very good for 75% and very good or good for 93% of the studied drugs or drug classes. Good or very good agreement was observed for drugs that are typically used on regular bases, whereas “as needed” drugs represented poorer results. Conclusion PRE2DUP modeling method validly describes regular drug use among older persons. For most of drug classes investigated, PRE2DUP-modeled register data described drug use as well as interview-based data which are more time-consuming to collect. Further studies should be conducted by comparing it with other methods and in different drug user populations. PMID:27785101
Full Text Available Smartphone-based personal carbon monoxide (CO monitors and associated apps, or “CO Smartphone Systems” (CSSs for short, could enable smokers to independently monitor their smoking and quitting. This study explored views and preferences regarding CSSs and their use among 16 adult, UK-based smokers. First, semi-structured interviews explored participants’ expectations of CSSs. Secondly, a think-aloud study identified participants’ reactions to a personal CO monitor and to existing or prototype apps. Framework Analysis identified five themes: (1 General views, needs, and motivation to use CSSs; (2 Views on the personal CO monitor; (3 Practicalities of CSS use; (4 Desired features in associated apps; and (5 Factors affecting preferences for CSSs and their use. Participants had high expectations of CSSs and their potential to increase motivation. Priority app features included: easy CO testing journeys, relevant and motivating feedback, and recording of contextual data. Appearance and usability of the personal CO monitor, and accuracy and relevance of CO testing were considered important for engagement. Participants differed in their motivation to use and preferences for CSSs features and use, which might have non-trivial impact on evaluation efforts. Personal CO monitors and associated apps may be attractive tools for smokers, but making CSSs easy to use and evaluating these among different groups of smokers may be challenging.
Full Text Available Background and aims: Personality psychology research relies on the notion that humans have a single self that is the result of the individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can be reliably described (i.e., through traits. People who identify themselves as “multiple” have a system of multiple or alternative, selves, that share the same physical body. This is the first study to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity by assessing the experiences of people who identify themselves as “multiple.”Methods: First, an Internet forum search was performed using the terms “multiplicity” and “multiple system.” Based on that search, people who identified themselves as multiple were contacted. Interviews were conducted by a consultant psychiatrist, which produced six case vignettes.Results: Multiplicity is discussed on Twitter, Tumblr, Google+ and several other personal websites, blogs, and forums maintained by multiples. According to the study's estimates, there are 200–300 individuals who participate in these forums and believe they are multiple. Based on the six interviews, it appears that multiples have several selves who are relatively independent of each other and constitute the personality's system. Each “resident person” or self, has their own unique behavioral pattern, which is triggered by different situations. However, multiples are a heterogeneous group in terms of their system organization, memory functions, and control over switching between selves.Conclusions: Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID, although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping.
Mariska G Oosterveld-Vlug
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. AIM: To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. DESIGN: A longitudinal qualitative study. METHODS: Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1 finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2 getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3 physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair; 4 being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5 being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. CONCLUSION: Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.
Background Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. Aim To investigate if and how nursing home residents’ personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. Design A longitudinal qualitative study. Methods Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Results From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1) finding a way to cope with one’s situation; 2) getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3) physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair); 4) being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5) being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. Conclusion Although the direction in which a resident’s personal dignity develops is also dependent on one’s character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person. PMID:24069235
Wall, K; Sharp, C; Ahmed, Y; Goodman, M; Zanarini, M C
While the degree of concordance between parent and adolescent self-report of internalizing and externalizing pathology is well studied, virtually nothing is known about concordance in borderline pathology and the implication of parent-adolescent discrepancies for outcomes. The present study aimed to (1) examine discrepancies between parents and adolescents on two interview-based measures of borderline personality disorder (BPD)-the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R 22 ) and the Childhood Interview for Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD 23 ); and (2) investigate the implications of discrepancies for clinical outcomes. Diagnostic concordance on the DIB-R and CI-BPD showed rates of 82% and 94% respectively, with lower concordance demonstrated for dimensionally scored variables. Standardized difference scores between adolescent and parent reports on both borderline measures were significantly correlated with few interview-based axis I diagnoses as reported by parents, but not adolescents themselves. Implications regarding the use of each measure for the assessment and diagnosis of borderline personality disorder are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.
Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…
Social Education, 1983
William L. Shirer, author of Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, discusses a wide variety of subjects, including the personalities of Roosevelt and Hitler, why the Germans succumbed to Nazism, McCarthyism in the United States, and the heroic resistance of the Russians to German invasion. (CS)
Tse, Mimi M Y; Vong, Sinfia K S; Tang, Shuk Kwan
To examine the effectiveness of an integrated motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme on pain, physical and psychological function, quality of life, self-efficacy, and compliance with exercise for community-dwelling older persons with chronic pain. Chronic pain is common among older persons. Indeed, motivation for managing pain is poor, and may cause negative consequences. Motivational interviewing maybe effective in treating chronic pain. Single-blinded randomised control study. Older persons with chronic pain (n = 56) were recruited from two elderly community centres. They were blinded from the group allocation. The programme was conducted by an motivational interviewing-trained physiotherapist and registered nurses. Participants in the experimental group received an 8-week integrated motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme, while the control group received regular activities in the centre. Motivational interviewing used open-ended questions to encourage participants to express and recognise their pain and behaviours and professional feedback was given accordingly. Pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, anxiety, happiness, depression, mobility and quality of life were measured before and after the motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme. Attendance and compliance rate of the programme was calculated in the experimental group. Significant improvements in pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, anxiety, happiness and mobility after the motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme (all p Motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme is effective in improving pain, physical mobility, psychological well-being and self-efficacy for community-dwelling older persons with chronic pain. Motivational interviewing is a feasible counselling technique whose content can be modified based on target group to change maladaptive behaviours, elicit ambivalences and enhance self-efficacy for making changes. Thus
Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M
Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sjöström, Susanne; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion among medical students in Maharastra, India, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical students in their final year of education. We used a qualitative design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. The participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing gender biased sex selection, and concluded that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. The interviewed medical students' attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. The students perceived that nurse-midwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. To increase chances that medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice, it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training.
Sebergsen, Karina; Norberg, Astrid; Talseth, Anne-Grethe
It is important that mental health nurses meet the safety, security and care needs of persons suffering from psychotic illness to enhance these persons' likelihood of feeling better during their time in acute psychiatric wards. Certain persons in care describe nurses' mental health care as positive, whereas others report negative experiences and express a desire for improvements. There is limited research on how persons with psychotic illness experience nurses' mental health care acts and how such acts help these persons feel better. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore, describe and understand how the mental health nurses in acute psychiatric wards provide care that helps persons who experienced psychotic illness to feel better, as narrated by these persons. This study had a qualitative design; 12 persons participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed, content analysed and interpreted using Martin Buber's concept of confirmation. The results of this study show three categories of confirming mental health care that describe what helped the participants to feel better step-by-step: first, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of endurance; second, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of decreased psychotic symptoms; and third, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of support in daily life. The underlying meaning of the categories and of subcategories were interpreted and formulated as the theme; confirming mental health care to persons experiencing psychotic illness. Confirming mental health care acts seem to help persons to feel better in a step-wise manner during psychotic illness. Nurses' openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better and that may enhance their health. The results show the
Rensen, Yvonne C M; Kessels, Roy P C; Migo, Ellen M; Wester, Arie J; Eling, Paul A T M; Kopelman, Michael D
The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences between autobiographical memory interview (AMI) and autobiographical interview (AI) procedures influence the presence of a temporal gradient in semantic and episodic autobiographical memory in Korsakoff patients. The procedure used in the present study combined the AMI and AI into one study session. We compared the performance of 20 patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 27 healthy controls. First, participants were asked to recall knowledge from different life periods. Second, participants were asked to recall memories from five life periods. Thirdly, participants were asked to rate their subjective experience of each event recalled on a 5-point scale. Finally, we analyzed the findings in terms of all the memories recalled versus the first memory from each life-period only. Both the AMI and the AI showed a temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the Korsakoff patients for personal semantic and episodic autobiographical memories. The pattern of amnesia in Korsakoff patients was not affected by examining only one event per life-period. Subjective ratings of recalled memories were largely comparable between the groups. The findings were generally consistent across the AMI and AI. Varying the number of events did not affect the pattern of the gradient. Hence, the temporal gradient in Korsakoff patients is not an artefact of either the AMI or the AI method.
Full Text Available The pressure to find the ‘right’ personalities to strengthen customer service and working teams has made staffing decisions critical for organizations. Therefore, recruitment is more often outsourced and done so on a global level. By analyzing interviews with recruitment consultants, this article explores how consultants work in order to find the recruitment candidates with the most potential for their clients. It discusses recruitment as a process of affective decision-making where consultants use their ‘gut feelings’, that is, their own embodied affects, to secure the optimal ‘organizationperson fit’. Different kinds of details in the candidate’s appearance and micro-movements of the body cause ‘good vibrations’ or ‘strange feelings’ in the consultant’s affective body, which guides the selection among the candidates. By deconstructing the concept of ‘affect’, the article develops an understanding of recruitment as a practice where the embodied histories of consultants themselves play a key role in recruitment. The article claims that, as a result of competition in the business, the recruitment consultant relies on stereotypical performances of the ideal worker.
Helle, Ashley C; Trull, Timothy J; Widiger, Thomas A; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N
An alternative model for personality disorders is included in Section III (Emerging Models and Measures) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (5th ed.; DSM-5). The DSM-5 dimensional trait model is an extension of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses the 5 domains and 25 traits in the alternative model. The current study expands on recent research to examine the relationship of the PID-5 with an interview measure of the FFM. The Structured Interview for the Five Factor Model of Personality (SIFFM) assesses the 5 bipolar domains and 30 facets of the FFM. Research has indicated that the SIFFM captures maladaptive aspects of personality (as well as adaptive). The SIFFM, NEO PI-R, and PID-5 were administered to participants to examine their respective convergent and discriminant validity. Results provide evidence for the convergence of the 2 models using self-report and interview measures of the FFM. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed, particularly a call for the development of a structured interview for the assessment of the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.
Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Seow, Chuen Chai Dennis; Xiao, Chunxiang; Lee, Hui Min Julian; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rissanen, Olli; Palonen, Tuire; Pitkänen, Petteri; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai
The purpose of the present study was to examine expertise in magic by interviewing 16 prominent Finnish magicians who were identified earlier through a social network analysis of 120 Finnish magicians. A semi-structured interview was administered that addressed the participants' histories; their relationship to magic, the nature of their…
van Velsen, Lex Stefan; van der Geest, Thea; Klaassen, R.F.
Personalized systems present each user with tailored content or output. Testing the usability of such a system must take some specific usability issues and the suitability of the personalized output into account. In this study, we evaluated a personalized search engine to compare the use of
Laura Guadiana Martínez
Full Text Available In this interview, Natalie Rogers PhD, expounds on how art and expression serve personal and group growth in Person Centered Expressive Arts Therapy. Adding to the legacy of her father Carl Rogers, creator of the Person Centered Approach, she describes the interweaving of her experiences as a therapist and woman, and how she afforded extra room in the process for intuition, creativity, emotions and the fascinating exploration of the human experience. Using modeling, sculpting, dance, painting, music, etc. she created a model which furthers the person’s genuine expression and self knowledge. She sketches a profile of a facilitator who takes special care in creating an ambience where s/he not only does not judge the work, person, experience or results, but is on the contrary, empathetic and acceptant of the person and her experiences. Lastly, she discusses the applications of this approach to traditional educational settings, as well as some of the key training issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-seeking behaviour in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM has been investigated to a limited extent, and not in developing countries. Switches between different health sectors may interrupt glycaemic control, affecting health. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare-seeking behaviour, including use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM and traditional healers, in Ugandans diagnosed with DM. Further, to study whether gender influenced healthcare-seeking behaviour. Methods This is a descriptive study with a snowball sample from a community in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with 16 women and 8 men, aged 25-70. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results Healthcare was mainly sought among doctors and nurses in the professional sector because of severe symptoms related to DM and/or glycaemic control. Females more often focused on follow-up of DM and chronic pain in joints, while males described fewer problems. Among those who felt that healthcare had failed, most had turned to traditional healers in the folk sector for prescription of herbs or food supplements, more so in women than men. Males more often turned to private for-profit clinics while females more often used free governmental institutions. Conclusions Healthcare was mainly sought from nurses and physicians in the professional sector and females used more free-of-charge governmental institutions. Perceived failure in health care to manage DM or related complications led many, particularly women, to seek alternative treatment from CAM practitioners in the folk sector. Living conditions, including healthcare organisation and gender, seemed to influence healthcare seeking, but further studies are needed.
Ridd, Matthew; Shaw, Alison; Salisbury, Chris
Continuity is thought to be important to GPs but the values behind this are unknown. To explore the values that doctors working in general practice attach to continuity of patient care and to outline how these values are applied in practice. In-depth qualitative interview with 24 GPs in England. Participants were purposefully sampled according to personal and practice characteristics. Analysis was thematic, drawing on the constant comparative method. The majority of doctors valued doctor-patient, or personal, continuity in their everyday work. It was most valued in patients with serious, complex or psychological problems. GPs believed that through their personal knowledge of the patient and the doctor-patient relationship, personal continuity enabled them to provide higher quality care. However, the benefits of personal continuity were balanced against problems, and GPs identified personal, professional and external constraints that limited its provision. GPs seemed to have resolved the tension between the benefits, limits and constraints they described by accepting an increased reliance on continuity being provided within teams. Personal continuity may offer important benefits to doctors and patients, but we do not know how unique its values are. In particular, it is not clear whether the same benefits can be achieved within teams, the level at which continuity is increasingly being provided. The relative advantages and limits of the different means of delivering continuity need to be better understood, before further policy changes that affect personal continuity are introduced.
Nederström, Mikael; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
The article investigated agreement between self-reports and stranger ratings of personality. A sample of 139 real-life job applicants was interviewed by expert psychologists upon entrance to the assessment center. The applicants provided self-descriptions on 15 personality factors, and the psychologists rated the same traits of each target based on their impressions in the interview. The results demonstrated that professional judges can reach a substantial self-other agreement (SOA) on several traits even when the targets are strangers, and that the trait being judged, the target's gender, age and social desirability have an effect on the level of agreement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Faber, B. J. M.; Wind, H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.
The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in
Wolf, Axel; Moore, Lucy; Lydahl, Doris; Naldemirci, Öncel; Elam, Mark; Britten, Nicky
Although conceptual definitions of person-centred care (PCC) vary, most models value the involvement of patients through patient-professional partnerships. While this may increase patients' sense of responsibility and control, research is needed to further understand how this partnership is created and perceived. This study aims to explore the realities of partnership as perceived by patients and health professionals in everyday PCC practice. Qualitative study employing a thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with professionals and patients. Four internal medicine wards and two primary care centres in western Sweden. 16 health professionals based at hospital wards or primary care centres delivering person-centred care, and 20 patients admitted to one of the hospital wards. Our findings identified both informal and formal aspects of partnership. Informal aspects, emerging during the interaction between healthcare professionals and patients, without any prior guidelines or regulations, incorporated proximity and receptiveness of professionals and building a close connection and confidence. This epitomised a caring, respectful relationship congruent across accounts. Formal aspects, including structured ways of sustaining partnership were experienced differently. Professionals described collaborating with patients to encourage participation, capture personal goals, plan and document care. However, although patients felt listened to and informed, they were content to ask questions and felt less involved in care planning, documentation or exploring lifeworld goals. They commonly perceived participation as informed discussion and agreement, deferring to professional knowledge and expertise in the presence of an empathetic and trusting relationship. In our study, patients appear to value a process of human connectedness above and beyond formalised aspects of documenting agreed goals and care planning. PCC increases patients' confidence in professionals who are
Guy, Laura S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Edens, John F.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with suicide, violence, and risk-taking behavior and can slow response to first-line treatment for Axis I disorders. ASPD may be assessed infrequently because few efficient diagnostic tools are available. This study evaluated 2 promising self-report measures for assessing ASPD--the ASPD scale of…
Armando Alcántara Santuario
Full Text Available This conversation touches on crucial aspects of the work and research technique of one of Latin America’s most outstanding authors in the field of the political sociology of education. During this interview Professor Torres points out some of the principal themes of his research agenda, as well as what he considers Latin America’s most important contributions to the discussion of educational problems. Prof. Torres also gives a detailed account of the way he became interested in studying Paulo Freire’s work, which he has helped to disseminate in the USA. He explains the way in which he deals with theoretical and methodological problems in his research, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of being a Latin American studying international education while living and working in the United States. Finally, he makes some suggestions for those who are beginning their research on the educational problems of Mexico and Latin America.
Sarriera,Jorge Castellá; Casas,Ferran; Alfaro,Jaime; Bedin,Lívia; Strelhow,Miriam Raquel Wachholz; Abs,Daniel; Valdenegro,Boris; García,Catalina; Oyarzún,Denise
This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047) and Chilean (n = 1.053) adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08), whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the ...
Hellzen, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth
To illuminate the meaning of being a carer for a person with a severe autistic disorder. Carers working with people with severe autism are occasionally exposed to residents' self-injurious behaviours and violent actions and at time residents appear resistant to all forms of treatment. A qualitative case study was conducted. Six Swedish carers enrolled nurses (ENs), working on a special ward in a nursing home were interviewed about their lived experiences when caring for an individual with a severe autistic disorder. Narrative interviews were conducted and interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur. Two themes were formulated which describe the carers' reality and their dream of an ideal. This ideal described carers' experiences of being trapped in a segmented and isolated care reality and their longing to achieve a sense of wholeness. The findings were interpreted and reflected on in the light of a framework inspired by the German philosopher Karl Jaspers in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the text. In their desperation, the carers used their empirical knowledge based on scientific knowledge, which could be understood as a substitute for their vision of a consolating wholeness. This paper shows that searching for a substitute to consolation seems to be an important aspect of the meaning of being a carer for a person with a severe autistic disorder.
... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...
Sharp, Carla; Ha, Carolyn; Michonski, Jared; Venta, Amanda; Carbone, Crystal
Empirical evidence is increasing in support of the validity of the construct of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. There is growing consensus that the early identification and treatment of emerging borderline traits may be an important focus. However, few diagnostic (questionnaire- or interview-based) measures specifically developed or adapted for adolescents and children exist. The Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD) [Zanarini, 2003] is a promising interview-based measure of adolescent BPD. Currently, no studies have explicitly been designed to examine the psychometric properties of the CI-BPD. The aim of the current study was to examine various psychometric properties of the CI-BPD in an inpatient sample of adolescents (n = 245). A confirmatory factor analytic approach was used to examine the internal factor structure of the 9 CI-BPD items. In addition, internal consistency, interrater reliability, convergent validity (with clinician diagnosis and 2 questionnaire-based measures of BPD), and concurrent validity (with Axis I psychopathology and deliberate self-harm) were examined. Similar to several adult studies, the confirmatory factor analytic results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the CI-BPD, indicating that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria on which the CI-BPD is based constitute a coherent combination of traits and symptoms even in adolescents. In addition, other validity criteria were excellent. Taken together, the current study provides strong evidence for the validity of the CI-BPD for use in adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.
Faber, B J M; Wind, H; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The percentage of young people with disabilities who are employed is relatively low. Motivation is considered to be an important factor in facilitating or hindering their ability to obtain employment. We aimed to develop a topic list that could serve as an interview guide for professionals in occupational health care which would aid them in their discussion of work motivation-related issues with this group. We systematically searched Pubmed, PsychInfo and Picarta. Studies were included if they described aspects of work motivation and/or instruments that assess work motivation. Based on the results of our literature survey, we developed a list of topics that had been shown to be related to work motivation. Our search resulted in 12 articles describing aspects of work motivation and 17 articles describing instruments that assess work motivation. The aspects that we found were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, self-efficacy, expectancy, values and work readiness. Based on this information we developed an interview guide that includes seven topic areas: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, goal setting, expectancy, values, self- efficacy, and work readiness. The topics within the interview guide and the literature survey data that is presented will shed light on the role that motivation plays on the work participation among young people with disabilities.
Jorge Castellá Sarriera
Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.
Heumann, Christine L.; Katz, David A.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Bennett, Amy B.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Golden, Matthew R.
Background The relative effectiveness of in-person versus telephone interviews for HIV/STD partner services (PS) is uncertain. Methods We compared outcomes of in-person versus telephone PS interviews for early syphilis (ES) and newly diagnosed HIV in King County, Washington from 2010-2014. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate indices (number of partners per original patient (OP)) for partners named, notified, tested, diagnosed, and treated (ES only). Analyses controlled for OP age, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, time to interview, place of diagnosis, and staff performing interviews. Results For ES, 682 and 646 OPs underwent in-person and telephone interviews, respectively. In-person syphilis PS were associated with higher indices of partners named (in-person index [IPI]=3.43, telephone index [TI]=2.06, aRR=1.68 [95% CI=1.55-1.82]), notified (IPI=1.70, TI=1.13, aRR=1.39 [1.24-1.56]), tested (IPI=1.15, TI=0.72, aRR=1.34 [1.16-1.54]), and empirically treated (IPI=1.03, TI=0.74, aRR=1.19 [1.03-1.37]) but no difference in infected partners treated (IPI=0.28, TI=0.24, aRR=0.93 [0.72-1.21]). For HIV, 358 and 489 OPs underwent in-person and telephone interviews, respectively. In-person HIV PS were associated with higher indices of partners named (IPI=1.87, TI=1.28, aRR=1.38 [1.18-1.62]), notified (IPI=1.38, TI=0.92, aRR=1.24 [1.03-1.50]), and newly diagnosed with HIV (IPI=0.10, TI=0.05, aRR=2.17 [1.04-4.50]) but no difference in partners tested (IPI=0.61, TI=0.48, aRR=1.15 [0.88-1.52]). Conclusions Although in-person syphilis PS were associated with some increased PS indices, they did not increase the treatment of infected partners. In contrast, in-person HIV PS resulted in increased HIV case finding. These data support prioritizing in-person PS for HIV and suggest that in-person PS for syphilis may not have major public health benefit. PMID:28282653
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline
was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice...
... accounts, CDs, stocks, bonds, or other similar assets. Equity in real estate holdings and other fixed... personal resources of any owner of 20 percent or more of the equity of the applicant. SBA will require the...
Atwine, Fortunate; Hultsjö, Sally; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina
Health-care seeking behaviour is important as it determines acceptance of health care and outcomes of chronic conditions but it has been investigated to a limited extent among persons with diabetes in developing countries. The aim of the study was to explore health-care seeking behaviour among persons with type 2 diabetes to understand reasons for using therapies offered by traditional healers. Descriptive study using focus-group interviews. Three purposive focus-groups were conducted in 2011 of 10 women and 7 men aged 39-72 years in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and qualitatively analysed according to a method described for focus-groups. Reasons for seeking help from traditional healers were symptoms related to diabetes such as polydipsia, fatigue and decreased sensitivity in lower limbs. Failure of effect from western medicine was also reported. Treatment was described to be unknown extracts, of locally made products taken as herbs or food, and participants had sought help from different health facilities with the help of relatives and friends. The pattern of seeking care was inconsistent, with a switch between different health care providers under the influence of the popular and folk sectors. Despite beliefs in using different healthcare providers seeking complementary and alternative medicine, participants still experienced many physical health problems related to diabetes complications. Health professionals need to be aware of the risk of switches between different health care providers, and develop strategies to initiate health promotion interventions to include in the care actors of significance to the patient from the popular, folk and professional sectors, to maintain continuity of effective diabetes care.
Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig
Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...
Weertman, A; ArntZ, A; Dreessen, L; van Velzen, C; Vertommen, S
This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was administered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The
Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier
The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…
Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
The article aims to model the verbal and prosodic features of emotional expression in interviews to investigate the potential for synergy between scholarly fields that have the narrative as object of study. Using a digital collection of oral history interviews that contains narrative aspects
"Take Me through the History of Your Weight": Using Qualitative Interviews to Create Personalized Weight Trajectories to Understand the Development of Obesity in Patients Preparing for Bariatric Surgery.
Lynch, Amanda I; McGowan, Elizabeth; Zalesin, Kerstyn C
Obesity can develop during any life stage. Understanding the contexts within which obesity develops can inform our understanding of the disease and help tailor interventions specific to life stages. Using life-course theory as a guiding framework, this study aimed to explain the development of obesity in bariatric surgery patients by creating personalized weight trajectories. Qualitative methods using semistructured interviews were used to uncover participants' experiences with and explanations for the development of obesity. A grounded theory approach using the constant comparative method was used to analyze transcripts for categories and themes. Thirty pre-bariatric surgery patients (24 women, 6 men) were recruited from a bariatric surgery center; 25 participants were available for follow-up. Participants were interviewed before surgery and at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Four weight history groups were created based on patterns of weight changes from adolescence through adulthood: Always Heavy, Late Peak, Steady Progression, and Weight Cycling. Participants' explanations for weight changes centered around themes of transitions and life-course events or stressors. Differences in the weight history groups could be explained by the timing of transitions, life events, and responses to stress. The development of obesity does not follow the same pattern for all individuals. Weight gain patterns can be explained by the timing of life-course events, stressors, and the type and effects of environmental transitions. Weight management counseling should include strategies tailored to an individual's current life-stage and circumstance, but also acknowledge previous responses to transitions and stressors. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs? 23.15 Section 23.15 Wildlife and Fisheries..., including tourist souvenirs? (a) Purpose. Article VII(3) of the Treaty recognizes a limited exemption for... if one of the following applies: (1) The Management Authority of the importing, exporting, or re...
Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin
In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…
Gervey, Robert; Kowal, Henry
This study examines the effect of having an employment specialist join supported employment participants at job interviews. The sample consists of 45 individuals with psychiatric disabilities who sought job placement services during a 28-month period between December 1991 and March 1994. Seventy-nine percent of the job offers occurred when the job developer was present in the interview as compared to only 21% when the job applicants went alone. The finding challenges "current" conventional wisdom about having rehabilitation staff at the worksite. Rehabilitation professionals need to take a fresh look at program policies and practices regarding on-site services to SE participants.
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick
Objectives Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-p...
von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin; Milton, Camilla; Ericsson, Ingrid; Strömberg, Lars
To describe transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals during the sex reassignment process. Transsexual persons are individuals who use varying means to alter their natal sex via hormones and/or surgery. Transsexual persons may experience stigma, which increases the risk of psychological distress. Mistreatments by healthcare professionals are common. Qualitative studies addressing transsexual persons' experiences of healthcare are scarce. Qualitative descriptive design. A Swedish non-clinical convenience sample was used, consisting of six persons who had been diagnosed as transsexual, gone through sex reassignment surgery or were at the time of the interview awaiting surgery. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, and data were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Three categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The encounters were perceived as good when healthcare professionals showed respect and preserved the transsexual person's integrity, acted in a professional manner and were responsive and built trust and confidence. However, the participants experienced that healthcare professionals varied in their level of knowledge, exploited their position of power, withheld information, expressed gender stereotypical attitudes and often used the wrong name. They felt vulnerable by having a condescending view of themselves, and they could not choose not to be transsexual. They felt dependent on healthcare professionals, and that the external demands were high. Transsexual persons are in a vulnerable position during the sex reassignment surgery process. The encounters in healthcare could be negatively affected if healthcare professionals show inadequate knowledge, exploit their position of power or express gender stereotypical attitudes. A good encounter is characterised by preserved integrity, respect, responsiveness and trust. Improved education on transgender issues in nursing and medical education is
McMurran, Mary; Cox, W Miles; Coupe, Stephen; Whitham, Diane; Hedges, Lucy
Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT). All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64), 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91), and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100). In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi-structured interviews, will be analysed using thematic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT. Methods All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64, 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91, and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100. In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi
... Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; rescheduling of public hearings; correction. SUMMARY... also corrects one error in the preamble to the proposed rule. On November 15, 2010, MSHA published the... from any interested party, including those not presenting oral statements. Comments must be received by...
... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... concentrations that exceed proposed standards. For example, the proposed plan would include pre-operational examination, testing and set-up procedures to verify the operational readiness of the CPDM before each shift...
Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.
This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…
Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe
the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...
Hutsebaut, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Feenstra, D.J.; Weekers, L.C.; De Saeger, H.
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes
Shin, Sangah; Park, Eunyoung; Sun, Dong Han; You, Tae-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Joo; Hwang, Soochan; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee
The accuracy of dietary assessments has emerged as a major concern in nutritional epidemiology and new dietary assessment tools using computer technology to increase accuracy have been developed in many countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based computer-assisted personal interview system (CAPIS) for conducting dietary assessment and to evaluate its practical utilization among Koreans. The client software was developed using Microsoft's ClickOnce technology, which allows communication with a database system via an http server to add or retrieve data. The system consists of a tracking system for the subject and researcher, a data-input system during the interview, a calculation system for estimating food and nutrient intake, a data-output system for presenting the results, and an evaluation system for assessing the adequacy of nutrient and food intake. Databases of the nutrient composition of common food (n = 3,642), recipes for common dishes (n = 1,886), and photos of serving sizes for food and dishes (n = 4,152) were constructed, and logical processes for data collection, calculation, and output were developed. The functionality, on-site applicability, and efficiency of CAPIS were evaluated in a convenience sample of 181 participants (61 males, 120 females; aged 24 to 85) by comparing with manual 24 hour recall method with paper questionnaire. The CAPIS was functioned adequately in the field survey in terms of completeness of function, security, and compliance of researcher and subjects. Regarding on-site applicability, 23.2%, 32.6%, 35.4%, and 43.7% of subjects reported that CAPIS was easier to recall their diet, to estimate the amount consumed, to communicate with the interviewer, and to concentrate on the interview than the manual method with paper questionnaire, respectively. Although CAPIS required more interview time (9 min 42 sec) compared to the manual method (7 min 30 sec), it saved time and cost for data coding and entry (15 min 35
Olsson, Annakarin; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Engström, Maria
Problems with memory and decline in cognitive abilities are common during development of dementia. Different kinds of technologies may be useful in supporting persons with dementia and their relatives in daily life. Tracking technologies have the potential to improve independence among persons with dementia. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of a passive positioning alarm (PPA) among persons with mild dementia. A repeated interview study was conducted in Sweden with a strategic sample of 11 persons with mild dementia. Roger's Diffusion of Innovation Theory was used to deductively analyse the data. Regarding the advantages of the PPA, participants described perceived safety and security for, both themselves, and their relatives, as well as freedom and independence. However, they also expressed concern about the cost of the PPA, reflected on who might be the receiver of the alarm from the PPA, emphasized the importance of opportunities to test the device before becoming a user and early introduction before their problems start, thus allowing them to decide for themselves. Supporting persons with dementia in their own homes using, e.g., a PPA may enable them and their relatives to remain longer in their own homes and be safer in their own neighbourhoods.
Zeitler, Elisabeth; Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; Miller, Evonne
Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability) impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.
This book presents interviews with 12 of the best primary researchers in the business. These research professionals reveal their strategies for integrating online and offline resources, identifying experts, and getting past gatekeepers to obtain information that exists only in someone's head. Topics include how searchers use a combination of…
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick
Objectives Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. Methods The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Results Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). Conclusions The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S; Bergman, Martin J; Wolfe, Frederick
Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels of
Full Text Available Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia.The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria.Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2 and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81, married (OR 3.27, and white (OR 1.96. In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive fibromyalgia (OR 2.1.The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels
Hartelius, Lena; Jonsson, Maria; Rickeberg, Anneli; Laakso, Katja
Background: As an effect of the cognitive, emotional and motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease, communicative interaction is often dramatically changed. No study has previously included the subjective reports on this subject from individuals with Huntington's disease. Aims: To explore the qualitative aspects of how communication is…
Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.
Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…
Hepworth, S J; Bolton, A; Parslow, R C; van Tongeren, M; Muir, K R; McKinney, P A
Objectives To compare assignment of occupational pesticide and solvent exposure using self‐reported data collected by a computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) with exposure based on expert assessment of job codes. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a CAPI to collect individual occupational exposure data. Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 1495 participants were interviewed using a CAPI for a case‐control study of adult brain tumours and acoustic neuromas. Two types of occupational data were collected: (1) a full history, including job title from which a job code was assigned from the Standard Occupational Classification; and (2) specific details on pesticide and solvent exposure reported by participants. Study members' experiences of using the CAPI were recorded and advantages and disadvantages summarised. Results Of 7192 jobs recorded, the prevalence of self‐reported exposure was 1.3% for pesticides and 11.5% for solvents. Comparing this with exposure expertly assessed from job titles showed 53.6% and 45.8% concordance for pesticides and solvents respectively. Advantages of the CAPI include no data entry stage, automatic input validation, and a reduction in interviewer bias. Disadvantages include an adverse effect on study implementation as a consequence of resources required for programming and difficulties encountered with data management prior to analysis. Conclusions Different methods of exposure assessment derive different exposure levels for pesticide and solvent exposure at work. Agreement between self‐reported and expert assessment of exposure was greater for pesticides compared to solvents. The advantages of using a CAPI for the collection of complex data outweigh the disadvantages for interviewers and data quality but using such a method requires extra resources at the study outset. PMID:16556747
Hepworth, S J; Bolton, A; Parslow, R C; van Tongeren, M; Muir, K R; McKinney, P A
To compare assignment of occupational pesticide and solvent exposure using self-reported data collected by a computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) with exposure based on expert assessment of job codes. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a CAPI to collect individual occupational exposure data. Between 2001 and 2004, 1495 participants were interviewed using a CAPI for a case-control study of adult brain tumours and acoustic neuromas. Two types of occupational data were collected: (1) a full history, including job title from which a job code was assigned from the Standard Occupational Classification; and (2) specific details on pesticide and solvent exposure reported by participants. Study members' experiences of using the CAPI were recorded and advantages and disadvantages summarised. Of 7192 jobs recorded, the prevalence of self-reported exposure was 1.3% for pesticides and 11.5% for solvents. Comparing this with exposure expertly assessed from job titles showed 53.6% and 45.8% concordance for pesticides and solvents respectively. Advantages of the CAPI include no data entry stage, automatic input validation, and a reduction in interviewer bias. Disadvantages include an adverse effect on study implementation as a consequence of resources required for programming and difficulties encountered with data management prior to analysis. Different methods of exposure assessment derive different exposure levels for pesticide and solvent exposure at work. Agreement between self-reported and expert assessment of exposure was greater for pesticides compared to solvents. The advantages of using a CAPI for the collection of complex data outweigh the disadvantages for interviewers and data quality but using such a method requires extra resources at the study outset.
... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.140 What must we...
Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S
.... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...
Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica
Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze
Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...... of the timeline should not lead the nterviewer or the interviewee to assume linearity and coherence; it is an rganising principle for the events. It provides an opportunity for linking the story with the wider social, political and environmental context during the interview. hile the method is very suitable...
Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther
Background A critical problem for patients with chronic conditions who see multiple health care providers is incomplete or inaccurate information, which can contribute to lack of care coordination, low quality of care, and medical errors. Objective As part of a larger project on applications of consumer health information technology (HIT) and barriers to its use, we conducted a semistructured interview study with patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) with the objective of exploring their role in managing their personal health information. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with patients and providers. Patients were eligible if they had multiple chronic conditions and were in regular care with one of two medical organizations in New York City; health care providers were eligible if they had experience caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Analysis was conducted from a grounded theory perspective, and recruitment was concluded when saturation was achieved. Results A total of 22 patients and 7 providers were interviewed; patients had an average of 3.5 (SD 1.5) chronic conditions and reported having regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose: (1) Responsibility for managing medical information: some patients perceived information management and sharing as the responsibility of health care providers; others—particularly those who had had bad experiences in the past—took primary responsibility for information sharing; (2) What information should be shared: although privacy concerns did influence some patients’ perceptions of sharing of medical data, decisions about what to share were also heavily influenced by their understanding of health and disease and by the degree to which they understood the health care system; (3) Methods and tools varied: those patients who did take an active role in managing their records used a variety of electronic tools, paper tools, and memory; and (4
Ancker, Jessica S; Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther
A critical problem for patients with chronic conditions who see multiple health care providers is incomplete or inaccurate information, which can contribute to lack of care coordination, low quality of care, and medical errors. As part of a larger project on applications of consumer health information technology (HIT) and barriers to its use, we conducted a semistructured interview study with patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) with the objective of exploring their role in managing their personal health information. Semistructured interviews were conducted with patients and providers. Patients were eligible if they had multiple chronic conditions and were in regular care with one of two medical organizations in New York City; health care providers were eligible if they had experience caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Analysis was conducted from a grounded theory perspective, and recruitment was concluded when saturation was achieved. A total of 22 patients and 7 providers were interviewed; patients had an average of 3.5 (SD 1.5) chronic conditions and reported having regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose: (1) Responsibility for managing medical information: some patients perceived information management and sharing as the responsibility of health care providers; others—particularly those who had had bad experiences in the past—took primary responsibility for information sharing; (2) What information should be shared: although privacy concerns did influence some patients' perceptions of sharing of medical data, decisions about what to share were also heavily influenced by their understanding of health and disease and by the degree to which they understood the health care system; (3) Methods and tools varied: those patients who did take an active role in managing their records used a variety of electronic tools, paper tools, and memory; and (4) Information management as invisible work
Human Resources Division
The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M
OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population.
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment....... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...
Keukenkamp, Renske; Merkx, Maarten J; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E; Bus, Sicco A
In this explorative study we assessed the effect and feasibility of using motivational interviewing to improve footwear adherence in persons with diabetes who are at high-risk of foot ulceration and show low adherence to wearing prescribed custom-made footwear. Thirteen persons with diabetes, ulcer history, and low footwear adherence (i.e. motivational interviewing. Adherence was objectively measured over seven days using ankle and shoe-worn sensors and calculated as the percentage of total steps that prescribed footwear was worn. Adherence was assessed at home and away from home at baseline, at one week and 3 months post-intervention. Feasibility was assessed for interviewer proficiency to apply motivational interviewing and for protocol executability. Median[min-max] baseline, one-week and 3-month adherence at home was 49[6-63]%, 84[5-98]%, and 40[4-80]%, respectively, in the motivational interviewing group, and 35[13-64]%, 33[15-55]%, and 31[3-66]%, respectively, in the standard education group. Baseline, one-week, and 3-month adherence away from home was 91[79-100]%, 97[62-99]% and 92[86-98]%, respectively, in the motivational interviewing group, and 78[32-97]%, 91[28-98]%, and 93[57-100]%, respectively, in the standard education group. None of the differences were statistically significant. Interviewers proficiency was good and the protocol could be successfully executed in the given time frame. Footwear adherence at home increases one week after motivational interviewing to clinically relevant but not statistically significant levels (i.e. 80%), but then returns over time to baseline levels. Away from home, adherence is already sufficient at baseline and remains like that over time. The use of motivational interviewing seems feasible for the given purpose and patient group. These findings provide input to larger trials and provisionally suggest that additional or adjunctive therapy may be needed to better preserve adherence.
Amadasi, Sara; Holliday, Adrian
In an interview with a postgraduate student about her intercultural experience of recently arriving for study abroad, it was found that the two researchers and the student were engaged in a mutual exploration of cultural identity. The interview events became conversational and took the form of small culture formation on the go in which each…
Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe
used to explore the independent effects of energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, food variety, BMI, age, gender, education, household income, location of residence and intention to eat healthily on the likelihood to have high diet quality measured by an index based on the intake of dietary...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Hass, Michael R.
Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…
The addition of a goal-based motivational interview to treatment as usual to enhance engagement and reduce dropouts in a personality disorder treatment service: results of a feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial.
McMurran, Mary; Cox, W Miles; Whitham, Diane; Hedges, Lucy
There are high rates of treatment non-completion for personality disorder and those who do not complete treatment have poorer outcomes. A goal-based motivational interview may increase service users' readiness to engage with therapy and so enhance treatment retention. We conducted a feasibility study to inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. The aims were to test the feasibility of recruitment, randomization and follow-up, and to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the motivational interview. Patients in an outpatient personality disorder service were randomized to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. The main randomized controlled trial feasibility criteria were recruitment of 54% of referrals, and 80% of clients and therapists finding the intervention acceptable. Information was collected on treatment attendance, the clarity of therapy goals and treatment engagement. The recruitment rate was 29% (76 of 258). Of 12 interviewed at follow-up, eight (67%) were positive about the Personal Concerns Inventory. Pre-intervention interviews were conducted with 61% (23 out of 38) of the Personal Concerns Inventory group and 74% (28 out of 38) of the treatment as usual group. Participants' therapy goals were blind-rated for clarity on a scale of 0 to 10. The mean score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Over 12 weeks, the median percentage session attendance was 83.33% for the Personal Concerns Inventory group (N = 17) and 66.67% for the treatment as usual group (N = 24). Of 59 eligible participants at follow-up, the Treatment Engagement Rating scale was completed for 40 (68%). The mean Treatment Engagement Rating scale score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Of the 76 participants, 63 (83%) completed the Client Service
Miller, Joshua D.; Bagby, R. Michael; Pilkonis, Paul A.
Recent studies have demonstrated that personality disorders (PDs) can be assessed via a prototype-matching technique, which enables researchers and clinicians to match an individual's five-factor model (FFM) personality profile to an expert-generated prototype. The current study examined the relations between these prototype scores, using…
Tenney, Nienke H.; Schotte, Chris K. W.; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.
In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n=65) with
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in
Lawton, Erin M; Shields, Andrew J; Oltmanns, Thomas F
The need for an empirically validated, dimensional system of personality disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. While a number of systems have been investigated in this regard, the five-factor model of personality has demonstrated the ability to adequately capture personality pathology. In particular, the personality disorder prototypes developed by Lynam and Widiger (2001) have been tested in a number of samples. The goal of the present study is to extend this literature by validating the prototypes in a large, representative community sample of later middle-aged adults using both self and informant reports. We found that the prototypes largely work well in this age group. Schizoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Avoidant personality disorders demonstrate good convergent validity, with a particularly strong pattern of discriminant validity for the latter four. Informant-reported prototypes show similar patterns to self reports for all analyses. This demonstrates that informants are not succumbing to halo representations of the participants, but are rather describing participants in nuanced ways. It is important that informant reports add significant predictive validity for Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders. Implications of our results and directions for future research are discussed.
Revie ⊕: the influence of a life review intervention including a positive, patient-centered approach towards enhancing the personal dignity of patients with advanced cancer-a study protocol for a feasibility study using a mixed method investigation.
Da Rocha Rodrigues, Maria Goreti; Pautex, Sophie; Shaha, Maya
It is generally recognized that existential concerns must be addressed to promote the dignity of patients with advanced cancer. A number of interventions have been developed in this regard, such as dignity therapy and other life review interventions (LRI). However, so far, none have focused on a positive approach or evaluated its effects on dignity and personal growth. This study aims to explore the feasibility of Revie ⊕, a life review intervention comprising a positive, patient-centered approach, and to determine potential changes of patients' sense of dignity, posttraumatic growth, and satisfaction with life. A mixed method study will be performed, which includes specialized nurses and 40 patients with advanced cancer in an ambulatory and in-patient setting of a Swiss university hospital. Quantitative methods involve a single group, pre- and post-intervention, and outcome measurements include the Patient Dignity Inventory, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Feasibility data relating to process, resource, and scientific elements of the trial will also be collected. A semi-directed interview will be used to collect qualitative data about the process and the participants' experiences of the intervention. In this way, enhanced quantitative-qualitative evidence can be drawn from outcome measures as well as individual, contextualized personal views, to help inform researchers about the plausibility of this complex intervention before testing its effectiveness in a subsequent full trial. Patient dignity is a goal of quality end-of-life care. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to evaluate the role of a life review intervention that is focused on personal growth and on changes relating to the experience of having cancer. This study will evaluate the feasibility of a novel intervention, Revie ⊕, which we hope will contribute to promote the dignity, personal growth, and overall life satisfaction of patients with advanced
Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Aviel, Or; Dubiner, Yonit; Evelyn Baruch; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit
Collecting mental health data during disaster is a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare reported sensitive information regarding the disaster and general questions on physical or psychological functioning between social network (Facebook) interview and face-to-face interview after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Data were collected from a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 133 face-to-face participants and to 40 Facebook interviewees, during March-April 2011. The face-to-face interview group showed a significantly higher level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated risk for clinical level of PTSD and reported more worries about another disaster, lower life satisfaction, less perceived social support and lower self-rated health than the Facebook group. Our data may suggest that the reliability of internet surveys is jeopardized during extreme conditions such as large-scale disasters as it tends to underestimate the reactions to such events. This indicates the discrepancy from data collected in situ to data collected using social networks. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interviews. 245a.19 Section 245a.19 Aliens... Interviews. (a) All aliens filing applications for adjustment of status with the Service under this section must be personally interviewed, except that the adjudicative interview may be waived for a child under...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 1245.6 Section 1245.6 Aliens and... OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be...
Callaway, Paul; Melhado, Trisha; Walling, Anne; Groskurth, Jordan
Interviewing for residency positions is increasingly stressful for students and challenging for programs. Little information is available about the costs and time invested by students in interviewing or about the key factors in decisions to accept interview offers. Our objective was to assess the time and financial costs of residency interviewing for an entire class at a regional campus and explore factors influencing student decisions to accept interviews. We used a 14-item survey administered electronically immediately following National Resident Matching Program results. The response rate was 75% (49 of 65 students). About half interviewed in primary care specialties. Thirty students (63%) applied to 20 or more programs, and 91% were offered multiple interviews out of state. Seventy percent limited interviews by time and cost. Other important factors included personal "fit," program reputation, and the quality of residents. About 50% of the students spent more than 20 days and $1,000-$5,000 interviewing; 29% reported spending over $5,000. Students used multiple funding sources, predominantly loans and savings. Primary care applicants applied to fewer out-of-state programs, reported fewer interview days and lower expenses, but received more financial support from programs. Students invested considerable time and resources in interviewing, and these factors significantly influenced their decisions about accepting interviews. The other major factors in interview decisions concerned personal comfort with the program, especially the residents. The costs and time reported in this study could be greater than other schools due to the regional campus location or lower due to the high proportion of students interviewing in primary care.
Grodensky, Catherine A; Golin, Carol E; Pack, Allison P; Pettifor, Audrey; Demers, Michele; Massa, Cecelia; Kamanga, Gift; McKenna, Kevin; Corneli, Amy
Individuals diagnosed with acute HIV infection (AHI) are highly infectious and require immediate HIV prevention efforts to minimize their likelihood of transmitting HIV to others. We sought to explore the relevance of Motivational Interviewing (MI), an evidence-based counseling method, for Malawians with AHI. We designed a MI-based intervention called "Uphungu Wanga" to support risk reduction efforts immediately after AHI diagnosis. It was adapted from Options and SafeTalk interventions, and refined through formative research and input from Malawian team members and training participants. We conducted qualitative interviews with counselors and participants to explore the relevance of MI in this context. Intervention adaptation required careful consideration of Malawian cultural context and the needs of people with AHI. Uphungu Wanga's content was relevant and key MI techniques of topic selection and goal setting were viewed positively by counselors and participants. However, rating levels of importance and confidence did not appear to help participants to explore behavior change as intended. Uphungu Wanga may have provided some added benefits beyond "brief education" standard of care counseling for Malawians with AHI. MI techniques of topic selection and goal setting may enhance prevention education and counseling for Malawians with AHI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Psychometric Properties of the Personal Wellbeing Index in Brazilian and Chilean Adolescents Including Spirituality and Religion = Propriedades Psicométricas do Personal Wellbeing Index em Adolescentes Brasileiros e Chilenos Incluindo Espiritualidade e Religião
Castellá Sarriera, Jorge; Casas Aznar, Ferran; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime; Bedin, Lívia; Wachholz Strelhow, Miriam Raquel; Abs da Cruz, Daniel; Valdenegro, Boris; García, Catalina; Oyarzún, Denise
This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) with two other versions which include the domains “Spirituality” and “Religion”, separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047) and Chilean (n = 1.053) adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confi rmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08), whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the...
Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda
In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Describes how to psychologically evaluate and take advantage of the four basic personality types that are encountered in job interviews. Discusses each personality type and makes generalizations about their dress, office, thinking patterns, and preferences. Summarizes how each might react to a woman in an interview situation. (CW)
Mahoney, Frances Eileen
Considers cultural bias in employment interviews. Compares white American and Navajo interview styles and suggests new approach for recruiters to make interviewing less culturally biased. Recommends that recruiters not ask direct questions about personal achievements, try indirect approach, avoid making judgments on first impressions and…
Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…
For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...
Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.
Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.
Ottesen, Aase Marie
and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement......During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...
Esswein, Eric J; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Snawder, John; Breitenstein, Michael
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing), and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four-year period from 2008-2012. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m 3 ; measurements ranged from 0.1-52 µg/m 3 . The geometric mean (GM) for the PBZ samples was 7 µg/m 3 . The AM of the TWA area measurements was 17 µg/m 3 and ranged from 0.1-68 µg/m 3 . The GM for the area measurements was 9.5 µg/m 3 . Differences between the GMs of the PBZ samples and area samples were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), NIOSH, nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established occupational exposure limits (OEL) for DPM. However, the State of California, Department of Health Services lists a time-weighted average (TWA) OEL for DPM as elemental carbon (EC) exposure of 20 µg/m 3 . Five of 49 (10.2%) PBZ TWA measurements exceeded the 20 µg/m 3 EC criterion. These measurements were collected on Sandmover and Transfer Belt (T-belt) Operators, Blender and Chemical Truck Operators, and Water Transfer Operators during hydraulic fracturing operations. Recommendations to minimize DPM exposures include elimination (locating diesel-driven pumps away from well sites), substitution, (use of alternative fuels), engineering controls using advanced emission control
Sato, Yoko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takimoto, Hidemi; Nishi, Nobuo; Umegaki, Keizo
A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.
Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.
Details the life of Stella Adler, an actor, director, and teacher who studied with Stanislavsky. Includes an interview (conducted in 1974) which touches on her influences, teachers, theatre groups, and styles of acting. (PM)
Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz
Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.
Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131
Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas
Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C; Hammerstrøm, Karianne T; Steiro, Asbjørn; Leiknes, Kari A; Dahl, Helene M; Karlsen, Kjetil
There are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide and 15.3 million with drug use disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, semi-directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. The intervention is used widely, and therefore it is important to find out whether it helps, harms or is ineffective. To assess the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for substance abuse on drug use, retention in treatment, readiness to change, and number of repeat convictions. We searched 18 electronic databases, 5 web sites, 4 mailing lists, and reference lists from included studies and reviews. Search dates were November 30, 2010 for Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and PsychINFO. Randomized controlled trials with persons dependent or abusing substance. Interventions were MI or motivational enhancement therapy. The outcomes were extent of substance abuse, retention in treatment, motivation for change, repeat conviction. Three authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and two authors extracted data. Results were categorized into (1) MI versus no-treatment control, (2) MI versus treatment as usual, (3) MI versus assessment and feedback, and (4) MI versus other active treatment. Within each category, we computed meta-analyses separately for post-intervention, short, medium and long follow-ups. We included 59 studies with a total of 13,342 participants. Compared to no treatment control MI showed a significant effect on substance use which was strongest at post-intervention SMD 0.79, (95% CI 0.48 to 1.09) and weaker at short SMD 0.17 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.26], and medium follow-up SMD 0.15 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.25]). For long follow-up, the effect was not significant SMD 0.06 (95% CI-0.16 to 0.28). There were no significant differences between MI and treatment as usual for either follow-up post-intervention, short and medium follow up. MI did better than assessment and feedback for medium
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of a time line for making life story interviews. I decided that the lack of authoritative literature should not omit me from teaching my students how to make a time line interview. After an introduction, they had to use the tool for making an interview each other concerning their learning journey to DPU...... for conducting life history research. While I also consider time line interviews useful for other types of research, that story will have to wait for another paper....
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to desc...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....... to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning...... making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...
Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah
The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison
Interview is defined as "action-like discussion by medium of dialogue with a diagnostic object in view" (SCHRAML), at the same time the importance of the dialogue-purpose and of the motivation of the subject is pointed out. Several methods may be used for conducting the dialogue, their selection being mainly dependent on the vocational training of the investigator. The personality of the investigator plays an important role when interviewing. The interviewer has to take into account the ever present subjectivity to prevent diagnostic mistakes. On the other hand this subjectivity enables the interviewer to get a special diagnostic access when his own ability of empathy and intuition is consciously used. The knowledge of difficult interviewing-techniques is not sufficient, only an integrative coherence awards the single results from the dialogue and simultaneously observation of the subject the adequate position, this makes an interview to an art, whose command is only given to a few.
Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos
Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer.......Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer....
Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron
Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…
Petersen, Kit Stender
In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee....... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...... do not merely refer to passive entities but must be understood as matter that matters. To illustrate my points I will analyse how bringing a puppet with me to interviews with 4-6 year old children seemed to interfere with the interview situation creating unforeseen diversions in ways that influenced...
Pernold, Gunilla; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus; Wiktorin, Christina; Mortimer, Monica; Karlsson, Eva; Kilbom, Asa; Vingård, Eva
Measuring physical activity at work has been a field of growing interest in recent decades, and there is a need for reliable, standardized assessment instruments for application in large population studies. The present study examined the validity of a task-oriented interview for assessing energy expenditure in occupational work. The interview was developed for use in the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, a population study with the overall aim of identifying risk and preventive factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-seven persons were included in the study. Each respondent defined all tasks performed during a typical workday and estimated their durations. For each task the interviewer then assessed the level of energy expenditure in multiples of the resting metabolic rate (MET) and calculated a time-weighted average MET (TWA-MET) for a typical workday. Measurements of oxygen consumption and observations of duration of each work task were performed during 2 workdays in all the interviewed subjects. The validity was tested by comparing TWA-MET derived from the interviews with those derived from measurements; the product moment correlation coefficient was 0.70. The interview may offer sufficient validity for assessment of energy expenditure in large population studies.
María del Carmen Porras
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the strategies that Ricardo Piglia has used to deliver us a poetical art in his book Critique and fiction, which constitutes a summary of interviews that the author has offered. In this case, we speak about a poetic writing. Piglia has carried out his process of selection and reconstruction of the material all by himself, and has supported his own structure of the interviews in the book, which does of the exchange with other one an indispensable condition, in order to construct a personal perspective that condense his ideas as writer and intellectually. In this perspective, Piglia give us examples about how a literary interview can and must be conceived: It is a productive dialog that promotes a thought that include the literature and the culture.
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
This is the second of two interviews with Arlie Russell Hochschild, Professor Emerita of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. In her work, Hochschild explores the many ways we manage our emotions in personal life and perform emotional labor in the workplace.......This is the second of two interviews with Arlie Russell Hochschild, Professor Emerita of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. In her work, Hochschild explores the many ways we manage our emotions in personal life and perform emotional labor in the workplace....
Full Text Available In this issue of the English version of Social Medicine we are publishing the first of several pamphlets loaned to us by the US Health Activism History Collection. To introduce this collection we travelled to Philadelphia on June 18, 2008 to interview Dr. Walter J. Lear. Dr Lear, born in 1923, is the person responsible for the collection. In a wide-ranging interview in his home Dr. Lear discussed his personal background, the origins and purpose of the collection, the impact of the McCarthy period on the US health left, as well as his vision for the future.
Holliday, Robyn E; Humphries, Joyce E; Milne, Rebecca; Memon, Amina; Houlder, Lucy; Lyons, Amy; Bull, Ray
We examined the effect of a prior Modified Cognitive Interview on young and older adults' recall of a short film of a staged crime and subsequent reporting of misinformation. Participants viewed the film followed the next day by misinformation presented in a postevent summary. They were then interviewed with either a Modified Cognitive Interview or a control interview followed by a recognition memory test. A Modified Cognitive Interview elicited more correct details and improved overall accuracy compared to a control interview in both age groups, although the young adults recollected three times more correct information in a Modified Cognitive Interview than the older adults. In both age groups, correct recollections of person and action details were higher in a Modified Cognitive Interview than a control interview. Importantly, older adults who were interviewed with a Modified Cognitive Interview were not susceptible to misinformation effects. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Peeters, Michael J; Serres, Michelle L; Gundrum, Todd E
To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station-impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity.
Tenneij, N.H.; Schotte, C.; Denys, D.A.J.P.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Westenberg, H.G.M.
In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n = 65)
Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth
Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.
Full Text Available Current article includes an analysis of interviewing in sport psychology, an observing of modern scientific interview protocols, a description of interview cases in private practice and research; also there is a discussion about efficiency and limitations of interview method in the article. Approaches to interviewing as the main and auxiliary method are discussed in details. The objective of the article is to show how an interview can reveal interesting biographical facts, personality traits, the installation of an athlete, to reflect his inner world, and to form working in the field of sport psychology professionals and students view on the advantages and opportunities an interview in the work of sports psychologist (research and practice. This method can be regarded as a tool of knowledge, but is also used as a preliminary interview before long-term or short-term therapeutic work. Clinical conversation as one of the options the interview are invited to the discussion; the article provides a common protocol for clinical interviews in the sport.
-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research......Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body...
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories
Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag
Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...
van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.
This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
a concrete example of its use in a recently completed research project. They discuss several advantages of the interview, among them that it provides information about group interaction and participant behavior, and furnishes additional data on what is discussed when the tape recorder is turned off....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan. S Varadhan R Sujatha. Face to Face Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 903-912. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0903-0912 ...
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey
This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…
Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica
This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine
Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan. S Varadhan R Sujatha. Face to Face Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 903-912. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0903-0912 ...
Aires, M; Weissheimer, A-M; Rosset, I; de Oliveira, F A; de Morais, E P; Paskulin, L M G
In developed countries, filial responsibility in relation to caring for elderly parents has been systematically studied. In Brazil and other developing countries, however, it is a relatively new topic and has not yet been included in the research agenda on ageing. To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the qualitative phase of the filial responsibility interview schedule into Brazilian Portuguese. An expert committee of six team members participated in the study. In addition, individual interviews were held with 11 caregivers of older persons to evaluate the quality of the final Portuguese version of the schedule. The process included examining conceptual, item, semantic and operational equivalencies. Conceptual and item equivalencies were based on a literature review and on discussions with the expert committee. Semantic equivalence was attained through translation, back-translation, expert committee evaluation and pre-testing. The final version was pre-tested in caregivers of older persons enrolled in the home care programme of a primary health care service in Southern Brazil. Conceptual, item, semantic and operational equivalencies were attained. Through the interviews, responses to the open-ended questions concerning filial responsibility in the care for elderly parents pertained to the following categories: possibility of institutionalization of elderly parents, caregiver expectations, difficulties in being a child caregiver and responsibility as a natural process. The Portuguese version presented good semantic equivalence and the results showed that the concepts and items are applicable to the Brazilian context. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Doody, Owen; Noonan, Maria
To describe three styles of interviews and discuss issues regarding planning and conducting interviews. Interviews are probably the approach most used to collect data in studies. They are particularly useful in uncovering the story behind a participant's experiences. Researchers can follow a line of questions to gain information about a topic, or further explore responses or findings. But the researcher needs to plan and decide the format of the interview before collecting data. The authors included papers on structured, unstructured and semi-structured interviews published in a peer-reviewed joumrnal and in English. Interviews are one of the most common metods of data collection in qualitative research. However they require the researcher to have a sound understanding of their use and appropriateness. The ability to conduct interviews is one that develops over time and to aid the researcher in developing their interview skills they should consult with other researchers, seeking comments and advice and, critically, to appraise audio recordings. This article aims to support students who are undertaking research modules as part of their academic studies, writing a research proposal or novice researchers who are about to use interviews as a means of data collection. To conduct a successful interview, researchers need to develop their interview technique, choose the right method and carefully plan for all aspects of the process.
Cridland, Elizabeth K; Phillipson, Lyn; Brennan-Horley, Christopher; Swaffer, Kate
Despite the importance and advantages of including people with dementia in research, there are various challenges for researchers and participants to their involvement. This article draws on the literature and experiences of a diverse group of authors, including a person with dementia, to provide recommendations about conducting research with people with dementia. Particular attention is given to in-depth interviews as a qualitative technique. More specifically, topics discussed include interview guide preparation, recruitment, obtaining consent/assent, conducting effective interviews, analysis and interpretation of data, effective communication of research findings, and reflections and recommendations for maintaining researcher and participant health. Given the current obstacles to participation in research of people with dementia, this is a timely article providing useful insights to promote improved outcomes using in-depth interviews. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.
This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…
It was found that the strategies of debriefing interviews and coaching conversations promote self-awareness and methodological awareness, transformation, learning and support, and increase students' capability to act and react more quickly to research challenges. However, bracketing of personal epistemological beliefs ...
Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte
Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti...
Holloway, Elizabeth L.; Wampold, Bruce E.
While supervisory research focuses on trainee performance in counseling situations as the primary outcome criterion, few instruments have been developed for evaluating behavior in the supervision interview. To develop a scale that reflects critical factors in the supervisory relationship, the Supervisor Personal Reaction Scale (SPRS) and the…
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to demonstrate how the narrative interview can be used to collect qualitative data in the prison setting. The article discusses the methodology underpinning this technique and the challenges that arise when the researcher conducts narrative interviews with people in prisons. The challenges concern three aspects of the narrative interview: the personality and role of the researcher, the characteristics of the interviewees, and the prison as the setting for interviews.
Carr, Nathan; Vongumivitch, Viphavee
Includes an interview with a noted figure in the field of language assessment. Focuses on a range of test development projects, including several related to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) scale. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available Adolf Muschg, a popular writer, teacher and aesthetician, is one of the comparatively few contemporary Swiss writers who has been able to establish himself firmly in Germany. In recent years, he has begun to attract the attention of American critics and Germanists as well. In the interview, Adolf Muschg deals with a wide spectrum of issues. He identifies the authors and works that mean most to him. He traces, for instance, his changing relationship to Goethe, whom he recently rediscovered. In Goethe's works, above all in his scientific studies, Muschg finds issues that are of central importance to the survival of our planet. He detects a kinship between Goethe and the "Greens" of the seventies and looks back critically on the turbulent sixties. He provides an analysis of the current tensions between the USA and Western Europe, while confirming his keen and very personal involvement with the USA. But at the core of the interview are his extensive comments on the creative processes and the perils inherent in writing fiction. There he deals with the complex relationship between literature and therapy, the therapeutic potential of literature for the writer and the reader. By describing the novelist's difficult journey on the narrow path between self-revelation and indiscretion, he also reflects upon the related issue of literary narcissism.
... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...
Lev-Ran, Shaul; Nitzan, Uri
Harmful behaviors and low adherence to medical treatment significantly contribute to an increased rate of hospitalizations, mortality and morbidity. Leading health organizations worldwide are making great efforts to find and develop efficient strategies in order to recruit patients to adhere to medical treatment and adopt a healthier lifestyle. Motivational interviewing is an evidence-based approach that the physician can apply in numerous health care situations in order to increase patients' adherence to treatment. It is a patient-centered approach, based on principles of collaboration, autonomy and evocation. Research indicates that the patient's verbal commitment towards change is directly correlated to future behavioral change. Therefore, the approach includes learnable techniques which assist in allowing the patient to speak about the advantages of behavioral change and treatment. Thus, motivational interviewing helps patients adopt a healthier lifestyle while contributing to the professionalism of physicians and their sense of satisfaction from work.
Doll, Jessica L.
Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…
Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.
Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…
Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.
Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .
Nurses working in police custody settings may be called on to assess a detainee's fitness to be interviewed by police, for example where the person is thought to have a mental disorder or vulnerability. This article outlines the role of the custody nurse in the fitness-to-interview assessment. This assessment is complex and multifaceted. It requires custody nurses to assess a detainee's medical, mental health, educational and social history, as well as any substance misuse. It should include a mental state examination and, where appropriate, a physical examination. Fitness-to-interview decisions should be rigorous to prevent miscarriages of justice or significant harm to detainees. Custody nurses should advocate for detainees who are mentally vulnerable and ensure appropriate safeguards are in place, where necessary. Further work is required to reduce the subjectivity of the fitness-to-interview assessment, along with increased investment in appropriate adult services. Equally, custody nurses working at this advanced level of practice require relevant postgraduate knowledge and skills.
Paul J. Sliker
Full Text Available An interview with Andrew J. (Drew Feustel, Purdue alum, geophysicist and NASA astronaut. Dr. Feustel's first spaceflight in May 2009 (STS-125 repaired the Hubble Space Telescope. His second spaceflight in May 2011 (STS-134 was the penultimate journey of the Space Shuttle program. At Purdue University, Feustel served as a Residence Hall Counselor for two years at Cary Quadrangle and he was a Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. His MS thesis investigated physical property measurements of rock specimens under elevated hydrostatic pressures simulating Earth’s deep crustal environments. While at Purdue, Feustel served for three years as Grand Prix Chairman and team Kart driver for Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity.
Full Text Available Clive Phillpot is an English curator, writer, and librarian. Between 1977 and 1994 he was the Director of the Library at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA in New York, where he founded and curated the Artist Book´s Collection. Previously, he was the librarian at the Chelsea School of Art in London. He has written and edited numerous articles and books on the topic of the artist’s book, whose concept he decisively contributed to define. In the 1960s and 1970s the artist’s book emerged as an accessible art medium by being cheap, portable, and mass distributed. In this interview I try to learn whether those expectations have survived, updated and transformed in the contemporary phenomenon of the artist’s novel.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
-making processes in relatively inexperienced people as they engage with virtual worlds. In order to understand the sense-making of virtual worlds, a method to record the interpretive process, as well as physical actions, was required. In order to understand the sense-making processes involved in new experiences......, an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences. With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The resulting study involved the following: a within-subjects......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology. Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...
Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P.; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S.; Moreno, Jose L.; Grobe, James E.
Introduction Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting/participants Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010–2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Intervention Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients’ own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Main outcomes measures Self-reported quit attempts, smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), use of cessation pharmacotherapies, motivation, and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
The procedures for the above [Administrative Circular 26(Rev. 2)] will be as for 1999.The Appraisal Report form template is available as follows:For Macintosh usersConnect to the server SRV4-Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), and then use the volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word file 'MOAS FORM' is available in the folder COM, folder Public.For PC usersStart Word; in File + New, choose document 'CERN MOAS FORM' in CERN Template.In view of the wide use of the form template, and to reduce use of paper, only the first page, pre-printed with staff members' individual data, will be distributed to divisions on request. Otherwise, this data will be transmitted electronically only.Users of the electronic template are asked to be careful to copy accurately the personal data.Personnel DivisionTel. 74480
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...
Olry-Louis, Isabelle; Bremond, Capucine; Pouliot, Manon
Confidence sharing is an asymmetrical dialogic episode to which both parties consent, in which one reveals something personal to the other who participates in the emergence and unfolding of the confidence. We describe how this is achieved at a discursive level within vocational counselling interviews. Based on a corpus of 64 interviews, we analyse…
Interviews with stakeholders are one-to-one conversations about a specific topic or issue. The primary purpose of these interviews is to obtain project-relevant information and elicit stakeholder reactions and suggestions.
Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony
The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.
Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine, Ed.
Offers advice from middle school educators (a principal, a supervisor, and a teacher) on job interviews for teaching positions: how applicants are selected from the stack of applications, what happens during an interview, and what truly makes a difference. (SR)
Hueston, William J; Holloway, Richard L
Using a quasi-experimental approach, we examined student and faculty satisfaction with a mock residency interview program. We also examined whether self-selected participants had match rates that differed from nonparticipants. Interviews were arranged on a specified evening between students and a physician in the specialty to which the student wished to apply. Interviews were structured as similarly to residency interviews as possible, but included 10 minutes of verbal feedback and subsequent written feedback to all students. Students completed surveys indicating their satisfaction with the mock interview immediately following the interview and 5 months later (after their actual resident interviews). Faculty feedback to students and their satisfaction with the program also was collected. Out of 189 (55%) students in the senior class, 104 volunteered to participate. Immediately following the mock interview, over 90% of students who participated either strongly agreed or agreed that the interview feedback was helpful, seemed realistic, and helped them identify strengths and weaknesses. Responses collected 5 months later were still favorable, but less positive. Faculty identified 7 students who they believed had poor interview techniques and an additional 13 who interviewers believed would be unlikely to match in their specialty. Final match results for the group participating in the mock interview showed a primary match rate of 99%, which was higher than students who did not participate (94%, P interviews were useful in improving student match success compared to students who did not participate in the mock interview program. Because all students were not required to participate, it is unclear whether this tactic would be successful for all students.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse
Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Williams became an astronaut, and the events that led to his interest. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is his reaction to and the reasons for the change of the mission objectives. Williams also mentions the scheduled space-walk that he will perform, docking with the International Space Station (ISS), the repairs of equipment, and the change of the batteries.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott D. Altman is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Altman became a pilot, the events that led to his interest, his career path through the Navy, and then finally, his selection by NASA as an astronaut. Other interesting information discussed in this one-on-one interview was his work on the movie set of "Top Gun," the highlights of his Navy career, and possible shorter time frame turnarounds for missions. Altman also mentions the scheduled docking with the new International Space Station (ISS) after the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Kelly is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Kelly became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed are the Chandra X Ray Astrophysics Facility, and a brief touch on Kelly's responsibility during any of the given four space walks scheduled for this mission.
Musselwhite, Kimberly; Cuff, Laura; McGregor, Lisa; King, Kathryn M
There are varying points of view regarding the advisability and utility of using the telephone to conduct research interviews. When undertaking the Women's Recovery from Sternotomy Study, we found the telephone was an effective mechanism for data collection. Our aim is to identify the advantages and challenges of using the telephone as a mechanism for data collection in clinical nursing research. The potential benefits associated with using telephone interviews as a mechanism of data collection include (a) using economic and human resources efficiently, (b) minimizing disadvantages associated with in-person interviewing, (c) developing positive relationships between researchers and participants, and (d) improving quality of data collection. The potential challenges to telephone interviewing include (a) maintaining participant involvement, (b) maintaining clear communication, (c) communicating with participants who offer extraneous information, (d) encountering participants with health concerns, and (e) communicating with a third party. Telephone interviewing can be an effective method of data collection when interviewers understand the potential benefits as well as challenges. We offer solutions to the identified challenges and make pragmatic recommendations to enhance researcher success based on the current literature and our research practice. Supportive training for interviewers, effective communication between interviewers and with research participants, and standardized telephone follow-up procedures are needed to ensure successful telephone data collection. We have found our 'Manual of Operations' to be an effective tool that assists research assistants to meet the requirements for successful telephone interviewing.
Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.
Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R
Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3...... dimensions, healthy volunteers the lowest, while the psoriasis group repeatedly held an intermediate position in all sets of assessment (subjects, interviewers and relatives). A logistic regression analysis showed ixoide features being most important when the entire epilepsy group was compared with other...
Full Text Available Bobby Baker es una mujer, y una artista londinense con una carrera que abarca casi cuatro décadas. Ha trabajado fundamentalmente en el ámbito de la performance haciendo frecuente uso de material personal. Entre sus obras encontramos una versión comestible de su familia a tamaño natural, una protesta callejera de guisantes humanos que reclaman los derechos de los pacientes en el ámbito de la salud mental o una serie de performances que de modo irónico representan su vida doméstica. Su exposición itinerante «Diary Drawings: Mental Illness and Me 1997 - 2008» se estrenó en la Wellcome Collection en 2009, y el libro que la acompaña fue galardonado con el Mind Book of the Year 2011. Sus obras más recientes Mad Gyms & Kitchens y Drawing On A (Grand Mother’s Experience han sido encargadas como parte de la Cultural Olympiad de Londres en 2012 y del Women of the World Festival en 2015 respectivamente. Bobby Baker recibió el Doctorado Honorífico en 2011 tras su participación en la AHRC Creative Fellowship de Queen Mary University de Londres y es la directora artística de la asociación Daily Life Ltd.http://dailylifeltd.co.uk Grabación y edición sonora: Andrea ZarzaTraducción y transcripción: Celia Terradillos, Zara Rodríguez
Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.
Mealer, Meredith; Jones Rn, Jacqueline
To explore the methodological and ethical issues of conducting qualitative telephone interviews about personal or professional trauma with critical care nurses. The most common method for conducting interviews is face-to-face. However, there is evidence to support telephone interviewing on a variety of sensitive topics including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Qualitative telephone interviews can limit emotional distress because of the comfort experienced through virtual communication. Critical care nurses are at increased risk of developing PTSD due to the cumulative exposure to work-related stress in the intensive care unit. We explored the methodological and ethical issues of conducting qualitative telephone interviews, drawing on our experiences communicating with a group of critical care nurses. Qualitative research interviews with 27 critical care nurses. Fourteen of the nurses met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD; 13 did not and had scores consistent with high levels of resilience. This is a methodology paper on the authors' experiences of interviewing critical care nurses on sensitive topics via the telephone. The authors found that establishing rapport and connections with the participants and the therapeutic use of non-verbal communication were essential, and fostered trust and compassion. The ethical issues of this mode of communication include protecting the privacy and confidentiality associated with the disclosure of sensitive information, and minimising the risk of psychological harm to the researcher and participants. Qualitative telephone interviews are a valuable method of collecting information on sensitive topics. This paper explores a method of interviewing in the workplace. It will help inform interventions to promote healthy adaptation following trauma exposure in the intensive care unit.
Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín
Andrew Dalby (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian and author of numerous articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts. Dalby studied Latin, French and Greek at the Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge. Here he also studied Romance languages and linguistics, earning a bachelor's degree in 1970. Dalby worked for fifteen years at Cambridge University Library, eventually specialising i...
Harling, Guy; Gumede, Dumile; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; McGrath, Nuala; Seeley, Janet; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till W; Herbst, Abraham J
Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI), CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents' answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Three hundred forty (67%) individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.
Walling, Anne; Nilsen, Kari; Callaway, Paul; Grothusen, Jill; Gillenwater, Cole; King, Samantha; Unruh, Gregory
The student costs of residency interviewing are of increasing concern but limited current information is available. Updated, more detailed information would assist students and residency programs in decisions about residency selection. The study objective was to measure the expenses and time spent in residency interviewing by the 2016 graduating class of the University of Kansas School of Medicine and assess the impact of gender, regional campus location, and primary care application. All 195 students who participated in the 2016 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) received a 33 item questionnaire addressing interviewing activity, expenses incurred, time invested and related factors. Main measures were self-reported estimates of expenses and time spent interviewing. Descriptive analyses were applied to participant characteristics and responses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and chi-square tests compared students by gender, campus (main/regional), and primary care/other specialties. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on the dependent variables provided follow-up tests on significant MANOVA results. A total of 163 students (84%) completed the survey. The average student reported 38 (1-124) applications, 16 (1-54) invitations, 11 (1-28) completed interviews, and spent $3,500 ($20-$12,000) and 26 (1-90) days interviewing. No significant differences were found by gender. After MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, non-primary care applicants reported significantly more applications, interviews, and expenditures, but less program financial support. Regional campus students reported significantly fewer invitations, interviews, and days interviewing, but equivalent costs when controlled for primary care application. Cost was a limiting factor in accepting interviews for 63% and time for 53% of study respondents. Students reported investing significant time and money in interviewing. After controlling for other variables, primary care was associated with significantly
Amelia Courtney Hritz
Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.
Full Text Available Iveta Kestere is a Professor at the Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art, University of Latvia and an expert in the history of education at the Latvian Council of Science. Her current academic interest is in the research methodology for the history of education and education under dictatorship, including history of school reality and history of teaching profession. She is the author of numerous articles devoted to the history of education and the author or co-editor of nine books, among them The Visual Image of the Teacher (2012 and History of Pedagogy and Educational Sciences in the Baltic Countries from 1940 to 1990: an Overview (2013. She was a guest researcher and lecturer at the KU Leuven, Belgium. She is included in the editorial board of academic journals in Lithuania and Italy. She is a co-convenor of 17th Network (history of education at The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER and the Board member of the Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy.
Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.
Harper, Peter S
A series of 100 recorded interviews with human and medical geneticists has been carried out and some general results are reported here. Twenty countries across the world are represented, mostly European, with a particular emphasis on the United Kingdom. A priority was given to older workers, many of whom were key founders of human genetics in their own countries and areas of work, and over 20 of whom are now no longer living. The interviews also give valuable information on the previous generation of workers, as teachers and mentors of the interviewees, thus extending the coverage of human genetics back to the 1930s or even earlier. A number of prominent themes emerge from the interview series; notably the beginnings of human cytogenetics from the late 1950s, the development of medical genetics research and its clinical applications in the 1960s and 1970s, and more recently the beginnings and rapid growth of human molecular genetics. The interviews provide vivid personal portraits of those involved, and also show the effects of social and political issues, notably those arising from World War 2 and its aftermath, which affected not only the individuals involved but also broader developments in human genetics, such as research related to risks of irradiation. While this series has made a start in the oral history of this important field, extension and further development of the work is urgently needed to give a fuller picture of how human genetics has developed.
Anthony, Adelina; Carrillo Rowe, Aimee
This interview explores how performing artist, activist, writer, director, performer Adelina Anthony stages queer women of color affects as a complex terrain to mobilize a decolonial imaginary. Anthony's characters are complex, contradictory, surly, and resilient with whom audience members connect and feel deeply. Especially for queer women of color, who rarely get to see their own experiences on film or on stage, Anthony's work provides a critical forum for discussing, imagining, naming, and envisioning the connections between our personal struggles and broader forces of imperialism, heterosexual capitalism, and settler colonialism. Through the "medicina" of gritty truth-telling and side-splitting laughter, Anthony discusses her own positionality as a coyote curandera. Through the exploratory genre of the interview, Anthony helps readers palpably engage a queer woman of color "theory in the flesh" to imagine their own creative potentialities through a compassionate lens of humility and humor.
Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Lidz, Charles W.; Gardner, William P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.
To address several key questions in social science research, repeated interviews of individuals drawn from difficult populations are required. This article describes an approach for addressing the challenges associated with longitudinal interview studies, including locating research participants, obtaining reliable and valid interview data over…
as truth claims in the accountability interview. The case is critical because the specific news interview was framed and marketed as an adversarial interview with a personalised “signature host”. Accordingly, it can be assumed that neutralism can still be a resource for political sources to challenge......Through a study of a so-called “critical” case, the article examines the political accountability interview as an interactional negotiation between two clusters of truth claims of journalistic legitimacy. The first relates to the practice of ‘neutralism’ and the second to ‘personalisation...... against accusations of personal evaluations in the accountability interview. However, personalisation is a strong claim in overt journalistic commentary and to some extent in the journalistic contextualisation of the interview. The study concludes that personalisation and neutralism exist side by side...
Cheng, Daobin; Qu, Zhanli; Huang, Jianyi; Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Hongye; Wang, Jin
Psychological problems are common complications following stroke that can cause stroke survivors to lack the motivation to take part in activities of daily living. Motivational interviewing provides a specific way for enhancing intrinsic motivation, which may help to improve activities of daily living for stroke survivors. To investigate the effect of motivational interviewing for improving activities of daily living after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2015), PsycBITE (March 2015) and four Chinese databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched ongoing trials registers and conference proceedings, checked reference lists, and contacted authors of relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing motivational interviewing with no intervention, sham motivational interviewing or other psychological therapy for people with stroke were eligible. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted eligible data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome measures included activities of daily living, mood and death. One study involving a total of 411 participants, which compared motivational interviewing with usual care, met our inclusion criteria. The results of this review did not show significant differences between groups receiving motivational interviewing or usual stroke care for participants who were not dependent on others for activities of daily living, nor on the death rate after three-month and 12-month follow-up, but participants receiving motivational interviewing were more likely to have a normal mood than those who received usual care at three-months and 12-months follow-up. There is insufficient evidence to support
Embrace it or shy away from it, the march of technology moves onwards relentlessly. Job interviews, often seen as the most human part of the recruitment process, are increasingly moving to video conference or services such as Skype or FaceTime, especially for a first interview.
informational and debate news interviews in the political sphere manifested themselves in the. South African data. ... the fact that Clayman's (1991) analysis focuses solely on a corpus of political-news interview talk. Given that an ..... through the dry seasons, a gene from an arctic ﬁsh could protect tomatoes from frost.
Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian
Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…
AGEEVA JULIA VICTOROVNA
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of job interview transcripts from the perspective of dominant communicant’s (HR manager communicative behavior. The interviewer uses various etiquette forms that facilitate a more productive dialogue and stipulate cooperative strategies and tactics in order to achieve the main goal - to determine whether the job applicant meets the requirements of the employer.
Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.
Responds to M. Stanton's comments on the current author's original article. One of the puzzles of motivational interviewing is why it works at all. How can it be that an individual interview or two yields change in a long-standing problem behavior even without any effort to alter social context? The time involved is such a tiny part of the…
Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig.......Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig....
This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn
of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...... the interviewers' education, age, or parity correlate with the answers they obtained. In these data gathered through computer-assisted telephone interviews, interviewer effects arising from variations in interviewers' health beliefs and personal habits were found to be negligible. Thorough training......If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...
Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper
Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...
Increasingly men are becoming widowed in later life due in part to a longer life expectancy. Social networks and social support are thought to help buffer the negative consequences of such later life transitions. This paper explores the personal communities of a group of older men experiencing widowhood. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted, September 2013-February 2014, with seven older widowers, 71-89 years of age, in North Staffordshire, UK. Interviews included personal community diagrams to identify the structure of the older men's social relationships. Data analysis comprised thematic analysis of interview transcripts and content analysis of personal community diagrams. Three overarching themes were identified from the interview data: "Personal identity and resilience assist transition," "Continuity in personal communities provides stability" and "Changes in social relationships and practices facilitate adaptation." The study identified three types of personal community among the older widowers, comprising different combinations of family, friends and others. The findings illustrate that some older widowers have very restricted personal communities which puts them at greater risk of loneliness and social isolation. The social needs of long-term carers should be addressed as isolation and loneliness can begin long before the death of a spouse. It is important to consider gender differences and preferences when designing interventions for older people in order to promote engagement, social inclusion and well-being. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haislup, Brett D; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Baweja, Rishi; McCarty, Eric C; Mulcahey, Mary K
Over the past few decades, there has been a trend toward an increasing subspecialization in orthopaedic surgery, with orthopaedic sports medicine being one of the most competitive subspecialties. Information regarding the application and interview process for sports medicine fellowships is currently lacking. To survey orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship program directors (PDs) to better define the structure of the sports medicine fellowship interview and to highlight important factors that PDs consider in selecting fellows. Cross-sectional study. A complete list of accredited programs was obtained from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website. An anonymous survey was distributed to fellowship PDs of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic sports medicine fellowships in the United States. The survey included 12 questions about the fellowship interview and selection process. Of the 95 orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship PDs surveyed, 38 (40%) responded. Of these, 16 (42.1%) indicated that they interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year. Eleven of the 38 fellowship programs (28.9%) have only 1 fellow per year at their respective program. Most programs (27/37, 73%) reported that between 0 and 5 faculty members interview applicants, and 29 of the 38 programs (76.3%) arrange for applicants to have ≥4 interviews during their interview day. Large group interviews are conducted at 36 of 38 (94.7%) sports medicine fellowship programs, and most programs (24/38, 63.2%) hold individual interviews that last between 5 and 15 minutes. The most important applicant criterion taken into account by PDs was the quality of the interview, with an average score of 8.68 of 10. The most significant factor taken into account by PDs when deciding how to rank applicants was the quality of the interview. Many orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year
HL: The key here is that research guided from the beginning to respond to development challenges is more likely to effectively meet them. ... For example, IDRC MERO has been looking into sustainable forestry practices in the region, how we can better manage the demands on this resource for fuel, income generation and ...
Susan Naomi Nordstrom PhD
Full Text Available This article describes the object-interview as a Deleuzian space in which subjects and objects, living and nonliving, entangle together. I developed the object-interview to understand the connections that 11 Midwestern family history genealogists made between objects (e.g., documents, photographs, and other artifacts and their ancestors. The object-interview suggests an alternative way to think and do qualitative interviews informed by poststructural theories. The method draws on French philosopher Deleuze's concepts of the fold, events, and a life, as well as conventional qualitative interview literature. Deleuze's concepts offer a way to rethink objects and subjects as fibrous, connective, and folding entities in qualitative interviews. Such a rethinking offers an alternative to subject-centered conventional qualitative interviews in which subjects are teased apart from objects and subjects primarily produce knowledge. The object-interview, then, is a Deleuzian space in which the supposed distinctions between subjects and objects, as well as other binary divisions, become indistinct, or entangled, as both subjects and objects produce knowledge. That space enabled me to create the concept ensemble of life—a constantly shifting group of objects associated with a person's life. In this article, I describe the theoretical entanglement of the object-interview, the object-interview itself, the data it produced in my dissertation study, and the significance of the method to the field of qualitative research methods.
Programmed for this year, the debate for the Act concerning energy transition comes at a crucial moment in Francois Hollande's five year term of office. What is in store for the programme of renewable energy development? How will France reduce its nuclear energy share? Consultant Stephane Rozes invites elected representatives and State authorities to avoid being dogmatic. (author)
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hollesen, Laika
Det såkaldte humboldtske universitetsideal står i frit fald. Så det burde ikke komme som nogen overraskelse, at det demokratiske fundament slår revner. Det kommer i hvert fald ikke bag på Laura Louise Sarauw fra Københavns Universitet, der i sin ph.d.-afhandling har sat stort spørgsmålstegn ved d...
Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V
We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.
Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Ford, Loretta C; Aldrich, Heather; Oetzel, Keri Bolton; Cook, Paul; Schmiege, Sarah; Wold, Mary
This paper reports the findings of motivational interviewing (MI) training with and without technology support on school-based health center (SBHC) providers' satisfaction with MI training, providers' self-report of behavioral counseling related to childhood overweight/obesity, and parents' perception of care after training. The effects of training and technology on MI is part of a larger comparative effectiveness, cluster randomized trial. Twenty-four SBHCs in six states received virtual training on MI. Half the sites received HeartSmartKids™, a bilingual (English/Spanish), decision-support technology. The technology generated tailored patient education materials. Standard growth charts were plotted and health risks were highlighted to support MI counseling. The results of the MI training included provider satisfaction with MI training and parent assessment of the components of MI in their child's care. Providers and parents were surveyed at baseline, after training, and six months after training. Providers were satisfied with training and reported improvements in counseling proficiency (ptechnology group reported significant improvement in provider support for healthy eating (p=0.04). Virtual training has the potential of preparing providers to use MI to address childhood obesity. Technology improved parent support for healthy eating. Future research should evaluate the impact of technology to support MI on patient outcomes. Childhood obesity guidelines emphasize that MI should be used to promote healthy weight in children. Training providers on MI may help more providers incorporate obesity guidelines in their practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The respondent describes the first time he killed a black bear while hunting. The fifty one audio and nine video files in this collection include: villages’ life stories, circle-dancing songs and performance, local history, folk tales, and interviews from Siyuewu Village, Puxi Township, Rangtang County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. World Oral Literature Project
Comments on the article by Miller and Rose (September 2009). As Miller and Rose opened "the black box of treatment to examine linkages between processes of delivery and client outcomes" (p. 529) in motivational interviewing (MI), it is important that their model include factors from the social context that may explain conditions that enhance or…
Busted, Laila Mohrsen; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Birkelund, Regner
Relatives to persons with dementia are in the literature described as the "invisible second patients." They get a more burdensome responsibility to the family’s everyday life and relation within the family. Furthermore, relatives as caregivers provide most of the assistance and supervision...... to decrease the experienced burden that relatives to persons with dementia experience. The qualitative research project consists of three parts; 1) An interview study to investigate the problem area as experienced by 24 relatives. 2) Initiate family intervention, conducted by professional caregivers......, and examine the intervention through individual qualitative interviews with 18 family members who have participated in the family health conversations. 3) An interview study to examine what the intervention meant to the family within the last year by re-interviewing the family members through family...
Ian M. Kinchin BSc, MPhil, PhD, CBiol, FSB.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors report the use of concept mapping as a means of summarizing interview transcripts in the study of the information-seeking behavior of employees in an organization. Concept mapping differs from traditional methods of textual coding for interview analysis by making underlying cognitive structures transparent and giving a focus to the sets of propositions by which individuals construct meaning. Concept map structure correlates with the perceived richness of interview data. They provide quick summaries of the interview quality and may help to identify topics for further probing to elicit new information. In this study rich interviews provide complex concept map structures, whereas less successful interviews provide simpler, spoke structures. Issues in using concept maps with research interviews are discussed, including use as a retrospective interview probe, as a check on evidence saturation, as a form of data display or as a form of creative coding.
In these selected interviews, Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., Deputy Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), talks with media and scientific institutions about basic science, clinical research, and the work of NCI.
Full Text Available Here's the interview granted by Martha Nussbaum to Fabrizia Abbate about the role of preference in social dynamics. How important are aesthetic preferences in the development of moral attitudes and choices ?
Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
. An example is to use the BMI-curve as a tool to inform about the overweight, and to use it with the spirit of motivational interviewing for evoking the child’s own concern, as illustrated in the following quote: “I show the BMI-curve and the dot where the child is placed on the curve. The goal is to make......Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...
Alan B. Krueger; Timothy Taylor
Alan Krueger and Timothy Taylor interviewed Zvi Griliches, Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics at Harvard University, at his home near the Harvard campus on June 21, 1999. The interview touches on his harrowing journey from Lithuania to Chicago; years at the University of Chicago; the move to Harvard University; work on diffusion and technology and on returns to education; thoughts on the data infrastructure; government service and economic research; and hobbies.
The article is a slightly revised manuscript from my keynote speech at the NIC conference 2003 in Göteborg, Sweden. The aim of the speech was to put forward research towards a critical intercultural multiperspectivism in order to understand professional intercultural communication in multicultura...... societies. This is discussed in relation to a case, a job interview with an untrained Danish interviewer and a Chinese candidate....
Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman is presented. The interview addresses many different questions including why Coleman wanted to be an astronaut, why she wanted to become a chemist, and how this historic flight (first female Commander of a mission) will influence little girls. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the deployment of the Chandra satellite, why people care about x ray energy, whether or not Chandra will compliment the other X Ray Observatories currently in operation, and her responsibilities during the major events of this mission. Coleman mentions the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket that will deploy Chandra, and the design configuration of Chandra that will allow for the transfer of information. The Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Telescope on board Columbia, the Plant Growth Investigation in Microgravity (PGIM) experiment, and the two observatories presently in orbit (Gamma Ray Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope) are also discussed.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Commander Kevin R. Kregel is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Kregel became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, his career path through the Air Force and later the Navy, and then finally, his selection by NASA as an astronaut. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the purpose for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), with specific focus placed on why this SRTM flight is important, and what we will learn from the 3D topographic map of the Earth. The two antennas that will be taking the pictures, the involvement of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), EARTHCAM, a student-controlled camera on the Endeavour Orbiter, and Kregel's responsibility during this 24 hour mission are also discussed.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Horowitz is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Horowitz became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the reaction and reasons for the splitting-up of the objectives for STS-101 with STS-106. Horowitz also mentions the scheduled space-walk, docking with the International Space Station (ISS), the new glass cockpit of Atlantis, the repairs of equipment and change of the batteries. Horowitz also discusses his responsibilities during the space-walk, and docking of the spacecraft. He stresses that he will have an added challenge during the space-walk, his inability to see where he needs to place the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) crew.
Motivational Interviewing (MI), a counseling style initially used to treat addictions, increasingly has been used in health care and public health settings. This manuscript provides an overview of MI, including its theoretical origins and core clinical strategies. We also address similarities and differences with Self-Determination Theory. MI has been defined as person-centered method of guiding to elicit and strengthen personal motivation for change. Core clinical strategies include, e.g., reflective listening and eliciting change talk. MI encourages individuals to work through their ambivalence about behavior change and to explore discrepancy between their current behavior and broader life goals and values. A key challenge for MI practitioners is deciding when and how to transition from building motivation to the goal setting and planning phases of counseling. To address this, we present a new three-phase model that provides a framework for moving from WHY to HOW; from building motivation to more action oriented counseling, within a patient centered framework. PMID:22385702
Full Text Available Abstract Motivational Interviewing (MI, a counseling style initially used to treat addictions, increasingly has been used in health care and public health settings. This manuscript provides an overview of MI, including its theoretical origins and core clinical strategies. We also address similarities and differences with Self-Determination Theory. MI has been defined as person-centered method of guiding to elicit and strengthen personal motivation for change. Core clinical strategies include, e.g., reflective listening and eliciting change talk. MI encourages individuals to work through their ambivalence about behavior change and to explore discrepancy between their current behavior and broader life goals and values. A key challenge for MI practitioners is deciding when and how to transition from building motivation to the goal setting and planning phases of counseling. To address this, we present a new three-phase model that provides a framework for moving from WHY to HOW; from building motivation to more action oriented counseling, within a patient centered framework.
Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.
Daram, Sumanth R; Wu, Ruonan; Tang, Shou-Jiang
Traditional personal interviews are subject to limitations imposed by geographic, financial, and scheduling constraints. Web-based videoconferencing (WVC) has the potential to simplify the interview process. This study was intended to evaluate the feasibility and utility of WVC using standard tablets/computers with videoconferencing capability in gastroenterology (GI) fellowship interviews. At a single institution, 16 GI fellowship applicants participated in WVC with one interviewer, who was present at a remote location 750 miles away. In addition, each of the candidates underwent traditional interviews with four faculty members at the program site. All study interviewees used an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple) with a videoconferencing application (Facetime). The interviewer (SRD) used Facetime on a MacBook Pro (Apple, Mac OS X 10.7.3). Each candidate completed a voluntary paper survey after completion of all assigned faculty interviews. The average age of the candidates was 30 years (range, 27-37 years). Fourteen candidates were native English speakers. Candidates expressed a high level of satisfaction, with 13 candidates (81%) stating that their WVC experience met or exceeded their expectations, and 87% of candidates stating that WVC should be an option in fellowship interviews. In addition, 25% of candidates felt that their WVC experience was equivalent to or better than their traditional interview experience on the same day. WVC can be an effective and useful tool in the fellowship interview process. It affords candidates increased flexibility, cost saving, convenience, and provides an option for participating in the selection process at more programs. For the programs and faculty, WVC has a potential to be an effective screening tool, can help minimize loss of clinical revenue and can also be an acceptable alternative to in-person interviews.
de Quervain Dominique JF
groups performed poorly in the DMS task, which is consistent with memory and concentration problems demonstrated in patients with PTSD. Conclusion A comprehensive diagnostic interview including questions about traumatic events does not trigger an HPA-axis based alarm response or changes in psychological measures, even for persons with severe PTSD, such as survivors of torture. Thus, addressing traumatic experiences within a safe and empathic environment appears to impose no unacceptable additional load to the patient.
Gregory M. Gressel
Full Text Available The application and interview process for gynecologic oncology fellowship is highly competitive, time-consuming and expensive for applicants. We conducted a survey of successfully matched gynecologic oncology fellowship applicants to assess problems associated with the interview process and identify areas for improvement. All Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO list-serve members who have participated in the match program for gynecologic oncology fellowship were asked to complete an online survey regarding the interview process. Linear regression modeling was used to examine association between year of match, number of programs applied to, cost incurred, and overall satisfaction. Two hundred and sixty-nine eligible participants reported applying to a mean of 20 programs [range 1–45] and were offered a mean of 14 interviews [range 1–43]. They spent an average of $6000 [$0–25,000], using personal savings (54%, credit cards (50%, family support (12% or personal loans (3%. Seventy percent of respondents identified the match as fair, and 93% were satisfied. Interviewees spent a mean of 15 [0–45] days away from work and 37% reported difficulty arranging coverage. Linear regression showed an increase in number of programs applied to and cost per applicant over time (p < 0.001 between 1993 and 2016. Applicants who applied to all available programs spent more (p < 0.001 than those who applied to programs based on their location or quality. The current fellowship match was identified as fair and satisfying by most respondents despite being time consuming and expensive. Suggested alternative options included clustering interviews geographically or conducting preliminary interviews at the SGO Annual Meeting.
Gressel, Gregory M; Van Arsdale, Anne; Dioun, Shayan M; Goldberg, Gary L; Nevadunsky, Nicole S
The application and interview process for gynecologic oncology fellowship is highly competitive, time-consuming and expensive for applicants. We conducted a survey of successfully matched gynecologic oncology fellowship applicants to assess problems associated with the interview process and identify areas for improvement. All Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) list-serve members who have participated in the match program for gynecologic oncology fellowship were asked to complete an online survey regarding the interview process. Linear regression modeling was used to examine association between year of match, number of programs applied to, cost incurred, and overall satisfaction. Two hundred and sixty-nine eligible participants reported applying to a mean of 20 programs [range 1-45] and were offered a mean of 14 interviews [range 1-43]. They spent an average of $6000 [$0-25,000], using personal savings (54%), credit cards (50%), family support (12%) or personal loans (3%). Seventy percent of respondents identified the match as fair, and 93% were satisfied. Interviewees spent a mean of 15 [0-45] days away from work and 37% reported difficulty arranging coverage. Linear regression showed an increase in number of programs applied to and cost per applicant over time ( p < 0.001) between 1993 and 2016. Applicants who applied to all available programs spent more ( p < 0.001) than those who applied to programs based on their location or quality. The current fellowship match was identified as fair and satisfying by most respondents despite being time consuming and expensive. Suggested alternative options included clustering interviews geographically or conducting preliminary interviews at the SGO Annual Meeting.
A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.
Buehl, Anne-Kathrin; Melchers, Klaus G.
There is widespread fear that applicants can fake during selection interviews and that this impairs the quality of selection decisions. Several theories assume that faking occurrence is influenced by personality and attitudes, which together influence applicants’ motivation to show faking behavior. However, for faking behavior to be effective, interviewees also need certain skills and abilities. To investigate the impact of several relevant individual difference variables on faking behavior and interview success, we conducted two studies. In Study 1, we surveyed 222 individuals to assess different personality variables, attitude toward faking, cognitive ability, self-reported faking behavior, and success in previous interviews, and in Study 2, we assessed cognitive ability, social skills, faking behavior, and interview performance in an interview simulation with 108 participants. Taken together, personality, as well as attitude toward faking, influenced who showed faking behavior in an interview, but there was no evidence for the assumed moderating effect of cognitive ability or social skills on interview success. PMID:28539895
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.
If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...... the interviewers' education, age, or parity correlate with the answers they obtained. In these data gathered through computer-assisted telephone interviews, interviewer effects arising from variations in interviewers' health beliefs and personal habits were found to be negligible. Thorough training...
Wahab, Stéphanie; Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura
Objective This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of MI in a longitudinal randomized controlled trial intended to assess the efficacy of two separate interventions designed to increase colorectal screening when compared to a usual care, control group. One intervention was a single-session, telephone-based motivational interview (MI), created to increase colorectal cancer screening within primary care populations. The other was tailored health counseling. We present the rationale, design, and process discussions of the one-time motivational interview telephone intervention. We discuss in this paper the training and supervision of study interventionists, in order to enhance practice and research knowledge concerned with fidelity issues in motivational interview interventions. Methods To improve motivational interview proficiency and effectiveness, we developed a prescribed training program adapting MI to a telephone counseling session. Results The four interventionists trained in MI demonstrate some MI proficiency assessed by the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale. In the post-intervention interview, 20.5% of the MI participants reported having had a CRC screening test, and another 19.75% (n = 16) had scheduled a screening test. Almost half of the participants (43%) indicated that the phone conversation helped them to overcome the reasons why they had not had a screening test. Conclusions Ongoing supervision and training (post MI workshop) are crucial to supporting MI fidelity. The trajectory of learning MI demonstrated by the interventionists is consistent with the eight stages of learning MI. The MI roadmap created for the interventionists has shown to be more of a distraction than a facilitator in the delivery of the telephone intervention. MI can, however, be considered a useful tool for health education and warrants further study. Practice Implications MI training should include consistent training and process evaluation. MI can
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...
During the 14th - 17th of November PhD Students and researchers from e-learning lab attended a PhD course called "Perspectives on Identity in Learning and Education Research". This course was co-organised by three local doctoral schools; The International Doctoral school of Technology and Science......, The Doctoral School of Human Centered Informatics (HCI) and The Doctoral school of Education, Learning and Philosophy. During the course Thomas Ryberg had the opportunity to interview the invited guest speakers about their views on the notion of identity within learning and educational research. The first...... interview was with Anna Sfard who at present holds a joint appointment in Michigan State University in US (as Lappan-Phillips-Fitzgerald Professor of Mathematics Education) and in the University of Haifa, Israel. During the interview Anna talks about her research on identity and two metaphors on learning...
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Brian Jenkins is the first author on 'Effects of mutating α-tubulin lysine 40 on sensory dendrite development', published in Journal of Cell Science. Brian conducted the research in this article while a post-doc in the lab of Jill Wildonger at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. He is now at the Jungers Center for Neurosciences Research, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, where his research interests include visualizing all things related to how cells transport RNA, proteins and organelles throughout the cell. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Gross, Benjamin M.
In this paper, I describe the results of user interviews that reveal problems in current email systems, including role conflict, high cognitive overhead associated with organization and retrieval, inability to navigate conversations and difficulties in addressing messages. I also describe the design of a prototype system with an underlying message store for the email collection. Services layered on top of the message store address many problems described by users through improved support for identity and role management, authority control and query interfaces. Many of the solutions described in this paper to improve management of personal email collections can also be applied to other digital library collections.
Haydon-Laurelut, Mark; Wilson, Clare
This paper investigates a new application of the Internalized-Other Interview (Tomm, 1999). Internalized-Other Interviews have been used for increasing empathy (Burnham, 2000), for creating dialogue (Lysack, 2002), as a way of entering the culture of a person (Pare, 2001) and from within an object-relations framework (Hurley, 2006). This paper explores the use of the Internalized-Other Interview for conversations where the referred person is not present. Such people may be at risk of being un...
This thesis commissioned by MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen concerns political personal branding in social media. The focus is on adjusting personal branding efficiently in social media particularly in the political field. The thesis is a qualitative study. The study method used is benchmarking with the primary data of expert interviews. The secondary data includes other researches on the topic, books and online publications that are analyzed from the political personal branding point of view. Besides ...
Miller, William R; Moyers, Theresa B
The clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) evolved from the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers, maintaining his pioneering commitment to the scientific study of therapeutic processes and outcomes. The development of MI pertains to all 3 of the 125th anniversary themes explored in this special issue. Applications of MI have spread far beyond clinical psychology into fields including health care, rehabilitation, public health, social work, dentistry, corrections, coaching, and education, directly impacting the lives of many people. The public relevance and impact of clinical psychology are illustrated in the similarity of MI processes and outcomes across such diverse fields and the inseparability of human services from the person who provides them, in that both relational and technical elements of MI predict client outcomes. Within the history of clinical psychology MI is a clear product of clinical science, arising from the seminal work of Carl Rogers whose own research grounded clinical practice in empirical science. As with Rogers' work 70 years ago, MI began as an inductive empirical approach, observing clinical practice to develop and test hypotheses about what actually promotes change. Research on MI bridges the current divide between evidence-based practice and the well-established importance of therapeutic relationship. Research on training and learning of MI further questions the current model of continuing professional education through self-study and workshops as a way of improving practice behavior and client outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Pourmand, Ali; Lee, Hayoung; Fair, Malika; Maloney, Kaylah; Caggiula, Amy
Every year in the United States, medical students and residency programs dedicate millions of dollars to the residency matching process. On-site interviews for training positions involve tremendous financial investment, and time spent detracts from educational pursuits and clinical responsibilities. Students are usually required to fund their own travel and accommodations, adding additional financial burdens to an already costly medical education. Similarly, residency programs allocate considerable funds to interview-day meals, tours, staffing, and social events. With the rapid onslaught of innovations and advancements in the field of telecommunication, technology has become ubiquitous in the practice of medicine. Internet applications have aided our ability to deliver appropriate, evidence-based care at speeds previously unimagined. Wearable medical tech allows physicians to monitor patients from afar, and telemedicine has emerged as an economical means by which to provide care to all corners of the world. It is against this backdrop that we consider the integration of technology into the residency application process. This article aims to assess the implementation of technology in the form of web-based interviewing as a viable means by which to reduce the costs and productivity losses associated with traditional in-person interview days. PMID:29383060
Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.
Miller, Donald S.; Catt, Stephen E.; Slocombe, Thomas E.
Many students seem disinterested in learning to handle employment interviews effectively. This article discusses students' motivation to become skilled interviewees and steps educators and counselors can take to increase students' interest in this crucial career activity. The article also discusses mistakes students frequently make during…
Kirschenbaum, Robert J.
This interview with Howard Gardner, author of such books as "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences" and professor of education, addresses such concerns as the nature of cognitive science; parenting; the importance of human relationships in education; the meaning of "intelligence,""talent,""and giftedness";…
Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David
The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…
In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…
To test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in a population of hazardous drinkers utilizing community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. This study targeted rural people at risk for alcohol dependence utilizing low-income community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen interested clients' alcohol use. Clients achieving an AUDIT score indicating hazardous alcohol use were recruited into the study and randomized into a control or treatment group. Twenty-six hazardous drinkers attending five low-income community health centers participated in the study. The experimental group participated in one motivational interviewing session with the investigator, a family nurse practitioner (NP). The comparison group received no treatment. Alcohol use was tracked for 6 weeks after successful recruitment into the program. Participants in the study significantly decreased their average number of drinks per day. At time 1 (pretreatment), the control group drank 4.37 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 4.65 drinks per day. At time 2 (posttest), the control group drank 3.77 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 1.95 drinks per day. The effects of the motivational interviewing treatment on hazardous drinking also were measured by serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), a liver function test. There was also a significant decrease in the GGT from pretest to posttest in the treatment group. The results of this investigation found that motivational interviewing shows promise as an effective intervention for hazardous drinkers attending low-income community clinics. Although other possible explanations could be postulated for the positive changes in sample participants, the data indicate that the motivational interviewing approach was responsible for a significant portion of the positive changes within the current sample. The information collected from the study adds
Much of the work of user-centered design practitioners involves some type of interviewing. While interviewing is an important skill, many colleagues have little or no formal training in interviewing methods and often learn on the job with limited feedback on the quality of their interviews. This book teaches readers about the three basic interview methods: structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. The author discusses the various strengths, weaknesses, issues with each type of interview, and includes best practices and procedures for conducing effective
Thompson, David R; Chair, Sek Y; Chan, Sally W; Astin, Felicity; Davidson, Patricia M; Ski, Chantal F
To review and synthesise, systematically, the research findings regarding motivational interviewing and to inform education, research and practice in relation to cardiovascular health. Motivational interviewing is designed to engage ambivalent or resistant clients in the process of health behaviour change, and it has been widely used in different clinical conditions such as substance abuse, dietary adherence and smoking cessation. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as a method for improving modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors of patients. Systematic review. Eligible studies published in 1999-2009 were identified from the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Web of Science, Embase and British Nursing Index. A manual search was conducted of bibliographies of the identified studies and relevant journals. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies. Four meta-analyses, one systematic review and three literature reviews of motivational interviewing and five primary studies of motivational interviewing pertaining to cardiovascular health were identified. Despite a dearth of primary studies in cardiovascular health settings, there appears to be strong evidence that motivational interviewing is an effective approach focusing on eliciting the person's intrinsic motivation for change of behaviour. Motivational interviewing is an effective approach to changing behaviour. It offers promise in improving cardiovascular health status. This review indicates that motivational interviewing is a useful method to help nurses improve health behaviour in people with coronary risk factors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B
This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Provides background information and excerpts from an interview with Josef Krofta, highly acclaimed director for the East Bohemian Puppet Theatre in Drak, Czechoslovakia--a company internationally recognized for its innovative style in which the puppet and the live performer are integrated. Highlights Krofta's personal philosophies and theater for…
In this interview Roald Hoffmann reveals aspects of his private life, from the great difficulties he experienced during World War II, to his personal beliefs. Hoffmann addresses questions about the meaning of laboratory work, teaching chemistry, representing chemical ideas, his philosophical quandaries, his poetry, and his view of atomic orbitals.…
Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula
This paper reports a study exploring the personal and educational experiences of Greek students with dyslexia in higher education. Interviews with 16 students with dyslexia (11 male and five female) were conducted to investigate how they experienced school, peer relations, labelling, family support, university, self-esteem and how they made their…
Daly, Richard F.
Oral history, a method of collecting historical information through preplanned tape recorded interviews with persons having firsthand knowledge of an historical event, is a viable learning activity at the high school level. This methodology was conceived and later institutionalized by Alan Nevins in the 1940s as a way to counter the loss of…
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is designed to motivate people to change by helping them to recognise and resolve the difference between a behaviour problem and personal goals and values. There are several challenges of health behaviour change in MI, as well as traps that the health care provider and patient can easily ...
In an interview, Lucinda Roy, a professor of English at Virginia Tech who teaches online courses in creative writing, the civil rights movement, and literature, discusses the risks and dynamics of this style of teaching and the need to maintain some personal interaction with students. She notes that technology liberates learners, giving them a…
Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.
McCurdy, Howard E.
This document is a transcript of an interview given by Howard E. McCurdy to Mark K. Craig. Craig gives details on his background including information on his family, education, and career path, his reaction to the news that America was planning to put a man on the Moon, why he thinks we should go to Mars, and the political speeches made at the time of early human space exploration planning.
Vanderwaal, Faith Marie
This literature review addresses the question of whether motivational interviewing (MI) is effective at improving medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. The databases PsycINFO, OVID Medline, and PubMed were searched using the keywords "schizophrenia," "medication adherence," and one of the following: "motivational interviewing," "adherence therapy," or "compliance therapy." Relevant studies from the last ten years were included, resulting in six studies being included in this literature review. One study presented evidence for a direct relationship between motivational interviewing and medication adherence. Most studies did not support this relationship. Some studies found evidence for a relationship between motivational interviewing and other outcomes such as improved psychotic symptoms and decreased re-hospitalization rates. Motivational interviewing may be beneficial for some patients with schizophrenia but should not be considered a first line therapy. Clinicians not already using motivational interviewing in providing care to their patients with schizophrenia should not implement it for this population.
Newman, Daniel; O'Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; Kennedy, Catriona
Background Interviews are widely used in qualitative research to collect data. However, little has been written about interviewing people with severe mental illness (SMI). Aim To report and analyse an experience of addressing the ethical and practical challenges of interviewing people with SMI. Discussion Semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of a doctoral study to explore how service users and healthcare professionals built relationships with each other. Conclusion Although interviewing participants with SMI was challenging, rich data illustrating their experiences were gathered. Careful planning around ethical considerations, such as obtaining informed consent, was required to maximise the opportunities to gather in-depth information during the interviews. The relationship established between researcher and the participants assisted with sensitive disclosures and allowed participants to tell their stories. Implications for research This paper provides strategies to help guide researchers planning interviews with vulnerable populations, including those with SMI. These strategies include how to discuss sensitive issues and promote engagement. Listening to participants' life stories is an intense experience, requiring support for the interviewer to stay neutral during interviews. It is also important to be aware of the differences between the roles of nurse and nurse researcher before undertaking in-depth qualitative interviews, particularly with vulnerable participants.
Camp, Christopher L; Sousa, Paul L; Hanssen, Arlen D; Karam, Matthew D; Haidukewych, George J; Oakes, Daniel A; Turner, Norman S
Common strategies for orthopedic residency programs to attract competitive applicants include optimizing the interview day and contacting favorably ranked applicants postinterview. The purpose of this work was to determine (1) applicants' perspectives on the ideal interview day, (2) how frequently applicants are contacted postinterview, and (3) the influence of this contact on rank order lists (ROL). Prospective Comparative Survey Mayo Clinic Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA PARTICIPANTS: A survey was completed by 312 successfully matched orthopedic surgery residency applicants following the 2015 match regarding their views of the ideal interview day, components they valued most, post-interview contact, and how that contact influenced their ROL. Applicants stated they preferred interviews that lasted 15 (55%) minutes, a mean of 1.7 (range: 1-5) interviewers present per interview, 5 total interviews (range: 1-10) in a day, an interview with residents (96%), and interviews days lasting only a half day (88%). The majority (94%) desire a social event attended by only residents (54%) or staff and residents (46%). Few wanted an assessment of surgical skills (36%) or orthopedic knowledge (23%). The interview day was rated very valuable in determining their ROL (4.4 out of 5.0). Applicants told a mean of 1.7 (range: 0-11) programs they were "ranking the program highly" and 0.8 (range: 0-5) programs they were "going to rank them #1." Of the 116 (40%) applicants contacted by programs following interviews, 24 (21%) moved programs higher and 3 (3%) moved programs lower on their ROL. Orthopedic Surgery applicants have clear preferences for what they consider to be the ideal interview day and many alter their ROL following post-interview contact. These data may be beneficial to programs looking to optimize the interview experience for applicants. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
JAVA Interview Questions with Answers from ComputerTrainingsOnline.com is n interactive java online training provider to establish a standard present in programming languages training. It is a great opportunity to the people who wants to learn object oriented programming languages like java at their own pace as per the flexible schedules. Here you can share your views and thought procedures with our online community and clarify the queries in java with our core professional team. You can lear...
Full Text Available I decided to undertake this interview with Professor Ellen, simply because I thought such a distinguished career deserved to be marked as he was retiring. Roy was happy to make time for our interviews, in the form of loosely structured conversation which, like the Arabian Nights, Roy pointed out, could have gone on forever, but I decided to draw the line at three sessions. Perhaps it could, and will go on to form part of a more in-depth biography, as I continued to discover other aspects and adventures of Roy’s interesting life in the course of other contexts, much as one does in the field. Much is known about what ethnobiologists and anthropologists say about another people’s lives; less is known about their own, apart from rare reflections, diaries and memoires. I found Roy’s reflections a source of comfort as I embarked on my own PhD fieldwork, reassuring me as I fumbled around, making my own unique but comparable mistakes among the insights I gleaned. The following is an edited version of the original interview. I hope it will be as enjoyable to the reader as it was to me working on it.
Conrad, Frederick G.; Schober, Michael F.; Jans, Matt; Orlowski, Rachel A.; Nielsen, Daniel; Levenstein, Rachel
This study investigates how an onscreen virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation affect survey respondents' comprehension and engagement in “face-to-face” interviews, using questions from US government surveys whose results have far-reaching impact on national policies. In the study, 73 laboratory participants were randomly assigned to respond in one of four interviewing conditions, in which the virtual agent had either high or low dialog capability (implemented through Wizard of Oz) and high or low facial animation, based on motion capture from a human interviewer. Respondents, whose faces were visible to the Wizard (and videorecorded) during the interviews, answered 12 questions about housing, employment, and purchases on the basis of fictional scenarios designed to allow measurement of comprehension accuracy, defined as the fit between responses and US government definitions. Respondents answered more accurately with the high-dialog-capability agents, requesting clarification more often particularly for ambiguous scenarios; and they generally treated the high-dialog-capability interviewers more socially, looking at the interviewer more and judging high-dialog-capability agents as more personal and less distant. Greater interviewer facial animation did not affect response accuracy, but it led to more displays of engagement—acknowledgments (verbal and visual) and smiles—and to the virtual interviewer's being rated as less natural. The pattern of results suggests that a virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation differently affect survey respondents' experience of interviews, behavioral displays, and comprehension, and thus the accuracy of their responses. The pattern of results also suggests design considerations for building survey interviewing agents, which may differ depending on the kinds of survey questions (sensitive or not) that are asked. PMID:26539138
WIDIGER, THOMAS A
Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...
M. de Valk; A. Mansoux; D. Griffiths
Aymeric Mansoux, Marloes de Valk and Dave Griffiths received the First Prize at VIDA 13.2 awards for Naked on Pluto, a text-based online game that playfully addresses issues of online privacy and the (mis)use of personal data. Seven Artificial Intelligence bots interact with the player, who strives
Fanuel Bickton (FB), an. MMJ intern, speaks with Dr. Sufia Dadabhai (SD) on her personal and professional background, her position as the current Director of the. Johns Hopkins Research. Project (JHP) in Malawi, the cutting-edge HIV-related studies JHP is currently undertaking, and specifically how the Project is ...
Full Text Available This article is based on my personal experience and understanding of conducting research interviews with farmers. It incorporates ethnographic fiction—an approach to writing that is based on first-hand accounts—to examine some of the issues that researchers might think about before interviewing farmers. Research interviews with farmers are unique events because farmers are a sub-cultural group located in a particular landscape, which means that they have quite different experiences, behaviors, and motivations to academic researchers. It is hard to build an understanding of conducting research interviews with farmers other than by doing them. The article focuses on what, for me, were the eight most important issues around interviewing farmers that I had to grapple with. Discussing these issues may add to potential interviewers' understanding of some of the issues with farmer interviews and result in improved interaction and co-operation with them. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602205
Monique Sedgwick RN, PhD
Full Text Available Qualitative data collection, especially conducting in-person interviews, presents challenges for researchers whose participants are geographically dispersed. Often alternative means of interviewing using communication technology are necessary. This was true for this focused ethnographic research exploring the experiences of participants who were connected to a particular cultural group by virtue of their similar experience but who were not located in the same geographical area. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of using videoconferencing technology to collect experiential data from undergraduate nursing students and preceptors who were dispersed over a 640,000 square kilometer area in western and northern Canada during a rural hospital-based preceptorship. Recommendations for using videoconferencing as a medium for conducting in-depth qualitative interviews include using a high-bandwidth connection such as SuperNet or Web conferencing, and evaluating whether the type of information sought is likely to be shared in other than in-person face-to-face situations.
Secretion, F; Conjur, G S; Attitude, S P
BACKGROUND: Hippocrates devised his theory of the 4 humours (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile) 24 centuries ago. Since then, medicine has evolved into a complex body of confusing and sometimes contradictory facts. The authors, seeing a need to determine the validity of his theory, hired a psychic. METHODS: The psychic interviewed 4 eminent ancient physicians, including Hippocrates. A randomized double-blind cross-over design was used for this meta-life qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All of the interviewees agreed that the theory of humours is an accurate model to explain disease and personality. INTERPRETATION: Hiring a psychic to conduct after-death interviews with key informants is a useful way to validate scientific theories. PMID:9875254
Goldblatt, David L.; Hartmann, Christoph; Duerrenberger, Gregor
Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools
Documentation from Simon Yuill's Stackwalker project, a parallel study made from audio interviews relating to crofting communities in the West of Scotland and migrant workers in fishing and food production in the North East of Scotland.The project reflects upon issues of spatial agency (land use,...... in context.This artist's book follows the exhibition, Fields, Factories and Workshops at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 7 August – 18 September 2010.English language text with Gaelic, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian sections....
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether selection interviews used in conjunction with psychological assessments of personality traits and cognitive functioning contribute to predicting work performance. The sample consisted of 102 managers who were appointed recently in a retail organisation. The independent variables were selection interview ratings obtained on the basis of structured competency-based interview schedules by interviewing panels, fve broad dimensions of personality defned by the Five Factor Model as measured by the 15 Factor Questionnaire (15FQ+, and cognitive processing variables (current level of work, potential level of work, and 12 processing competencies measured by the Cognitive Process Profle (CPP. Work performance was measured through annual performance ratings that focused on measurable outputs of performance objectives. Only two predictor variables correlated statistically signifcantly with the criterion variable, namely interview ratings (r = 0.31 and CPP Verbal Abstraction (r = 0.34. Following multiple regression, only these variables contributed signifcantly to predicting work performance, but only 17.8% of the variance of the criterion was accounted for.
Taylor, Daniel J; Wilkerson, Allison K; Pruiksma, Kristi E; Williams, Jacob M; Ruggero, Camilo J; Hale, Willie; Mintz, Jim; Organek, Katherine Marczyk; Nicholson, Karin L; Litz, Brett T; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Dondanville, Katherine A; Borah, Elisa V; Brundige, Antoinette; Peterson, Alan L
To develop and demonstrate interrater reliability for a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Sleep Disorders (SCISD). The SCISD was designed to be a brief, reliable, and valid interview assessment of adult sleep disorders as defined by the DSM-5. A sample of 106 postdeployment active-duty military members seeking cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in a randomized clinical trial were assessed with the SCISD prior to treatment to determine eligibility. Audio recordings of these interviews were double-scored for interrater reliability. The interview is 8 pages long, includes 20 to 51 questions, and takes 10 to 20 minutes to administer. Of the nine major disorders included in the SCISD, six had prevalence rates high enough (ie, n ≥ 5) to include in analyses. Cohen kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess interrater reliability for insomnia, hypersomnolence, obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea (OSAH), circadian rhythm sleep-wake, nightmare, and restless legs syndrome disorders. There was excellent interrater reliability for insomnia (1.0) and restless legs syndrome (0.83); very good reliability for nightmare disorder (0.78) and OSAH (0.73); and good reliability for hypersomnolence (0.50) and circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (0.50). The SCISD is a brief, structured clinical interview that is easy for clinicians to learn and use. The SCISD showed moderate to excellent interrater reliability for six of the major sleep disorders in the DSM-5 among active duty military seeking cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in a randomized clinical trial. Replication and extension studies are needed. Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Comparing Internet and In-Person Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Insomnia; Identifier: NCT01549899; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01549899. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley is presented. The interview addresses many different questions including why Hawley wanted to be an astronaut, his career path, and how this historic flight (first female Commander of a mission) draws attention from the media. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the deployment of the Chandra satellite, why people care about x ray energy, whether or not Chandra will compliment the other X Ray Observatories currently in operation, and his responsibilities during the major events of this mission. Hawley mentions the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket that will deployed the Chandra Telescope, and the design configuration of Chandra to gather and transfer information. The Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Telescope on board Columbia, the Plant Growth Investigation in Microgravity (PGIM) and Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR) experiments, and the two observatories presently in orbit (Gamma Ray Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope) are also discussed.
Full Text Available This paper examines recent changes that have occurred in broadcast interviews in the Arab world, particularly in the Saudi context. Many previous studies have pointed out that interviewers ought to adhere to strict standards relating to neutrality and professionalism. These include withholding their own personal opinions, using impersonal expressions when delivering criticisms, giving guests sufficient opportunity to reply to questions, and similar strategies that have been examined. However, this study shows that some Arab interviewers have begun to adopt new strategies that ignore the traditional turn-taking in media interviews, using a very relaxed system of turn-taking, which is new to Arab audiences. This new environment allows activities that do not normally appear in Arab traditional shows, such as using taboo words and offensive language, showing overt racism towards their guests and drawing audiences outside the studio into the conflict. This shift has led to higher viewing figures for these shows in the contemporary market-oriented mediascape, even though they fail to respect core ethical standards.
Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 245.6 Section 245.6 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be waived in the case of a child...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interviews. 1.133 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Interviews § 1.133 Interviews. (a)(1) Interviews with examiners concerning applications and other matters pending before the...
Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.
Ter Haar-Pomp, Lydia; Spreen, Marinus; Bogaerts, Stefan; Volker, Beate
Summary There has hardly been any examination of the personal social networks of personality disordered forensic psychiatric patients leading up to, and at the time of their offence. To shed light on this question, 36 male inpatients were interviewed by forensic social workers about their social
Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H
Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey
This NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) video production presents an STS-106 pre-launch interview with Russian Cosmonaut/Mission Specialist Boris Morukov, M.D., Ph.D. Among other topics, Morukov discusses his background in studying weightlessness at the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems and how his experiences prepared him to become a Cosmonaut candidate. STS-106 is International Space Station assembly flight ISS-2A.2b and will utilize the SPACEHAB Double Module and the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to take supplies to the station. The mission will also include 2 spacewalks.
This NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) video production presents an STS-106 pre-launch interview with Russian Cosmonaut/Mission Specialist Yuri Malenchenko, Col. Russian Air Force. Among other topics, Malenchenko discusses his 125-day space mission on Russian Space Station MIR in 1994, and his planned spacewalk to complete the connection between the Russian service module Svezda and the International Space Station (ISS). STS-106 is International Space Station assembly flight ISS-2A.2b and will utilize the SPACEHAB Double Module and the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to take supplies to the station. The mission will also include 2 spacewalks.
STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, training for the mission, and his role in the mission's activities. He gives details on the mission's goals, which include the transfer of supplies from the Discovery Orbiter to the International Space Station (ISS) and the change-over of the Expedition 2 and Expedition 3 crews (the resident crews of ISS). Horowitz discusses the importance of the ISS in the future of human spaceflight.
Ramli, Rindra M.
This executive report summarizes the interview findings on the use of Summon by our community. Summon is the library\\'s new webscale discovery layer that was launched in May 2016. The findings highlighted that Google Scholar remains the popular resource to search for articles. In addition to that, library website (Koral / Summon) is commonly used to search for known items such as book / electronic book titles. The report also includes the author\\'s short and long term recommendations to address the shortcomings of the present situation.
Full Text Available Fictions Inc., and this interview, offers detailed readings of a diverse body of texts that, in one way or another, push readers to think about the role of the corporation in 20th and 21st century America. Using a complex set of critical tools—historicizing the rise in the pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s to read White Noise; drawing on Slavoj Žižek and Louis Althusser to explain the model of resistance that appears in Crying of Lot 49; looking at 1980s gentrification policies and government outsourcing while discussing Ghostbusters—Clare generates a series of insights about the fears and the desires embodied in the corporation. What he finds is that older avenues of resistance to consumer capitalism have closed, but the desire to imagine new ones, and maybe create them, remains open.
A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.
STS-112 Mission Specialist 2 Sandra H. Magnus is seen during a prelaunch interview. She answers questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. She gives details on the mission's goals, the most significant of which will be the installation of the S-1 truss structure on the International Space Station (ISS). The installation, one in a series of truss extending missions, will be complicated and will require the use of the robotic arm as well as extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts. Magnus also describes her function in the performance of transfer operations. Brief descriptions are given of experiments on board the ISS as well as on board the Shuttle.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way......Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...
The exit interview and survey are means for identifying organizational problems, including diversity issues, through individuals separating from the organization, who are in a unique position to supply candid feedback...
Sana, Mariano; Stecklov, Guy; Weinreb, Alexander A
We offer the first empirical test of the 'stranger-interviewer norm', according to which interviewers in social, demographic, and health surveys should be strangers-not personally familiar with respondents. We use data from an experimental survey in the Dominican Republic that featured three types of interviewer: from out of town (outsiders); local but unknown to the respondent (local-strangers); and local with a previous relationship to the respondent (insiders). We were able to validate answers to up to 18 questions per respondent, mainly by checking official documents in their possession. Contrary to expectations derived from the stranger-interviewer norm, respondents were more reluctant to show the documents needed for validation when the interviewer was an outsider. Furthermore, and again at odds with the stranger-interviewer norm, we found no difference in accuracy by type of interviewer. Our results have important implications for the selection of survey interviewers in less developed and non-Western settings.
Aysina, Rimma M; Efremova, Galina I; Maksimenko, Zhanna A; Nikiforov, Mikhail V
Unemployed individuals of pre-retirement age face significant challenges in finding a new job. This may be partly due to their lack of psychological readiness to go through a job interview. We view psychological readiness as one of the psychological attitude components. It is an active conscious readiness to interact with a certain aspect of reality, based on previously acquired experience. It includes a persons' special competence to manage their activities and cope with anxiety. We created Job Interview Simulation Training (JIST) - a computer-based simulator, which allowed unemployed job seekers to practice interviewing repeatedly in a stress-free environment. We hypothesized that completion of JIST would be related to increase in pre-retirement job seekers' psychological readiness for job interviewing in real life. Participants were randomized into control (n = 18) and experimental (n = 21) conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention job interview role-plays and self-reporting forms of psychological readiness for job interviewing. JIST consisted of 5 sessions of a simulated job interview, and the experimental group found it easy to use and navigate as well as helpful to prepare for interviewing. After finishing JIST-sessions the experimental group had significant decrease in heart rate during the post-intervention role-play and demonstrated significant increase in their self-rated psychological readiness, whereas the control group did not have changes in these variables. Future research may help clarify whether JIST is related to an increase in re-employment of pre-retirement job seekers.
Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj
BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...... setting were consecutively sampled from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The patients participated in an extensive interview including the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders and a detailed...... of antidepressant treatment, and (2) 2 trials of antidepressant treatment. Further personality traits were assessed by means of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among a total of 301 patients with a single depressive episode, 31.9% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for at least 1 personality disorder...
Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O
Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psycholog...
As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.
Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey M; Davis, Caroline
The authors examined the association between the presence of personality variables implicated in the pathogenesis of eating disorders and the presence of eating disorder symptoms in 51 women with type 1 diabetes. Subjects were assessed with interview instruments and self-report questionnaires, including scales measuring eating disorder symptoms, borderline personality characteristics, and perfectionism. Fourteen subjects displayed moderate to severe eating disorder symptoms. Perfectionism was related to attitudinal aspects of eating disorders (e.g., weight preoccupation), and borderline personality characteristics were related to disordered behaviors (e.g., insulin omission) and poor glycemic control. The results suggest that personality factors are related to disordered eating and poor glycemic control in diabetic women.
Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm
Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…
Broadbear, Jillian H; Nesci, Julian; Thomas, Rosemary; Thompson, Katherine; Beatson, Josephine; Rao, Sathya
Residential patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder were evaluated to determine whether borderline personality disorder-focused psychotherapy reduced prescribing, personality disorder and co-morbid symptom severity. Psychotropic prescriptions were measured at admission, discharge and 1 year later in 74 female participants with one or more personality disorder diagnosis and co-morbid mood disorders. Changes in pharmacotherapy were examined in the context of improvements in borderline personality disorder and/or co-morbid disorder symptom severity. Residential treatment included individual and group psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm the borderline personality disorder diagnosis and associated co-morbid conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at each time point. A significant reduction in the incidence and severity of self-rated depression as well as clinician assessed personality disorder, including borderline personality disorder, was accompanied by a reduction in prescription of psychoactive medications. Three to six months of intensive borderline personality disorder-specific psychotherapy showed lasting benefit with regard to symptom severity of personality disorders (borderline personality disorder in particular) as well as depressive symptoms. This improvement corresponded with a reduction in prescriptions for psychoactive medications, which is consistent with current thinking regarding treatment for borderline personality disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Kaltman, Stacey; WinklerPrins, Vincent; Serrano, Adriana; Talisman, Nicholas
Despite the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors among patients in the healthcare system, traditional medical training involves little or no exposure to effective behavior change techniques such as Motivational Interviewing. An online learning community for enhanced training in Motivational Interviewing was developed for 3rd-year medical students. The website included educational materials about Motivational Interviewing as well as problematic health behaviors, a repository of exemplar videos and student videos with feedback, and a discussion board. Student participants were given the opportunity to record an encounter with a patient and to receive feedback on their use of Motivational Interviewing from a faculty member. Student volunteers in the Family Medicine Clerkship at Georgetown University School of Medicine were randomized to enhanced training, which included the online learning community, or training as usual. All student volunteers completed a questionnaire assessing self-efficacy initially and at the end of the clerkship. Students also participated in an Observed Structured Clinical Exam, which was subsequently coded by a blinded rater for behavioral counts of Motivational Interviewing techniques, key steps in Motivational Interviewing, and overall Motivational Interviewing style. Students in the enhanced training arm were rated as having significantly higher scores in Motivational Interviewing style in the Observed Structured Clinical Exam than training as usual students. A significant increase in self-efficacy from pre- to posttest in the overall sample was observed but between-group differences were not significant. Student feedback was particularly positive regarding video recorded practice sessions with patients and individualized feedback. The results of this study as well as student feedback suggest that future work should include patient practice sessions and individualized feedback in developing Motivational Interviewing curricula.
Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith
Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wagner, C. C.; McMahon, B. T.
This article explores commonalities between rehabilitation counseling and the counseling approach known as motivational interviewing. Motivational interviewing is an empirically supported, clientcentered, directive counseling approach designed to promote client motivation and reduce motivational conflicts and barriers to change. The underpinnings…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television.......Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television....
In the field of studies of links between mood disorders and personality, the need to study only completely remitted patients has been demonstrated recently. Indeed, the clinically depressed state strongly influences the assessment of some personality traits in a more pathological direction (for instance for emotional stability, extraversion, interpersonal dependency, ego strength). The studies concerning unipolar depression have been mainly made according to two methodological approaches which results are relatively consistent. The first one uses batteries of standard self-report personality inventories such as the Hirschfeld and Klerman battery which includes the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory, the shortened version of the Lazare-Klerman-Armor Personality Inventory and two subscales of the MMPI. This approach shows that compared to normal population, recovered depressive, have less emotional strength more interpersonal dependency and a more introverted personality. The second approach uses diagnostic criteria of personality disorders according to DSM III. The clinical evaluation can be performed with the help of the Structured Interview for DSM III Personality Disorders (SIDP) or with of the help the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), a self rated questionnaire. The most frequent personality disorder among recovered unipolar patients is dependent personality, followed by the avoidant and histrionic personalities and lastly the schizoïd, schizotypal, borderline, compulsive and passive-aggressive personalities. But the interpretation of all these results must be cautious given that a recent study dealing with premorbid personality invites one to consider that not only depression influences personality assessment during illness, but also that depression may result in personality change after recovery. Few studies are available concerning bipolar patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
In this article the author argues that interactional difficulties and questioning practices identified in the methodological literature on qualitative interviewing as "problems" provide topics of analysis. Methodological examinations of interview data drawing on conversation analysis also explicate how interview "problems" may be conceptualized in…
Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G
We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed.
Rebecca M. Willén
Full Text Available In 2012, Swedish dental care patients (n = 95 participated in a quasi-experiment in which they were interviewed twice about dental visits they had made between 2002 and 2012. For verification purposes, the participants' narratives were compared to the dental records. The qualitative data was quantified, stored as a .csv file, and supplemented with a codebook in plain text. All study materials are freely available online. The data can be reused to further analyse memory for repeated events. The data can be used both as data from an experiment (including both interviews and as single interview data (including data only from the first interview, i.e., before the respondents were provided with memory cues.
Ali Mumin Ahad is a Somali scholar with multifaceted interests and a personal life story that brought him from Somalia to Italy, and now to Australia. Ali obtained his undergraduate degree in Economics at the Somali National University, and then moved to Italy where he earned his master’s degree...... in agribusiness at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, in Milan. His doctorate was awarded by La Trobe University in Australia, while he now holds a position as Honorary Research Fellow at Melbourne University, Faculty of Arts. In his works, Ali focuses on Somali history, including colonialism, on literature...
Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte
Background and purpose Interviewing interrelated persons simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than single interviews due to informants’ relationship. Studies indicate that conflict torn relationships are the strongest predictor for a negative health status which obligates...... the researcher not to jeopardize it doing joint interviews. Ethical considerations conducting joint interviews remain largely undescribed in the literature. Our purpose was to illuminate the literature regarding specific ethical challenges conducting joint interviews with interrelated people in order to avoid...... was analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Results In total 17 articles were located. Findings were divided into two main themes: Ethical challenges in conducting joint interviews and Ethical challenges when planning and reporting from joint interviews. Conclusions and implications Joint...
Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.
Wu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chiu-Chu
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered approach aimed to enhance a client's motivation to change behaviors and to move him or her to action. MI focuses on client desires, thoughts and feelings as a way to encourage clients to express their own barriers to change and to explore and resolve ambivalence to behavioral change. Motivational interviewing has been applied in a variety of conditions, including substance abuse cessation, obesity treatment, treatment adherence, enhance of diet and exercise behaviors and the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Evidence from research has demonstrated that motivational interviewing is effective in improving client lifestyle and health outcomes. There are four guiding principles in conducting motivational interviews include expressing empathy, developing discrepancies, backing off when encountering resistance, and supporting self-efficacy. In addition, five basic therapeutic skills are often used in the interview process, including reflective listening, asking open questions, affirming, weight of cons and pros, summarizing. The principles and skills discussed in this paper will help nurses better understand the "spirit" of motivational interviewing and facilitate their further application them in clinical practice to promote client self-awareness and instill a motivation to change health behaviors.
Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Anna; Meong, Anna; Seo, Minjeong
The generic competency domains of advanced nursing practice have been reported on in numerous countries, but rather few studies have examined competencies specific to pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs). We identified the core clinical competencies of PNPs in South Korea and related these identified competencies to the five patterns of knowing in nursing. Focus group interviews were conducted with five PNP students and four PNPs using two thematic questions, one on clinical competencies required for PNPs and the other on competencies specific to Korean PNPs. A purposive sampling method was used to choose nurses with varying work experience and age from different hospital units. The inclusion criterion for PNP students was having at least two years of clinical experience and that for PNPs was having at least two years of clinical experience as a PNP in pediatric units in tertiary hospitals. The verbatim transcriptions of these interviews were analysed by two researchers using inductive content analysis. Six clinical competency domains were identified including advanced pediatric-specific knowledge and clinical skills, education and counseling, utilization and engagement in research, professional identity development, clinical and professional leadership, and holistic care. Some competencies identified were related to empirical and ethical knowledge that could be taught in nursing, whereas others were based on esthetic and personal knowledge, which can be mastered through professional experience. To provide holistic care for children and families, PNPs must acquire all necessary patterns of knowing through continuing education and individual reflection on personal practice.
Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M
To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.
Branscome, Eric E.
This study used a semistructured interview schedule to identify the music career opportunities available to students who graduate with an undergraduate music degree, and the skills, interests, work values, and personal characteristics that may determine a person's suitability for these music careers. Six university faculty members from each of the…
-preventable diseases in children ... (UNHCR) to set-up a medical aid program, including vaccinations, for the Mauritanian refugees in ... In the Nineties, many Districts in Malawi were headed by a. Dutch District Health Officer (DHO) as part of a ...
Jacobs, Jesse C; Guralnick, Michael L; Sandlow, Jay I; Langenstroer, Peter; Begun, Frank P; See, William A; O'Connor, Robert Corey
Applicant interviews for urology residency positions are a stressful and costly process for students, faculty, and staff. We conducted a prospective survey to better determine what urology applicants perceive as an ideal interview process to gain sufficient knowledge about a training program. A questionnaire was anonymously completed by all urology residency applicants interviewing at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2007 to 2013. Questionnaire subject headings included "ideal interview format," "factors contributing to understanding the residency program," and "factors contributing to final rank list order." Questionnaires were distributed to and completed by 221 senior medical students applying for a urology residency position. Most respondents (>80%) reported they would prefer to partake in 5 to 7 faculty interviews in an office setting with the total interview process spanning half to three-fourths of the workday. Spending time with current residents was considered the most valuable tool to acquire knowledge about a residency program. The most important criteria when ranking a program were resident satisfaction, resident operative experience, and perceived strength of faculty. Academic urology programs may wish to consider applicant ideals when organizing residency interviews. Interaction with current residents appears to be the most valuable resource allowing applicants to garner knowledge about a urology training program. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tania Pietzschke Abate
Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.
Job interviewers’ implicit person theories (i.e., beliefs that personalities are adaptable or fixed) were examined through a qualitative analysis of interviews with job interviewers. The study demonstrates that job interviewers tend to use generalized trait descriptions of applicants when...... the job interview are easily transferrable to the job they are seeking to fill. Thus, job interviewers appear to view applicants as persons with fixed personality traits, despite human adaptability. This is not necessarily because the job interviewer has a stable implicit entity theory of persons; instead...... determining their selection. This is problematic because it neglects the context’s interference with the applicant—for example, the effect of a new manager, colleagues, or company culture. The study demonstrates that job interviewers implicitly assume that the impressions they form of an applicant during...
Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew
A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.
علیرضا رفیعی; مهرداد کلانتری; حمیدطاهر نشاطدوست; حمیدرضا عریضی
The aim of this study was to provide a theoretical framework and a paradigmatic model of forgiveness based on personal constructs of betrayed couples in their lives. For this purpose, qualitative methodology and grounded theory was used. Through purposive sampling and after conducting 20 deep interviews with participants including 13 females and 7 males referred to several counseling centers in Isfahan, theoretical saturation was reached. Participants were people whose spouses (male or female...
Rushing, Keith; Asperin, Amelia Estepa
Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this project were to investigate the application of brand personality concepts in the school nutrition (SN) setting and to explore high school students' awareness and acceptance of these branding initiatives. Methods: An embedded, multiple-case replication design included structured interviews with SN…
DeForge, Bruce R.; Belcher, John R.; O'Rourke, Michael; Lindsey, Michael A.
This study explored the relationship between personal resources and previous adverse life events such as homelessness and depression. Participants were recruited from two church sponsored multisite social service centers in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The interview included demographics and several standardized scales to assess history of…
Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne
Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical reality would be necessary to facilitate implementation of best evidence pertaining to family interventions. To explore the process through which SLTs work with significant others of people with aphasia in rehabilitation settings. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight SLTs who had been working with persons with aphasia in rehabilitation centres for at least 1 year. Grounded theory principles were applied in analysing interview transcripts. A theoretical model was developed representing SLTs' process of working with significant others of persons with aphasia in rehabilitation. Including significant others was perceived as challenging, yet a bonus to their fundamental patient-centred approach. Basic interventions with significant others when they were available included information sharing. If necessary, significant others were referred to social workers or psychologists or the participants collaborated with those professionals. Participants rarely and only under specific conditions provided significant others with language exercises or trained them to communicate better with the aphasic person. As a result, even if participants felt satisfied with their efforts to offer family and friends interventions, they also had unachieved ideals, such as having more frequent contacts with significant others. If SLTs perceived work with significant others as a feasible necessity, rather than as a challenging bonus, they could be more inclined to include family and friends within therapy with the aim to improve their communication with the person with aphasia. SLTs could also be more satisfied with their practice. In order to
Richmond, B. M.; Dudley, W. C.; Buckley, M. L.; Jaffe, B. E.; Fanolua, S.; Chan Kau, M.
Thirty-one video interviews were carried out on the islands of Tutuila, American Samoa and Upolu, Samoa with survivors of, and responders to, the September 29, 2009 tsunami event. Those interviewed included local residents caught by the waves while attempting to flee to higher ground, those who intentionally ran into the water to save others, individuals who recognized the potential tsunami hazard due to the severity of the earthquake and attempted to warn others, first-responders, aid workers, tourism managers, and others. The frank, often emotional, responses provide unfiltered insight into the level of preparedness of local residents, level of training of first responders, and challenges faced by aid workers. Among the important observations voiced by interviewees were: (1) recent tsunami education briefings and school drills were critical in preventing greater loss of life; (2) those who had not received training about the tsunami hazard were unaware that a tsunami could follow a strong earthquake; (3) first responders were not adequately trained or prepared for the specific impacts of a tsunami; (4) initial medical procedures did not adequately address the levels of bacterial contamination; and (5) survivors, first responders and aid workers suffer from post traumatic stress disorder as a result of the event and its aftermath. Valuable scientific data can also be gained from first-hand accounts. Several interviews describe waves “bending,” “funneling,” and one spoke of the waves coming together as a “monster that jumped up from the channel spitting boulders.” In the village of Fagasa on the north coast of Tutuila, American Samoa, the assumed transport direction of large boulders by scientists was dramatically revised based on first-hand accounts of the original position of the boulders. The single most common message was that hazard education played a key role in saving lives in both Samoa and American Samoa. It is critically important to
Dr Hiroshi Nakajima was elected director general of WHO in 1988. Born in Japan, he trained as a psychiatrist before joining WHO in 1973. He was WHO's regional director for the Western Pacific from 1979 to 1988. His term of office has been marked by criticism of his management style and allegations of misuse of WHO's funds. I spoke to him at WHO's headquarters in Geneva in July. I have presented the interview in the form of questions and answers. It would be misleading, however, not to make clear that in doing so I have transcribed conversation which was at times extremely difficult to follow. I feel that it is important to emphasise this in the context of an interview with an international leader, one of whose primary tasks must be to communicate his views on health to people across the world. The interviews gave me first hand experience of the difficulties in communication that staff, diplomats, and others, including Japanese leaders, have consistently commented on since Dr Nakajima took office.
Kramer, Ueli; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C
Little is known about the psychosocial functioning of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The main objective of this paper is to compare the psychosocial functioning of a group of adolescents with BPD to a group of psychiatrically healthy adolescents. The present cross-sectional study included 104 adolescent inpatients with BPD, compared with 60 age-matched psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects. All participants were rigorously diagnosed using three semi-structured interviews: the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses, the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality. All subjects were also interviewed using the adolescent version of the Background Information Schedule to assess multiple facets of psychosocial functioning. Adolescents with BPD rated their relationships with their parents as significantly less positive, were more likely to date, but spent more time alone than their healthy counterparts. In addition, adolescents with BPD reported significantly more problems at work and school (i.e. lower frequency of having a good work or school history, higher frequency of being suspended or expelled from school) and significantly lower rates of participation in extra-curricular activities than their healthy counterparts. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents with BPD are more impaired in both the social and vocational areas of functioning than psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects. They might also suggest that an overlooked area of strength concerns their relationships with peers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
Webster, Joan; Flint, Anndrea
Exit interviews are widely used in healthcare organisations to identify reasons for staff attrition, yet their usefulness in limiting turnover is unclear. To determine the effectiveness of various exit interview strategies in decreasing turnover rates amongst healthcare professionals. We searched the Cochrane EPOC Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 11, 2012; MEDLINE, Ovid (1950- ); EMBASE, Ovid (1947- ); CINAHL, EbscoHost (1980- ), and PsycINFO, OVID (1806-) between October 31 and November 6, 2012. We also screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews; and searched trial registries for planned and on-going studies. We did not restrict searches by language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies comparing turnover rates between healthcare professionals who had undergone one form of exit interview with another form of exit interview or with no interview. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The original search identified 1560 citations, of which we considered 19 potentially relevant. The two authors independently reviewed the abstracts of these studies and retrieved the full texts of eight studies. We excluded all eight following independent assessment; they were either interviews, commentaries on how to do an exit interview or descriptive studies about reasons for leaving. We found no studies that matched our inclusion criteria. For this first update, we screened 2220 citations and identified no new studies. Evidence about the effectiveness of exit interviews to reduce turnover is currently not available. However, exit interviews may provide useful information about the work environment which, in turn, may be useful in the development of interventions to reduce turnover.
Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Snow, Pamela C; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H
This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years (M age=9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their relative sub-types were classified according to definitions reported in the child interview training literature. The children's responses were classified according to the proportion of story grammar and the prevalence of individual story grammar elements as defined by Stein and Glenn (1979). Open-ended questions were more effective at eliciting story grammar than specific questions. This finding was revealed across three age groups, two interview phases and irrespective of how question effectiveness was measured. However, not all types of open-ended questions were equally effective. Open-ended questions that encouraged a broad response, or asked the child to elaborate on a part of their account, elicited more story-grammar detail compared to open-ended questions that requested clarification of concepts or descriptions of the next (or another) activity or detail within a sequence. This study demonstrates that children's ability to provide story-grammar detail is maximised when there is minimal prompting from the interviewer. Given the association between story grammar production and victim credibility, greater guidance is warranted in interviewer training programs in relation to the effects and administration of different types of open-ended questions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yost, Jeffrey R.
Computer Security History Project Computer security pioneer Dorothy Denning discusses her career including her Lattice Model for Computer Security, research on database security, intrusion detection, and other areas, such as her influential textbooks. The interview also addresses computer security research infrastructure and collaborators at various institutions where she worked including Purdue University, SRI International, Digital Equipment Corporation, Georgetown University, and Naval ...
Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O
Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409
Kruizinga, Renske; Jafari, Najmeh; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Hans; Bires, Jennifer; Puchalski, Christina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke
Being diagnosed with incurable cancer can be a life-changing experience, evoking different spiritual questions and needs. Confronting a serious life-threatening event occurs not only often unexpected but also can disrupt a person's self-image and ideals of their personhood. This confrontation makes it difficult for people to integrate it into their personal life story-otherwise referred to as an experience of contingency. Different modes of relating to the contingent life event of having cancer have been studied in a Dutch patient population. Here we present an interview study in an U.S. population with advanced cancer patients. We included eight American patients with advanced cancer from the George Washington University Cancer Center. All patients were interviewed twice discussing their life events and life goals using a semistructured interview model. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed focusing on how patients described the way they related to the experience of having advanced cancer. The constant comparative method with a directed content analysis approach was used to code the themes in the interviews. The analyses show that the four modes of relating to contingency that we found in the Dutch study population can also be found in an American advanced cancer patient population. Differences were found in the extended way American patients described the fourth mode of "receiving." This study ensures a broader and deeper understanding of relating to the experience of contingency in having incurable cancer, which is crucial in developing accurate spiritual care in the palliative phase of patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Skjernov, Mathias; Simonsen, Erik
The five personality disorder trait domains in the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition are comparable in terms of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism/Dissociality and Disinhibition. However, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model includes a separate domain of Anankastia, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model includes an additional domain of Psychoticism. This study examined associations of International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domains, simultaneously, with categorical personality disorders. Psychiatric outpatients ( N = 226) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Interview and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domain scores were obtained using pertinent scoring algorithms for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Associations between categorical personality disorders and trait domains were examined using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Both the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition domain models showed relevant continuity with categorical personality disorders and captured a substantial amount of their information. As expected, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model was superior in capturing obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model was superior in capturing schizotypal personality disorder. These preliminary findings suggest that little information is 'lost' in a transition to trait domain
Teno, J M; Clarridge, B; Casey, V; Edgman-Levitan, S; Fowler, J
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to measure quality of care at the end of life from the unique perspective of family members. The survey included proposed problem scores (a count of the opportunity to improve the quality of care) and scales. Data were collected through a retrospective telephone survey with a family member who was interviewed between 3 and 6 months after the death of the patient. The setting was an outpatient hospice service, a consortium of nursing homes, and a hospital in New England. One hundred fifty-six family members from across these settings participated. The 8 proposed domains of care, as represented by problem scores or scales, were based on a conceptual model of patient-focused, family-centered medical care. The survey design emphasized face validity in order to provide actionable information to health care providers. A correlational and factor analysis was undertaken of the 8 proposed problem scores or scales. Cronbach's alpha scores varied from 0.58 to 0.87, with two problem scores (each of which had only 3 survey items) having a low alpha of 0.58. The mean item-to-total correlations for the other problem scores varied from 0.36 to 0.69, and the mean item-to-item correlations were between 0.32 and 0.70. The proposed problem scores or scales, with the exception of closure and advance care planning, demonstrated a moderate correlation (i.e., from 0.44 to 0.52) with the overall rating of satisfaction (as measured by a five-point, "excellent" to "poor" scale). Family members of persons who died with hospice service reported fewer problems in each of the six domains of medical care, gave a higher rating of the quality of care, and reported higher self-efficacy in caring for their loved ones. These results indicate that 7 of the 8 proposed problem scores or scales demonstrated psychometric properties that warrant further testing. The domain of
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S
The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many medical schools use admissions Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs rather than traditional interviews (TIs, partly because MMIs are thought to be more reliable. Yet prior studies examined single-school samples of candidates completing either an MMI or TI (not both. Using data from five California public medical schools, the authors examined the within- and between-school reliabilities of TIs and MMIs. Methods The analyses included applicants interviewing at ≥1 of the five schools during 2011–2013. Three schools employed TIs (TI1, TI2, TI3 and two employed MMIs (MMI1, MMI2. Mixed linear models accounting for nesting of observations within applicants examined standardized TI and MMI scores (mean = 0, SD = 1, adjusting for applicant socio-demographics, academic metrics, year, number of interviews, and interview date. Results A total of 4993 individuals (completing 7516 interviews [TI = 4137, MMI = 3379] interviewed at ≥1 school; 428 (14.5% interviewed at both MMI schools and 687 (20.2% at more than one TI school. Within schools, inter-interviewer consistency was generally qualitatively lower for TI1, TI2, and TI3 (Pearson’s r 0.07, 0.13, and 0.29, and Cronbach’s α, 0.40, 0.44, and 0.61, respectively than for MMI1 and MMI 2 (Cronbach’s α 0.68 and 0.60, respectively. Between schools, the adjusted intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.27 (95% CI 0.20–0.35 for TIs and 0.47 (95% CI 0.41–0.54 for MMIs. Conclusions Within and between-school reliability was qualitatively higher for MMIs than for TIs. Nonetheless, TI reliabilities were higher than anticipated from prior literature, suggesting TIs may not need to be abandoned on reliability grounds if other factors favor their use.
Dr. Axton Betz-Hamilton teaches consumer studies courses at Eastern Illinois University, including Personal and Family Finance, Housing, and Consumer Issues. She conducts research on identity theft as well as financial abuse within families.
Full Text Available Dr. Axton Betz-Hamilton teaches consumer studies courses at Eastern Illinois University, including Personal and Family Finance, Housing, and Consumer Issues. She conducts research on identity theft as well as financial abuse within families.
Altunsoy, Neslihan; Şahiner, Şafak Yalçın; Cingi Külük, Merve; Okay, Tuncer; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol
Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; ppersonality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive-compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders.
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...
Full Text Available On December 14-16, 2009, a delegation from the World Federation of Scientists, including the authors, traveled to Damascus to interview senior Syrian and Palestinian leaders from Syria and various Palestinian factions, including the members of the leadership of Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The objective was to gain insight from field interviews into how to further advance scientific understanding of cultural and political conflict in order to create new theoretical and practical frameworks for negotiation and cooperation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care
The research strategy interview at the level of the signifier was developed in relation to a qualitative interview project into cross-cultural encounters temporarily and spatially framed by academic organizational settings. The research interest is gender and ethnicity. However, neither happens all...
Talk by Tom Bingham at the Cambridge Rotarians, and interview by Alan Macfarlane on 31st March 2009. Edited by Sarah Harrison. Interview of Tom Bingham and talk at the Cambridge Rotarians. Bingham was Lord Chief Justice, Master of the Rolls and an important Law Lord. He talks about his life and work in the law.
Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Brown, Michelle; Bennett, Clare
Concordance with therapy is essential in maintaining quality of life for individuals who have human immunodeficiency virus. This article examines the use of motivational interviewing in assisting people to increase their concordance with antiretroviral therapy. It investigates the evidence base for motivational interviewing and discusses its principles and techniques. The article highlights the benefits of adopting a holistic approach to the intervention.
Luisa Perez Canado, Maria
This article presents an interview with Stella Ting-Toomey, an author of several books and articles on communicative interaction. Ting-Toomey's interview focuses on the factors that play in the relationship between culture and communication. She also talks about the role of conflict in culture, the underlying characteristics of international…
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA will offer articulate and knowledgeable spokespersons who can best serve the needs of the media and the... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.105 Interviews. (a) Only spokespersons designated by the Assistant Administrator for...
Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Interviewing has been a recognized mainstay of ethnographic fieldwork for more than 100 years. Coupled with participant observation, it was taken to be the complete corpus of anthropological and sociological inquiry activity. Although the repertoire of fieldwork inquirers has grown, interviewing remains a primary data collection technique,…
Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio
Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.
Mohrsen Busted, Laila; Nielsen, Dorthe; Birkelund, Regner
Relatives to persons with dementia are in the literature described as the "invisible second patients." They get a more burdensome responsibility to the family’s everyday life and relation within the family. Furthermore, relatives as caregivers provide most of the assistance and supervision...... interviews. The data will be interpreted in a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Kvale and Brinkmann. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of family health therapeutic conversations for families with dementia challenges. The results are important for the future...
Hammond, Richard T
This book presents a series of delightful interviews in which natural objects such as an electron, a black hole, a galaxy, and even the vacuum itself, reveal their innermost secrets - not only what they are but also how they feel. A hydrogen atom tells us about quantum mechanics and why we live in a non-deterministic world; a black hole explains curved space and naked singularities; and a uranium atom talks of its life on a meteor, its tremendous collision with Earth, and properties of radioactivity - all while grappling with its own mortality. A neutron star gives a personal account of its cr
Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali
The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.
Climent i Martí, Jordi
Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...
Torgersen, S; Lygren, S; Oien, P A; Skre, I; Onstad, S; Edvardsen, J; Tambs, K; Kringlen, E
No twin study has previously investigated the whole range of personality disorders (PDs) recorded by interviews. Based on twin and patient registries, 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 129 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Observed prevalence rates from a normal population study of more than 2,000 individuals were used in combination with data from the present study to generate statistics assumed to be valid for a normal twin population, and these statistics were used for structural equation modeling. The best-fitting models had a heritability of .60 for PDs generally, .37 for the eccentric (A) cluster, .60 for the emotional (B) cluster, and .62 for the fearful (C) cluster. Among the specific PDs, the heritability appeared to be .79 for narcissistic, .78 for obsessive-compulsive, .69 for borderline, .67 for histrionic, .61 for schizotypal, .57 for dependent, .54 for self-defeating, .29 for schizoid, .28 for paranoid, and .28 for avoidant PDs. The best-fitting models never included shared-in-families environmental effects. However, a model with only shared familial and unique environmental effects could not be ruled out for dependent PD. Shared familial environmental effects may also influence the development of any PD and borderline PD. Passive-aggressive PD did not seem to be affected by genes or family environment at all. The low occurrence of antisocial PD in the twin sample precluded any model for this disorder. PDs seem to be more strongly influenced by genetic effects than almost any axis I disorder, and more than most broad personality dimensions. However, we observed a large variation in heritability among the different PDs, probably partly because of a moderate sample size and low prevalence of the specific disorders.
Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.
Odinot, Geralda; Memon, Amina; La Rooy, David; Millen, Ailsa
Eyewitnesses to a filmed event were interviewed twice using a Cognitive Interview to examine the effects of variations in delay between the repeated interviews (immediately & 2 days; immediately & 7 days; 7 & 9 days) and the identity of the interviewers (same or different across the two repeated interviews). Hypermnesia (an increase in total amount of information recalled in the repeated interview) occurred without any decrease in the overall accuracy. Reminiscence (the recall of new information in the repeated interview) was also found in all conditions but was least apparent in the longest delay condition, and came with little cost to the overall accuracy of information gathered. The number of errors, increased across the interviews, but the relative accuracy of participants’ responses was unaffected. However, when accuracy was calculated based on all unique details provided across both interviews and compared to the accuracy of recall in just the first interview it was found to be slightly lower. The identity of the interviewer (whether the same or different across interviews) had no effects on the number of correct details. There was an increase in recall of new details with little cost to the overall accuracy of information gathered. Importantly, these results suggest that witnesses are unlikely to report everything they remember during a single Cognitive Interview, however exhaustive, and a second opportunity to recall information about the events in question may provide investigators with additional information. PMID:24098471
Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal
Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. © The Author(s) 2013.
Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H
To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study
Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Häggström, Elisabeth; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
To examine to what extent district nurses and registered nurses have training in motivational interviewing, to what extent they use it and what prerequisites they have for using it; to compare district nurses and registered nurses, as well as to compare users and nonusers of motivational interviewing; and to examine possible relationships between use of motivational interviewing and the variables training, supervision and feedback in motivational interviewing and prerequisites for use. Motivational interviewing is an effective method for motivating patients to change their lifestyle, used increasingly in primary care. A cross-sectional survey study. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all district nurses and registered nurses (n = 980) in primary care in three counties in Sweden, from September 2011-January 2012; 673 (69%) responded. Differences between groups as well as relationships between study variables were tested. According to self-reports, 59% of the respondents had training in motivational interviewing and 57% used it. Approximately 15% of those who reported using it had no specific training in the method. More district nurses than registered nurses had training in motivational interviewing and used it. The following factors were independently associated with the use of motivational interviewing: training in and knowledge of motivational interviewing, conditions for using it, time and absence of 'other' obstacles. Having knowledge in motivational interviewing and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it may promote increased use of motivational interviewing. Having the prerequisites for using motivational interviewing at the workplace is of significance to the use of motivational interviewing. In the context of primary care, district nurses seem to have better prerequisites than registered nurses for using motivational interviewing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cass R. Sunstein
Full Text Available The guest editors of special issue 12, Jason W. Ellis and Sean Scanlan, interview Cass R. Sunstein, the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard, where he is founder and director of the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy. He is the author of many books, including the bestseller Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (with Richard H. Thaler. His 2016 book The World According to Star Wars attempts to understand the Star Wars universe in ten chapters through the lenses of Sunstein’s academic interests, namely: culture, sociology, psychology, behavioral science, and political science. The book is both personal and theoretical, practical and academic. It takes accurate measure of the genesis of the movies, the movies themselves, and briefly, but trenchantly, it examines concepts such as reputational cascades and speculates on what Star Wars can teach viewers about constitutional disputes.
Roisman, Glenn I; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Fraley, R Chris; Clausell, Eric; Clarke, Alexis
Although 10 studies have been published on the empirical overlap of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and measures of self-reported attachment style, results in this literature have been inconsistently interpreted in narrative reviews. This report was designed as a rapprochement of the AAI and attachment style literatures and includes 3 studies. Study 1 (combined N = 961) is a meta-analytic review showing that by J. Cohen's (1992) criteria (mean r = .09), the association between AAI security and attachment style dimensions is trivial to small. Study 2 (N = 160) confirms meta-analytic results with state-of-the-art assessments of attachment security and also examines attachment dimensions in relation to the Big 5 personality traits. Finally, Study 3 is an investigation of 50 engaged couples that shows that developmental and social psychological measures of attachment security predict somewhat distinct--though theoretically anticipated--aspects of functioning in adult relationships.
Aziz, Adnan; Prakash, Amit
This is a larger-format version of Elements of Programming Interviews. The language is C++. Specifically, the font size is larger, and the page size is 7"x10" (the regular format uses 6"x9"). The content is identical. Have you ever... Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table,...
Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....
Kiani, Mehrzad; Fadavi, Mohsen; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Borhani, Fariba
In emergencies and disasters, ethics are affected by both personal and organizational factors. Given the lack of organizational ethical guidelines in the disaster management system in Iran, the present study was conducted to explain the personal factors affecting ethics and ethical behaviors among disaster healthcare workers. The present qualitative inquiry was conducted using conventional content analysis to analyze the data collected from 21 in-depth unstructured interviews with healthcare workers with an experience of attending one or more fields of disaster. According to the data collected, personal factors can be classified into five major categories, including personal characteristics such as age and gender, personal values, threshold of tolerance, personal knowledge and reflective thinking. Without ethical guidelines, healthcare workers are intensely affected by the emotional climate of the event and guided by their beliefs. A combination of personal characteristics, competences and expertise thus form the basis of ethical conduct in disaster healthcare workers.
Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.
Danielsen, Einar Bruvik; Ueland, Pontus Erik
Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Leadership and Organizational Psychology - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 In this study we examine the differences between the structured and unstructured interview in regards to an applicant’s perception of fairness. Despite extensive research on the predictive validity of future job performance of the two interview types, research is limited on how these interviews affect the applicant's perception of fairness of the job interview. In thi...
The present study uses oral interviews with foreign language learners in search of influential factors in their language learning histories. The sample for the study was drawn from a larger sample of intermediate/advanced learners of English as a foreign language with a minimum of 10 years of exposure/instruction. The sample includes 6 early…
This article presents an interview with David C. Berliner, a Regents' Professor in the College of Education at Arizona State University. His books include "Educational Psychology," "The Manufactured Crisis," and "The Handbook of Educational Psychology." He has served as president of the American Educational Research Association and of the…
Educational Technology, 1993
Provides the transcript of an interview with Dr. Lev Landa that addressed issues related to his algorithmico-heuristic theories of learning and instruction, called Landamatics. Highlights include teaching thinking versus knowledge; algorithms; instructional design; improving training and performance in industry, business, and government;…
This article presents an interview with Tom Dewell, a professional physical educator with 28 years of experience and a fixture in Dallas physical education. Dewell has melded a background in movement education and adapted physical education with early childhood theory, including Montessori. The bulk of his experience has been in private, parochial…
Horne, Jane; Lincoln, Nadina Berrice; Preston, Jenny; Logan, Pip
To explore the meaning of confidence to stroke patients after stroke in order to inform the development of a measurement tool. Qualitative interview study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Ten stroke survivors were purposively selected from those participating in a multi-centre randomised trial of outdoor mobility rehabilitation. Interviews about confidence were conducted in participants' homes, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Six themes emerged from the analysis. These were loss of identity, fear, social confidence, role confidence, mastering skill and attitudes and beliefs. Loss of identity was particularly evident in the early stages of stroke recovery. Fear was a barrier to regaining confidence and was associated with avoidance behaviours. Lack of social confidence was a common problem which appeared difficult to resolve. Life roles motivated participants to re-engage in daily life activities. Personal attitudes and beliefs, combined with the attitudes of significant others, contributed to personal feelings of competence. This study provides a coherent definition of the meaning of confidence through the experiences of stroke survivors. Being successful in gradually re-engaging in activities, including social activities and life roles helped to establish a positive self-belief. The influence of others, such as family and friends reinforce self-beliefs. Confidence and self-efficacy appear to be a similar construct. However, participants in this study also identified a relationship between confidence and self-esteem. The findings indicate that all six themes need to be included in a confidence measure to encompass the meaning of confidence as described by participants with stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fakharri, Ali; Jahani, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Asl, Asghar Mohammadpour
Psychological factors have always been considered for their role on risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, risky driving and smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking behavior and potential personality patterns among high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Through a multistage sampling in a cross-sectional study, 1000 students were enrolled to represent the final grade high school student population of Tabriz, Iran in 2013. The personality patterns along with smoking status and some background information were collected through standard questionnaires along with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Fourteen personality patterns and ten clinical syndromes. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare numeric scales among the study participants, with respect to their smoking status. Stata version 13 statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of smoking by personality status. Two logistic models were developed in both of whom male sex was identified as a determinant of regular smoking (1 st model) and ever-smoking (2 nd model). Depressive personality increased the likelihood of being a regular smoker by 2.8 times (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). The second personality disorder included in the model was sadistic personality with an odds ratio of 7.9 (96% CI: 1.2-53%). Histrionic personality increased the likelihood of experiencing smoking by 2.2 times (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.1) followed by borderline personality (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 0.97-8.1). Histrionic and depressive personalities could be considered as strong associates of smoking, followed by borderline and sadistic personalities. A causal relationship couldn't be assumed unless well controlled longitudinal studies reached the same findings using psychiatric interviews.
... reporting requirements on covered HUD- assisted construction and maintenance work. Enforcement activities include conducting interviews with laborers and mechanics employed on HUD-assisted projects concerning...
Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige
Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…
Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer
"Rapport" has been used to refer to a range of positive psychological features of an interaction -- including a situated sense of connection or affiliation between interactional partners, comfort, willingness to disclose or share sensitive information, motivation to please, or empathy. Rapport could potentially benefit survey participation and response quality by increasing respondents' motivation to participate, disclose, or provide accurate information. Rapport could also harm data quality if motivation to ingratiate or affiliate caused respondents to suppress undesirable information. Some previous research suggests that motives elicited when rapport is high conflict with the goals of standardized interviewing. We examine rapport as an interactional phenomenon, attending to both the content and structure of talk. Using questions about end-of-life planning in the 2003-2005 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we observe that rapport consists of behaviors that can be characterized as dimensions of responsiveness by interviewers and engagement by respondents. We identify and describe types of responsiveness and engagement in selected question-answer sequences and then devise a coding scheme to examine their analytic potential with respect to the criterion of future study participation. Our analysis suggests that responsive and engaged behaviors vary with respect to the goals of standardization-some conflict with these goals, while others complement them.
Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen
Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is
Uguz, Faruk; Kucuk, Adem; Cicek, Erdinc; Kayhan, Fatih; Salli, Ali; Guncu, Hatice; Çilli, Ali Savas
Rheumatological diseases are associated with lower quality of life (QoL) levels. Psychiatric disturbances are frequently observed in these patients. This study examined the impact of personality disorders on the QoL of patients with rheumatological diseases. The study sample consisted of 142 participants including patients suffering from rheumatological disease with a personality disorder (n = 30), without any personality disorder (n = 112), and healthy control participants without physical or psychiatric disorders (n = 60). The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders (SCID-II) were used to determine Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, respectively. QoL levels were assessed by means of the World Health Organization QoL Assessment-Brief. The subscale scores of physical health, psychological health, and social relationships were significantly lower in patients with rheumatological disease regardless of the existence of personality disorder compared with the control participants. Rheumatological patients with a personality disorder had significantly lower subscale scores of psychological health (p = 0.003) and social relationships (p personality disorder. Personality disorders seem to be a relevant factor that maybe associated with QoL in patients suffering from rheumatological disease. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.
Corman Dincer, Pelin; Birtan, Deniz; Arslantas, Mustafa Kemal; Tore Altun, Gulbin; Ayanoglu, Hilmi Omer
Organ donation is the most important stage for organ transplant. Studies reveal that attitudes of families of brain-dead patients toward donation play a significant role in their decision. We hypothesized that supporting family awareness about the meaning of organ donation, including saving lives while losing a loved one, combined with being informed about brain death and the donation process must be maintained by intensive care unit physicians through standardized interviews and questionnaires to increase the donation rate. We retrospectively evaluated the final decisions of families of 52 brain-dead donors treated at our institution between 2014 and 2017. Data underwent descriptive analyses. The standard interview content was generated after literature search results were reviewed by the authors. Previously, we examined the impact of standardized interviews done by intensive care unit physicians with relatives of potential brain-dead donors regarding decisions to donate or reasons for refusing organ donation. After termination of that study, interviews were done according to the intensivist's orientation, resulting in significantly decreased donation rates. Standardized interviews were then started again, resulting in increased donation rates. Of 17 families who participated in standardized interviews, 5 families (29.4%) agreed to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. In the other group of families, intensivists governed informing the families of donation without standardized interviews. In this group of 35 families, 5 families (14.3%) approved organ donation. The decision regarding whether to agree to organ donation was statistically different between the 2 family groups (P donation process resulted in an increased rate of organ donation compared with routine protocols.
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to elicit salient beliefs among pre-Medicare eligible individuals regarding (1 the outcomes associated with enrolling in the Medicare Part D program; (2 those referents who might influence participants' decisions about enrolling in the Part D program; and (3 the perceived barriers and facilitators facing those considering enrolling in the Part D program. Methods: Focused interviews were used for collecting data. A sample of 10 persons between 62 and 64 years of age not otherwise enrolled in the Medicare program was recruited. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken concurrently. Audio recordings were reviewed to amend field notes until obtaining a thorough reflection of interviews. Field notes were analyzed to elicit a group of beliefs, which were coded into perceived outcomes, the relevant others who might influence Medicare Part D enrollment decisions and perceived facilitators and impediments. By extracting those most frequently mentioned beliefs, modal salient sets of behavioral beliefs, relevant referents, and control beliefs were identified. Results: Analyses showed that (1 most pre-Medicare eligible believed that Medicare Part D could "provide drug coverage", "save money on medications", and "provide financial and health security in later life". However, "monthly premiums", "the formulary with limited drug coverage" and "the complexity of Medicare Part D" were perceived as major disadvantages; (2 immediate family members are most likely to influence pre-Medicare eligible's decisions about Medicare Part D enrollment; and (3 internet and mailing educational brochures are considered to be most useful resources for Medicare Part D enrollment. Major barriers to enrollment included the complexity and inadequacy of insurance plan information. Conclusion: There are multiple factors related to decision-making surrounding the Medicare Part D enrollment. These factors include the advantages
This is the text of an interview conducted in 1977 with Medgar Evers' widow. It lends insight into the personal qualities, family life, and facts surrounding the death of the civil rights leader who was assassinated in 1963 in Mississippi. (GC)
Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.
In a recent interview, Dr. Yager spoke about his participation in the changing field of science education, the challenges that still persist in implementing exemplary science teaching, STEM Education and his views on the current science education standards.
Presents an interview with Norma Fox Mazer, a writer of children's books. Describes how she creates a story. Discusses how writing a story, whether a short story or a novel, is an intricate balance of character, event, and voice. (SG)
Bär, P R
This text is based on three long interviews in Utrecht University's Faculty Club, and on almost 40 years of working together in the same city, the same department, the same university. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Charlotte; Louise Rasmussen, Line
Implementation of Motivational Interviewing in practice Background In 2012 at Department of Nephrology an investigation among patients showed, that the patient’s did not experience acknowledgement during admission, though the nurses was educated in 'Motivational Interviewing'. Objectives To improve...... with the nurses. Implementation process in 3 phases - Preparation - Implementation (4 selected keypersons) - Follow-up Result The four selected keypersons aroused curiosity and motivation for a patient-centred admission interview. The nurses experienced the interaction with the patient became more dynamic. Data...... patient satisfaction during admission To maintain and improve the nurses competencies in patient-centred communication. Methods Literature study Breakthrough series method and Plan Do Study Act circles. Training by Mooney and Brinkerhoff (development of nurses competences) Pre - focus group interviews...
This article addresses the challenges of conducting interviews in a multicultural/multilingual setting, focusing on an ethnographic case study of bilingual life and language choice in a Canadian factory mostly staffed with Portuguese immigrant workers. (nine references) (MDM)
Academic Therapy, 1981
An interview with psychologist-educator Robert Valett focuses on his interests in the thinking patterns of children, his Developmental Survey of Basic Learning Abilities, and his involvement in humanistic education. (CL)
Fortini, C; Daeppen, J-B
At the Lausanne University, 5th year medical students were trained in Motivational interviewing (MI). Eight hours of training improved their competence in the use of this approach. This experience supports the implementation of MI training in medical schools. Motivational interviewing allows the health professional to actively involve the patient in this behavior change process (drinking, smoking, diet, exercise, medication adherence, etc.), by encouraging reflection and reinforcing personal motivation and resources.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony.......His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony.......His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony....
José Francisco Pérez Aguilar
Education inspectors interview technique applied in conjunction with the observation, prior or subsequent to this, allowing triangulate the information obtained to visit the classroom or continue with the collection of evidence. The interview requires the inspector planning a number of aspects to these expected results are obtained and becomes an opportunity to continue to seek or contrasting information available. Also, this technique is a good way to develop the advisory role for inspect...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based research in the qualitative research literature. In the absence of formal guidelines, we suggest the use of reflexivity throughout the interview process as a means to become more accomplished in this area. We present our own experiences as a novice general practitioner (GP researcher undertaking a PhD study and her experienced supervisors. The PhD study used critical phenomenology through in-depth interviews to understand the experience of the patient-doctor relationship between same-sex attracted women and their usual GP in Australia. Results We used reflexivity to improve the rigour of the data collection. This enabled improved probing, fewer assumptions, avoidance of premature interpretation, and an accentuated sense of curiosity during interviews. We also enlisted reciprocity between interviewer and interviewee as a tool to improve engagement and trust, share interview control, and ultimately improve the depth of the interview content. Conclusion Preparatory recommendations for novice clinician research interviewers include the importance of recognising the multiple identities that they bring to the interview. In this setting in particular this involves acknowledging the clinician interviewer as a potential insider in relation to interviewees and negotiating shared understanding to avoid insider assumptions. Other essential requirements are having an experienced research supervisor, arranging pilot interviews that include active feedback on interviewing
McNair, Ruth; Taft, Angela; Hegarty, Kelsey
Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based research in the qualitative research literature. In the absence of formal guidelines, we suggest the use of reflexivity throughout the interview process as a means to become more accomplished in this area. We present our own experiences as a novice general practitioner (GP) researcher undertaking a PhD study and her experienced supervisors. The PhD study used critical phenomenology through in-depth interviews to understand the experience of the patient-doctor relationship between same-sex attracted women and their usual GP in Australia. We used reflexivity to improve the rigour of the data collection. This enabled improved probing, fewer assumptions, avoidance of premature interpretation, and an accentuated sense of curiosity during interviews. We also enlisted reciprocity between interviewer and interviewee as a tool to improve engagement and trust, share interview control, and ultimately improve the depth of the interview content. Preparatory recommendations for novice clinician research interviewers include the importance of recognising the multiple identities that they bring to the interview. In this setting in particular this involves acknowledging the clinician interviewer as a potential insider in relation to interviewees and negotiating shared understanding to avoid insider assumptions. Other essential requirements are having an experienced research supervisor, arranging pilot interviews that include active feedback on interviewing style from interviewees, and being reflexive during
Camila da Silva Gonçalo
Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to present and discuss the results of a systematic literature review on the use of Distance Interviews (DI in qualitative health research. Searches were conducted in the PubMed and CINAHL databases and 37 references were included. Data were organized according to author, year of publication, journal title, and manuscript objective. The results revealed that the most recurrent theme was the comparison of Distance Interviews with other methods of data collection. Low cost, easier access to respondents, higher participation rates, and recruitment of volunteers were identified as the main benefits offered by DI. Distance Interviews were used for various purposes, from validation of instruments for data collection to diagnosis. We concluded that there is a need to expand on the theme explored in this article, because the incorporation of information and communication technologies in the healthcare field represents a valuable access route in capturing qualitative data.
Spaeth, Michael; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas
Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained. Advice is only given upon request. The conversation style is directive-guiding instead of authoritariansteering. OARS and the EPE principle are the motivational interviewing basics, which are consistently applied over 4 processes of motivational interviewing: engaging, focusing, evocing, and planning. The likelihood of change talk increases as soon as discrepancies between life goals and alcohol consumption emerge. An increased rate of change talk makes a change in behavior more likely. If a patient argues against change (sustain talk), one should not confront, but should consistently work with reflections, reframing, and an emphasis on autonomy. Motivational interviewing can be applied in different settings and populations, should be learned by the entire team (best professional guidance) in teamwork, and be subjected to a critical and constant evaluation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Khan, Arif; Faucett, James; Brown, Walter A
The high failure rate of antidepressant clinical trials is due in part to a high magnitude of placebo response and considerable variance in placebo response. In some recent trials enhanced patient interview techniques consisting of Structured Interview Guide for the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (SIGMA) interviews, audiotaping of patient interviews and 'central' appraisal with Rater Applied Performance Scale (RAPS) criteria have been implemented in the hope of increasing reliability and thus reducing the placebo response. However, the data supporting this rationale for a change in patient interview technique are sparse. We analyzed data from depressed patients assigned to placebo in antidepressant clinical trials conducted at a single research site between 2008 and 2012. Three trials included 34 depressed patients undergoing SIGMA depression interviews with taping and RAPS appraisal and 4 trials included 128 depressed patients using traditional interview methods. Using patient level data we assessed the mean decrease in total MADRS scores and the variability of the decrease in MADRS scores in trials using SIGMA interviews versus trials using traditional interviews. Mean decrease in total MADRS score was significantly higher in the 3 trials that used SIGMA interviews compared to the 4 trials using traditional interviews (M = 13.0 versus 8.3, t(df = 160) = 2.04, p = 0.047). Furthermore, trials using SIGMA had a larger magnitude of response variance based on Levene's test for equality of variance (SD = 12.3 versus 9.4, F = 7.3, p = 0.008). The results of our study suggest that enhanced patient interview techniques such as SIGMA interviews, audiotaping and RAPS appraisal may not result in the intended effect of reducing the magnitude of placebo response and placebo variance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Axelsson, Anna Karin
Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…
Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.
The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…
Iván Ramírez Calderón
Full Text Available As exceptional witness and participant in the origin and development of the Gestalt therapy, Claudio Naranjo considers in this interview the cha- racteristics of this form of therapy, doing so from his work and his personal encounter with the man and the therapeutic figure of Fritz Perls. In the interview the experiential base and the therapeutic change elements are established, along with the therapeutic attitude, and the holistic conception of the person; also, the contrasts among academic psychology, the spiritual dimension of human beings, and the therapist’s intuition in the help rela- tionship are highlighted.
Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Wallhed Finn, Daniel; Hedman, Erik
Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD) are two new diagnoses introduced in the DSM-5. There is a need for reliable instruments to facilitate the assessment of these disorders. We therefore developed a structured diagnostic interview, the Health Preoccupation Diagnostic Interview (HPDI), which we hypothesized would reliably differentiate between SSD, IAD, and no diagnosis. Persons with clinically significant health anxiety (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 52) were interviewed using the HPDI. Diagnoses were then compared with those made by an independent assessor, who listened to audio recordings of the interviews. Ratings generally indicated moderate to almost perfect inter-rater agreement, as illustrated by an overall Cohen's κ of .85. Disagreements primarily concerned (a) the severity of somatic symptoms, (b) the differential diagnosis of panic disorder, and (c) SSD specifiers. We conclude that the HPDI can be used to reliably diagnose DSM-5 SSD and IAD.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...
This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…
Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte
. The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17 articles...... was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant pseudonyms, Mesh...
Rosen, Alan C
Writing a study of psychologist David Boder's 1946 displaced persons (DP) interview project gave me a chance to further document the substantial early response to the Holocaust. This was clearly one important piece of my study, and one that was eminently straightforward. Yet much of the research on Boder's project at the point in time that I carried it out was elliptical, partly because the primary interview materials were coming to light at an astonishing pace, partly because the archive collections were virtually untapped, and partly because of the misconception of Boder and his interview project itself.
Oshman, Lauren D; Combs, Gene N
Motivational interviewing is a useful skill to address the common problem of patient ambivalence regarding behavior change by uncovering and strengthening a person's own motivation and commitment to change. The Family Medicine Milestones underline the need for clear teaching and monitoring of skills in communication and behavior change in Family Medicine postgraduate training settings. This article reports the integration of a motivational interviewing curriculum into an existing longitudinal narrative therapy-based curriculum on patient-centered communication. Observed structured clinical examination for six participants indicate that intern physicians are able to demonstrate moderate motivational interviewing skill after a brief 2-h workshop. Participant self-evaluations for 16 participants suggest a brief 2-h curriculum was helpful at increasing importance of learning motivational interviewing by participants, and that participants desire further training opportunities. A brief motivational interviewing curriculum can be integrated into existing communication training in a Family Medicine residency training program. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kien, Christina; Nußbaumer, Barbara; Thaler, Kylie J; Griebler, Ursula; Van Noord, Megan G; Wagner, Petra; Gartlehner, Gerald
When the nature and direction of research results affect their chances of publication, a distortion of the evidence base - termed publication bias - results. Despite considerable recent efforts to implement measures to reduce the non-publication of trials, publication bias is still a major problem in medical research. The objective of our study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of interventions to prevent or reduce publication bias. We systematically reviewed the scholarly literature and extracted data from articles. Further, we performed semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. We performed an inductive thematic analysis to identify barriers to and facilitators of interventions to counter publication bias. The systematic review identified 39 articles. Thirty-four of 89 invited interview partners agreed to be interviewed. We clustered interventions into four categories: prospective trial registration, incentives for reporting in peer-reviewed journals or research reports, public availability of individual patient-level data, and peer-review/editorial processes. Barriers we identified included economic and personal interests, lack of financial resources for a global comprehensive trial registry, and different legal systems. Facilitators identified included: raising awareness of the effects of publication bias, providing incentives to make data publically available, and implementing laws to enforce prospective registration and reporting of clinical trial results. Publication bias is a complex problem that reflects the complex system in which it occurs. The cooperation amongst stakeholders to increase public awareness of the problem, better tailoring of incentives to publish, and ultimately legislative regulations have the greatest potential for reducing publication bias.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.
Miller, Lindsey C; Gottlieb, Meghan; Morgan, Kerri A; Gray, David B
Less than 40% of people with disabilities work. Many studies have detailed the barriers to employment but few have examined the work experiences of those who are employed. A description of work conditions valued by a specific segment of employed people with disabilities is provided. Videotaped interviews of 33 successfully employed people with mobility impairments and limitations (PWMIL) were transcribed and analyzed to gather their perspectives on their work social and physical environments. Finding work was facilitated by family, friends and other social networks, vocational services, and prior education. Doing volunteer work, spending time at a paid and unpaid internship, and part-time work experiences were important aspects of job acquisition. Exterior and interior physical features were or had been made accessible. Expensive assistive technologies were paid for by the employee and their health insurance. Almost all personal assistance was provided by family, friends and co-workers. Work satisfaction included having a supportive employer, supportive co-workers, and flexible worksite policies. The interviews of employed PWMIL provide prospective employers and employees information on important social and physical work features that are needed to improve the possibilities for hiring people with disabilities and facilitating their successful careers.
Horton, Shalonda Estelle-Brazzell
This case study examined the meaning of personal health responsibility from the perspective of the individual. A single Black female, 20 years of age, was interviewed for the study. Content analysis was used for data evaluation. The meaning of personal health responsibility grouped into four categories: listing of tasks, obligating to tasks, following through with tasks, and maintaining resources. Tasks are behaviors performed to care for oneself. Obligating to tasks is the attitude towards carrying out behaviors. Following through is the actual completion of a task. Maintaining resources is the support needed to care for oneself. The individual's definition of personal health responsibility should be considered when making healthcare decisions and designing treatment plans. Future research should examine the meaning of personal health responsibility among diverse populations and explore factors that serve as facilitators and barriers to personal health responsibility.
The present study was nested ina randomized controlled study on the effects of Qigong and Exercise therapy for patients with chronic neck pain. The aim of our study was to understand possible areas for under consideration of the personal experience of the patients using semi-structured interviews as a qualitative research method. 10 Patients of the Qigong group and 10 patients of the Exercise Therapy group were selected randomly for the semi-structured interviews. The interview...
Wiktorin, C; Vingård, E; Mortimer, M; Pernold, G; Wigaeus-Hjelm, E; Kilbom, A; Alfredsson, L
MUSIC-Norrtälje study is a case-referent study, the aim of which is to find risk and health factors for low back and neck/shoulder disorders. In this part of the study, the interview technique and the self-administered questionnaire used for assessment of physical loads are described and the inter-method reliability of parts of the self-administered questionnaire is estimated. The distribution of exposure levels in a general population is also described. The study period was three years from November 1993 to November 1996, and the study subjects totaled 2,480 persons (813 female and 610 male referents, 380 female and 315 male low back cases, 252 female and 106 male neck/shoulder cases). The interview concerned "a typical working day" during the preceding 12 months and comprised assessment of energy expenditure, work postures, and manual materials handling for work and leisure time, including regular sport activities. The self-administered questionnaire comprised 18 questions, each covering 5 different points of time: right now, 5, 10, 15, 20 years ago. The answers to eight of the questions about current conditions were compared to corresponding interview responses. The interview was considered as the "gold standard." Ninety-eight percent of the subjects completed the interview without any great difficulties. According to the interview, the distributions of different exposure levels were generally positively skewed, i.e., the frequency of highly exposed subjects was low in the study base. The correlation between interview and questionnaire responses among the referents was high for time spent "sitting at work" (r = 0.82), "VDU work" (r = 0.87), and work related "motor vehicle driving" (r = 0.80). The correlation was moderate for work-related "hands above shoulder level" (rs = 0.63), and "hands below knee level (trunk flexion)" (rs = 0.66). The correlation was lower for leisure time activities such as "domestic work" (r = 0.55), "time for own activities" (r = 0
Fast growth is a nice problem to have--but a hard one to manage well. In this interview, Kevin Sharer, the CEO of biotech giant Amgen, talks about the special challenges leaders face when their companies are on a roll. Sharer, who was also head of marketing at pre-WorldCom MCI and a division head and a staff assistant to Jack Welch at GE, offers insights drawn from his own experience--and from his own self-proclaimed blunders: "I learned the hard way that you need to become credible and enlist support inside the company before you start trying to be a change agent. If you think you're going to make change happen simply by force of personality or position or intellect, you'd better think again." And change there was: Under Sharer's leadership, Amgen overhauled its management team, altered its culture, and launched a couple of blockbuster products. How do chief executives survive in that kind of dizzying environment? "A CEO must always be switching between different altitudes--tasks of different levels of abstraction and specificity," Sharer says. "You might need to spend time working on a redesign of your organizational structure and then quickly switch to drafting a memo to all employees aimed at reinforcing one of the company's values." Having a supportive and capable top team is also key: "A top management team is the most revealing window into a CEO's style, values, and aspirations.... If you don't have the right top team, you won't have the right tiers below them. [The] A players won't work for B players. Maybe with a company like GE, the reputation of the company is so strong that it can attract top people to work for weaker managers. In a new company like Amgen, that won't happen."
The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorders, especially bipolar-II disorder (BP-II), is unclear. Several reviews on the topic have come to opposite conclusions, i.e., that BPD is a bipolar spectrum disorder or instead that it is unrelated to bipolar disorders. Study aim was to find which items of BPD were related to BP-II, and which instead had no relationship with BP-II. An outpatient psychiatry private practice, more representative of mood disorders usually seen in clinical practice in Italy. INTERVIEWER: A senior clinical and mood disorder research psychiatrist. A consecutive sample of 138 BP-II and 71 major depressive disorder (MDD) remitted outpatients. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV) was used for diagnosing, the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire was used by patients to self-assess borderline personality traits. Interview methods: Patients were interviewed with the SCID-CV to diagnose BP-II and MDD. The questions of the Personality Questionnaire relative to borderline personality were self-assessed by patients. As clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning was not assessed by the questionnaire, a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder could not be made, but borderline personality traits (BPT) could be assessed (i.e., all DSM-IV BPD items but not the impairment criterion). BPT items were significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD. The best combination of sensitivity and specificity for predicting BP-II was found by using a cutoff number of BPT items > or =5: specificity was 71.4%, sensitivity was 45.9%. BPT (defined by > or =5 items) was present in 29.5% of MDD and in 46.3% of BP-II (p=0.019). Logistic regression of BP-II versus BPT items number found a significant association. Principal component factor analysis of BPT items found two orthogonal factors: "affective instability" including unstable mood, unstable
Bendixen, Bente E; Kirkevold, Marit; Graue, Marit; Haltbakk, Johannes
To describe family members' experiences of attending to an old person with diabetes receiving home care services, including their interaction with the formal caregivers. The study has a qualitative descriptive design. From May to August 2015, eight family members were interviewed. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. To describe family members' experiences, the following four themes were identified: Security through patients' self-management skills and diabetes knowledge; Perceived burden due to the old persons' deteriorated health; Security through competent home care services; and Doubt due to personnel's inadequate approach and interaction. It is important for personnel in home care services to consider patients' self-management skills and the family members' diabetes knowledge as key aspects in order to limit experiences of burden when the older person with diabetes has deteriorating health. The findings underscore that interaction with home care personnel skilled in managing diabetes helps family members feel secure. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
The aim of this study was to explore the link between neglect and ageism in health care provision for older persons. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 registered nurses with at least 2 years' experience in 10 long-term care facilities in Israel. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed according to the qualitative method. Three main themes emerged: ageism and neglect as the everyday routine (neglect is built into institution life on the platform of ageism); how the institutional system promotes neglect--between institutional and personal ageism (the ways institutions promote neglect in the shadow of ageism); from vision to reality--how neglect can be prevented in an ageist reality. The attempt to demonstrate the link between ageism and neglect and suggesting how to include them as interrelated phenomena in health care provision programs could promote older persons' quality of life. © The Author(s) 2013.
James Kleshinski, MD
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future
Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.
Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.
Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one
Winsome Chunnu Brayda PhD
Full Text Available This article discusses the qualitative interviewing techniques that the authors used to conduct their respective dissertation research in Jamaica and South Carolina. (The research in Jamaica examined the implementation of primary education policies. The research in South Carolina delved into the life history of Benner C. Turner, a controversial college president. Most of the literature about interviewing focuses on asking the right questions; in contrast, this article discusses the challenges of interviewing. In this article, selected interviews are used from both studies to examine the difficulties these researchers encountered when conducting “sensitive” interviews, the risks female researchers face in unfamiliar places, and the challenges of working in international settings (which requires interpersonal skills and cultural competency. While the task of research interviewing is complex, the authors provide ideas that can be used to navigate such moments.
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Full Text Available In this interview Dr. Taillard discusses her interest and ongoing research in the areas of marketing, consumer behaviour and creativity. She considers how academic training can be applied to a business context and describes the newly formed Creativity Marketing Centre at ESCP Europe. Exploring the multiple intersections between creativity and marketing represents not only a paradigmatic change for those interested in business and consumer behaviour but also for researchers of creativity who can start envisioning and studying consumption as a creative act. This interview will offer valuable points of reflection for all those interested to know more about this approach.
Kamiyama, Naoyuki; Kiyonari, Yuuki; Miyano, Eiji; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Yamanaka, Katsuhisa
This paper introduces a new timetabling problem on universities, called interview timetabling. In this problem, some constant number, say three, of referees are assigned to each of 2n graduate students. Our task is to construct a presentation timetable of these 2n students using n timeslots and two rooms, so that two students evaluated by the same referee must be assigned to different timeslots. The optimization goal is to minimize the total number of movements of all referees between two rooms. This problem comes from the real world in the interview timetabling in Kyoto University. We propose two restricted models of this problem, and investigate their time complexities.
Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088
Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Velozo, Craig A
The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) structured interview captures critical components of activities and participation, including home, shopping, work, leisure, and family/friend relationships. Eighty-nine community dwelling adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited (average = 2.7 year post injury). Nine items of the 19 items were used for the psychometrics analysis purpose. Factor analysis and item-level psychometrics were investigated using the Rasch partial-credit model. Although the principal components analysis of residuals suggests that a single measurement factor dominates the measure, the instrument did not meet the factor analysis criteria. Five items met the rating scale criteria. Eight items fit the Rasch model. The instrument demonstrated low person reliability (0.63), low person strata (2.07), and a slight ceiling effect. The GOSE demonstrated limitations in precisely measuring activities/participation for individuals after TBI. Future studies should examine the impact of the low precision of the GOSE on effect size. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan
Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…
Shubert, Christopher Walden
Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research
The applicant should inquire about the follow-up after an interview, including the timeline for decision making, whether there will be a second interview, and how future communication will be made. Thank-you notes from the interviewee should be sent out immediately after the interview, not only as a courtesy, but also to include additional comments about why the candidate is an excellent fit for the job. The job seeker should also reflect carefully on what he/she did right or wrong during the interview and about what was learned about the job.
Reich, Catherine M.; Howard Sharp, Katianne M.; Berman, Jeffrey S.
Despite attempts to engage students, undergraduate instructors are often challenged by low motivation among students to study outside of the classroom. The current study adapted motivational interviewing, which is often used with therapy clients ambivalent to change, to target college student motivation to study for exams. Findings indicated…
Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil
Interaction analysis of question–answer sequences from a telephone survey shows that so-called mismatch answers, i.e. answers that do not correspond to the required answering format, are the most frequently occurring problematic verbal behavior. They also are likely to trigger suggestive interviewer
The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.
Practicing art therapists have vast stores of knowledge and experience, but in most cases, their work is not documented, and their clinical knowledge does not enter the academic discourse. This article proposes a systematic approach to the collection of practice knowledge about art therapy based on conducting interviews with art therapists who…
Andersgaard, Alice Beathe; Herbst, Andreas; Johansen, Marianne
hundred and twenty-three women (59%) were followed up with a structured telephone interview, 6-24 months (median 11) after their eclamptic fit. Results: At the time of follow-up, 63 women (51%) had at least one persistent symptom; 2 patients had severe neurological sequels (hemiparesis and dysarthria), 11...
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING:...
Outlines advantages and disadvantages of a history of postwar geographical thought course, focusing on student-led interviews of geography staff. Students examine geographical career of a lecturer, discuss courses s/he has taken, character of departments s/he has experienced, his/her awareness at different stages of philosophical and…
Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.
This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…
Garb, Howard N.
To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…
Smith, Deborah N.; Roebuck, Deborah B.
Leadership educators use various tools to enable their students to learn about leadership. This article describes the assignment "Interview with a Leader" which the authors have incorporated into several different leadership courses. Grounded in constructivist and social learning theories, the authors have found this assignment to be…