WorldWideScience

Sample records for included personal experiences

  1. Recycling management including transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in advanced countries such as Japan, France and other European countries, has developed for years a global strategy of fuel utilization which implies an extensive recycling and reuse of spent fuel. Such recycling strategies are now increasingly required from the industry in general by the various Governments and international organizations. Nuclear fuel recycling and waste management are the two faces of the same policy: the closed fuel cycle, whereby reprocessing of spent fuel makes available for recycling the energetic contents : uranium and plutonium, while segregating the real waste in categories for their specific treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation and final disposal. Plutonium recycling is performed through the fabrication of the so-called mixed oxide fuel (MOX), where fissile plutonium replaces the U 235 isotope used in UO 2 fuel. The international trade of nuclear materials and services, under close control of IAEA and other national and international organization, has let to the circulation of materials between the producers of uranium and enrichment fuel, fabrication, reprocessing and recycling services, and the customers worldwide. The industrial transport experience now accumulated shows an excellent record in terms of safety and quality. This communication will describe the current situation and future trends of the recycling route mainly through COGEMA industrial experience. 1 fig

  2. Personal accounts of stroke experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Kaufmann, CSM

    2000-01-01

    As there appeared to be a need for personal accounts of stroke experiences, a book called "Speaking about Stroke" was written for stroke patients and their caregivers. For the past two years, a questionnaire was sent to the people who had ordered the book, to gain an insight into the characteristics

  3. The personal experience of time

    CERN Document Server

    Wessman, Alden

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental nature of human time experience has concerned artists, poets, philosophers, and scientists throughout the ages. Any consideration of human action requires awareness of its temporal aspects. However, simply to view time in the same units and dimensions as the physicist employs in describing events robs personal time of its "lived" quality. The use of physical time concepts in the description of human events is often artificial and misleading. It fails to account for the facts that human time estimates rarely match clock and calendar time; that societies and individuals demonstrate vast differences in their constructions and uses of time; and that temporal perceptions and attitudes change within an individual both during a single day and throughout his life span. The present volume does not view time as something that is sensed in the same way that one would sense or perceive spatial or sensory stimuli. Rather, it views time as a complex set of personally experienced cognitive constructs used by...

  4. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: extensive personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinung, Matthew C; Urizar, Marco Fiore; Patel, Nilem; Sood, Shannon Comley

    2013-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's recently published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of transsexual persons acknowledged the need for further information on transsexual health. We report here the experience of one provider with the endocrine treatment of transsexual persons over the past 2 decades. Data on demographics, clinical response to treatment, and psychosocial status were collected on all transsexual persons receiving cross-sex hormone therapy since 1991 at the endocrinology clinic at Albany Medical Center, a tertiary care referral center serving upstate New York. Through 2009, a total 192 male-to-female (MTF) and 50 female-to-male (FTM) transsexual persons were seen. These patients had a high prevalence of mental health and psychiatric problems (over 50%), with low rates of employment and high levels of disability. Mental health and psychiatric problems were inversely correlated with age at presentation. The prevalence of sex reassignment surgery was low (31% for MTF). The number of persons seeking treatment has increased substantially in recent years. Cross-sex hormone therapy achieves very good results in FTM persons and is most successful in MTF persons when initiated at younger ages. Transsexual persons seeking hormonal therapy are being seen with increasing frequency. The dysphoria present in many transsexual persons is associated with significant mood disorders that interfere with successful careers. Starting therapy at an earlier age may lessen the negative impact on mental health and lead to improved social outcomes. However, significant barriers exist, such as insufficient insurance coverage, which limit comprehensive care.

  5. Issues concerning patient advocacy: personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S

    1996-01-01

    Issues concerning patient advocacy and nursing advocacy are explored in relation to the nurse's role and the UKCC code of conduct. The author's personal experiences of being an advocate are described. Potential conflict between the nurse's role and doctor's role in relation to advocacy is identified. The best person to take on the role of patient advocate is discussed.

  6. Personal librarian enhancing the student experience

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Richard; Matthews, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The incredible shift in the provision of library services resulting from innovations such as online resources, mobile technologies, tablet computers, and MOOCs and hybrid courses makes it more challenging than ever for academic librarians to connect students with the information they need. Enter the Personal Librarian, a flexible concept that focuses on customizing information literacy by establishing a one-on-one relationship between librarian and student from enrollment through graduation. In this book the editors, with decades of library instruction and academic library experience between t

  7. Personal Pervasive Environments: Practice and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Soriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our experience designing and developing two different systems to enable personal pervasive computing environments, Plan B and the Octopus. These systems were fully implemented and have been used on a daily basis for years. Both are based on synthetic (virtual file system interfaces and provide mechanisms to adapt to changes in the context and reconfigure the system to support pervasive applications. We also present the main differences between them, focusing on architectural and reconfiguration aspects. Finally, we analyze the pitfalls and successes of both systems and review the lessons we learned while designing, developing, and using them.

  8. Endovascular Neurosurgery: Personal Experience and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From Luessenhop's early clinical experience until the present day, experimental methods have been introduced to make progress in endovascular neurosurgery. A personal historical narrative, spanning the 1980s to 2010s, with a review of past opportunities, current problems, and future perspectives. Although the technology has significantly improved, our clinical culture remains a barrier to methodologically sound and safe innovative care and progress. We must learn how to safely practice endovascular neurosurgery in the presence of uncertainty and verify patient outcomes in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk perception and experience: hazard personality profiles and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Breakwell, G M

    2001-02-01

    The dominance of the "psychometric" paradigm and the consequent emphasis on personality profiles of hazards has resulted in little attention being given to individual variability in risk judgments. This study examines how far differences in experience of risk activities can explain individual variability in risk assessments. A questionnaire study (n = 172) was used to explore the relationships between experience and risk perceptions in relation to 16 risk activities. It was expected that these relationships would differ for voluntary and involuntary activities. Measures of experience included assessments of "impact" and "outcome" valence as well as "frequency." These three aspects of experience each related to risk assessment but their relationship depended on whether the risk experiences were voluntary or not. The results indicate the importance of developing more fine-grained ways of indexing risk experience.

  10. Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Capuano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

  11. Women family physicians' personal experiences in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Brinister, Iurie

    2010-01-01

    As part of the former Soviet Union, the Moldovan health system was highly centralized and geared toward inpatient care. The objective of this study was to explore the personal experiences of female family physicians in Chişinău, Moldova. A purposeful sample of female family physicians was recruited to participate in this study. A professional translator conducted in-depth interviews using an 8-item semistructured questionnaire to capture personal practice experiences, scope of practice, and beliefs. Verbatim responses were summarized using a continuous iterative process. Twenty female family physicians (mean age, 42.4 ± 7.2 years; mean clinical experience, 12.2 ± 7.9 years) were included in the sample. Analysis of the data illuminated 4 key themes: (1) family medicine, as a specialty, offered much diversity and personal satisfaction; (2) appointment time restraints and paperwork demands posed significant challenges to providing care to patients; (3) problems faced by patients were complex and went far beyond the leading causes of morbidity and mortality; and (4) patients generally have a limited amount of health-related knowledge, but increased access to health information was bridging this gap. Although family medicine is a rewarding career, system-related factors posed significant challenges, not only in providing quality care but in day-to-day satisfaction.

  12. Personalization in social retargeting - A field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frick, T.W. (Thomas W.); T. Li (Ting)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study compares the effectiveness of product- and category-specific advertising personalization in Social Retargeting. Social Retargeting combines the features of social advertising, targeting consumers based on social connections, and retargeting, using consumers' browsing behavior

  13. Music Ensemble Participation: Personality Traits and Music Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Tracy A.; Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationship between personality type and ensemble choice and (2) to examine the differences in personality across age and music experience in young adults. Participants (N = 137; 68 instrumentalists, 69 vocalists) completed a demographic survey and the Big Five Personality Inventory.…

  14. The personal and professional: nurses' lived experiences of adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Schweitzer, Roberta; Wells, Courtenay

    2013-03-01

    Nurses provide healthcare services to members of the adoption triad (AT; birth parents, adoptive parents, and the child) in a number of settings. However, nurses' perceptions of and interactions with members of the AT have not been investigated. This study describes the lived experiences of nurses and the care rendered to the AT using a descriptive phenomenological approach. In response to an invitation published in a national electronic newsletter, nurses were asked to submit narratives about their experiences in caring for members of the AT. Researchers coded 17 narratives using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the texts: (1) Where the personal and professional selves meet ("I see so many issues from both sides"); (2) The paradox of adoption ("...an emotional rollercoaster"); (3) Unique contexts of adoptive families ("We all have a story"); and (4) Reframing nurses' perceptions surrounding adoption ("There are several areas we could improve"). Nurses often have a personal connection to adoption and this potentiates the care delivered to AT members. Serving as role models for their peers and advocates for a better understanding of the dynamics of relinquishment and placement, nurses can improve clinical practices for these patients. Themes reflected insights gained from both personal and professional roles and offer specific interventions that enhance care of the AT. Nursing education and practice guidelines should include care rendered to the AT.

  15. Personalized Museum Experience: The Rijksmuseum Use Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Aroyo (Lora); R. Brussee; L. Rutledge (Lloyd); P. Gorgels; N. Stash; Y. Wang (Yanjing); J. Trant; D. Bearman

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes ongoing work exploring aspects of personalized access to and presentation of virtual museum collections. The project demonstrator illustrates an interactive approach to collecting data about museum visitors in terms of their interests in and preferences about

  16. The importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Anne Kari T; Nortvedt, Per; Slettebø, Åshild

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this article is to show the importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in research. The article presents and discusses ethical challenges encountered when a total of 15 persons with dementia from two nursing homes and seven proxies were included in a qualitative study. The examples show that the ethical challenges may be unpredictable. As researchers, you participate with the informants in their daily life and in the interviews, and it is not possible to plan all that may happen during the research. A procedural proposal to an ethical committee at the beginning of a research project based on traditional research ethical principles may serve as a guideline, but it cannot solve all the ethical problems one faces during the research process. Our main argument in this article is, therefore, that moral sensitivity is required in addition to the traditional research ethical principles throughout the whole process of observing and interviewing the respondents.

  17. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriera,Jorge Castellá; Casas,Ferran; Alfaro,Jaime; Bedin,Lívia; Strelhow,Miriam Raquel Wachholz; Abs,Daniel; Valdenegro,Boris; García,Catalina; Oyarzún,Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047) and Chilean (n = 1.053) adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08), whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the ...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...

  19. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...

  20. The Role of Personality in Daily Food Allergy Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Phil; Peniamina, Rana

    2018-01-01

    Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18–87) with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%), peanuts (21.3%), cow's milk (16.7%), and shellfish/seafood (16.7%)]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991). For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies–such as those higher in openness to experience. PMID:29467686

  1. The Role of Personality in Daily Food Allergy Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlin S. Conner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18–87 with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%, peanuts (21.3%, cow's milk (16.7%, and shellfish/seafood (16.7%]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991. For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies–such as those higher in openness to experience.

  2. The Role of Personality in Daily Food Allergy Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Phil; Peniamina, Rana

    2018-01-01

    Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies. Participants were 108 adults (85% female; mean age = 40.2; age range 18-87) with a physician-diagnosed food allergy [most commonly to gluten (54.6%), peanuts (21.3%), cow's milk (16.7%), and shellfish/seafood (16.7%)]. Participants completed an initial online survey that measured demographics, food allergy information, and personality traits using the Big Five Inventory (John et al., 1991). For 2 weeks, participants completed a daily online survey that queried the occurrence of 25 food allergy issues that day and participants' overall stress and mood that day. Neuroticism did not predict more frequent allergy issues or greater stress/poorer mood on days with more allergy issues. Instead, higher openness to experience predicted a range of issues including going hungry because there is no safe food available, problems finding suitable foods when grocery shopping, feeling anxious at social occasions involving food, being excluded, and feeling embarrassed and poorly understood about their food allergy. Conscientious people were less embarrassed or self-conscious about their food allergy, but they had more problems eating out, and their positive mood was more impaired by allergy issues than their less conscientious peers. Extraversion and agreeableness played minor roles. Personality testing can identify people that may have difficulty living with food allergies-such as those higher in openness to experience.

  3. Personal Experiences of Hearing-impaired People in Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This qualitative paper analyses the personal experiences of hearing-impaired people in accessing, participating and completing higher education in Zimbabwe, and the authors' experiences in the education of students with disabilities. A 6As' framework is informed by the 4As framework of Tomaševski (2001), namely ...

  4. Reappraising Personal Experience in the Preparation of School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the thesis that individual learning and growth are based on actual life experiences, proposes a model in preparation programs for school administrators. Discusses how the inclusion of personal experience helps to bridge a critical gap between professors of school administration and practicing administrators. (13 references) (MLF)

  5. On Teaching Methods: The Personal Experiences of Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Melinda L. F.

    2017-01-01

    With the globalization and internationalization of education, many teachers from Asian countries pursue their professional development in English-speaking settings. However, there seems to be scarce research on these teachers' expectations, lived experiences and identities in these contexts, and how their personal experiences influence their views…

  6. Psychometric properties of the personal wellbeing index in Brazilian and Chilean adolescents including spirituality and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI with two other versions which include the domains "Spirituality" and "Religion", separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047 and Chilean (n = 1.053 adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08, whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the differential contribution of each domain to the notion of global satisfaction, a regression on the item Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS was applied using structural equations. It is recommended the inclusion of the item spirituality in the original scale, considering the importance of such domain in both cultures.

  7. The effect of student teaching experience on selected personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines changes in selected personality traits of fifty-three physical education student teachers over the course of a student teaching semester. The personality traits measured included anxiety, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation, and cooperation. An adapted Psychological Skills ...

  8. Education for Persons with Special Needs: Polish and Russian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kulesza, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is marked by systemic, economic and social transformations in Poland and Russia, that significantly affected the education system, including the education for persons with special needs. This paper is an attempt to present synthetically the changes relating to persons with disabilities. The current state of the…

  9. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  10. Crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin Anna; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2016-07-01

    Dignity is seen as an essential need, fundamental right, and inherent quality of each human being. There is however, a need for increased knowledge on crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia. This study explored personal dimensions of life which persons with dementia perceived crucial for experiencing dignity in their daily lives. Based on the findings of eight empirical sub-dimensions, three main dimensions crucial for constituting dignity experience, were identified through hermeneutical interpretation: A historical dignity-dimension, acknowledging one's own life-projects and life-history; an intrapersonal dignity-dimension, recognizing one's own human worth, and living according to internal values; and an interpersonal dignity-dimension, experiencing being part of a caring and confirming communion. Knowledge of dignity preservation should be a crucial foundation for future dementia care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Tuberculosis in medical doctors – a study of personal experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The concurrent TB and HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa place all healthcare workers (HCWs) at increased risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim. This study explores personal experiences, attitudes and perceptions of medical doctors following treatment for TB within the healthcare system.

  12. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  13. 13 CFR 120.102 - Funds not available from alternative sources, including personal resources of principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounts, CDs, stocks, bonds, or other similar assets. Equity in real estate holdings and other fixed... personal resources of any owner of 20 percent or more of the equity of the applicant. SBA will require the...

  14. Mobility Experience of Persons with Visual Impairments in Indian Railway Station Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha

    2016-01-01

    Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.

  15. Registered Nurses' work experiences: personal accounts integrated with professional identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2004-05-01

    The work context is important for the development of Registered Nurses' skills and identity as professionals, but the work context and organization can also hinder their professional development. This paper reports a study whose purpose was to understand the meaning of Registered Nurses' narratives of their work experience 5 years after graduation. Data were collected in 2001 from interviews with 16 Registered Nurses 5 years after graduation and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method, influenced by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Analyses of the narratives resulted in three themes: 'The meaning of caring and protection of patients', 'The meaning of work organization in nurses' work' and 'The implied meaning of using one's individual attributes in one's professional role'. Since the number of nurses participating in the study is small, it is important to re-contextualize the results when transferring them to other contexts. There is a complex interrelationship between the health care organization, individual attributes of nurses (including self-esteem) and patient care. Provision of adequate resources and support for nurses' professional and personal development is needed to ensure high quality patient care, and these are political issues.

  16. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...

  17. "Imprisoned" in pain: analyzing personal experiences of phantom pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Finn; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2014-11-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "phantom pain." The analysis is based on personal experiences elicited from individuals who have lost a limb or live with a paralyzed body part. Our study reveals that the ways in which these individuals express their pain experience is an integral aspect of that experience. The material consists of interviews undertaken with men who are living with phantom pain resulting from a traumatic injury. The phenomenological analysis is inspired by Zahavi (J Conscious Stud 8(5-7):151-167, 2001) and Merleau-Ponty (Phenomenology of perception. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1962/2000). On a descriptive level the metaphors these patients invoke to describe their condition reveal immense suffering, such as a feeling of being invaded by insects or of their skin being scorched and stripped from their body. Such metaphors express a dimension of experience concerning the self that is in pain and others whom the sufferer relates to through this pain, as well as the agony that this pain inflicts in the world of lived experience. This pain has had a profound impact on their lives and altered their relationship with self (body), others and the world. Their phantom pain has become a reminder of their formerly intact and functioning body; they describe the contrast between their past and present body as an ambiguous and disturbing experience. We conclude that these sensitive and personalized experiences of phantom pain illuminates how acts of expression--spoken pain--constitute a fundamental dimension of a first-person perspective which contribute to the field of knowledge about "phantom pain".

  18. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Soliño

    Full Text Available Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10 is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity.

  19. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  20. The experience of lived space in persons with dementia: a systematic meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førsund, Linn Hege; Grov, Ellen Karine; Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Juvet, Lene Kristine; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Eriksen, Siren

    2018-02-01

    Identifying how persons with dementia experience lived space is important for enabling supportive living environments and creating communities that compensate for the fading capabilities of these persons. Several single studies have explored this topic; however, few studies have attempted to explicitly review and synthesize this research literature. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding persons with dementia's experience of space. A systematic, computerized search of AgeLine, CINAHL Complete, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO was conducted using a search strategy that combined MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies with 1) a sample of persons with dementia, 2) qualitative interviews as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of lived space were included. The search resulted in 1386 articles, of which 136 were identified as eligible and were read and assessed using the CASP criteria. The analysis was inspired by qualitative content analyses. This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 45 articles encompassing interviews with 672 persons with dementia. The analysis showed that living in one's own home and living in long-term care established different settings and posed diverse challenges for the experience of lived space in persons with dementia. The material revealed four main categories that described the experience of lived space: (1) belonging; (2) meaningfulness; (3) safety and security; and (4) autonomy. It showed how persons with dementia experienced a reduction in their lived space due to the progression of dementia. A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: "Living with dementia is like living in a space where the walls keep closing in". This meta-synthesis reveals a process whereby lived space gradually becomes smaller for persons with dementia. This underscores the

  1. Living with a systematic approach to training. A personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) plays an important role in the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It can often be seen as the answer to all training needs but it can sometimes fall victim to its own rigidity and inertia. This paper outlines the personal experiences and conceptual models of a former Human Resources Manager with responsibility for both pre operational and operational training. (author)

  2. Defining the Graduate College Experience: What it “Should” versus “Does” Include

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia L. Hardre; Shannon Hackett

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between expectations and actual educational experience may influence motivation, learning and performance. The graduate college experience (GCE) is shrouded in myth and legend that may create unrealistic expectations, while its reality includes elements of politics, economics and organizational psychology. This study examined 1,629 present and former graduate students’ perceptions of what their graduate school experiences should and did include. The sample was analyzed as a whole and als...

  3. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies - augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) - exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual's worldview.

  4. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies – augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview. PMID:27746747

  5. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs? 23.15 Section 23.15 Wildlife and Fisheries..., including tourist souvenirs? (a) Purpose. Article VII(3) of the Treaty recognizes a limited exemption for... if one of the following applies: (1) The Management Authority of the importing, exporting, or re...

  6. Features of Emotional Experiences in Individuals with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzebińska Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders (PDs are marked by significant disturbances in the way of experiencing oneself, others and the world around. Yet there is paucity of research on the nature of emotional experiences in these disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether and how emotional experience of individuals with ten distinct forms of PDs distinguished in DSM differs from those without PDs. The study was conducted via the Internet on a large nonclinical sample (N = 3509. Participants were administered a PDs measure and a performance task assessing three features of emotional experiences: emotional sensitivity, the valence of experienced emotions and the profile of five components constituting an emotion. As predicted, PDs sufferers experienced emotions differently from controls. Results demonstrated that individuals with all PDs were more receptive to emotional elicitation and displayed higher negative emotionality and a deficiency in the affective component of experienced emotions.

  7. Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester's Personal Experiences: United States, World War Two, Soviet Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paula Popow

    This family history recounts the life and personal experiences of Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester who was born in the United States in 1929 to German parents. Marianne and her mother spent the World War II years in Stassfurt, Germany, and returned to the United States in 1946. The overview of her life includes a reunion with her father, attendance…

  8. Experiences of being a family member to an older person with diabetes receiving home care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Bente E; Kirkevold, Marit; Graue, Marit; Haltbakk, Johannes

    2017-08-22

    To describe family members' experiences of attending to an old person with diabetes receiving home care services, including their interaction with the formal caregivers. The study has a qualitative descriptive design. From May to August 2015, eight family members were interviewed. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. To describe family members' experiences, the following four themes were identified: Security through patients' self-management skills and diabetes knowledge; Perceived burden due to the old persons' deteriorated health; Security through competent home care services; and Doubt due to personnel's inadequate approach and interaction. It is important for personnel in home care services to consider patients' self-management skills and the family members' diabetes knowledge as key aspects in order to limit experiences of burden when the older person with diabetes has deteriorating health. The findings underscore that interaction with home care personnel skilled in managing diabetes helps family members feel secure. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-12-01

    From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  10. The Role of Metaperception in Personality Disorders: Do People with Personality Problems Know How Others Experience Their Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Erika N; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    Do people with personality problems have insight into how others experience them? In a large community sample of adults (N = 641), the authors examined whether people with personality disorder (PD) symptoms were aware of how a close acquaintance (i.e., a romantic partner, family member, or friend) perceived them by measuring participants' metaperceptions and self-perceptions as well as their acquaintance's impression of them on Five-Factor Model traits. Compared to people with fewer PD symptoms, people with more PD symptoms tended to be less accurate and tended to overestimate the negativity of the impressions they made on their acquaintance, especially for the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Interestingly, these individuals did not necessarily assume that their acquaintance perceived them as they perceived themselves; instead, poor insight was likely due to their inability to detect or utilize information other than their self-perceptions. Implications for the conceptualization, measurement, and treatment of PDs are discussed.

  11. PERSON, POLITICS AND CULTURE FORMATION: THOUGHT AND EXPERIENCE DEFEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio Giovinazzo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed some reflections concerning to the predominant cultural formation models in the contemporary society, which is marked by instrumental rationality and technique. By means of the presentation of some Herbert Marcuse and Theodor W. Adorno conceptions on history, dialectic, reason and experience, it is distinguished the necessity to review the political performance patterns, in view of the conservative nature of delayed capitalism. In this direction, it is suggested the reevaluation of the Marxist dialectic, according determined negation and determined choice concepts, and the consideration of the historical process as field of possibilities, from the continuity-rupture binomial. It is also analyzed the consequences of the type of rationality predominant at the time current, where the false necessities prevail, that is, those imposed; as well as the thought and experience split, that is in action in the cultural formation of the persons, in order to hinder the autonomy, what, consequently, reverberates on the political action.

  12. Defining the Graduate College Experience: What it “Should” versus “Does” Include

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hardre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaps between expectations and actual educational experience may influence motivation, learning and performance. The graduate college experience (GCE is shrouded in myth and legend that may create unrealistic expectations, while its reality includes elements of politics, economics and organizational psychology. This study examined 1,629 present and former graduate students’ perceptions of what their graduate school experiences should and did include. The sample was analyzed as a whole and also divided and tested for subgroup differences by: degree types (masters and doctorate; at four different points along their degree paths (entrance, midpoint, exit, alumni; and by disciplinary subgroups (hard sciences, social sciences, arts, interdisciplinary. Statistically significant differences were found between subgroups on perceptions of what the GCE “should” and “does” include separately. Further, within-groups comparison of what the graduate college experience “should” and “does” include showed significant differences for the whole group and all subgroups. In addition, the differences between graduate students’ expected and actual experience (should - does negatively predicted overall satisfaction with their graduate experience. These contrasts of students’ actual and expected graduate experiences present potential to explain some of graduate students’ dissatisfaction and non-completion, and offer information to support program improvement and retention of graduate students.

  13. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; rescheduling of public hearings; correction. SUMMARY... also corrects one error in the preamble to the proposed rule. On November 15, 2010, MSHA published the... from any interested party, including those not presenting oral statements. Comments must be received by...

  14. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... concentrations that exceed proposed standards. For example, the proposed plan would include pre-operational examination, testing and set-up procedures to verify the operational readiness of the CPDM before each shift...

  15. Maintaining ordinariness around food: partners' experiences of everyday life with a dying person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Viktoria; Carlander, Ida; Sandman, Per-Olof; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Håkanson, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    To explore partners' experiences of everyday life in caring for a dying person with eating deficiencies at home. When a dying person receives care at home, eating deficiencies can influence everyday life for family members, who often take responsibility for the provision of food and meals. The literature reveals this to be emotionally stressful. Partners of dying persons are challenged both as caregivers and as partners who will soon lose their life companion. There is a need for studies that provide enhanced understanding about the influence of dying persons' eating deficiencies on their partners, from the perspective of everyday life. A qualitative design was chosen to obtain experience-based knowledge of relevance for the clinical context of palliative home care. Nine people were purposefully selected and interviewed three-six months after the death of their partner. Data collection and analysis were guided by an interpretive descriptive method. The partners described experiences of how eating deficiencies brought about changes in the participants' everyday lives. Two patterns of experiences were identified: the challenge of doing the best for their dying partner around matters involving food and mealtimes, and experiences of striving to maintain ordinariness, including holding on to social values around food, despite experiences of unfamiliarity when the dying partners' habits were changed. Living close to a person who has eating deficiencies at the end of life is challenging, both from a caring perspective and for personal well-being. The findings can assist palliative home care teams and other healthcare professionals to give support that goes beyond giving practical advice about food. Initiating talk about the current situation around food and meals at home, by posing questions and opening the way for conversations, is suggested. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.

  17. The Earth System Science Education Experience: Personal Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Aron, J.; Maranto, G.; Reider, D.; Wake, C.

    2006-12-01

    Colleges and universities across the country and around the world have embraced the Earth system approach to gain deeper understanding of the interrelationships of processes that define the home planet. The Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education, a product of the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century Program (ESSE 21), represents a synthesis of community understanding of the content and process of teaching and learning about Earth as a system. The web-based Design Guide serves faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to adopt an ESS approach in their own courses or programs. Illustrating the nine topical sections of the Design Guide are a series of short vignettes telling the story of how ESS is being used in the classroom, how ESS has contributed to institutional change and personal professional development, how ESS is being implemented at minority serving institutions, and the impact of ESS education on student research. Most vignettes are written from a personal perspective and reflect a direct experience with Earth System Science Education. Over forty vignettes have been assembled aiming to put a face on the results of the systemic reform efforts of the past fifteen years of the ESSE programs, documenting the sometimes intangible process of education reform to be shared with those seeking examples of ESS education. The vignettes are a vital complement to the Design Guide sections, and are also available as a separate collection on the Design Guide and ESSE 21 web sites.

  18. Role of childhood traumatic experience in personality disorders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, TianHong; Chow, Annabelle; Wang, LanLan; Dai, YunFei; Xiao, ZePing

    2012-08-01

    There has been no large-scale examination of the association between types of childhood abuse and personality disorders (PDs) in China using standardized assessment tools and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Hence, this study aimed to explore the relationship between retrospective reports of various types of childhood maltreatments and current DSM-IV PDs in a clinical population in China, Shanghai. One thousand four hundred two subjects were randomly sampled from the Shanghai Psychological Counselling Centre. PDs were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, Fourth Edition Plus. Participants were also interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II. The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood maltreatment in 5 domains (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). According to Pearson correlations, childhood maltreatment had a strong association with most PDs. Subsequently, using partial correlations, significant relationships were also demonstrated between cluster B PDs and all the traumatic factors except physical neglect. A strongest positive correlation was found between cluster B PD and CTQ total scores (r = .312, P experiences are strongly related to the development of PDs. The effects of childhood maltreatment in the 3 clusters of PDs are different. Childhood trauma has the most significant impact on cluster B PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rectal benzodiazepines for premedication in children. Review and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J; Capouet, V

    1987-01-01

    Modern anesthetic techniques have modified the aims of premedication in pediatric practice. Anxiolysis, amnesia and easiness of induction are now the the main targets. This paper reviews both the literature and the personal experience of the authors on the subject. Many authors now prefer a benzodiazepine. Rectal instillation of benzodiazepine in solution avoids the trauma of the intramuscular route and produces a faster and more predictable effect, than suppositories. Diazepam (.1 to .2 mg/kg) and flunitrazepam (40 to 80 micrograms/kg) have been extensively used in this indication. Diazepam's duration of elimination being much longer than that of flunitrazepam, this last drug is preferred by many pediatric anesthetists. Midazolam (.4 to .5 mg/kg) has a much faster onset and shorter duration of action. It should thus be preferred if the environment enables the administration of premedication within 10 to 15 minutes of induction.

  20. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  1. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Hoover Universal, Greenfield, OH; Amended... their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover..., Inc., Automotive Experience Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are...

  2. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  3. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-02-01

    The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. The effect of student teaching experience on selected personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality plays a significant role in teacher development. Minimal studies have investigated personality traits of student teachers in physical education. This study examines changes in selected personality traits of fifty-three physical education student teachers over the course of a student teaching semester.

  5. Dying persons' perspectives on, or experiences of, participating in research: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Hutchinson, Alison M; Brooks, Laura; Botti, Mari

    2017-11-01

    Conducting research with dying persons can be controversial and challenging due to concerns for the vulnerability of the dying and the potential burden on those who participate with the possibility of little benefit. To conduct an integrative review to answer the question 'What are dying persons' perspectives or experiences of participating in research? A structured integrative review of the empirical literature was undertaken. Cumulative Index Nursing and Allied Health Complete, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Informit and Embase databases were searched for the empirical literature published since inception of the databases until February 2017. From 2369 references, 10 papers were included in the review. Six were qualitative studies, and the remaining four were quantitative. Analysis revealed four themes: value of research, desire to help, expression of self and participation preferences. Dying persons value research participation, regarding their contribution as important, particularly if it provides an opportunity to help others. Participants perceived that the potential benefits of research can and should be measured in ways other than life prolongation or cure. Willingness to participate is influenced by study type or feature and degree of inconvenience. Understanding dying persons' perspectives of research participation will enhance future care of dying persons. It is essential that researchers do not exclude dying persons from clinically relevant research due to their prognosis, fear or burden or perceived vulnerability. The dying should be afforded the opportunity to participate in research with the knowledge it may contribute to science and understanding and improve the care and treatment of others.

  6. Case managers' experiences of personal growth: learning from consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Craft, Scott A

    2007-04-01

    This study examines aspects of case managers' perceived personal growth in their work with consumers. Using a sample of 98 case managers, the psychometric properties of a brief self-report measure of personal growth of case managers were examined. The Case Manager Personal Growth Scale (CMPG) showed good reliability and construct validity as evidenced by negative correlations with scores on professional burnout and positive correlations with personal accomplishment and job satisfaction scores. CMPG scores were unrelated to social desirability scores or caseload size and positively related to age and tenure in the mental health system. Results suggest the strong relevance of the construct of personal growth for case managers.

  7. Students' Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Moeller, Martin Holdgaard; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students....... Students taught with video-based patient cases, in contrast, often referred to the patient cases when highlighting new insights, including the importance of patient perspectives when communicating with patients. CONCLUSION: The format of patient cases included in teaching may have a substantial impact...

  8. Primatology between feelings and science: a personal experience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Augusto

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some aspects of the relationship between feelings and primatological science, and how this relationship can influence this particular scientific practice. This point of view is based on the author's personal experience. A sentimental reason to study primatology in the first place will be discussed, and then the existence of a bond between the observer and the observed will be presented as a possible by-product of primatology. The following question is whether a sentimental attitude toward primates is detrimental for good science or is, alternatively, actually leading to better primatological science. As an example, the practice of naming individual monkeys is considered. It is argued that naming monkeys can help by characterizing individuality, and this is likely to improve planning of behavioural observations and welfare of captive individuals. The relationship between the researcher and study subject in biomedical studies is discussed in terms of hierarchy of moral status. Finally, primatology is not unique in the existence of bonds between the observer and the observed, at least from the point of view of the observer. However, primatology is unique because, more than in other cases, it gives greater opportunity for reasoning about different factors surrounding "doing science with animals." This is most probably owing to the phylogenetic closeness primatologists have with their study subjects. Among the different factors involved in making science using animals, the sentimental bond developing between the researcher and study animal can be very influential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Sport as an object of reflection and as personal experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markič

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of sport is traditionally concerned with three topics: the problem of finding appropriate definitions of the main concepts (e.g. sport, game, play and rules, ethical problems (e.g. values, fair-play and performance enhancement, and the aesthetic characteristics of sport. The author briefly presents the influential Suits’ analysis of the notion of game, but her main interest lies in connecting sport with cognitive science, particularly cognitive philosophy. She contrasts classical cognitivism with the so-called embodied and situated cognition approach. She argues that sport is a good laboratory for testing different approaches and ideas in cognitive science, and stresses two major points. First, sport is an activity where skills are of the utmost importance which helps to shed light on the weaknesses of classical cognitivism. Second, the personal experiences and feelings of athletes play an important role and cannot be dismissed. Both features emphasize the need to treat mental processes as embodied and situated in the environment. The author concludes that we have to broaden the philosophy of sport with topics borrowed from the philosophy of cognitive science and phenomenology of sport.

  10. The Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers): Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Geigges, Julian; Voss, Andreas; Weinhold, Jan; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the theoretical background, development, and psychometric properties of the German and English versions of the Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers). It assesses how the members of a personal social system experience their situation within that system. It is designed as a research tool for interventions in which only one member of the system participates (e.g., Family Constellation Seminars). The EXIS.pers was created to measure change on the individual level relating to one's own important personal social system. In Study 1, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for latent variable identification of the original German EXIS.pers (n = 179). In Studies 2 and 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the dimensionality of the German (n = 634) and English (n = 310) EXIS.pers. Internal consistencies and cross-cultural structural equivalence were assessed. EFA indicated that a four-factor model provided best fit for the German EXIS.pers. For both the German and English EXIS.pers, CFA provided the best fit for a five-factor bi-level model that included a general factor (Experience In Personal Social Systems) and four dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, Confidence). Good internal consistencies, external associations, and cross-cultural structural equivalence were demonstrated. This study provides first evidence for the German and English EXIS.pers as an economical and reliable measure of an individual's experience within his or her personal social systems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  11. Preservation of person-specific semantic knowledge in semantic dementia: does direct personal experience have a specific role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Anne Péron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of 5 semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment and identification (biographic information recall of personally familiar names versus famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of fast neutron scattering experiments including DD-breakup neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The computational simulation of the deuteron breakup in a scattering experiment has been investigated. Experimental breakup spectra measured at 16 deuteron energies and at 7 angles for each energy served as the data base. Analysis of these input data and of the conditions of the scattering experiment made it possible to reduce the input data. The use of one weighted breakup spectrum is sufficient to simulate the scattering spectra at one incident neutron energy. A number of tests were carried out to prove the validity of this result. The simulation of neutron scattering on carbon, including the breakup, was compared with measured spectra. Differences between calculated and measured spectra were for the most part within the experimental uncertainties. Certain significant deviations can be attributed to erroneous scattering cross sections taken from an evaluation and used in the simulation. Scattering on higher-lying states in [sup 12]C can be analyzed by subtracting the simulated breakup-scattering from the experimental spectra. (orig.)

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of fast neutron scattering experiments including DD-breakup neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The computational simulation of the deuteron breakup in a scattering experiment has been investigated. Experimental breakup spectra measured at 16 deuteron energies and at 7 angles for each energy served as the data base. Analysis of these input data and of the conditions of the scattering experiment made it possible to reduce the input data. The use of one weighted breakup spectrum is sufficient to simulate the scattering spectra at one incident neutron energy. A number of tests were carried out to prove the validity of this result. The simulation of neutron scattering on carbon, including the breakup, was compared with measured spectra. Differences between calculated and measured spectra were for the most part within the experimental uncertainties. Certain significant deviations can be attributed to erroneous scattering cross sections taken from an evaluation and used in the simulation. Scattering on higher-lying states in 12 C can be analyzed by subtracting the simulated breakup-scattering from the experimental spectra. (orig.)

  14. Job experiences of personal assistants employed in a consumer-directed personal assistance services programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary J; Hagglund, Kristofer J; Stout, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The demand for personal assistants for persons with disabilities is outpacing the supply. The objective of this pilot project was to describe the training and supervision needs of personal assistants, the nature of the assistant-consumer relationship, and the job satisfaction associated with being employed as a personal assistant. Telephone interviews were conducted with 24 personal assistants. All of the participants reported being competent and well trained in their work and 79% of the participants reported being very satisfied with their work as a personal assistant. All also reported they had an opportunity to accomplish something worthwhile in their jobs. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with their relationship with their employers and with their jobs in general, despite dissatisfaction with low wages. Further research is needed to identify strategies for increasing the supply of personal assistants, who are pivotal to helping consumers maintain their independence.

  15. Caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS: experiences of Vietnamese family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Doan, Thoa Thi Kim; Dinh, Thu Thi Xuan; Oach, Nhung Kim; Le, Phong Hoang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the experiences of caregiving among Vietnamese family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS increases, the need of family caregivers who can take responsibility for the home care of these persons increases. Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used. A purposive sample of 104 family caregivers, both male and female, participated voluntarily by answering a questionnaire of caregiver burden, and 20 of them participated in in-depth interview. Female caregivers were mainly mothers and wives while male caregivers were mainly husbands, fathers and siblings. The largest group of family caregivers reported moderate to severe burden. There was no difference between genders in total caregiver burden, but there were several differences between older and younger caregivers in some items of caregiver burden. Five categories of experiences emerged: Different types of caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS, cultural and religious issues associated with caregiving, keeping secret to avoid stigma and discrimination, lack of knowledge about disease and provision of care, and fear, anxiety and frustration. Stigma and discrimination should be decreased by providing knowledge to the general public about HIV/AIDS, in particular about ways of transmission and protection. Special knowledge should be given to family caregivers to enable them to give care to persons living with HIV/AIDS at home. This could be done through culturally appropriate training/intervention programmes in which coping methods should be included. Support group interventions should also be carried through. The results obtained can be used as baseline information. Health care providers should consider gender, age and culture of family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, provision of care at home and in hospital, and

  16. Experience in nuclear materials accountancy, including the use of computers, in the UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Good, P.T.; Terrey, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The UKAEA have operated systems of nuclear materials accountancy in research and development establishments handling large quantities of material for over 20 years. In the course of that time changing requirements for nuclear materials control and increasing quantities of materials have required that accountancy systems be modified and altered to improve either the fundamental system or manpower utilization. The same accountancy principles are applied throughout the Authority but procedures at the different establishments vary according to the nature of their specific requirements; there is much in the cumulative experience of the UKAEA which could prove of value to other organizations concerned with nuclear materials accountancy or safeguards. This paper reviews the present accountancy system in the UKAEA and summarizes its advantages. Details are given of specific experience and solutions which have been found to overcome difficulties or to strengthen previous weak points. Areas discussed include the use of measurements, the establishment of measurement points (which is relevant to the designation of MBAs), the importance of regular physical stock-taking, and the benefits stemming from the existence of a separate accountancy section independent of operational management at large establishments. Some experience of a dual system of accountancy and criticality control is reported, and the present status of computerization of nuclear material accounts is summarized. Important aspects of the relationship between management systems of accountancy and safeguards' requirements are discussed briefly. (author)

  17. 'Your experiences were your tools'. How personal experience of mental health problems informs mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool

  18. Ethical aspects of caregivers' experience with persons with dementia at mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Lena Marmstål; Swall, Anna; Meranius, Martina Summer

    2016-09-01

    Persons with dementia are at risk of malnutrition and thus in need of assistance during mealtimes. Research suggest interventions for caregivers to learn how to facilitate mealtimes and eating, while other suggest a working environment enabling the encounter needed to provide high-quality care. However, the phenomenon of caring for this unique population needs to be elucidated from several perspectives before suggesting suitable implications that ensure their optimal health. To illustrate the meanings within caregivers' experiences of caring for persons with dementia during mealtime situations. We also measured weight and food intake among individuals with dementia to explain better the phenomenon of caring for them during mealtimes. Mixed method including focus group interviews with seven caregivers analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutics. In addition, for nine persons with dementia, weight and food intake were collected and descriptive statistics were calculated. Ethical review was obtained from an ethics committee, and all caregivers signed a consent form after being informed on the issue of research ethics. Relatives for persons with dementia were informed and signed the consent. In addition, throughout the study, the persons' expressions were observed aiming to respect their vulnerability, integrity, and dignity. One theme emerged from interviews (struggling between having the knowledge and not the opportunity), which was built upon three subthemes (being engaged and trying; feeling abandoned and insufficient; being concerned and feeling guilty). Seven of nine persons with dementia lost a minimum of 1.3 kg of weight and ate a maximum of 49.7% of the food served. Caregivers struggle because they have knowledge about how to provide high-quality care but are unable to provide this care due to organizational structures. The weight loss and insufficient eating among the persons with dementia may support this conclusion. Sufficient time for adequate care should

  19. 41 CFR 102-38.140 - What must we include in the public notice on sale of personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.140 What must we...

  20. Openness to experience, intellect, schizotypal personality disorder, and psychoticism: resolving the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael; Markon, Kristian; Ring, Angela J; Ryder, Andrew G

    2014-08-01

    Section III of DSM-5 includes an alternative model for personality disorders comprising five higher-order pathological personality traits, four of which resemble domains from the Big Five/Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). There has, however, been considerable debate regarding the association of FFM Openness-to-Experience/Intellect (OE/I) with DSM-5 Psychoticism and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD). The authors identify several limitations in the literature, including inattention to (a) differences in the conceptualization of OE/I in the questionnaire and lexical traditions and (b) the symptom heterogeneity of STPD. They then address these limitations in two large patient samples. The results suggest that OE/I per se is weakly associated with Psychoticism and STPD symptoms. However, unique variance specific to the different conceptualizations of OE/I demonstrates much stronger associations, often in opposing directions. These results clarify the debate and the seemingly discrepant views that OE/I is unrelated to Psychoticism and contains variance relevant to Psychoticism.

  1. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  2. Keys to person-centred care to persons living with dementia - Experiences from an educational program in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Mia; Gillsjö, Catharina; Svanström, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Growing old entails an increased risk of disabilities and illnesses such as dementia. The orientation in Sweden on national level is that individuals remain in their own homes if desired and receive person-centred home care. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of an educational program and its influence on daily provision of care to persons with dementia. A life-world approach was used. Data were collected through group interviews with care providers in the context of home. The findings are presented in five themes: Increased knowledge about dementia and treatment, Relationship-building in order to provide good care, Open and flexible approach conveys calm, Continuity and flexibility are cornerstones in the care and Perceived improvements. This person-centred educational intervention resulted in a care that was based on each individual's personality, preferences and priorities in life. Education given with continuity over time is key to improving provision of care to person with dementia.

  3. Shift, Interrupted: Strategies for Managing Difficult Patients Including Those with Personality Disorders and Somatic Symptoms in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Personal Divorce Experience on Teacher Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…

  5. Tuberculosis peer educators: personal experiences of working with socially excluded communities in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, L A; Hayward, A C; Story, A

    2013-10-01

    Peer education is a relatively unexplored intervention for tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among socially excluded communities. In London, peer educators are used to raise awareness of TB and promote uptake of radiological screening among people using homeless and/or drug and alcohol treatment services. To understand the motivation and personal impact of being a peer educator on people with experience of anti-tuberculosis treatment, homelessness and addiction. In-depth semi-structured interviews with peer educators were recorded and transcribed, and then analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify themes. Reflexivity and thick description were used to support transparency of findings. Becoming a peer educator supports individuals in making sense of past experiences and renewing their sense of self. The role places value on personal experience and the communication approach this supports. The project environment is an important motivator, providing the peer with structure, social support and respect. Being a peer educator with experience of homelessness and addiction can be beneficial and empowering and help long-term recovery. Peers are an underused resource for strengthening TB control among socially excluded populations. There is a need for further research into the contribution of peers to TB control, including analyses of economic effectiveness.

  6. Seeking to understand lived experiences of personal recovery in personality disorder in community and forensic settings - a qualitative methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny

    2017-08-01

    Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of

  7. Self-reported pleasure experience and motivation in individuals with schizotypal personality disorders proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liu, Wen Hhua; Cao, Yuan; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-09-01

    In our current research, 2 studies were conducted to investigate self-reported pleasure and approach motivation in individuals with schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) proneness. In Study 1, 20 individuals with SPD proneness and 20 non-SPD-prone persons were included in the investigation. In Study 2, 24 SPD-prone and 24 non-SPD-prone individuals took part in our research. In all these individuals, memory and perceptual probabilistic reward tasks, and self-report scales were administered to capture their approach motivation and pleasure experience, respectively. In both of the 2 studies, individuals with SPD proneness demonstrated more problems with self-reported deficits in pleasure experience than those without SPD proneness. However, there was no difference in approach motivation performance between the groups in Study 1; in Study 2, those with higher levels of anhedonia demonstrated a tendency to even more motivated behaviour. Approach motivation might be intact in schizotypal-proneness persons, although they had more complaints about their hedonic capacity.

  8. Doing Fieldwork at Home: Some Personal Experiences among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I examine the problems of working at home, where being a native, studying fellow natives, I was branded as a foolish person asking silly questions because I was expected to know the answers. My extended stay at home was interpreted differently by my own people and different identities were given to me: a ...

  9. Australian homeless persons' experiences of social connectedness, isolation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Marlee; Conroy, Elizabeth; Perz, Janette

    2018-03-01

    Both loneliness and a lack of social integration are associated with serious physical and psychological health issues. One population highly susceptible to social isolation and loneliness are individuals who are homeless, who also experience high rates of mental disorder and relationship breakdown. Despite this, little research has explored how social networks, isolation and loneliness are experienced for those with a history of homelessness. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to get a nuanced understanding of how social networks and isolation are experienced and understood by individuals experiencing homelessness. Sixteen participants who were either homeless (n = 11) or previously homeless (n = 5) in Sydney, Australia, completed one-off interviews that were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants constructed their social networks as being both constrained and enabled by marginalisation. They experienced rejection from the non-homeless: the loss of critical network members, including rejection from family and a lack of companionship, and low quality and precarious relationships within the homeless community. These accounts were best conceptualised through loneliness theory. Participant's accounts signal that the homeless will likely continue feeling isolated if mainstream attitudes towards homelessness remain stigmatising and discriminatory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  11. Chronic stress experience in young physicians: impact of person- and workplace-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are to investigate and compare the relative impact of workplace-related factors and personal characteristics on chronic psychosocial stress experience in young physicians. In a prospective study, a cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up, beginning in 2001. In their fourth and eighth year after graduation, 443 physicians assessed their workplace conditions, the experienced effort-reward imbalance, the received professional and emotional support as well as their personal characteristics. The chronic stress experience was measured by the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress-Screening Subscale of Chronic Stress (TICS-SCSS), 7 years after graduation. The model of influencing factors on chronic stress experience was tested with a hierarchical regression analysis. The mean in chronic stress (TICS-SCSS) in our study sample is significantly higher (p stress, the workplace-related factor effort-reward imbalance as well as the personal characteristic overcommitment turned out to be the most important risk factors. Stress protective are high satisfaction with career support, sense of coherence and occupational self-efficacy. The whole set of variables used in the regression model explains 51% of the variance of chronic stress experience. In the prediction of chronic stress, gender has no significant moderator effect. It is a matter of concern that young physicians report to feel chronically stressed early in their professional career. Actions have to be taken to reduce the stress level mainly in regard to re-establish reciprocity between perceived effort invested and rewards received, in the form of esteem, monetary gain and career opportunities including job security.

  12. Psychopathology of Lived Time: Abnormal Time Experience in Persons With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Coed Trecastell: A Personal Experience of the John Muir Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, Rob

    1999-01-01

    A John Muir Award participant describes his satisfying experience cleaning up a wooded gorge near his home in Wales. Sidebar explains how the British award achieves its purpose of empowering people to conserve wild places through four challenges: discover a wild place, explore it, conserve it, and share the experience with others. The award has…

  14. Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Death and Dying Among Homeless Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Edward R; Bartels, Dianne M.; Alderton, Lucy; Hudson, Brenda; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless persons face many barriers to health care, have few resources, and experience high death rates. They live lives of disenfranchisement and neglect. Few studies have explored their experiences and attitudes toward death and dying. Unfortunately, studies done in other populations may not apply to homeless persons. Exploring these experiences and attitudes may provide insight into life, health care, and end-of-life (EOL) concerns of this population. Objective To explore the experiences and attitudes toward death and dying among homeless persons. Design Qualitative study utilizing focus groups. Participants Fifty-three homeless persons recruited from homeless service agencies. Measurements In-depth interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Results We present seven themes, some of which are previously unreported. Homeless persons described many significant experiences with death and dying, and many participants suffered losses while very young. These encounters influenced participants’ attitudes toward risks and risky behavior: e.g., for some, these experiences provided justification for high-risk behaviors and influenced their behaviors while living on the streets. For others, they may be associated with their homelessness. Finally, these experiences informed their attitudes toward death and dying as well as EOL care; homeless persons believe that care will be poor at the EOL. Conclusions Findings from this study have implications for addressing social services, health promotion, prevention, and EOL care for homeless persons, as well as for others who are poor and disenfranchised. PMID:17372788

  15. Substance Use Among Persons with Homeless Experience in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J.; Kim, Theresa W.; Gordon, Adam J.; Pollio, David E.; Grucza, Richard A.; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, N. Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There is less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. Methods We surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at 5 federally-funded programs in the U.S., administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). We used the ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Results Almost one-half of the sample (n = 601) had recently (within the past 3 months) used alcohol, and one-third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past 3 months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one-half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate or high risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Conclusions Less severe (moderate risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. Our findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons. PMID:26914448

  16. Substance use among persons with homeless experience in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J; Kim, Theresa W; Gordon, Adam J; Pollio, David E; Grucza, Richard A; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, N Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2016-01-01

    Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There are less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. The authors surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at five federally funded programs in the United States, administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk were used to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Almost one half of the sample (N = 601) had recently (within the past three months) used alcohol, and one third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past three months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate- or high-risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower-risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Less severe (moderate-risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high-risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. These findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons.

  17. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement......During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...

  18. Borderline Personality Features in Students: the Predicting Role of Schema, Emotion Regulation, Dissociative Experience and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyede Fateme; Arshadi, Nasrin; Zargar, Yadolla; Mehrabizade Honarmand, Mahnaz; Hajjari, Zahra

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas, emotional dysregulation are supposed to be the defining core of borderline personality disorder. Many studies have also found a strong association between the diagnosis of borderline personality and the occurrence of suicide ideation and dissociative symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between borderline personality features and schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicidal ideation among high school students in Shiraz City, Iran. In this descriptive correlational study, 300 students (150 boys and 150 girls) were selected from the high schools in Shiraz, Iran, using the multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using some instruments including borderline personality feature scale for children, young schema questionnaire-short form, difficulties in emotion-regulation scale (DERS), dissociative experience scale and beck suicide ideation scale. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. The results showed a significant positive correlation between schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicide ideation with borderline personality features. Moreover, the results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that among the studied variables, schema was the most effective predicting variable of borderline features (P borderline personality features.

  19. Mechanical experiments on the superplastic material ALNOVI-1, including leak information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snippe, Q.H.C., E-mail: csnippe@nikhef.nl; Meinders, T.

    2011-01-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanical testing of superplastic materials, in particular ALNOVI-1. {yields} Uniaxial tests to show the one-dimensional stress-strain behaviour and the high amount of strain rate sensitivity. {yields} Void volume fractions have been observed. {yields} Free bulge experiments to show the dependence on the backpressure during the forming stage. {yields} Measuring leak tightness of superplastically formed sheets. {yields} Experiments are used in order to develop a constitutive model in a later stage. - Abstract: In subatomic particle physics, unstable particles can be detected with a so-called vertex detector, placed inside a particle accelerator. A detecting unit close to the accelerator bunch of charged particles must be separated from the accelerator vacuum. A thin sheet with a complex 3D shape prevents the detector vacuum from polluting the accelerator vacuum. Therefore, this sheet has to be completely leak tight. However, this can conflict with restrictions concerning maximum sheet thickness of the product. To produce such a complex thin sheet, superplastic forming can be very attractive in cases where a small number of products is needed. In order to predict gas permeability of these formed sheets, many mechanical experiments are necessary, where the gas leak has to be measured. To obtain insight in the mechanical behaviour of the used material, ALNOVI-1, tensile experiments were performed to describe the uniaxial stress-strain behaviour. From these experiments, a high strain rate sensitivity was measured. The flow stress of this material under superplastic conditions was low and the material behaved in an isotropic manner upon large plastic strains. The results of these experiments were used to predict the forming pressure as a function of time in a free bulge experiment, such that a predefined target strain rate will not be exceeded in the material. An extra parameter within these bulging experiments is the application of a

  20. Teaching Marketing in a Transition Economy: Some Personal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the challenges faced when delivering a marketing course to international students in general, the challenges are compounded when the students have little interest in the subject and the students are located in a country in transition. This study examines the experiences of the author in teaching marketing theory to first-year…

  1. Reflection on Personal ELL Experience and ELT Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhicheng

    2008-01-01

    Multitudes of language teaching practice shows that great attention drawn to language learning can help language teachers better their teaching and give appropriate learning support to language learners. A critical analysis of the author's English language learning experience is given in the paper, encompassing the approaches used, the role of the…

  2. Corporal Punishment in Schools: Theoretical Discussion and Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Omar Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper ponders the lasting effects of corporal punishment on students. The paper first considers the benefits and faults of corporal punishment by comparing the experiences of two generations of students and teachers. Starting with the definition of corporal punishment as applied locally and globally, the paper analyzes the reasons for its…

  3. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  4. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  5. Positive Childhood Experiences: Resilience and Recovery from Personality Disorder in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…

  6. Designing Learning Personalized to Students' Interests: Balancing Rich Experiences with Mathematical Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Hayata, Carole A.

    2017-01-01

    Context personalization is an instructional design principle where tasks are presented to students in the context of their interest areas like sports, music, or video games. Personalization allows for understanding of domain principles to be grounded in concrete and familiar experiences. By making connections to prior knowledge, personalization…

  7. The Earth Is Flat when Personally Significant Experiences with the Sphericity of the Earth Are Absent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…

  8. Self-Compassion Promotes Personal Improvement From Regret Experiences via Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Wei; Chen, Serena

    2016-02-01

    Why do some people report more personal improvement from their regret experiences than others? Three studies examined whether self-compassion promotes personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 1, we coded anonymous regret descriptions posted on a blog website. People who spontaneously described their regret with greater self-compassion were also judged as having expressed more personal improvement. In Study 2, higher trait self-compassion predicted greater self-reported and observer-rated personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 3, people induced to take a self-compassionate perspective toward a recalled regret experience reported greater acceptance, forgiveness, and personal improvement. A multiple mediation analysis comparing acceptance and forgiveness showed self-compassion led to greater personal improvement, in part, through heightened acceptance. Furthermore, self-compassion's effects on personal improvement were distinct from self-esteem and were not explained by adaptive emotional responses. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion spurs positive adjustment in the face of regrets. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Impact of Including Authentic Inquiry Experiences in Methods Courses for Pre-Service Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Elfring, L.; Novodvorsky, I.; Talanquer, V.; Quintenz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in the context of their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: prepare students to address real world complex problems; develop students' ability to use scientific methods; prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. However, it is unclear what the broader pre-service teacher preparation community is doing in preparing future teachers to promote, manage, and successful facilitate their own students in conducting authentic scientific inquiry. Surveys of undergraduates in secondary science education programs suggests that students have had almost no experiences themselves in conducting open scientific inquiry where they develop researchable questions, design strategies to pursue evidence, and communicate data-based conclusions. In response, the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Arizona requires all students enrolled in its various science teaching methods courses to complete an open inquiry research project and defend their findings at a specially designed inquiry science mini-conference at the end of the term. End-of-term surveys show that students enjoy their research experience and believe that this experience enhances their ability to facilitate their own future students in conducting open inquiry.

  10. Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Hiroyuki

    New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

  11. Suicidality and hospitalisation in patients with borderline personality disorder who experience auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, C. W.; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Blom, J. D.; van der Gaag, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Sommer, I. E. C.

    Background: In patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), about 22-50% experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the impact of these hallucinations on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, crisis-service interventions, and hospital admissions is unknown. Methods: In a

  12. Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: A role for cognitive stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Person centred phenomenology : service user experiences of exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Luke; Rodriguez, Alison; Lewis, Kiara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to explore the lived experience of sport and exercise amongst a group of mental health service users. Participants were recruited from a north of England NHS mental health trust that was piloting a sport and exercise intervention for adults with mental health needs.\\ud Design/methodology/approach: In depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with five mental health service users. The chosen phenomenological methodology was collaborative and interpretive.\\ud Find...

  14. [Quality assurance and quality improvement. Personal experiences and intentions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, B G; Sommer, C

    1995-01-01

    In may 1994 we were selected by the surgical Swiss association to make a study about quality in USA. During our travel we visited 3 types of institutions: Hospitals, National Institute of standard and Technology, Industry, Johnson & Johnson. We appreciate to compare 2 types of quality programs: Quality Assurance (QA) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). In traditional healthcare circles, QA is the process established to meet external regulatory requirements and to assure that patient care is consistent with established standards. In a modern quality terms, QA outside of healthcare means designing a product or service, as well as controlling its production, so well that quality is inevitable. The ideas of W. Edward Deming is that there is never improvement just by inspection. He developed a theory based on 14 principles. A productive work is accomplished through processes. Understanding the variability of processes is a key to improve quality. Quality management sees each person in an organisation as part of one or more processes. The job of every worker is to receive the work of others, add value to that work, and supply it to the next person in the process. This is called the triple role the workers as customer, processor, and supplier. The main source of quality defects is problems in the process. The old assumption is that quality fails when people do the right thing wrong; the new assumption is that, more often, quality failures arise when people do the wrong think right. Exhortation, incentives and discipline of workers are unlikely to improve quality. If quality is failing when people do their jobs as designed, then exhorting them to do better is managerial nonsense. Modern quality theory is customer focused. Customers are identified internally and externally. The modern approach to quality is thoroughly grounded in scientific and statistical thinking. Like in medicine, the symptom is a defect in quality. The therapist of process must perform diagnostic

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Mil...

  16. Health Policy for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Experiences from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Halperin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a life-long disability characterized by impaired cognitive and adaptive skills. Over the past few decades, a shift has occurred in the conceptualization and treatment of people with ID and research in health policy and health-care delivery has become increasingly global with a notable disparity between the developed and developing world. This review presents a literature overview of global health policy for ID with the intent to focus specifically on the policy and treatment within Israel. The methodology involved sites visits to care centers, discussions with stakeholders in health policy, and a literature review. We believe that Israel is in a unique position between a developed and developing culture. In particular, the distinct problems faced by the Arab and Bedouin community in terms of ID must be formally accounted for in Israel's future policies. Research from the developing world would be instructive to this end. The global approach in this presentation led to certain policy recommendations that take into account the uniqueness of Israel's position from a social, economic, religious, and demographic perspective. It is the hope that this paper will lead to an increased awareness of the challenges faced by persons with ID and their providers in all sectors of Israeli society and that the necessary policy recommendations will ultimately be adopted.

  17. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  18. Psychotic experiences and suicide attempt risk in common mental disorders and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparing the experience of voices in borderline personality disorder with the experience of voices in a psychotic disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Zalie; Rossell, Susan L; Castle, David J

    2016-07-01

    In clinical settings, there is substantial evidence both clinically and empirically to suggest that approximately 50% of individuals with borderline personality disorder experience auditory verbal hallucinations. However, there is limited research investigating the phenomenology of these voices. The aim of this study was to review and compare our current understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder with auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with a psychotic disorder, to critically analyse existing studies investigating auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder and to identify gaps in current knowledge, which will help direct future research. The literature was searched using the electronic database Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE. Relevant studies were included if they were written in English, were empirical studies specifically addressing auditory verbal hallucinations and borderline personality disorder, were peer reviewed, used only adult humans and sample comprising borderline personality disorder as the primary diagnosis, and included a comparison group with a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Our search strategy revealed a total of 16 articles investigating the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations in borderline personality disorder. Some studies provided evidence to suggest that the voice experiences in borderline personality disorder are similar to those experienced by people with schizophrenia, for example, occur inside the head, and often involved persecutory voices. Other studies revealed some differences between schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder voice experiences, with the borderline personality disorder voices sounding more derogatory and self-critical in nature and the voice-hearers' response to the voices were more emotionally resistive. Furthermore, in one study, the schizophrenia group's voices resulted in more disruption in daily functioning

  20. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, T; Schwerter, M; Büttgenbach, S; Leester-Schädel, M; Sattler, S; El Sayed, Y; Radespiel, R; Zander, M; Sinapius, M; Wierach, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development. (technical note)

  1. Personal control of privacy and data: Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priisalu, Jaan; Ottis, Rain

    2017-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia leads Europe in the provision of public digital services. The national communications and transactions platform allows for twenty-first century governance by allowing for transparency, e-safety (inter alia privacy), e-security, entrepreneurship and, among other things, rising levels of prosperity, and well-being for all its Citizens. However, a series of Information Infrastructure attacks against the Estonian e-society infrastructure in 2007 became one of best known incidents and experiences that fundamentally changed both Estonian and international discussions about Cyber Security and Privacy. Estonian experience shows that an open and transparent attitude provides a good foundation for trust between the Citizen and the State, and gives more control to the real owner of the data - the Citizen. Another important lesson is that the Citizen needs to be confident in the government's ability to keep their data safe -- in terms of confidentiality, integrity and availability - establishing a strong link between privacy and information security. This paper discusses certain critical choices, context, and events connected to the birth and growth of the Estonian e-society in terms of Privacy.

  2. Arab American Persons' Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Personal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Hasan, Nadia Talal

    2004-01-01

    Reports of prejudice and discrimination against Arab Americans have increased since the events of September 11, 2001 (I. Ibish, 2003). Perceived prejudice events are recognized as stressors that are linked to lowered mental health for those who experience such events (e.g., R. Clark, N. B. Anderson, V. R. Clark, & D. R. Williams, 1999; E. A.…

  3. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  4. Herbal therapy for advanced breast cancer. Personal experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients' ages ranged between 30 and 75 years. Based on the Manchester classification, 55 patients had stage I11 disease and. 45 had stage IV breast cancer on admission. Investigations done prior to treatment included haemoglobin estimation, fine needle aspiration cytology and open biopsy when diagnosis was in.

  5. Sensory Integration and the Perceptual Experience of Persons with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarocci, Grace; McDonald, John

    2006-01-01

    Research studies on sensory issues in autism, including those based on questionnaires, autobiographical accounts, retrospective video observations and early experimental approaches are reviewed in terms of their strengths and limitations. We present a cognitive neuroscience theoretical perspective on multisensory integration and propose that this…

  6. Spinal intramedullary cavernomas. Personal experience reffering to six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite cavernous malformations of the CNS are pathologically similar, intramedullary cavernous malformations are very rare lesions, increasingly recognized after introduction of magnetic resonance image, generating gradual neurological decline, with severe deficits or acute loss of spinal function. We report our experience on six patients with intramedullary cavernomas defining the spectrum of presenting symptoms and signs analyzing the role of surgery as a treatment for these lesions. We present our experience with 2 cervical and 4 thoracal spinal intramedullary cavernoma from 2010 to 2014 searching history, onset of clinical manifestation, neurological status, radiological findings, operation, and clinical outcome. Among 6 patients male were 2 cases; female 4 cases; mean age was 42 years (range 25-72 years; mean duration of symptoms were 1,5 years (range 5 days and 2 years with slowly progressive neurological decline. In two cases there was acute onset of neurological compromise. In all cases diagnosis was made on MRI and lesions were possible to be radically excised and gently extracted from the hemosiderin-stained bed inside of the spinal cord via a laminectomy and midline myelotomy with microsurgical techniques. The surgical outcome on a mean duration of follow up of 12 months were: for 4 cases - the patients neurological conditions remarkably improved 1 month later, for 2 cases no improvement were remarked. No recurrent hemorrhages were recorded. A follow-up MRI examination was made in all cases to confirm complete removal of the cavernous angioma. Spinal intramedullary cavernoma should be early recognized by MRI, can be positioned in a precarious position and generate significant neurologic deficits than cranial cavernomas. For symptomatic intramedullary cavernous malformations extended to the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, total resection with microsurgical techniques can offer good or excellent outcome, restoring neurological

  7. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  8. Struggling for existence-Life situation experiences of older persons with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Gunilla; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Lindholm, Christina; Wiklund-Gustin, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders represent a vulnerable group of people with extensive and complex needs. The older population is rapidly increasing worldwide and, as a result of deinstitutionalization in mental health care, older persons are remaining at home to a greater extent. Although they constitute a large proportion of the population, older persons with mental disorders have been neglected in research as well as in care organizations. As there is little previous knowledge concerning older persons' experiences of their own situations, this study aimed to illuminate the meaning of the life situation as experienced by older persons with mental disorders (excluding dementia disorders). Interviews were conducted with seven older persons and the text was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical research method, inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. "Struggling for existence" emerged as a main theme in the older persons' narratives, understood as a loss of dignity of identity and involving being troubled and powerless as well as yearning for respect. The older persons fought to master their existence and to be seen for who they are. The study highlights the importance for caregivers, both formal and informal, to avoid focusing on the diagnoses and rather acknowledge the older persons and their lifeworld, be present in the relation and help them rebuild their dignity of identity. This study brings a new understanding about older persons with mental disorders that may help reduce stigma and contribute to planning future mental health care.

  9. Composite augmentation phalloplasty: personal experience after 275 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Monreal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to composite augmentation phalloplasty (girth augmentation with fat grafting and length improvement by suspensory ligament release. In 16 patients girth and length enhancement were performed in two separate procedures. Results: Of this 259 patients, 87 underwent postoperative follow-up for at least 12 months and 160 patients underwent follow-up for at least 6 months. The average increase in circumference at 6 months was 1.7 cm (1.57 cm at 12 months and the average increase in length of 3.2 cm (3.1 cm at 12 months. Twenty-two patients showed minor complications that were treated without sequelae and without influencing the final result. Conclusion: By judicious use of currently available techniques, it is possible to achieve stable increases in penis size. The use of composite techniques provides better final results than the use of individual techniques performed alone due to the increase of the actual volume of the penis. An adequate informed consent is essential in all patients due to the unrealistic expectations expressed by the majority of them.

  10. Effect of Maternal Borderline Personality Disorder on Adolescents' Experience of Maltreatment and Adolescent Borderline Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Gretchen; Kors, Stephanie; Macfie, Jenny

    2017-11-09

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic mental illness. Self-reported borderline features correlate highly with a diagnosis (affective instability, negative relationships, unstable sense of self, self-harm). Etiological factors of BPD include childhood maltreatment. The current study compared the experience of maltreatment in adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD, who are themselves at risk of developing the disorder, with that of offspring of mothers with no current diagnosis. Participants were 56 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. In all, 93% of the adolescents whose mothers had BPD experienced maltreatment compared with 60% of comparisons. Specifically, adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD experienced more physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, but not more sexual abuse, than did comparisons. Dimensions of maltreatment (severity, multiple subtypes, chronicity) were associated with adolescents' own total borderline features. We discuss implications for the intergenerational transmission of BPD and for clinical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During our life we undergo many personal changes: we change our house, our school, our work and even our friends and partners. However, our daily experience shows clearly that in some situations subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: a the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict; b this reduction is achieved through (1 an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2 an internal or external reorganization of this experience; c personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages; d clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper will focus on the two leading virtual technologies – Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience, by focusing on the high level of self-reflectiveness and personal efficacy induced by their emotional engagement and sense of presence. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview.

  12. The personal experience of aging, individual resources, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Westerhof, GJ; Bode, C; Dittmann-Kohli, F

    2001-01-01

    The personal experience of aging, the resources relevant to it, and the consequences for subjective well-being were investigated in a sample of 4034 Germans aged 40 to 85. The data revealed 3 dimensions of aging experiences as particularly relevant: (a) physical decline, (b) continuous growth, and

  13. Reappraising Personal Experience in the Reform of Curriculum in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    The use of personal administrative experiences as bases for thinking about and effecting curricular reform in educational administration is discussed. The purposeful application of individual past experiences is valuable to the reform effort in that it taps a vital resource of individual knowledge and suggests a way of bridging the chasm between…

  14. Professionals’ Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Sjølie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity.

  15. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  16. Military experience helps setting reasonable personality characteristics but does not alter the criminal behavior-related impression of negative parental experience and alcoholism in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Ye, Yuqin; Zhang, Xuesi; Hao, Yelu; Shi, Fei; Yuan, Guohao; Wu, Yan; Fei, Zhou; He, Xiaosheng

    2016-10-30

    Personalities are determined by convergent factors, including physical environment, culture, special experience, and heredity. It has been shown that abuse of substance and alcohol among individuals with personality disorders predict criminality (Glenn and Raine, 2014; Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000). Thus, it is important to clarify the relationship between psychological characteristics and valence of criminal practice, even in the population without substance abuse. Here, we focused on a population with military experience in Shaanxi province of China to screen the psychological characteristics and correlate these characteristics to criminal behaviors. The study population included incarcerated veterans, incarcerated civilians, and three groups of military troops with different lengths of active duty history (criminal behavior of incarcerated veterans seem to be unrelated to their military service per se as evidenced by the control groups. Conversely, military service may benefit the personnel characteristics even in the incarcerated veteran population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  18. Meteorological context for fall experiments including distributions of water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, G. F.; Gaines, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Meteorological contexts for the NASA GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 flight series are presented and discussed. The large-scale wind, cold cloud, and moisture patterns are illustrated by composite diagrams based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 700-, 500-, and 250-mbar analyses and the GOES-West broadband and 6.7-micron (water vapor) infrared photographs. Detailed flight path diagrams are included for seven maritime flights and one continental flight in the free troposphere and boundary layer. For three flights from Hickam Field, in Honolulu, HI, to the Intertropical Convergence Zone, vertical profiles of temperature, dew/frost point departures, wind velocity, and ozone, and carbon monoxide mixing ratios are also presented and discussed. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the in situ and remote measurements. In particular, the predictive and diagnostic value of the 6.7-micron water vapor photographs is demonstrated.

  19. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    used to explore the independent effects of energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, food variety, BMI, age, gender, education, household income, location of residence and intention to eat healthily on the likelihood to have high diet quality measured by an index based on the intake of dietary...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...

  20. The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-07-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  2. Entrepreneurship Training, Risk Aversion and Other Personality Traits: Evidence from a Random Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Fairlie, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature examines the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurship, but no previous studies explore whether personality or psychological traits predispose individuals to benefit more from entrepreneurship training. To address selection issues, we use novel data from the largest-ever randomized control experiment providing entrepreneurship training in the United States. We find evidence indicating that individuals who are more risk tolerant benefit more from entrepr...

  3. Struggling for existence—Life situation experiences of older persons with mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Lindholm, Christina; Wiklund-Gustin, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders represent a vulnerable group of people with extensive and complex needs. The older population is rapidly increasing worldwide and, as a result of deinstitutionalization in mental health care, older persons are remaining at home to a greater extent. Although they constitute a large proportion of the population, older persons with mental disorders have been neglected in research as well as in care organizations. As there is little previous knowledge concerning older persons’ experiences of their own situations, this study aimed to illuminate the meaning of the life situation as experienced by older persons with mental disorders (excluding dementia disorders). Interviews were conducted with seven older persons and the text was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical research method, inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. “Struggling for existence” emerged as a main theme in the older persons’ narratives, understood as a loss of dignity of identity and involving being troubled and powerless as well as yearning for respect. The older persons fought to master their existence and to be seen for who they are. The study highlights the importance for caregivers, both formal and informal, to avoid focusing on the diagnoses and rather acknowledge the older persons and their lifeworld, be present in the relation and help them rebuild their dignity of identity. This study brings a new understanding about older persons with mental disorders that may help reduce stigma and contribute to planning future mental health care. PMID:22693537

  4. [Adverse childhood experiences and their association to personality styles in a nonmelancholic depressive sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farar, Johannes; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Do some life story patterns exist, which are associated with depression? Can some life story factors be identified, which influence or determine a special kind of personality, predisposing to depression? Retrospective, cross sectional study with nonexperimental character, using a number of 60 nonmelancholic depressed patients. First, they were asked to give an interview on their life story. Then, they were asked to fill in questionnaires about personality, parental style of raising, clinical symptoms and personality disorders. Significant correlations could be found between parental style of raising, a family history affected by depression, a dysfunctional household, the family composition, negative school experience and all investigated styles of personality. Further, clusters of personality, clusters of parental style of raising and clusters of specific life story factors could be detected. Results show a strong relation between life story factors and personality styles, predisposing to depression and emphasize the importance of considering personality, when exploring special life story factors. Vice versa, actual personality styles can point to different patterns of life story and thus, show the relevance for the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  5. Direct experience and the strength of the personal norm - behaviour relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    norms on behavior, and (ii) direct experience is a stronger moderator in this case than in the attitude-behavior case. The case in question is the purchase of organic red wine. It is found that the outcome of consumers' choice between organic and non-organic wine depends on their personal (moral) norms......, after controlling for attitudes and subjective social norms. However, the influence of personal norms, though not of attitude, depends on whether the consumer has direct experience of buying organic red wine. Hence, both hypotheses are confirmed....

  6. INABILITY TO WITHSTAND PRESENT-MOMENT EXPERIENCES IN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER: A META-ANALYTIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cavicchioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, some studies have been examining the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD features and Experiential Avoidance (EA, Thought Suppression (TS and Distress Intolerance (DI. This interest arose from data which showed a strong link between the previous constructs and problematic behaviors (e.g. self-harm related to BPD. These dimensions describe a more general inability to withstand undesirable present-moment experiences. The aims of this work are to evaluate the extent of this problem in BPD and to hypothesize if it would be considered another core feature of BPD in addition to emotion dysregulation. Method: We included studies which show relationships between BPD features and EA, TS, DI, using valid and reliable instruments (e.g. PAI-BOR; AAQ; WBSI; DTS. Cohen’s d was computed as effect size measure. Overall pooled effect sizes (dw was estimated. Heterogeneity in effect sizes was computed using Q statistic and I² index. We proposed multiple comparisons of each outcome variable using Bonferroni correction. Bias publication was evaluated (Egger’s regression. Results: The final sample included 21 studies (4823 subjects. Large effect sizes were found in general inability to withstand present-moment experiences (dw= 0,92, EA (dw= 0,98 and TS (dw= 1,04. Medium effect size emerged in DI (dw= 0,60. It was observed high heterogeneity for overall effect size (I² =79,51%. Publication bias was not detected. Further, DI was significantly less manifest than EA and TS in BPD. Conclusions: These results show that the inability to withstand present-moment experiences is largely manifest in BPD and they suggest that this difficulty it might represent another core feature of BPD. These findings support mindfulness-based intervention in treating BPD. In addition, future research will be necessary to explain the relationship between emotion dysregulation, EA, TS and DI.

  7. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  8. College students with tattoos and piercings: motives, family experiences, personality factors, and perception by others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G B

    2001-12-01

    The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students.

  9. Does Transnational Experience Constrain Religiosity? Korean Evangelical Women’s Discourse on LGBT Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowoon Jung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large literature studies the views and discourses of Western, and especially American, conservative Christians with respect to homosexuality; only a few examine the discourse of Christians in non-Western countries, and none focuses on non-Western Christians with advanced, overseas education and careers. This paper examines the discourse of South Korean Evangelical women with overseas, educational or career experiences. I draw on 15 in-depth interviews with current and former members of a Seoul-based, Evangelical mega-church. Transnational, evangelical women show comparatively mild-minded and tolerant views toward homosexuality and LGBT persons. The women illustrated two pathways to reconcile their conflicting beliefs in conservative religion and human rights: first, the values of equity and meritocracy; and second, personal contacts with LGBT persons. This study suggests that for transnational migrants, traditional religiosity is challenged and constrained by sustained experiences in liberal, pluralistic societies.

  10. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  11. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  12. "It's Better Life Here than There": Elasticity and Ambivalence in Narratives of Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how narratives of personal experience and displacement reference and characterize dimensions of time and space, with a focus on how temporal elasticity might serve as an interactional resource. Examining the dynamic, situated, and intertwined nature of such narratives, the analysis looks at how…

  13. Heterosexual Young Adults' Interest, Attitudes, and Experiences Related to Mixed-Gender, Multi-Person Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Byers, E Sandra

    2017-04-01

    There has been little research on threesomes, a form of multi-person sex that involves sexual activity with two other people simultaneously. Therefore, we examined young adults' attitudes toward, interest in, and experiences with one form of threesome, mixed-gender threesomes (MGTs), defined as sexual activity involving three people where at least one member of each gender is present. Participants were 274 (202 women, 72 men) heterosexual young adults who completed an online survey. Overall, 13 % of participants (24 % of men and 8 % of women) reported experience and 64 % reported some interest in engaging in an MGT. However, the overall level of interest was quite low and varied according to contextual variables (i.e., what other persons were involved). Men's interest remained unaffected by third person status as long as the MGT involved familiar others (friends and acquaintances) rather than strangers, whereas women preferred familiar others only for MGTs with which they were the third person, not for those involving a romantic partner. Participants also reported fairly neutral attitudes toward MGTs. Compared to the women, the men reported significantly more positive attitudes and greater interest, and were more likely to report MGT experience. In addition, attitudes, interest, and experience were all positively associated with each other. Taken together, these results suggest that young people are not judgmental about others engaging in MGTs but are not highly motivated to do so themselves. Implications for researchers and sexual health educators are discussed.

  14. Personal Experience of Aging in the Children of a Parent with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Debby; Kuin, Volande; Steverink, Nardi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether adults with a parent with dementia experience their personal aging differently than adults whose parents do not have dementia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 adults who had a parent with dementia and 25 controls. We found that, although in a general sense the two groups were quite similar in their…

  15. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome with the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…

  16. Users' Personal Conceptions of Usability and User Experience of Electronic and Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma, Tim R.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Karreman, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Research problem: Despite the abundance of research into usability and user experience (UX), there is still debate about the relationship between both concepts. The user perspective is underrepresented in all discussions. This study examines the personal conceptions that users of electronic and

  17. Factors in sensory processing of prosody in schizotypal personality disorder: an fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Chandlee C; Morocz, Istvan A; Minney, Daniel; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Voglmaier, Martina M; Panych, Lawrence P; Khan, Usman; Zacks, Rayna; Terry, Douglas P; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2010-08-01

    Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in prosody recognition. To examine prosody along the schizophrenia spectrum, antipsychotic-naïve schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects and healthy control subjects were compared. It was hypothesized that SPD subjects would perform more poorly; with cognitive and demographic factors contributing to the poor performance. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) was selected as the region-of-interest (ROI) given its known abnormalities in SPD and its important role in the processing of prosody. SPD and healthy comparison (HC) subjects were matched on age, IQ, and parental social-economic status (PSES). Cognitive measures included the Speech Sound Perception Test (SSPT) to examine phonological processing (SPD=68, HC=74) and the Verbal Fluency task to examine executive functioning (SPD=129, HC=138). The main experiment was a novel fMRI task of prosody identification using semantically neutral sentences spoken with emotional prosody (SPD=16, HC=13). Finally, volumetric measurement of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a key region for processing prosody, and partially overlapping with the STG, was performed (SPD=30, HC=30). Phonological processing and executive functioning were both impaired in SPD subjects compared with HC subjects. Contrary to the prediction, SPD subjects, as a group, were similar to HC subjects in terms of correctly indentifying the emotion conveyed and reaction time. Within the SPD group, prosody identification accuracy was influenced by executive functioning, IQ and perhaps PSES, relationships not found with HC subjects. Phonological perception aided prosody identification in both diagnostic groups. As expected, both groups activated the STG while performing the prosody identification task. However, SPD subjects may have been less "efficient" in their recruitment of STG neurons. Finally, SPD subjects demonstrated a trend toward smaller STS volumes on the left, particularly the lower bank

  18. Compensating Victims of Personal Injury in Tort: The Nigerian Experience So Far

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi ADEKILE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critical evaluation of the compensation system for personal injury tort in Nigeria. The present compensation system under the law of tort leaves many victims of personal injury uncompensated in Nigeria. This stems from many factors, including the fact that traditional tort theory of no liability without fault has continued to be the principal basis for liability. This is in spite of the heavy criticisms of the tort regime as an ineffective mode of compensation. Through an anal...

  19. Being altruistically egoistic—Nursing aides’ experiences of caring for older persons with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Older persons with mental disorders, excluding dementia disorders, constitute a vulnerable group of people. With the future international increase in the older population, mental disorders will increase as well, thus entailing new challenges for their caregivers. These older persons often remain in their own homes, and in Sweden they are cared for by nursing aides. With little previous research, an increased workload and facing new strenuous situations, it is important to make use of the knowledge the nursing aides possess and to deepen the understanding of their experiences. The study aimed at illuminating the meaning of caring for older persons with mental disorders as experienced by nursing aides in the municipal home help service. Interviews with nine female nursing aides were performed and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical research method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Being altruistically egoistic emerged as a main theme in the nursing aides’ narratives. The nursing aides’ experiences could be interpreted as a movement between being altruistic and egoistic. The findings revealed a continuous distancing by the nursing aides and their struggle to redress the balance between their altruistic and egoistic actions. Caring for these older persons constitutes a complex situation where distancing functions as a recourse to prioritize oneself and to diminish the value of caring. The study suggests that an increased knowledge base on older persons with mental disorders, followed by continuous supervision, is necessary for the nursing aides to improve the quality of the care given.

  20. Being altruistically egoistic—Nursing aides’ experiences of caring for older persons with mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Gustin, Lena; Lindholm, Christina; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders, excluding dementia disorders, constitute a vulnerable group of people. With the future international increase in the older population, mental disorders will increase as well, thus entailing new challenges for their caregivers. These older persons often remain in their own homes, and in Sweden they are cared for by nursing aides. With little previous research, an increased workload and facing new strenuous situations, it is important to make use of the knowledge the nursing aides possess and to deepen the understanding of their experiences. The study aimed at illuminating the meaning of caring for older persons with mental disorders as experienced by nursing aides in the municipal home help service. Interviews with nine female nursing aides were performed and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical research method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Being altruistically egoistic emerged as a main theme in the nursing aides’ narratives. The nursing aides’ experiences could be interpreted as a movement between being altruistic and egoistic. The findings revealed a continuous distancing by the nursing aides and their struggle to redress the balance between their altruistic and egoistic actions. Caring for these older persons constitutes a complex situation where distancing functions as a recourse to prioritize oneself and to diminish the value of caring. The study suggests that an increased knowledge base on older persons with mental disorders, followed by continuous supervision, is necessary for the nursing aides to improve the quality of the care given. PMID:22007261

  1. Being altruistically egoistic-Nursing aides' experiences of caring for older persons with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Gunilla; Wiklund-Gustin, Lena; Lindholm, Christina; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Older persons with mental disorders, excluding dementia disorders, constitute a vulnerable group of people. With the future international increase in the older population, mental disorders will increase as well, thus entailing new challenges for their caregivers. These older persons often remain in their own homes, and in Sweden they are cared for by nursing aides. With little previous research, an increased workload and facing new strenuous situations, it is important to make use of the knowledge the nursing aides possess and to deepen the understanding of their experiences. The study aimed at illuminating the meaning of caring for older persons with mental disorders as experienced by nursing aides in the municipal home help service. Interviews with nine female nursing aides were performed and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical research method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Being altruistically egoistic emerged as a main theme in the nursing aides' narratives. The nursing aides' experiences could be interpreted as a movement between being altruistic and egoistic. The findings revealed a continuous distancing by the nursing aides and their struggle to redress the balance between their altruistic and egoistic actions. Caring for these older persons constitutes a complex situation where distancing functions as a recourse to prioritize oneself and to diminish the value of caring. The study suggests that an increased knowledge base on older persons with mental disorders, followed by continuous supervision, is necessary for the nursing aides to improve the quality of the care given.

  2. Optimal Experience and Personal Growth: Flow and the Consolidation of Place Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Bonaiuto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory which prioritizes self-defining activities as important ones for an individual’s identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one’s own identity development or enhancement. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-definining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for eudaimonistic identity theory's understanding and enriching, especially by its generalization from the traditional personal identity level up to the place identity one. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one’s own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.

  3. Retrival experience as an accurate indicator of person identification in line-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Contreras

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Responses in eyewitness identification of a person in a line-up may be based on two types of recovery experiences, remember and know experiences. Remember responses involve eyewitness identification of the target person as an episodic memory task, because it implies retrieving information about the target person in the place and at the time of the event. Know responses, in contrast, engage recognition based on familiarity or perceptual facilitation, that is, as a semantic memory task. To explore the relation between retrieval experiences and recognition accuracy, 86 participants took part in a recognition task with two conditions: one with an interpolated target absent line-up and the other only with the target present line-up. Accuracy of recognition and retrieval experience was measured. The results showed that, having previously participated in a target-absent line-up, increased omissions, while the number of hits decreased. Furthermore, participants’ know responses were associated to false recognition, whilst remember responses were associated to hits in recognition. Thus, asking eyewitnesses to inform about the kind of retrieval experience in which they based their recognition responses, may serve as a reliable indicator of accuracy in recognition. Future studies are needed to investigate whether this is also the case in natural settings.

  4. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.

  5. The Relation Between Supervisors’ Big Five Personality Traits and Employees’ Experiences of Abusive Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919

  6. Women's experiences of victimizing sexualization, Part II: Community and longer term personal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S K

    1997-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part article describing the results of a qualitative study on women's experiences of victimizing sexualization. Ten adult women described their experiences of harmful learning about themselves as female and sexual. A four-part thematic description of women's experiences of victimizing sexualization was derived. This article reports on two of the major categories: community and cultural characteristics and longer term personal impacts. Findings of the study support the feminist position that the enactment of gender itself at social and cultural levels sometimes places women at risk for victimization.

  7. The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Varies With Personality and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Yik, Michelle; Koval, Peter; Coosemans, Joachim; Zeng, Kevin J; Russell, James A

    2017-08-01

    While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so-called V-shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five-Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. In Study 1, we replicated the V-shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence-arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V-shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. The results showed that the steepness of the V-shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West-East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality-emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Visual perception and appraisal of persons with impairments: a randomised controlled field experiment using photo elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Ballert, Carolina Saskia; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Lötscher, Alexander; Gradinger, Felix; Hilfiker, Roger; Graf, Sibylle; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Visual cues from persons with impairments may trigger stereotypical generalisations that lead to prejudice and discrimination. The main objective of this pilot study is to examine whether visual stimuli of impairment activate latent prejudice against disability and whether this connection can be counteracted with priming strategies. In a field experiment, participants were asked to rate photographs showing models with mental impairments, wheelchair users with paraplegia, and persons without any visible impairment. Participants should appraise the models with regard to several features (e.g. communicativeness, intelligence). One hundred participants rated 12 photo models yielding a total of 1183 observations. One group of participants was primed with a cover story introducing visual perception of impairment as the study's gist, while controls received neutral information. Photo models with mental impairments were rated lowest and models without visible impairment highest. In participants who did not have prior contacts with persons with impairments, priming led to a levelling of scores of models with and without impairment. Prior contacts with persons with impairments created similar effects as the priming. Unexpectedly, a pattern of converse double discrimination to the disadvantage of men with mental impairments was revealed. Signs of stereotypical processing of visual cues of impairment have been found in participants of the Swiss general population. Personal contact with persons with impairments as well as priming participants seems to reduce stereotyping.

  9. The Association between Personal Characteristics and Educational Experiences with Academic Achievement among the Students Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    befrin MohammdZade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning Strategies includes overt and covert behaviors, which are associated with success in learning. On the other hand, training students who are able to live in environments with diverse values, rapid technological changes, and developments in the socio-cultural complex is one of the unique challenges to a university administrator. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of personal characteristics and educational experiences of the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences with their academic achievements. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences during 2014-2015 academic year. Students were selected through random stratified sampling based on gender and discipline (N=352. The research tool was the college students’ experiences questionnaire (CSEQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: All three dimensions of college students’ experiences, including perceptions of quality of environment, quality of effort, and social integration are significant anticipators of their academic achievements respectively and predict 0.415 of achievements variances. Conclusion: Taking into account the personal characteristics and educational experiences of college students for their academic achievements in medical universities is essential. In spite of the impact of academic environments ranging from individuals and facilities for college students, improving these factors contribute to better communication between students and faculty members and.

  10. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  11. Parents' childhood experiences of bonding and parental psychopathology predict borderline personality disorder during adolescence in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Fuchs, Anna; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Reichl, Corinna; Holz, Birger; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-30

    Previous studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) development suggest a transgenerational transmission of parent-child relationship quality, which may also be influenced by parents' mental health status. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the transgenerational effect of parental bonding experiences on the development of BPD in their offspring. Second, we examined the association between parents' mental health status and BPD in offspring. Ninety-one female adolescent psychiatric inpatients along with 87 mothers and 59 fathers were enrolled in the study. Adolescent BPD was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-II, parental bonding with the Parental Bonding Instrument, and parents´ psychiatric symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire. We found that low parental care produced a transgenerational effect from mother to BPD in offspring. Further, significant associations were found between paternal psychiatric symptoms and adolescent BPD. High paternal stress levels mediated the association between maternal affect reported by fathers and BPD in daughters. There is evidence of a transgenerational effect of parental bonding specifically for female adolescents with BPD, compared with other clinical control subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of including both parents in future research and in early clinical treatment in adolescents with BPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Personal health records in the Netherlands: potential user preferences quantified by a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Heldoorn, Marcel; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-05-01

    To identify groups of potential users based on their preferences for characteristics of personal health records (PHRs) and to estimate potential PHR uptake. We performed a discrete choice experiment, which consisted of 12 choice scenarios, each comprising 2 hypothetical PHR alternatives and an opt-out. The alternatives differed based on 5 characteristics. The survey was administered to Internet panel members of the Dutch Federation of Patients and Consumer Organizations. We used latent class models to analyze the data. A total of 1,443 potential PHR users completed the discrete choice experiment. We identified 3 latent classes: "refusers" (class probability 43%), "eager adopters" (37%), and "reluctant adopters" (20%). The predicted uptake for the reluctant adopters ranged from 4% in the case of a PHR with the worst attribute levels to 68% in the best case. Those with 1 or more chronic diseases were significantly more likely to belong to the eager adopter class. The data storage provider was the most decisive aspect for the eager and reluctant adopters, while cost was most decisive for the refusers. Across all classes, health care providers and independent organizations were the most preferred data storage providers. We identified 3 groups, of which 1 group (more than one-third of potential PHR users) indicated great interest in a PHR irrespective of PHR characteristics. Policymakers who aim to expand the use of PHRs will be most successful when health care providers and health facilities or independent organizations store PHR data while refraining from including market parties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Improving experience in personal social systems through family constellation seminars: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen; Weinhold, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) on individuals' experience in their personal social systems, especially the experience of belonging, autonomy, accord, and confidence. We conducted a single-blind, stratified and balanced, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10, 79% women) who were randomly allocated either to the intervention group (3-day FCSs; 64 active participants, 40 observing participants) or to the wait-list group (64 active participants, 40 observing participants). Change was measured short-term (2-week and 4-month follow-up) using the Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, personal domain (EXIS.pers). EXIS.pers is a new outcome measure being applied for the first time in evaluation research. In addition, we used interpersonal scales derived from established measures (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45; Tool for the Evaluation of the Psychotherapeutic Progress, FEP). The average person in the intervention group showed improved experience in personal social systems, as compared with approximately 73% of the wait-list group after 2 weeks (total score: Cohen's d = .61, p = .000) and 69% of the wait-list group after 4 months (total score: d = .53, p = .000). The results were confirmed in per-protocol analyses (n = 191) by the results of the EXIS.pers dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, and Confidence) and the interpersonal scales derived from the OQ-45 and FEP. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides first evidence that FCSs tend to positively influence participants' experience in their social systems. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  14. Subjective experience of personality dimensions in 1st degree relatives of schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2003-12-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest the usefulness of both personality features and neurocognitive vulnerability as tools for isolating phenotypes associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, however the clinical and heuristic topicality of self-experienced vulnerability has yet to be properly recognized. Biological relatives of schizophrenic patients (because of the familial/genetic load) constitute a promising and suggestive paradigm for addressing the psychopathological relationship between personality features and subjective experience of vulnerability. The current study found that 1st degree unaffected relatives of schizophrenics exceeded normal controls in schizotypal, paranoid, and borderline dimensions, and showed an overlap in the schizoid dimension of clinical Schizotypals (i.e. Schizotypal Personality Disorder Patients). Subsequent correlation analysis showed that schizotypal and schizoid traits are linked to specific domains of self-experienced vulnerability. Clinical heuristics is discussed.

  15. Patterns of cannabis use, psychotic-like experiences and personality styles in young cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggens, Lauren; Hides, Leanne

    2015-06-01

    To examine the influence of personality traits on the relationship between cannabis use and psychotic like experiences (PLEs) in young adults. 499 lifetime cannabis users aged 18 to 25years completed an online survey assessing PLEs using the positive scale of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) and personality styles using the Brief Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B) and the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), a measure of trait hopelessness, anxiety-sensitivity, impulsivity and sensation seeking. Cannabis use was assessed using items from the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS) and a self-report measure of the lifetime level of cumulative cannabis use. Cannabis use as well as schizotypy and the four SURPS personality risk profiles were significantly associated with the frequency of PLEs in young cannabis users. The cumulative levels of lifetime cannabis exposure, trait schizotypy and hopelessness were the strongest predictors of PLEs in the multivariate analysis. Little evidence of a moderating effect of the personality risk profiles on the relationship between cannabis use and PLEs was found. Trait hopelessness was found to have a moderating effect on the relationship between the recency of cannabis use and the frequency of PLEs. The cumulative levels of lifetime cannabis exposure, trait schizotypy and hopelessness were associated with PLEs in young cannabis users. Individuals with high levels of trait hopelessness who use cannabis may be at higher risk of PLEs. Future research is required to increase understanding of the relationship between cannabis use and PLEs, using more complex moderation models containing personality traits along with other risk factors for PLEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Choosing health: qualitative evidence from the experiences of personal health budget holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacqueline; Baxter, Kate; Glendinning, Caroline; Irvine, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Personal health budgets were piloted in the English National Health Service between 2009 and 2012. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of early budget holders aimed to explore their experiences of receiving and using a budget. Over 2000 people from 20 pilot sites were recruited to a multi-method evaluation of the personal health budget pilots. A sub-sample of 58 people was selected for qualitative interviews three months after the offer of a budget; 52 were re-interviewed six months later. The purposively selected sample reflected a range of health conditions, locality, age and gender. Personal health budgets were reported to have positive impacts on health, health care and relatives/family. Benefits often extended beyond the condition for which the budget had been awarded. However, interviewees rarely knew the level of their budget; some reported difficulty in agreeing acceptable uses for their budget; and delays could occur in procuring chosen services or equipment. Patients' experiences offer valuable insights for the roll-out of personal health budgets beyond the pilot phase. Flexibility in how budgets are used may allow maximum benefits to be derived. Clear information about what budgets can and cannot be used for, with suggestions offered, will be useful. People with newly diagnosed or recent sudden onset conditions may need more help to plan their support, but all budget holders are likely to benefit from regular contact with staff for reassurance and continued motivation.

  17. Experiences of women in secure care who have been prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Geoffrey L; Frogley, Catherine; Mason, Fiona; Anagnostakis, Katina; Picchioni, Marco M

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medicine which can cause significant side-effects. It is often prescribed off-license in severe cases of borderline personality disorder contrary to national treatment guidelines. Little is known about the experiences of those who take clozapine for borderline personality disorder. We explored the lived-experience of women in secure inpatient care who were prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder. Adult females ( N  = 20) participated in audio-taped semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. The central themes related to evaluation, wellbeing, understanding and self-management; for many, their subjective wellbeing on clozapine was preferred to prior levels of functioning and symptomatology, sometimes profoundly so. The negative and potentially adverse effects of clozapine were explained as regrettable but relatively unimportant. When psychological interventions are, at least initially, ineffective then clozapine treatment is likely to be evaluated positively by a group of women with borderline personality disorder in secure care despite the potential disadvantages.

  18. [The personal context of a museum experience: similarities and differences between science and art museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Mortara

    2005-01-01

    The article focuses on the development of research that illuminates not only the socioeconomic profiles of museum visitors and non-visitors but also their cultural habits, general entertainment interests, and their perceptions of art, science, and other topics addressed at these institutes. The more we know about a visitor's personal context, the more we can enhance his or her museum experience, thereby encouraging further museum visits during which his or her expectations, wishes, and needs will be more fully met. The article also focuses on how local culture plays an important part in shaping both personal context as well as each museum experience. Some examples are provided from the literature, above all concerning studies in Brazil and the contributions that research at art museums may have for science museums.

  19. Assisted normality--a grounded theory of adolescent's experiences of living with personal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Lill; Forinder, Ulla; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how adolescents with disabilities experience everyday life with personal assistants. In this qualitative study, individual interviews were conducted at 35 occasions with 16 Swedish adolescents with disabilities, in the ages 16-21. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The adolescents' main concern was to achieve normality, which is about doing rather than being normal. They try to resolve this by assisted normality utilizing personal assistance. Assisted normality can be obtained by the existing relationship, the cooperation between the assistant and the adolescent and the situational placement of the assistant. Normality is obstructed by physical, social and psychological barriers. This study is from the adolescents' perspective and has implications for understanding the value of having access to personal assistance in order to achieve assisted normality and enable social interaction in everyday life. Access to personal assistance is important to enable social interaction in everyday life. A good and functional relationship is enabled through the existing relation, co-operation and situational placement of the assistant. If the assistant is not properly sensitized, young people risk turning into objects of care. Access to personal assistants cannot compensate for disabling barriers in the society as for example lack of acceptance.

  20. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Student Experiment Method for Learning the Basics of Embedded Software Technologies Including Hardware/Software Co-design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Hiroyasu; Endo, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hisao

    The applications of embedded system technologies have spread widely in various products, such as home appliances, cellular phones, automobiles, industrial machines and so on. Due to intensified competition, embedded software has expanded its role in realizing sophisticated functions, and new development methods like a hardware/software (HW/SW) co-design for uniting HW and SW development have been researched. The shortfall of embedded SW engineers was estimated to be approximately 99,000 in the year 2006, in Japan. Embedded SW engineers should understand HW technologies and system architecture design as well as SW technologies. However, a few universities offer this kind of education systematically. We propose a student experiment method for learning the basics of embedded system development, which includes a set of experiments for developing embedded SW, developing embedded HW and experiencing HW/SW co-design. The co-design experiment helps students learn about the basics of embedded system architecture design and the flow of designing actual HW and SW modules. We developed these experiments and evaluated them.

  2. Relationship Between Brand Experience, Brand Personality, Consumer Satisfaction, and Consumer Loyalty of DSSMF Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Margie Zerlina; Candinegara, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    PT XYZ is one of the market leaders of Indonesia's tobacco market with domination in almost all segments of cigarette. However, PT XYZ is still considered unsuccessful in capturing the market of Full Flavor Machine Made Cigarette (known as SKM FF). This is proven by insignificant performance of DSSMF as PT XYZ's product under SKM FF segment, especially in Javanese market. This research is aimed to analyze the relationship of brand experience, brand personality, consumer satisfaction, and con...

  3. Living with stigma: depressed elderly persons' experiences of physical health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons’ lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second the...

  4. The lived experience of engaging in everyday occupations in persons with mild to moderate aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Tuuli; Johansson, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    Impairment of language ability, aphasia, can cause barriers to communication and hence impact on participation in many life situations. This study aimed to describe and explore how persons with aphasia following stroke experience engaging in everyday occupations. Six persons from Southwest Finland who had aphasia due to stroke one to four years previously were interviewed for the study. A modified form of the empirical phenomenological psychological method was used for data analysis. Three main characteristics of experiences of engaging in everyday occupations were identified: (1) encountering new experiences in everyday occupations, (2) striving to handle everyday occupations and (3) going ahead with life. The participants had experienced an altering life-world. Engagement in occupations affected their perceptions of competence and identity, and experiences of belonging and well-being. It was also through engagement in everyday occupations that they had discovered and learnt to handle changes in their everyday life. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society, but conversely, engagement in meaningful occupations can also contribute to adaptation to disability and life changes. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society. Health care professionals need to determine what clients with aphasia think about their occupations and life situations in spite of difficulties they may have verbalizing their thoughts. Experiences of engaging in meaningful occupations can help clients with aphasia in reconstructing their life stories, thereby contributing to adaptation to disability and life changes.

  5. Individual differences in the rubber-hand illusion: predicting self-reports of people's personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haans, Antal; Kaiser, Florian G; Bouwhuis, Don G; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A

    2012-10-01

    Can we assess individual differences in the extent to which a person perceives the rubber-hand illusion on the basis of self-reported experiences? In this research, we develop such an instrument using Rasch-type models. In our conception, incorporating an object (e.g., a rubber hand) into one's body image requires various sensorimotor and cognitive processes. The extent to which people can meet these requirements thus determines how intensely people experience and, simultaneously, describe the illusion. As a consequence, individual differences in people's susceptibility to the rubber-hand illusion can be determined by inspecting reports of their personal experiences. The proposed model turned out to be functional in its capability to predict self-reports of people's experiences and to reliably assess individual differences in susceptibility to the illusion. Regarding validity, we found a small, but significant, correlation between individual susceptibility and proprioceptive drift. Additionally, we found that asynchrony, and tapping rather than stroking the fingers constrain the experience of the illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Debates to personal conclusion in peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction: A 30-year experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the science and management of peripheral nerve injuries over the past 40 years. Yet there are many questions and few answers. The author, with 30 years of experience in treating them at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, addresses debates on various issues with personal conclusions. These include: (1) Degree of peripheral nerve injury, (2) Timing of nerve repair, (3)Technique of nerve repair, (4) Level of brachial plexus injury,(5) Level of radial nerve injury,(6) Traction avulsion amputation of major limb, (7) Proximal Vs distal nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries and (8) Post paralysis facial synkinesis. PMID:27833273

  7. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  8. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  9. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bernice Hua; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2018-02-01

    Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vapers (ESPV) and ex-smoking vapers (ESV), from the International Tobacco Control Australia and UK surveys were analysed by using regression models. Higher vaping satisfaction increased vaping intentions for all groups except ESPV. Perceiving PVs as less harmful predicted intentions to vape for all groups except ESV. The importance of PVs for stopping smoking predicted lower intentions to continue vaping for SV, but higher intentions to initiate vaping for SPV. The importance of PVs for cutting down smoking was a positive predictor only for SPV. Among ex-smokers, importance for maintaining not smoking was a positive predictor for ESPV, but not for ESV. The importance of perceiving vapour being less harmful also depended on vaping status for ex-smokers. The only country interaction was that only in the UK was perceiving PVs as less harmful associated with intention among SPV. Factors influencing intentions vary by smoking and/or vaping status, with greater differences between the ex-smoker subgroups. This is consistent with PVs being seen as a way of managing smoking, rather than something that has intrinsic value, for all except the ex-smoking vapers. [Ma BH, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Revie ⊕: the influence of a life review intervention including a positive, patient-centered approach towards enhancing the personal dignity of patients with advanced cancer-a study protocol for a feasibility study using a mixed method investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rodrigues, Maria Goreti; Pautex, Sophie; Shaha, Maya

    2016-01-01

    It is generally recognized that existential concerns must be addressed to promote the dignity of patients with advanced cancer. A number of interventions have been developed in this regard, such as dignity therapy and other life review interventions (LRI). However, so far, none have focused on a positive approach or evaluated its effects on dignity and personal growth. This study aims to explore the feasibility of Revie ⊕, a life review intervention comprising a positive, patient-centered approach, and to determine potential changes of patients' sense of dignity, posttraumatic growth, and satisfaction with life. A mixed method study will be performed, which includes specialized nurses and 40 patients with advanced cancer in an ambulatory and in-patient setting of a Swiss university hospital. Quantitative methods involve a single group, pre- and post-intervention, and outcome measurements include the Patient Dignity Inventory, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Feasibility data relating to process, resource, and scientific elements of the trial will also be collected. A semi-directed interview will be used to collect qualitative data about the process and the participants' experiences of the intervention. In this way, enhanced quantitative-qualitative evidence can be drawn from outcome measures as well as individual, contextualized personal views, to help inform researchers about the plausibility of this complex intervention before testing its effectiveness in a subsequent full trial. Patient dignity is a goal of quality end-of-life care. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to evaluate the role of a life review intervention that is focused on personal growth and on changes relating to the experience of having cancer. This study will evaluate the feasibility of a novel intervention, Revie ⊕, which we hope will contribute to promote the dignity, personal growth, and overall life satisfaction of patients with advanced

  11. [Do people with mobbing experience which apply for medical rehabilitation have a peculiar personality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Axel; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Schwickerath, Josef; Petermann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    Recently results find that victims of mobbing place themselves apart because of their personality types. This study deals with the question whether a difference between victims of mobbing and those non victims can be determined as far as depression, fear and personality type is concerned. Anonymous questionnaires including anxiety-, depression- and personalityscales were sent to 1 000 insured whose application for medical rehabilitation had been granted. 25% of the applicants felt they had been mobbed. 60% of the victims suffered from psychic disorders. The values for depression and anxiety and the mark in the personality scale were significantly high. Mobbing is a relatively common problem for patients in rehabilitation which has to be taken seriously. Although it can not be resolved which direction has to be taken by judging cause and effect. It should be checked if there is enough support during medical rehabilitation for the victims of mobbing. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Personal Wellbeing Index in Brazilian and Chilean Adolescents Including Spirituality and Religion = Propriedades Psicométricas do Personal Wellbeing Index em Adolescentes Brasileiros e Chilenos Incluindo Espiritualidade e Religião

    OpenAIRE

    Castellá Sarriera, Jorge‏; Casas Aznar, Ferran; Alfaro Inzunza, Jaime; Bedin, Lívia; Wachholz Strelhow, Miriam Raquel; Abs da Cruz, Daniel; Valdenegro, Boris; García, Catalina; Oyarzún, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the 7-item Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) with two other versions which include the domains “Spirituality” and “Religion”, separately, in a sample of Brazilian (n = 1.047) and Chilean (n = 1.053) adolescents. A comparison of psychometric properties between the PWI versions was carried out through multigroup confi rmatory factor analysis showing adequate adjustments (CFI > .95, RMSEA < .08), whereas the item spirituality presented better performance. For the analysis of the...

  13. Compensating Victims of Personal Injury in Tort: The Nigerian Experience So Far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi ADEKILE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical evaluation of the compensation system for personal injury tort in Nigeria. The present compensation system under the law of tort leaves many victims of personal injury uncompensated in Nigeria. This stems from many factors, including the fact that traditional tort theory of no liability without fault has continued to be the principal basis for liability. This is in spite of the heavy criticisms of the tort regime as an ineffective mode of compensation. Through an analytical assessment of selected core heads of claims in tort, the paper reveals the inadequacy in the foundations of tort law and its regulation of claims for personal injury in Nigeria. Implications: It finds that fault as the primary foundation of tort law in Nigeria creates a large volume of uncompensated plaintiffs, who, without an efficient alternative social security to fall upon, have to personally bear their losses. In the light of this, the paper uses examples from other jurisdictions to recommend that tort law in Nigeria is in need of more legislative intervention. Value: The paper recommends that the provision of a sustainable compensation system for personal injury is imperative for social justice in Nigeria.

  14. Medical Decision Making for Patients Without Proxies: The Effect of Personal Experience in the Deliberative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Allyson L

    2015-01-01

    The number of admissions to hospitals of patients without a proxy decision maker is rising. Very often these patients need fairly immediate medical intervention for which informed consent--or informed refusal--is required. Many have recommended that there be a process in place to make these decisions, and that it include a variety of perspectives. People are particularly wary of relying solely on medical staff to make these decisions. The University Hospitals Case Medical Center recruits community members from its Ethics Committee to serve on a subcommittee, the Patients Without Proxies (PWP) Committee, which works with medical staff during the decision-making process for these patients. Generally, the community members go to the bedside to observe patients. This article looks at how those unused to observing hospitalized patients who are sick and/or dying are affected, comparing them to mock jurors in a research study who are exposed to graphic photographs related to a fabricated crime scene. Judgments made by the mock jurors are affected by viewing such images. The personal experience of witnessing unfamiliar and shocking scenes affects their subsequent judgments. While it may be difficult to tease out whether observing patients causes PWP members to be benefited or harmed, they are affected by what they see. If a variety of perspectives is desirable to reduce possible bias or error, this article argues that at least one community member should refrain from seeing the patient in order to add a different and valuable voice to the decision-making process. Members of the subcommittee base their judgments on the various kinds of information available. Sometimes the things they see, hear, or feel may affect them particularly deeply, and affect their judgments as well. In this article I explore the idea that something like this may be happening in a particular kind of clinical ethics case consultation. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns reported by Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai

    2014-02-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Personality and complex brain networks: The role of openness to experience in default network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Benedek, Mathias; Jung, Rex E; Kenett, Yoed N; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    The brain's default network (DN) has been a topic of considerable empirical interest. In fMRI research, DN activity is associated with spontaneous and self-generated cognition, such as mind-wandering, episodic memory retrieval, future thinking, mental simulation, theory of mind reasoning, and creative cognition. Despite large literatures on developmental and disease-related influences on the DN, surprisingly little is known about the factors that impact normal variation in DN functioning. Using structural equation modeling and graph theoretical analysis of resting-state fMRI data, we provide evidence that Openness to Experience-a normally distributed personality trait reflecting a tendency to engage in imaginative, creative, and abstract cognitive processes-underlies efficiency of information processing within the DN. Across two studies, Openness predicted the global efficiency of a functional network comprised of DN nodes and corresponding edges. In Study 2, Openness remained a robust predictor-even after controlling for intelligence, age, gender, and other personality variables-explaining 18% of the variance in DN functioning. These findings point to a biological basis of Openness to Experience, and suggest that normally distributed personality traits affect the intrinsic architecture of large-scale brain systems. Hum Brain Mapp 37:773-779, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Virtual Nursing Intervention Adjunctive to Conventional Care: The Experience of Persons Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José; Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Bourbonnais, Anne

    2015-10-20

    Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) must adhere optimally to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a daily basis and for their lifetime to maintain an undetectable viral load, allowing them to preserve their health. Taking advantage of the opportunity that information and communication technologies provide to broaden intervention modalities and intensify clinical follow-up, a virtual nursing intervention consisting of four interactive computer sessions was developed to empower PLHIV to manage their ART and symptoms optimally. Compared with other types of information and communication technologies-assisted interventions such as text messages, HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (VIH-TAVIE) requires a certain degree of active engagement on the part of the user to develop and strengthen the self-management skills to optimize adherence. After the intervention's impact on ART adherence was measured quantitatively, a qualitative study was undertaken to describe how users experience the intervention. Understanding how PLHIV perceive being assisted asynchronously by a virtual nurse was of particular interest. The objective of the study was to explore and describe how PLHIV experience VIH-TAVIE, that is, receiving customized asynchronous accompaniment via a virtual nurse. A qualitative study was conducted with 26 PLHIV (20 men, 6 women) who received all four VIH-TAVIE sessions. Participants had been diagnosed with HIV 14 years earlier on average and had been on ART for a mean period of 10 years. The sessions lasted 20-30 minutes each and were received two weeks apart. They are hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the user in a self-management skills-learning process for the purpose of treatment adherence. Semistructured interviews were conducted lasting 30-40 minutes to get participants to share their experience of the intervention through personal stories and what they thought and felt during their participation. Data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman

  18. 'I'm a sick person, not a bad person': patient experiences of treatments for alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Stacey L; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Andrews, Jane M; Turnbull, Deborah A

    2016-08-01

    Emerging research indicates that standard treatments for alcohol use disorders may not fully meet the needs of patients with co-occurring severe mental health symptoms. Investigating health quality indicators may provide insight into how current treatment might be improved. To better understand the experiences of patients receiving treatment for alcohol use disorders and compare the experiences of patients with and without co-occurring severe mental health symptoms. Cross-sectional qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews methods and framework analysis approach. Inpatient hospital, outpatient service, inpatient detoxification clinic and a residential/ therapeutic community. Thirty-four patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder. Themes relating to patients' experiences of continuity of care, treatment need and satisfaction with treatment were studied. The qualitative data were divided into two groups: patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 19) severe mental health symptoms. Five themes relating to patient satisfaction with treatment were identified, including: perceived effectiveness of treatment, supportive relationships, specialized but holistic care, patient autonomy and continuity of care. A diverse range of patient treatment needs, staff and service continuity and stigma were also identified as major themes. Five basic themes were identified as more critical to the experiences of patients with severe mental health symptoms. Findings suggest that patients look for supportive relationships with others, to be involved in treatment decisions, effective specialized and holistic approaches to care and a non-judgemental treatment environment. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of speediness on personality questionnaires: an experiment on applicants within a job recruiting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LALE KHORRAMDEL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted an experiment to determine how a particular design of personality questionnaires influences applicant responses on personality scales. A completely crossed 2 x 2 x 2 design was carried out with real-world applicants and individuals in a job application training program in which speed (with or without a time limit, response format (dichotomous or analogue, and instructions (neutral standard instruction or a repeated warning that people who fake can be detected were manipulated. Two hundred eight participants completed the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory and a German Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC-based questionnaire. Although providing a warning showed no influence, response format and the interaction between speed and response format showed a significant effect for some scales.

  20. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners' narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner's injury. The study revealed how the injury was experienced from...... the partners' perspective through the aftermath. In the acute phase after the injury, partners also felt harmed, and support was needed in relation to their own daily activities, eating, resting, and managing distress. During the institutionalized rehabilitation, partners felt torn between supporting...... the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday tasks. Some...

  1. Living with stigma: depressed elderly persons' experiences of physical health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons' lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second theme comprised two subthemes, feeling like a stranger and feeling dizzy, while the third had one subtheme: afraid of being helpless and dependent on others. Stigma deprives individuals of their dignity and reinforces destructive patterns of isolation and hopelessness. Nurses should provide information in a sensitive way and try to avoid diagnostic overshadowing. Effective training programmes and procedures need to be developed with more focus on how to handle depressive ill health and physical problems in older people.

  2. Experiences of the family caregiver of a person with intestinal ostomy due to colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Sousa Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a study with the objective to know the experiences of the family caregiver of a person with intestinal ostomy due to colorectal cancer. A qualitative research, grounded on the humanization referential, made in 2013, through serialized semi-structured interviews and inductive analysis. It was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee under legal opinion no. 237,771. Seven family caregivers participated in this study in a county of southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Three categories emerged from the data: Relation with the disease and its treatments; Impact facing treatment and rehabilitation and Nets of support. The representation of the disease associated to finitude is reaffirmed. In order to lessen anguish and suffering, the family caregivers search support, mainly in spirituality. The impact resulting from the illness and the rehabilitation process imposes a new order to the caregivers, with personal and social renouncing, which provides a closer and more dedicated relation with the patient.

  3. Simultaneous determination of multiclass preservatives including isothiazolinones and benzophenone-type UV filters in household and personal care products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gazpio, Josu; Garcia-Arrona, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a simple and reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the separation and quantification of 14 preservatives, including isothiazolinones, and two benzophenone-type UV filters in household, cosmetic and personal care products was developed. The selected priority compounds are widely used as ingredients in many personal care products, and are included in the European Regulation concerning cosmetic products. The electrophoretic separation parameters were optimized by means of a modified chromatographic response function in combination with an experimental design, namely a central composite design. After optimization of experimental conditions, the BGE selected for the separation of the targets consisted of 60 mM SDS, 18 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 9.4 and 10% v/v methanol. The MEKC method was checked in terms of linearity, LODs and quantification, repeatability, intermediate precision, and accuracy, providing appropriate values (i.e. R(2) ≥ 0.992, repeatability RSD values ˂9%, and accuracy 90-115%). Applicability of the validated method was successfully assessed by quantifying preservatives and UV filters in commercial consumer products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  5. Culture and hybridization experiments on an ulva clade including the Qingdao strain blooming in the yellow sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hiraoka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2008, immediately prior to the Beijing Olympics, a massive green tide of the genus Ulva covered the Qingdao coast of the Yellow Sea in China. Based on molecular analyses using the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region, the Qingdao strains dominating the green tide were reported to be included in a single phylogenetic clade, currently regarded as a single species. On the other hand, our detailed phylogenetic analyses of the clade, using a higher resolution DNA marker, suggested that two genetically separate entities could be included within the clade. However, speciation within the Ulva clade has not yet been examined. We examined the occurrence of an intricate speciation within the clade, including the Qingdao strains, via combined studies of culture, hybridization and phylogenetic analysis. The two entities separated by our phylogenetic analyses of the clade were simply distinguished as U. linza and U. prolifera morphologically by the absence or presence of branches in cultured thalli. The inclusion of sexual strains and several asexual strains were found in each taxon. Hybridizations among the sexual strains also supported the separation by a partial gamete incompatibility. The sexually reproducing Qingdao strains crossed with U. prolifera without any reproductive boundary, but a complete reproductive isolation to U. linza occurred by gamete incompatibility. The results demonstrate that the U. prolifera group includes two types of sexual strains distinguishable by crossing affinity to U. linza. Species identification within the Ulva clade requires high resolution DNA markers and/or hybridization experiments and is not possible by reliance on the ITS markers alone.

  6. Culture and Hybridization Experiments on an Ulva Clade Including the Qingdao Strain Blooming in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Masanori; Ichihara, Kensuke; Zhu, Wenrong; Ma, Jiahai; Shimada, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, immediately prior to the Beijing Olympics, a massive green tide of the genus Ulva covered the Qingdao coast of the Yellow Sea in China. Based on molecular analyses using the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the Qingdao strains dominating the green tide were reported to be included in a single phylogenetic clade, currently regarded as a single species. On the other hand, our detailed phylogenetic analyses of the clade, using a higher resolution DNA marker, suggested that two genetically separate entities could be included within the clade. However, speciation within the Ulva clade has not yet been examined. We examined the occurrence of an intricate speciation within the clade, including the Qingdao strains, via combined studies of culture, hybridization and phylogenetic analysis. The two entities separated by our phylogenetic analyses of the clade were simply distinguished as U. linza and U. prolifera morphologically by the absence or presence of branches in cultured thalli. The inclusion of sexual strains and several asexual strains were found in each taxon. Hybridizations among the sexual strains also supported the separation by a partial gamete incompatibility. The sexually reproducing Qingdao strains crossed with U. prolifera without any reproductive boundary, but a complete reproductive isolation to U. linza occurred by gamete incompatibility. The results demonstrate that the U. prolifera group includes two types of sexual strains distinguishable by crossing affinity to U. linza. Species identification within the Ulva clade requires high resolution DNA markers and/or hybridization experiments and is not possible by reliance on the ITS markers alone. PMID:21573216

  7. Optimal Experience and Personal Growth: Flow and the Consolidation of Place Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Psalti, Anastasia; Ariccio, Silvia; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual’s identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one’s own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity’s features relating to a person’s relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one’s own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one’s own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT’s understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one’s own place identity, and therefore people–place relations, by means of facilitating a person’s flow experience within psychologically meaningful places. PMID:27872600

  8. Relational interactions preserving dignity experience: Perceptions of persons living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin Anna; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2015-08-01

    Dignity experience in the daily lives of people living with dementia is influenced by their relational interactions with others. However, literature reviews show that knowledge concerning crucial interactional qualities, preserving their sense of dignity, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore and describe crucial qualities of relational interactions preserving dignity experience among people with dementia, while interacting with family, social network, and healthcare professionals. The study was founded upon Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, and an exploratory design employing qualitative research interviews was conducted. A total of 11 individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia, living in their own homes, were recruited from two Hospital Memory Clinics in Norway. In recruiting persons with dementia as study participants, sensitivity toward their life history, autonomy, integrity, relationships, and dignity is essential. These standards, and the ethical principles of moral sensitivity to their vulnerability, doing no harm, showing justice, and respecting their personal utility, guided our research. Three main interactional qualities preserving the participants' dignity experience were found: Experiencing love and confirmation; experiencing social inclusion and fellowship; experiencing humane warmth and understanding within a caring culture, while being met as an equal human being. A total of 10 sub-qualities were identified within these 3 main qualities. Dignity experience among the participants was preserved when certain interactional qualities were present in their interactions with family, social network, and healthcare professionals. While supporting some of the findings of previous studies, this study adds new knowledge on the subject. Knowledge of relational interactions toward preserving dignity experience should be a fundamental part of future dementia care practice. Based on the results of this study, an empirical-theoretical model

  9. Application of a personal computer in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petta, P.

    1987-04-01

    UA1 is a detector block at the CERN Super Synchrotron Collider, MacVEE is Micro computer applied to the Control of VME Electronic Equipment, a software development system for the data readout system and for the implementation of the user interface of the experiment control. A commercial personal computer is used. Examples of applications are the Data Acquisition Console, the Scanner Desc equipment and the AMERICA Ram Disks codes. Further topics are the MacUA1 development system for M68K-VME codes and an outline of the future MacVEE System Supervisor. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  10. The effect of interviewer experience, attitudes, personality and skills on respondent co-operation with face-to-face surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    "This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. The authors take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behavior and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behavior and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and int...

  11. Breast cancer and menopause: partners' perceptions and personal experiences--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the partners' perceptions, understanding, and personal experiences of early menopause and menopausal therapy in women with breast cancer. A questionnaire study was completed by 50 partners of women with diagnoses of breast cancer, recruited via outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics and χ tests were applied. Most (68%) of the partners perceived hot flushes as the meaning of menopause. Most (60%) partners perceived that loss of sexuality was the key problem/fears about being menopausal. Partners perceived that exercise (72%) and reducing stress (64%) were most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. Most partners reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of hormone therapy (50%), bioidentical hormones (90%), and herbal therapies (84%). The general practitioner was considered the best source of information on menopause (68%). Partners expected menopause to affect a women's everyday life and relationships with family and partner and, particularly, to cause intermittent stress on the relationship (66%) and to decrease libido or sexual interest (64%). Forty-four percent of partners reported that there was some difficulty in communication/discussion about menopause with family and partners. This pilot study highlights (1) the lack of understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies that partners of women with breast cancer have, (2) the personal experience of having a female partner with breast cancer, and (3) the partners' attitudes and responses toward menopause in women with breast cancer.

  12. Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psycholog...

  13. Irish clinical and counselling psychologists' experiences and views of mandatory personal therapy during training: A polarisation of ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling

    2018-01-30

    Although there have been some recent changes in Ireland, the practice of mandating personal therapy during training has traditionally differed between counselling and clinical psychologists. Irish psychologists (n = 258: 170 clinical, 88 counselling) took part in a survey study of experiences and views regarding this practice. Counselling psychologists reported higher rates of lifetime and current attendance at personal therapy compared to clinical psychologists, and nearly all had experienced mandated personal therapy compared to a minority of the clinical group. However, the clinical psychologists had a high rate of attendance at personal therapy compared to that reported for their British peers, indicating a high regard for personal therapy amongst Irish clinicians despite the absence of a training mandate. Five factors were found to be independent predictors of agreement with mandating personal therapy during training-lifetime experience of personal therapy, being a counselling psychologist, experience of mandated therapy, being more recently qualified, and longer attendance at personal therapy. Thematic analysis of the psychologists' open responses regarding mandated therapy indicated that the majority believed that personal therapy was an important part of ethical, effective practice, and valuable in enhancing self-awareness and learning from the client experience. Ethical concerns about a mandate were polarised between the two psychology specialisms, more counselling psychologists emphasising the dangers and questionable efficacy of psychologists practising psychotherapy without personal therapy experience, and more clinical psychologists questioning the efficacy and ethics of imposing a mandate on trainees. Recommendations are made regarding this issue for trainers of both specialisms. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. First operational experience with the HIE-Isolde helium cryogenic system including several RF cryo-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillotin, N.; Dupont, T.; Gayet, Ph; Pirotte, O.

    2017-12-01

    The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) upgrade project at CERN includes the deployment of new superconducting accelerating structures operated at 4.5 K (ultimately of six cryo-modules) installed in series, and the refurbishing of the helium cryo-plant previously used to cool the ALEPH magnet during the operation of the LEP accelerator from 1989 to 2000. The helium refrigerator is connected to a new cryogenic distribution line, supplying a 2000-liter storage dewar and six interconnecting valve boxes (i.e jumper boxes), one for each cryo-module. After a first operation period with one cryo-module during six months in 2015, a second cryo-module has been installed and operated during 2016. The operation of the cryo-plant with these two cryo-modules has required significant technical enhancements and tunings for the compressor station, the cold-box and the cryogenic distribution system in order to reach nominal and stable operational conditions. The present paper describes the commissioning results and the lessons learnt during the operation campaign of 2016 together with the preliminary experience acquired during the 2017 operation phase with a third cryo-module.

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Millon-3 CASRS questionnaire and child abuse questionnaire. The data was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The obtained results revealed that there is significant relationship between histrionic personality disorder (independent variable and dimensions of child abuse (dependent variable that includes emotional, neglect, physical, and sexual child abuse. Considering different dimensions of child abuse, neglect of child and sexual child abuse have the most and the least contribution in predicting symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood. In addition, the results showed that all four dimensions of child abuse can predict symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood, but ignorance or neglecting child has the most effect and sexual dimension has the least effect in the prediction.

  17. A Qualitative Research on the Experience of Haemodialysis in South Karnataka: Lived Experience of Persons undergoing Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessy Prabha Valsaraj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any chronic illness puts a person and family at risk of long term suffering, financial depletion and burden on the caregiver. When it comes to chronic kidney disease (CKD, the sufferers have to be dependent on maintenance dialysis weekly twice or thrice that demands a lot of time and finances. Apart from that, they face physical symptoms of fatigue, anaemia, nausea, muscle cramps, fluctuating blood pressure and many other symptoms. They are asked to maintain a strict dietary, fluid and medication regimen in order to support the kidneys. Aims and Objectives: The current study aimed at exploring the lived experience of persons undergoing haemodialysis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among ten patients undergoing maintenance dialysis who were diagnosed as having chronic kidney failure from the dialysis unit of Kasturba Hospital, which is a tertiary health care centre in South Karnataka. A qualitative approach with phenomenological research design was adopted. Data was obtained through interviews using a background proforma and semi-structured interview schedule. The data was analysed using Husserl's method. The transcripts were coded and analysed for common categories and themes were derived out of them. Results: The themes emerged at the end of the study were mental agony, physical limitations, coping, financial burden, lack of support, feelings towards the machine and dialysis, search for hope and betterment, spiritual coping, marital relationship and sexuality and uncertainty and fear of tomorrow. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the individual's life is centred on negatively oriented cognitions that can be modified with theoretically oriented interventions like cognitive behaviour therapy.

  18. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Bernice Hua; Yong, Hua Hie; Borland, Ron; Mcneill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aims. Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vape...

  19. "That is how I speak nowadays" - experiences of remote communication among persons with communicative and cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Margret; Ferm, Ulrika; Holmgren, Kristina

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of remote communication (i.e., communication between persons who are not in the same place) among people with communicative and cognitive disabilities. Eleven adolescents and adults were interviewed using Talking Mats and interview data was analyzed qualitatively with systematic text condensation. The use of remote communication varies between the participants. The participants also value remote communication differently. Having the possibility to choose between different means of remote communication is important. Being able to determine whether to communicate independently or with support from another person is also valued as relevant. Strategies used to manage remote communication include facilitating for the communication partner and preparing for future communication situations. Those who are able to use writing as an alternative to problematic spoken remote communication like phone calls, for example by using chat or text messaging. Decisions regarding means of communication and human support relate to the concept of self-determination. Better access to remote communication trough assistive technology such as speech synthesis and picture symbols would make remote communication easier and facilitate participation for people with communicative and cognitive disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation People with communicative and cognitive disabilities face challenges with access to remote communication. Access to communication technology including remote communication is important for self-determination, for personal safety and for overall participation in society. Communication technology should be considered in the rehabilitation process and training is crucial. To understand the possible benefits of remote communication, people with communicative and cognitive disability need to get the possibility to practice. Professionals play a key role in the assessment and intervention of remote communication for

  20. Multiplicity: An Explorative Interview Study on Personal Experiences of People with Multiple Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Ribáry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Personality psychology research relies on the notion that humans have a single self that is the result of the individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can be reliably described (i.e., through traits. People who identify themselves as “multiple” have a system of multiple or alternative, selves, that share the same physical body. This is the first study to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity by assessing the experiences of people who identify themselves as “multiple.”Methods: First, an Internet forum search was performed using the terms “multiplicity” and “multiple system.” Based on that search, people who identified themselves as multiple were contacted. Interviews were conducted by a consultant psychiatrist, which produced six case vignettes.Results: Multiplicity is discussed on Twitter, Tumblr, Google+ and several other personal websites, blogs, and forums maintained by multiples. According to the study's estimates, there are 200–300 individuals who participate in these forums and believe they are multiple. Based on the six interviews, it appears that multiples have several selves who are relatively independent of each other and constitute the personality's system. Each “resident person” or self, has their own unique behavioral pattern, which is triggered by different situations. However, multiples are a heterogeneous group in terms of their system organization, memory functions, and control over switching between selves.Conclusions: Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID, although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping.

  1. The Relationship Between Personality Traits, Flow-Experience, and Different Aspects of Practice Behavior of Amateur Vocal Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Katharina; Bullerjahn, Claudia; von Georgi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Most of the existing studies on musical practice are concerned with instrumentalists only. Since singers are seldom considered in research, the present study is based on an online-sample of amateur vocal students (N = 120; 92 female, 28 male). The study investigated the correlations between personality traits, flow-experience and several aspects of practice characteristics. Personality was represented by the three personality dimensions extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, assessed by Eysenck's Personality Profiler as well as the trait form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. 'Flow-experience,' 'self-congruence' and 'fear of losing control over concentration,' assessed by the Practice Flow Inventory, served as variables for flow-experience. The practice motivation was measured by the Practice Motivation Questionnaire in four categories ('self,' 'group,' 'audience,' 'teacher'). In addition, the Practice Behavior Questionnaire was used to provide an insight into the practice situation and behavior of singing students. The results show significant correlations: participants with high extraversion-scores experience significantly more flow than less extraverted persons, whereas lesser flow-experience seems to be related to high neuroticism-scores. Nevertheless, there is no influence in flow-experience concerning singing style ('classical' or 'popular'). The longer the practicing time, the more likely students are to achieve flow-experience. However, older singers tend to have less flow-experience. Consequently, singers seem to differ in their personality and practice behavior compared to other musicians. Most of the findings show that having control over one's instrument is decisive for achieving a performance of high quality, especially for singers. On the other hand, certainty in handling an instrument is essential to arouse a flow-feeling. However, flow-experience seems to be common mainly with amateur singers. In conclusion, this offers a starting

  2. Rural District Nursing Experiences of Successful Advocacy for Person-Centered End-of-Life Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Frances M; Fitzgerald, Les; Bish, Melanie R

    2016-05-05

    Choices in care during the end stages of life are limited by the lack of resources and access for rural people. Nursing advocacy based on the holistic understanding of people and their rural communities may increase the opportunity for choice and improve the quality of care for people living and dying at home. Pragmatism and nurse agency theory were used for a practical exploration of how district nurses successfully advocate for rural Australian end-of-life goals to begin the development of a practice model. In two stages of data collection, rural district nurse informants (N = 7) were given the opportunity to reflect on successful advocacy and to write about their experiences before undertaking further in-depth exploration in interviews. They defined successful advocacy as "caring" that empowers people in the "big and small" personal goals important for quality of life. The concepts described that enable successful advocacy were organized into a network with three main themes of "willing" investment in holistic person-centered care, "knowing" people and resources, and feeling "supported." The thematic network description provides deep insight into the emotional skill and moral agency involved in successful end-of-life nurse advocacy and can be used as a sound basis for modeling and testing in future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.

  4. Community health nursing practices in contexts of poverty, uncertainty and unpredictability: a systematization of personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Several years of professional nursing practices, while living in the poorest neighbourhoods in the outlying areas of Brazil's Amazon region, have led the author to develop a better understanding of marginalized populations. Providing care to people with leprosy and sex workers in riverside communities has taken place in conditions of uncertainty, insecurity, unpredictability and institutional violence. The question raised is how we can develop community health nursing practices in this context. A systematization of personal experiences based on popular education is used and analyzed as a way of learning by obtaining scientific knowledge through critical analysis of field practices. Ties of solidarity and belonging developed in informal, mutual-help action groups are promising avenues for research and the development of knowledge in health promotion, prevention and community care and a necessary contribution to national public health programmers.

  5. Experiences in the creation of an electromyography database to help hand amputated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Heynen, Simone; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Castellimi, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Currently, trans-radial amputees can only perform a few simple movements with prosthetic hands. This is mainly due to low control capabilities and the long training time that is required to learn controlling them with surface electromyography (sEMG). This is in contrast with recent advances in mechatronics, thanks to which mechanical hands have multiple degrees of freedom and in some cases force control. To help improve the situation, we are building the NinaPro (Non-Invasive Adaptive Prosthetics) database, a database of about 50 hand and wrist movements recorded from several healthy and currently very few amputated persons that will help the community to test and improve sEMG-based natural control systems for prosthetic hands. In this paper we describe the experimental experiences and practical aspects related to the data acquisition.

  6. Evaluating an intervention for homeless persons: results of a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, P A; Passero Rabideau, J M; Bellavia, C W; Daeschler, C V; Wall, D D; Thomas, D M; Smith, S J

    1997-06-01

    An intensive case management intervention for homeless persons was evaluated by random assignment of 202 cases (involving 213 adults and 70 children) to the intervention or a control group. Full follow-up data (4 interviews: at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups) were available on 98 cases (105 adults and 37 children). The follow-up rates for the 2 groups were not significantly different. Based on 13 repeated measures analyses, there were 3 statistically significant linear time effects (indicating overall change across the follow-up period) and 3 linear Time x Condition interactions (indicating differential change over time for intervention vs. control participants). Regardless of condition, adult participants improved in terms of their experience of homelessness, as well as on physical health symptoms and stressful life events. Condition x Time interactions indicating positive intervention impact were observed on the quality of housing environments, stressful life events, and interviewer ratings of psychopathology.

  7. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, L.

    2010-11-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences.

  8. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, L

    2010-01-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences

  9. Grief and Personal Growth Experience of Spouses and Adult-Child Caregivers of Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…

  10. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  11. Engaging Oral Health Students in Learning Basic Science Through Assessment That Weaves in Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeatter, Delyse; Gao, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Learning basic science forms an essential foundation for oral health therapy and dentistry, but frequently students perceive it as difficult, dry, and disconnected from clinical practice. This perception is encouraged by assessment methods that reward fact memorization, such as objective examinations. This study evaluated use of a learner-centered assessment portfolio designed to increase student engagement with basic science in an oral health therapy program at the University of Sydney, Australia. The aim of this qualitative study based on focus groups was to investigate students' engagement with basic science courses following introduction of the portfolio. Three assessments were conducted in three subsequent semesters: one based on students' interest in everyday phenomena (one student, for example, explored why she had red hair); the second focussed on scientific evidence and understanding of systemic diseases; and the third explored relations between oral and general health. Students were encouraged to begin with issues from their personal experience or patient care, to focus on what they were curious about, and to ask questions they really cared about. Each student prepared a written report and gave an oral presentation to the entire cohort. After the portfolios were completed, the authors held focus groups with two cohorts of students (N=21) in 2016 and analyzed the results using Zepke's framework for student engagement research. The results showed that the students successfully interweaved personal experience into their studies and that it provided significant motivation for learning. The students described their learning in terms of connection to themselves, their peer community, and their profession. Many additional benefits were identified, from increased student engagement in all courses to appreciation of the relevance of basic science. The findings should encourage dental and allied dental educators to reconsider the effects of assessments and seek

  12. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  13. Personal resurrection: female childhood sexual abuse survivors' experience of the Wellness-Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Soley S; Agnarsdottir, Guðrun

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors deal with complex mental, physical and relationship problems in adulthood which negatively affects their well-being and health. The aim of the present paper was to present a description of the Wellness-Program for female CSA survivors, the participating women's evaluation of the different therapies in the program as well as a qualitative study on their experience of the program's effects on their life, health and well-being. The Wellness-Program lasted for 10 weeks with organised schedule 20 hours per week. A team of health professionals used a holistic approach and provided traditional and complementary individual and group therapy focusing on both mind and body. In-depth phenomenological interviews with ten women, 22-53 years old, were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the program as well as 15 months later. Data collection and data analysis were guided by the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology. Prior to participating in the program, the women were unable to work or attend school, were on disability allowance, were socially isolated and had complex health problems. After the Wellness-Program, all the women, except one, were back to work, school or in further rehabilitation. Furthermore, the in-depth interviews showed that their health and well-being, personal life and relationship with partners, family and friends improved. They felt empowered, more in control and had developed increased trust towards others. Six themes were constructed from the in-depth interviews. They were: feeling totally lost, releasing experiences, developing trusting relationships, gaining control, experiencing positive changes in physical and mental health and, finally, feeling of empowerment. The overriding theme of the study was personal resurrection. The Wellness-Program contributed considerably to improved health and well-being of the women. However, further assessment of the program is recommended before making it available within

  14. Evaluating aesthetic experience through personal-appearance styles: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-chun Cheung

    Full Text Available Consumers' aesthetic experience has often been linked with the concept of beauty, which is regarded as subjective and may vary between individuals, cultures and places, and across time. With the advent of brain-imaging techniques, there is more and more evidence to suggest that aesthetic experience lies not only in the eye of the beholder, but also in the brain of the beholder. However, there are gaps in the previous research in this area, as several significant issues have not yet been addressed. Specifically, it is unclear whether the human brain really pays more attention and generates more positive emotional responses to beautiful things. To explore the brain activity relating to consumers' aesthetic experiences, 15 participants were recruited voluntarily to view a series of personal-appearance styles. They were invited to make aesthetic judgments while their brain activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Two electroencephalographic (EEG indicators, theta coherence and frontal alpha symmetry, were utilized. Theta coherence is a measure of linear synchronization between signals at two electrode sites. It reflects the degree of functional cooperation between the underlying neuronal substrates and was used to explore the attentional processing involved in aesthetic judgments. Frontal alpha asymmetry is derived by subtracting the log-transformed absolute alpha power of the left hemisphere from the analogous log-transformed alpha power of the right hemisphere. It was used as an indicator of emotional response. During aesthetic judgments, long-range theta coherence increased in both hemispheres and more positive frontal alpha asymmetry was found when the styles were judged to be beautiful. Therefore, participants demonstrated brain activity suggestive of central executive processing and more positive emotional responses when they considered styles to be beautiful. The study provides some insight into the brain activity associated with

  15. Evaluating aesthetic experience through personal-appearance styles: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Law, Derry; Yip, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Consumers' aesthetic experience has often been linked with the concept of beauty, which is regarded as subjective and may vary between individuals, cultures and places, and across time. With the advent of brain-imaging techniques, there is more and more evidence to suggest that aesthetic experience lies not only in the eye of the beholder, but also in the brain of the beholder. However, there are gaps in the previous research in this area, as several significant issues have not yet been addressed. Specifically, it is unclear whether the human brain really pays more attention and generates more positive emotional responses to beautiful things. To explore the brain activity relating to consumers' aesthetic experiences, 15 participants were recruited voluntarily to view a series of personal-appearance styles. They were invited to make aesthetic judgments while their brain activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Two electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators, theta coherence and frontal alpha symmetry, were utilized. Theta coherence is a measure of linear synchronization between signals at two electrode sites. It reflects the degree of functional cooperation between the underlying neuronal substrates and was used to explore the attentional processing involved in aesthetic judgments. Frontal alpha asymmetry is derived by subtracting the log-transformed absolute alpha power of the left hemisphere from the analogous log-transformed alpha power of the right hemisphere. It was used as an indicator of emotional response. During aesthetic judgments, long-range theta coherence increased in both hemispheres and more positive frontal alpha asymmetry was found when the styles were judged to be beautiful. Therefore, participants demonstrated brain activity suggestive of central executive processing and more positive emotional responses when they considered styles to be beautiful. The study provides some insight into the brain activity associated with consumers' aesthetic

  16. Personal and Professional Knowledge of and Experience With Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Stakeholders in Clinical and Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthieu, Monica M; Gardiner, Giovanina; Ziegemeier, Ellen; Buxton, Miranda; Han, Lu; Cross, Wendi

    2014-01-01

    Community-dwelling veterans at risk for suicide may be in contact with a variety of providers in agency-based settings that offer health and human services. The study aim is to describe the perspective of agency-based clinical and community providers who may come into contact with veterans in need of suicide prevention services and to examine the nature of their personal and professional relationships to individuals at risk for suicide among this sample. This study reports on qualitative data from a sample of Veterans' Affairs (VA) and community providers serving veterans and military families in one Midwestern state ( N = 70). Providers completed a survey assessing exposure to suicide, including contact with and relationship to someone suicidal, and organizational characteristics of the providers' employing agencies. Semi-structured interview questions probed for the nature of how they would react with suicidal individuals. Most providers (94%) had some prior contact with someone who was suicidal, and nearly three quarters (77%) knew someone who had died by suicide. Providers reported powerful emotional responses of sadness and remorse to suicidal experiences. While these providers interact with veterans and military families as part of their jobs, they may have their own history of being exposed to suicide, both professionally and personally.

  17. Characterizing Positive and Negative Emotional Experiences in Young Adults With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Victor, Sarah E; Klonsky, E David

    2016-09-01

    Some researchers suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by elevated negative emotion; others argue that BPD involves both reduced positive and increased negative emotion. This study characterizes the emotional experiences of individuals with BPD symptoms in a combined university and community sample. Participants (N = 150) completed a clinical interview assessing BPD symptoms and self-report measures of positive and negative emotion. A subset (n = 106) completed a measure of emotion daily for 2 weeks. Pearson's correlations and multilevel modeling were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between BPD symptoms and emotions. BPD symptoms were robustly related to increased negative emotion; this relationship remained after accounting for positive emotion. BPD symptoms were weakly related to decreased positive emotion; this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for negative emotion. BPD symptoms predicted higher levels of negative and not positive emotion over 14 days. These patterns held for subscales assessing intensity, frequency, and duration of negative and positive emotions. Findings suggest that individuals with BPD features are chiefly distinguished by elevated negative emotional experience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dealing with Stigma: Experiences of Persons Affected by Disabilities and Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Lusli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination.

  19. Dealing with Stigma: Experiences of Persons Affected by Disabilities and Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Miranda-Galarza, Beatriz; Peters, Ruth M. H.; Cummings, Sarah; Seda, Francisia S. S. E.; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2015-01-01

    Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination. PMID:25961008

  20. A training apartment with electronic aids to daily living: lived experiences of persons with brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Anette; Karlsson, Gunnar; Söderström, Marianne; Tham, Kerstin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how persons with acquired brain damage experienced their 1-week stay in an apartment fitted with electronic aids to daily living (EADL). The study focused on how the individuals adapted to this artificial environment in their performance of daily activities and how their occupational experiences influenced their view of the future. The 11 participants were interviewed on the last day of their rehabilitation period in an EADL-equipped training apartment. The data were collected and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological (EPP) method. The findings revealed four main characteristics that described an adaptation process that occurred during the week in the EADL-equipped training apartment: plunging into an EADL-equipped environment, "landing" and feeling comfortable with the new environment, incorporating the "new" in daily activities, and "taking-off" for the future. In a short time, the combination of the EADL and the aesthetically attractive environment gave the participants experiences that contributed to a "taking off" for their future life. Findings from this study suggest that, in clinical practice, clients may need initial guidance from the therapists to "land" and feel comfortable in a new environment, like a training apartment, before they can learn how to incorporate new electronic aids in their every day activities.

  1. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Twenty Careers and Classroom Experiences for Teaching Science. Includes: Job Descriptions, Teaching Suggestions and Answers, Work Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrake, Greg

    Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…

  3. Improving the power to detect differentially expressed genes in comparative microarray experiments by including information from self-self hybridizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusnanto, Arief; Tom, Brian; Burns, Philippa; Macaulay, Iain; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C.; Tijssen, Marloes R.; Langford, Cordelia; Watkins, Nicholas; Ouwehand, Willem; Berzuini, Carlo; Dudbridge, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Our ability to detect differentially expressed genes in a microarray experiment can be hampered when the number of biological samples of interest is limited. In this situation, we propose the use of information from self-self hybridizations to acuminate our inference of differential expression. A

  4. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' ...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  5. Teens, Video Games, and Civics: Teens' Gaming Experiences Are Diverse and Include Significant Social Interaction and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen; Macgill, Alexandra Rankin; Evans, Chris; Vitak, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide a diverse set of experiences and related activities and are part of the lives of almost all teens in America. To date, most video game research has focused on how games impact academic and social outcomes (particularly aggression). There has also been some exploration of the relationship between games and civic outcomes, but as…

  6. Measurement of area and personal breathing zone concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) during oil and gas extraction operations, including hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Eric J; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Snawder, John; Breitenstein, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing), and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four-year period from 2008-2012. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m 3 ; measurements ranged from 0.1-52 µg/m 3 . The geometric mean (GM) for the PBZ samples was 7 µg/m 3 . The AM of the TWA area measurements was 17 µg/m 3 and ranged from 0.1-68 µg/m 3 . The GM for the area measurements was 9.5 µg/m 3 . Differences between the GMs of the PBZ samples and area samples were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), NIOSH, nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established occupational exposure limits (OEL) for DPM. However, the State of California, Department of Health Services lists a time-weighted average (TWA) OEL for DPM as elemental carbon (EC) exposure of 20 µg/m 3 . Five of 49 (10.2%) PBZ TWA measurements exceeded the 20 µg/m 3 EC criterion. These measurements were collected on Sandmover and Transfer Belt (T-belt) Operators, Blender and Chemical Truck Operators, and Water Transfer Operators during hydraulic fracturing operations. Recommendations to minimize DPM exposures include elimination (locating diesel-driven pumps away from well sites), substitution, (use of alternative fuels), engineering controls using advanced emission control

  7. Features of borderline personality disorder as a mediator of the relation between childhood traumatic experiences and psychosis-like experiences in patients with mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Aaltonen, Kari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Koivisto, Maaria; Heikkinen, Martti; Joffe, Grigori; Isometsä, Erkki

    2018-03-01

    Psychosis-like experiences (PEs) are common in patients with non-psychotic disorders. Several factors predict reporting of PEs in mood disorders, including mood-associated cognitive biases, anxiety and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Childhood traumatic experiences (CEs), often reported by patients with BPD, are an important risk factor for mental disorders. We hypothesized that features of BPD may mediate the relationship between CEs and PEs. In this study, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PEs, CEs and features of BPD in patients with mood disorders. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42) and Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Total scores of MSI correlated strongly with scores of the CAPE-42 dimension "frequency of positive symptoms" (rho = 0.56; p ≤ 0.001) and moderately with scores of TADS (rho = 0.4; p ≤ 0.001). Total score of MSI and its dimension "cognitive symptoms", including identity disturbance, distrustfulness and dissociative symptoms, fully mediated the relation between TADS and CAPE-42. Each cognitive symptom showed a partial mediating role (dissociative symptoms 43% (CI = 25-74%); identity disturbance 40% (CI = 30-73%); distrustfulness 18% (CI = 12-50%)). Self-reported cognitive-perceptual symptoms of BPD fully mediate, while affective, behavioural and interpersonal symptoms only partially mediate the relationships between CEs and PEs. Recognition of co-morbid features of BPD in patients with mood disorders reporting PEs is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiences of Persons With Parkinson's Disease Engaged in Group Therapeutic Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Hurt, Tera R; O'Connor, Margaret C; Camp, Randie D; Green, Chrishelda W; Pattee, Jenna C; Williams, Ebony K

    2018-01-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to altered neural control of movement, including the control of voice, respiration, and swallowing. There is a prevalent need to provide therapy for voice, respiration, and swallowing difficulties because current pharmacological and surgical treatments do not effectively treat these impairments. Previous research has demonstrated that singing may be a treatment option to target voice, respiratory, and swallowing impairments, as well as quality of life. However, participants' perspectives related to reasons for enrolling and engaging in programs as well as evaluation of singing programs have been neglected. The purpose of this descriptive study was thus to solicit participants' views of their involvement in a group singing intervention (GSI) led by credentialed music therapists. Twenty persons with PD were interviewed 4 to 6 months after completing the singing intervention. Participants were asked about 1) why they chose to participate, 2) what were the beneficial and non-beneficial aspects of participating, and 3) how to improve overall design and delivery of the GSI. Using content analysis procedures, we learned that participants regarded their involvement in the study as mutually beneficial, fun, and engaging. Participants appreciated the fellowship with other persons with PD and offered minimal constructive criticism. This study provided greater insight into how a therapeutic singing program may benefit participants and positively impact their lives. © American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Personal behaviors including food consumption and mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: a secondary analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takimoto, Hidemi; Nishi, Nobuo; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.

  10. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  11. The impact of user- and system-initiated personalization on the user experience at large sports events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xu; May, Andrew; Wang, Qingfeng

    2016-05-01

    This article describes an experimental study investigating the impact on user experience of two approaches of personalization of content provided on a mobile device, for spectators at large sports events. A lab-based experiment showed that a system-driven approach to personalization was generally preferable, but that there were advantages to retaining some user control over the process. Usability implications for a hybrid approach, and design implications are discussed, with general support for countermeasures designed to overcome recognised limitations of adaptive systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Using ESSEA Modules, Local Event Studies and Personal Learning Experiences in an Earth Systems Science Course for Preservice Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Brown, D.

    2008-12-01

    Most science courses, including courses that provide preparation for pre-service K-12 teachers are only taught from a deductive big picture perspective. This method is fine for most abstract learners, but pre- service classroom educators that are being prepared to teach in middle school classrooms will be faced with the challenge of building science content knowledge in students that are concrete learners. For these K-12 students a better pedagogical practice is to use local real-world familiar places, issues and personal experience to connect student learning with more abstract concepts. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite skills and pedagogical content knowledge to build K- 12 student science concept knowledge and science process skills we have integrated ESSEA modules that connect worldwide issues such as global climate change with local event studies chosen by learners. Some recent examples include how such local events such as landfill fires and suburban sprawl impact the local area's air, land, water and life. Course participants are able to choose a more personal route to understanding how their habits impact the global environment by participating in a three week learning experience called the Lifestyle Project. This experience asks students to incrementally reduce their use of heating or air-conditioning, the amount of waste going to landfills, to conserve electricity, drive less and eat less energy intensively. Pre-post content assessments indicate that students in this course scored significantly higher on post course content assessments and reported that by engaging in personal experience to global scale learning experiences they have a new appreciation for how personal choices impact the global environment and how to use local artifacts and issues to enhance K-12 student learning.

  13. Student health professionals' attitudes and experience after watching "Ida's Diary", a first-person account of living with borderline personality disorder: Mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Geoffrey L; Lamont, Emma; Stirling, Fiona J

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of commercial movies in nursing education, or "cinenurducation". There is a need for educational interventions which target mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with borderline personality disorder. To investigate and evaluate the experience and effects of attendance at a screening of the movie Ida's Diary, a first-person account of living with borderline personality disorder. Mixed methods design comprising a within-subjects AB longitudinal survey, and a qualitative analysis of participant-generated data and researcher field notes from a World Café discussion group. One university in Scotland. N = 66 undergraduate and postgraduate mental health nursing and counselling students. Participants completed measures of cognitive and emotional attitudes towards, and knowledge about, people with borderline personality disorder before and after one of two film screenings. We conducted a World Café discussion group after the second screening. Resulting data were subject to a qualitative thematic analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed a five-factor cognitive and a single-factor emotional attitude structure. Cognitive-attitudinal items related to treatment deservingness and value of mixed treatment approaches improved across iterations. Total knowledge score did not change, but one item about borderline personality disorder as a precursor to schizophrenia received considerably more incorrect endorsement post-screening. Qualitative analysis revealed five themes: Facilitation and inhibition of learning; promotion but not satiation of appetite for knowledge; challenging existing understanding; prompting creativity and anxiety; and initiating thinking about the bigger picture. Participants found the film thought provoking; it increased their appetite for knowledge. Findings suggest that screening should be delivered in conjunction with more didactic information about borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2018

  14. Experiments on Utilization of JAPAN/MARC by a Personal Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Syuzo

    Realizing JAPAN/MARC for a personal computer, classification of books and collection of bibliographic data assisted with JAPAN/MARC become easy. In this paper, an experimental method of transforming JAPAN/MARC from tape to MS-DOS floppy disk is described in detail. The standard record form for a personal computer and the exchange record form for database language is proposed. The summary of the results are : JAPAN/MARC becomes available to a personal computer. The new record forms make it easy to use JAPAN/MARC by a personal computer and to exchange bibliographic data to other personal computer systems for a library.

  15. Representing and organizing information to describe the lived experience of health from a personal factors perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Schwegler, Urban; Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel

    2018-03-06

    and biography), (ii) subjective experience (i.e., feelings, thoughts and beliefs, motives), and (iii) recurrent patterns of experience (i.e., feelings, thoughts and beliefs) and behavior. With this study, we aim to stimulate further scientific discussion about the personal factors component in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including its application and subsequent validation for potential implementation into clinical practice.

  16. Effect of a Whole-Person Model of Care on Patient Experience in Patients With Complex Chronic Illness in Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Nathan D; Shippee, Tetyana P; Mobley, Patrick D; Fernstrom, Karl M; Britt, Heather R

    2018-01-01

    Patients with serious chronic illness are at a greater risk of depersonalized, overmedicalized care as they move into later life. Existing intervention research on person-focused care for persons in this transitional period is limited. To test the effects of LifeCourse, a team-based, whole-person intervention emphasizing listening to and knowing patients, on patient experience at 6 months. This is a quasi-experimental study with patients allocated to LifeCourse and comparison groups based on 2 geographic locations. Robust change-score regression models adjusted for baseline differences and confounding. Patients (113 intervention, 99 comparison in analyses) were individuals with heart failure or other serious chronic illness, cancer, or dementia who had visits to hospitals at a large multipractice health system in the United States Midwest. Primary outcome was 6-month change in patient experience measured via a novel, validated 21-item patient experience tool developed specifically for this intervention. Covariates included demographics, comorbidity score, and primary diagnosis. At 6 months, LifeCourse was associated with a moderate improvement in overall patient experience versus usual care. Individual domain subscales for care team, communication, and patient goals were not individually significant but trended positively in the direction of effect. Person-focused, team-based interventions can improve patient experience with care at a stage fraught with overmedicalization and many care needs. Improvement in patient experience in LifeCourse represents the sum effect of small improvements across different domains/aspects of care such as relationships with and work by the care team.

  17. Spirituality, illness and personal responsibility: the experience of Jordanian Muslim men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabolsi, Manar M; Carson, Alexander M

    2011-12-01

    Spiritual care is an aspect of nursing in many parts of the world; however, there is very little evidence of this in an Arab Muslim country. This qualitative study explores the meaning of spirituality as experienced by Jordanian Muslim men living with coronary artery disease. A hermeneutical phenomenological orientation was used to explore the experience of spirituality as lived by Arab Muslim men with coronary artery disease. A purposive sample of 19 men was selected from the Coronary care Unit (CCU) in a teaching hospital in Jordan. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's steps of phenomenological analysis. Four themes emerged from the data. The participants explained that faith facilitated their acceptance of illness and enhanced their coping strategies, that seeking medical treatment did not conflict with their belief in fate, that spirituality enhanced their inner strength, hope and acceptance of self-responsibility and it helped to them to find meaning and purpose in their life. In this study, Parse's theory of human becoming served as the foundation for understanding the paradoxical rhythmical pattern of the human experience of spirituality in illness. The findings suggest that patients' faith plays a central role in the choices they make either healthy or unhealthy, or accepting or rejecting their personal responsibility in promoting their future health and well-being. In addition, it provide nurses with the basis for providing spiritual care and developing a culturally sensitive healthcare plans in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Neuroscientists' everyday experiences of ethics: the interplay of regulatory, professional, personal and tangible ethical spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Cribb, Alan; Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare

    2013-11-01

    The ethical issues neuroscience raises are subject to increasing attention, exemplified in the emergence of the discipline neuroethics. While the moral implications of neurotechnological developments are often discussed, less is known about how ethics intersects with everyday work in neuroscience and how scientists themselves perceive the ethics of their research. Drawing on observation and interviews with members of one UK group conducting neuroscience research at both the laboratory bench and in the clinic, this article examines what ethics meant to these researchers and delineates four specific types of ethics that shaped their day-to-day work: regulatory, professional, personal and tangible. While the first three categories are similar to those identified elsewhere in sociological work on scientific and clinical ethics, the notion of 'tangible ethics' emerged by attending to everyday practice, in which these scientists' discursive distinctions between right and wrong were sometimes challenged. The findings shed light on how ethical positions produce and are, in turn, produced by scientific practice. Informing sociological understandings of neuroscience, they also throw the category of neuroscience and its ethical specificity into question, given that members of this group did not experience their work as raising issues that were distinctly neuro-ethical. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Turkish Imams' Experience with and Their Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicidal Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the experience with and attitudes toward suicide and suicidality in 70 consenting imams serving in mosques in the province of Aydin which is located at the southwest part of Turkey. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect the data. Attitudes of imams to suicide and suicidality were compared with attitudes of male university students. Only 4 imams (5.7 %) reported having had suicidal thoughts in past, and none reported having attempted suicide. Almost 50 % said that someone in communities they serve has commited suicide and nearly 40 % reported leading funeral ceremony for someone who committed suicide. Majority of imams (64.3 %) were of the opinion that a funeral ceremony should be arranged for people who suicide and 87.1 % were of the opinion that people who suicide can be buried in a common cemetery, but only 21.4 % said that someone who attempted suicide can be appointed as imam. Compared to male medical students, imams saw suicide as an unacceptable option and those engaging in suicidal behavior to be punished after death. But they displayed socially accepting and helping reactions to an imagined close friend who attempted suicide. Therefore, it was concluded that imams might exhibit preventive reactions to suicide when they offer counseling for persons from their congregations during times of suicidal crises.

  20. Leadership and management influences on personal and professional development and group dynamics: a student's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fathima

    2018-03-07

    The ever-evolving nature of nursing requires professionals to keep their knowledge up to date and uphold the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code by engaging themselves in ongoing personal and professional development (PPD). This article aims to highlight the importance of good leadership and management in healthcare and to explore the literature surrounding leadership and management, such as the current NHS healthcare leadership model ( NHS Leadership Academy 2013 ), the Leading Change, Adding Value Framework underpinned by the 10 commitments and 6Cs ( NHS England 2016 ) and the NMC Code ( NMC 2015a ) in relation to PPD. It examines how nurses can be supported in their PPD by their team leader and or managers using examples experienced in a clinical setting while caring for children and young people (CYP). Furthermore, the importance of team working and group processes in the context of leadership will be deliberated, using examples of formative group work to illustrate principles described in the literature. Finally, reflections will be discussed on how learning from this experience can influence future practice when caring for CYP. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  1. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  2. The moral experience of the patient with chronic pain: bridging the gap between first and third person ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Thacker, Michael; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2014-03-01

    There has been a widespread call for an ethics in the management of patients with chronic pain which is patient centered and takes into account the lived experience of the patient. It has been argued in literature that current "duty" or principlist-based models of ethics (so-called 3rd person ethics) have not adequately addressed the needs of either patients or practitioners in this area. Two strands of literature within phenomenology were reviewed: the literature of interpretative phenomenological analysis and the study of the lived experience of the person with chronic pain; and the contribution of phenomenology in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics (1st person ethics). Patients experience chronic pain in existential and moral terms in addition to their biomedical issues, facing dilemmas in understanding their own self-identity and in attempting to recover a sense of moral worth and agency. We outline a patient-centered ethics to underpin contemporary collaborative, multimodal approaches in the management of chronic pain. We firstly describe an agency-oriented, neo-Aristotelian 1st person ethics and then outline a hermeneutic relationship with extant "duty-based," 3rd person bioethics. The utility of the ethics model we propose (the ethical reasoning bridge) lies in its capacity for developing a sense of moral agency for both practitioner and patient, resonating with the current emphasis of seeking active engagement of patients in management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Problematic internet experiences: primary or secondary presenting problems in persons seeking mental health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wells, Melissa

    2007-09-01

    This study utilizes data from clinical reports of 1441 youth and adults in the USA to examine the types of problematic Internet experiences mental health professionals report as clients' primary or secondary presenting problems. Overall, clients who present in treatment with an Internet problem are more likely to have problems related to overuse of the Internet; use of adult pornography; use of child pornography; sexual exploitation perpetration; and gaming, gambling, or role-playing. Other Internet-related problems, such as isolative-avoidant use, sexual exploitation victimization, harassment perpetration, and online infidelity were equally likely to present in treatment as a primary problem or secondary to other mental health concerns. Some differences between youth and adult clients were also identified. Findings suggest some initial support for the importance of including Internet use, experiences, and behavior as part of an initial clinical assessment.

  4. Search for electroweakly produced supersymmetric particles in final states including two charged leptons with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, Josephine

    Three analyses searching for electroweakly produced supersymmetric particles in proton-proton collisions are presented. The collisions were recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Two leptons (electrons or muons), jets and missing transverse energy are expected in the final states. Simplified models as well as the phenomenological Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (pMSSM) are used to study the production and decay of pairs of gauginos, i.e. charginos and neutralinos. The first analysis is performed with an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb^-1 of ATLAS data, recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. Direct slepton production and three scenarios in which pairs of gauginos decay via intermediate sleptons are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the trigger strategy. No excess is observed in the number of data events. In the simplified model that assumes the direct slepton production, left-handed slepton masses between 85 and 195 GeV are excluded at 95% confide...

  5. Juggling the life-puzzle with Geosciences: personal experience and strategies from a female leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    People are very complex and difficult to categorize. For instance, in the Geosciences community I am representing both minorities and majorities. When being in minority, I am both Underrepresented and Overrepresented by the composition of this community vs the global population, and also at EGU I am both under- and over-represented vs the total geoscience community. At present, I am underrepresented being a Woman in Geosciences but earlier in my carrier, I was also underrepresented being a Young Leader - so I will focus my presentation on both gender and age, as it is difficult for me to separate these two barriers from various sorts of exclusions I experienced. Underrepresentation is bad for several reasons, for instance (i) We might miss talents if equality of opportunities are not given in geosciences; (ii) Teams work less efficient than if they are composed by different characters, competences and skills; (iii) We are less prepared for new circumstances in this rapidly changing and unstable world; (iv) We degrade in communication skills and perception, if we don't understand similarities and differences. I will discuss some representative differences that may lead to unequal opportunities in geosciences. However, we need to be careful when searching for representation as it involves attribution of characteristics, which may lead to stigmatization and oversimplify the complexity of personality. Differences between individuals in a population are still much larger than between the averages of the populations. In my presentation I will give examples from my personal experience of barriers during 25 years in geosciences and the strategies I have used to overcome them. I will also give examples of successful methods that I have used in my 17 years of leadership when building efficient teams, to make them benefit from differences between individuals. I am currently leading a group of 26 scientists with origin from 13 countries world-wide. Finally, I will give some

  6. Personality disorder patients' perspectives on the introduction of imagery within schema therapy: a qualitative study of patients' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Napel-Schutz, M.C.; Abma, T.A.; Bamelis, L.; Arntz, A.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done on patients' perspectives on the first phases of imagery work in the context of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders. Patients participated in a multi-center randomized controlled study of the effectiveness of ST. Patients' experiences and opinions were

  7. Family matters : The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent

  8. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons during Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…

  9. The Experience of Contrasting Learning Styles, Learning Preferences, and Personality Types in the Community College English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…

  10. Foreign experience in determining the status of refugees and internally displaced persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Popok

    2017-06-01

    The authors conclude that European countries actively integrate the provisions of the international law governing the legal status of refugees and internally displaced persons into their domestic law.

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS. A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  12. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  13. Family caregivers experiences of formal care when caring for persons with dementia through the process of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethin, Connie; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Karlsson, Staffan; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2016-09-01

    Family caregivers' experiences of formal care when caring for persons with dementia through the process of the disease is sparsely investigated. To investigate family caregivers' experiences of formal care when caring for a person with dementia, through the stages of the disease. A qualitative approach with focus group interviews. Four focus group interviews were conducted in October 2011 with 23 spouses and adult children of persons with dementia and analysed with content analysis. The participants' experiences of formal care when caring for a person with dementia were captured in the theme 'Family caregiving requires collaboration with formal care to get support adjusted to needs specific to the stages of dementia'. This can be broken down into the categories 'The dementia diagnosis - entry into formal care as a novice family caregiver', 'Needing expanded collaboration with formal care to continue care at home' and 'Being dependent on a nursing home and trying to maintain involvement'. Family caregiving requires collaboration with formal care to get support adjusted to the individual's needs, specific to the stages of dementia. Caregivers experience a transition process with three main turning points: the dementia diagnosis; when they realise increased need for formal care to continue caring at home; and when the person with dementia is moved into a nursing home. The interviewed caregivers experience formal care reactive to their needs and this often promoted unhealthy transitions. Formal care needs to be proactive and deliver available care and support early on in the dementia trajectory. Interventions should focus on facilitating a healthy transition for family caregivers through the trajectory of the dementia disease to ensure their well-being. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. It is not just a meal, it is an emotional experience - a segmentation of older persons based on the emotions that they associate with mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uijl, Louise C; Jager, Gerry; de Graaf, Cees; Waddell, Jason; Kremer, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, the group of older persons is growing fast. To aid this important group in their food and meal requirements, a deeper insight into the expectations and experiences of these persons regarding their mealtimes and snack times is needed. In the current study, we aim to identify consumer segments within the group of vital community-dwelling older persons on the basis of the emotions they associate with their mealtimes and snack times (from now on referred to as mealtimes). Participants (n = 392, mean age 65.8 (years) ± 5.9 (SD)) completed an online survey. The survey consisted of three questionnaires: emotions associated with mealtimes, functionality of mealtimes, and psychographic characteristics (health and taste attitudes, food fussiness, and food neophobia). Consumer segments were identified and characterised based on the emotions that the respondents reported to experience at mealtimes, using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Clusters were described using variables previously not included in the cluster analysis, such as functionality of mealtimes and psychographic characteristics. Four consumer segments were identified: Pleasurable averages, Adventurous arousals, Convivial indulgers, and Indifferent restrictives. These segments differed significantly in their emotional associations with mealtimes both in valence and level of arousal. The present study provides actionable insights for the development of products and communication strategies tailored to the needs of vital community-dwelling older persons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Experience of Chinese Bereaved Persons: A Preliminary Study of Meaning Making and Continuing Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Chow, Amy Y. M.; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Tsui, Yenny K. Y.; Tin, Agnes F.; Koo, Brenda W. K.; Koo, Elaine W. K.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the bereavement process of Chinese persons in Hong Kong, with the focus on how they make meaning of the death as well as how they maintain a bond with the deceased. A review of video- and audiotapes of 52 bereaved persons in bereavement counseling pointed to how these concepts are reflected in key themes that appeared…

  16. Patients' perceptions of their heart attack and recovery: the influence of epidemiological "evidence" and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, R

    1998-06-01

    Secondary prevention of heart disease is widely viewed as likely to be more successful and cost effective than primary prevention. However, people's willingness to adopt lifestyle change is a complex issue in which people's perceptions of disease causation and risk as well as a range of socio-economic factors are important. This paper reports on a qualitative study of people following heart attack which examines their understandings of heart attack and the salience that lifestyle advice has in the light of these understandings. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 people recovering from heart attack. Each person was interviewed twice: at around two weeks and five months following their heart attack. The study found that information about recovery provided by health professionals was based on a simplified version of epidemiological evidence. This information played a central role in people's understandings about the nature of heart attack and their future risk in the early weeks following heart attack. However, as interviewees came to terms with the shock of the event, they tended to lose their trust in "official" accounts of cause and recovery and evidence from lay epidemiology that contradicted official accounts tended to emerge. This evidence encouraged interviewees to question the explanatory power of official accounts and to view the adoption of long-term lifestyle change as an action that would not guarantee protection from a further heart attack. This was true whether or not people's experiences of recovery reflected those "predicted" by health professionals although those awaiting further surgery or tests tended to maintain trust in official accounts over a longer period. It is concluded that the failure of official accounts to acknowledge the random nature of the occurrence of heart attack, the severity of heart attack and the level of recovery from heart attack is a central feature in people's reluctance to view lifestyle change as a

  17. Surgeon-Manipulated Live Surgery Video Recording Apparatuses: Personal Experience and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapi, Emin

    2017-06-01

    Visual recording of surgical procedures is a method that is used quite frequently in practices of plastic surgery. While presentations containing photographs are quite common in education seminars and congresses, video-containing presentations find more favour. For this reason, the presentation of surgical procedures in the form of real-time video display has increased especially recently. Appropriate technical equipment for video recording is not available in most hospitals, so there is a need to set up external apparatus in the operating room. Among these apparatuses can be listed such options as head-mounted video cameras, chest-mounted cameras, and tripod-mountable cameras. The head-mounted video camera is an apparatus that is capable of capturing high-resolution and detailed close-up footage. The tripod-mountable camera enables video capturing from a fixed point. Certain user-specific modifications can be made to overcome some of these restrictions. Among these modifications, custom-made applications are one of the most effective solutions. The article makes an attempt to present the features and experiences concerning the use of a combination of a head- or chest-mounted action camera, a custom-made portable tripod apparatus of versatile features, and an underwater camera. The descriptions we used are quite easy-to-assembly, quickly installed, and inexpensive apparatuses that do not require specific technical knowledge and can be manipulated by the surgeon personally in all procedures. The author believes that video recording apparatuses will be integrated more to the operating room, become a standard practice, and become more enabling for self-manipulation by the surgeon in the near future. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. [Burn-out, commitment, personality and experiences during work and training; survey among psychiatry residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, R; Ewalds, A L; van der Heijden, P T; Penterman, E J M; Grootens, K P

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years international studies have reported on increase in burn-out and depressive symptoms among psychiatry residents. In the field of research, however, commitment and dedication are now being mentioned more frequently as positive factors that counterbalance burn-out. To find out how a group of Dutch psychiatry residents feel about their work, to discover their degree of burn-out and commitment and to clarify the various factors involved. 59 psychiatry residents from four teaching hospitals were asked to complete questionnaires concerning burn-out (U-BOS-C), commitment (UWES-15) and personality (BFI-NL). Respondents were also asked to describe how they felt about their experiences during their work and to give their views on the instruction and training they were receiving. In the U-BOS-C section only four trainees (almost 7%) met the criteria for burn-out. In the BFI-NL section the psychiatry residents obtained significantly lower scores on neuroticism and higher scores on empathy than did a comparable norm group of a similar age. The scores of the psychiatry residents indicated that the term 'being proud of your work' was significantly related to a feeling of commitment and particularly to all subscales that reflected commitment. In our study the percentage of psychiatry residents with burn-out is significantly lower than the percentage reported elsewhere in the literature. In fact, our results demonstrate that the psychiatry residents who were the subject of our study regarded themselves as being emotionally stable, friendly and committed to their work.

  19. Medical experiments on persons with special needs, a comparative study of Islamic jurisprudence vs. Arab laws: UAE law as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Al-Karim

    2014-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of medical experiments on persons with special needs in Islamic jurisprudence and Arab laws; United Arab Emirates (UAE) law as case study. The current study adopts a comparative analytical and descriptive approach. The conclusion of this study points out that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Special Needs, ratified by a number of Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, approves conducting medical experiments on persons with special needs, subject to their free consent. As a result of ratifying this Convention, a number of special laws were enacted to be enforced in the United Arab Emirates. On the other hand, this issue is controversial from an Islamic jurisprudence point of view. One group of jurisprudents permits conducting these experimentations if they are designed to treat the person involved, and prohibits such experimentations for scientific advancement. Other jurisprudents permit conducting medical experimentations on persons with special needs, whether the purpose of such experimentations is treatment of the disabled or achieving scientific advancement. The opinion of this group is consistent with the International Convention and the Arab laws in this respect. However, neither the Convention nor the Arab laws regulate this matter by specific and comprehensive conditions, as addressed by some contemporary scholars. It is recommended that the Convention and the Arab laws adopt these conditions. Additionally, the Convention does not state whether the experimentations may be conducted for the interest of the person with disability or for the purpose of scientific advancement. The text of the Convention is unclear and therefore requires further illumination.

  20. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened.

  1. Activity Monitors as Support for Older Persons' Physical Activity in Daily Life: Qualitative Study of the Users' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Maria; Eriksson, Lennie Carlén; Åkerberg, Nina; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2018-02-01

    Falls are a major threat to the health and independence of seniors. Regular physical activity (PA) can prevent 40% of all fall injuries. The challenge is to motivate and support seniors to be physically active. Persuasive systems can constitute valuable support for persons aiming at establishing and maintaining healthy habits. However, these systems need to support effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) for increasing older adults' PA and meet the senior users' requirements and preferences. Therefore, involving users as codesigners of new systems can be fruitful. Prestudies of the user's experience with similar solutions can facilitate future user-centered design of novel persuasive systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how seniors experience using activity monitors (AMs) as support for PA in daily life. The addressed research questions are as follows: (1) What are the overall experiences of senior persons, of different age and balance function, in using wearable AMs in daily life?; (2) Which aspects did the users perceive relevant to make the measurements as meaningful and useful in the long-term perspective?; and (3) What needs and requirements did the users perceive as more relevant for the activity monitors to be useful in a long-term perspective? This qualitative interview study included 8 community-dwelling older adults (median age: 83 years). The participants' experiences in using two commercial AMs together with tablet-based apps for 9 days were investigated. Activity diaries during the usage and interviews after the usage were exploited to gather user experience. Comments in diaries were summarized, and interviews were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The users (n=8) perceived that, by using the AMs, their awareness of own PA had increased. However, the AMs' impact on the users' motivation for PA and activity behavior varied between participants. The diaries showed that self-estimated physical effort varied between participants and

  2. How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia O. Alminhana

    Full Text Available Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94, while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146 and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55. Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95 and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83. Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32. Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs. While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.

  3. Finding a Way to Cope: A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Persons With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ching-Hui; Yang, Yu-O; Kuo, Liang Tseng

    2015-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophe that causes disabilities and permanently changes people's lives. The people have to adapt to the loss of self-care ability and may need long-term rehabilitation. The recovery can be problematic, affecting physiological, psychological, and financial aspects of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of persons with SCI living in Taiwan. In 2009, we conducted a qualitative study on 10 participants with SCI recruited from the Association of Spinal Cord Injury Persons in Taiwan. Open-ended interviews were conducted using a guide and tape recorder for subsequent transcription. A phenomenological method was used to collect data by interviews. The core experience of persons with SCI was "finding a way to cope," which was a process from despair to self-acceptance and composed of four categories: (a) shock and unpreparedness for the injury: the catastrophe of the injury itself and the underrecognition of physiological disabilities; (b) panic and fear: denying the injury and yearning for a miracle; (c) abyss of despair: imprinting of life, bearing the agony alone, and chaos of life; and (d) reflection on the meaning of life: adaptation to physical disabilities, self-acceptance, and growth. Our research was descriptive and focused on the structure of the lived experiences of persons with SCI. Many issues of inequality also revealed physical disabilities, such as difficulty looking professional, resulting in burden of stress and frustration. These results highlight persons with SCI should be classified as case management and integration of social welfare resources to facilitate care for persons with SCI after discharge.

  4. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  6. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  7. Registered nurse and health care chaplains experiences of providing the family support person role during family witnessed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jayne; Cottle, Elita; Hodge, Reverend Debbie

    2011-02-01

    To provide an in-depth exploration regarding the Registered Nurse (RN) and Healthcare Chaplains' (HCC) perspective of the role of the family support person (FSP) during family witnessed resuscitation (FWR). A phenomenological approach utilising in-depth interviews were undertaken outside of the work setting. A purposive sample of 4 RN's and 3 HCC were recruited from four sites within the United Kingdom. All interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed utilising Husserl's framework. Seven key themes emerged which included assessment, managing choice, navigating the setting, on-going commentary, coming to terms with death, conflicts and support. This study has provided an insight regarding the intense clinical engagement associated with the role of the FSP and highlighted the importance of this role for family member's optimal care and support. It is vital that adequate professional development is instigated and that support mechanisms are in place for those health care professionals (HCP) undertaking this role in order to help family members through this difficult experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential experiences of discrimination among ethnoracially diverse persons experiencing mental illness and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Bacon, Sarah; Corneau, Simon; Skosireva, Anna; McKenzie, Kwame; Gapka, Susan; O'Campo, Patricia; Sarang, Aseefa; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-12-14

    This mixed methods study explored the characteristics of and experiences with perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse urban sample of adults experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Data were collected in Toronto, Ontario, as part of a 4-year national randomized field trial of the Housing First treatment model. Rates of perceived discrimination were captured from survey questions regarding perceived discrimination among 231 ethnoracially diverse participants with moderate mental health needs. The qualitative component included thirty six in-depth interviews which explored how individuals who bear these multiple identities of oppression navigate stigma and discrimination, and what affects their capacity to do so. Quantitative analysis revealed very high rates of perceived discrimination related to: homelessness/poverty (61.5%), race/ethnicity/skin colour (50.6%) and mental illness/substance use (43.7%). Immigrants and those who had been homeless three or more years reported higher perceived discrimination on all three domains. Analysis of qualitative interviews revealed three common themes related to navigating these experiences of discrimination among participants: 1) social distancing; 2) old and new labels/identities; and, 3) 'homeland' cultures. These study findings underscore poverty and homelessness as major sources of perceived discrimination, and expose underlying complexities in the navigation of multiple identities in responding to stigma and discrimination. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42520374 . Registered 18 August 2009.

  9. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding mHealth Among Homeless Persons in New York City Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Sckell, Blanca; Alcabes, Analena; Naderi, Ramesh; Adongo, Philip; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health may be an effective means of providing access and education to the millions of homeless Americans. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 homeless people from different shelters in New York City to evaluate their perceptions, attitudes, and experiences regarding mobile health. Participants' average age was 51.66 (SD = 11.34) years; duration of homelessness was 2.0 (SD = 3.10) years. The majority had a mobile phone with the ability to receive and send text messages. Most participants attempted to maintain the same phone number over time. The homeless were welcoming and supportive of text messaging regarding health care issues, including appointment reminders, health education, or management of diseases considering their barriers and mobility, and believed it would help them access necessary health care. Overwhelmingly they preferred text reminders that were short, positively framed, and directive in nature compared to lengthy or motivational texts. The majority believed that free cell phone plans would improve their engagement with, help them navigate, and ultimately improve their access to care. These positive attitudes and experience could be effectively used to improve health care for the homeless. Policies to improve access to mobile health and adapted text messaging strategies regarding the health care needs of this mobile population should be considered.

  10. Obtaining large-scale funding for empowerment-oriented qualitative research: a report from personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2009-06-01

    Obtaining funding for qualitative research remains a challenge despite greater openness to methodological pluralism. Such hurdles are presumably compounded when the proposed study employs empowerment theory, rendering it susceptible to charges of elevating ideology over rigor. This article draws on the authors' experience in securing large-scale funding for an empowerment-oriented qualitative study of homeless mentally ill adults. Lessons learned include the importance of weaving empowerment theory into the proposal's "argument," and infusing empowerment values into study protocols while simultaneously paying close attention to rigorous and transparent methods. Additional benefits accrue from having prior relationships with study sites and being willing to revise and resubmit proposals whenever possible. Though representing a fraction of all externally funded projects in the United States, qualitative research has tremendous untapped potential for success in this competitive arena-success that need not entail surrendering a commitment to empowerment values.

  11. Collaboration and involvement of persons with lived experience in planning Canada's At Home/Chez Soi project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Egalité, Nathalie; Voronka, Jijian; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Kirst, Maritt; Flowers, Linsay; Patterson, Michelle; Dudley, Michael; Piat, Myra; Goering, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Planning the implementation of evidence-based mental health services entails commitment to both rigour and community relevance, which entails navigating the challenges of collaboration between professionals and community members in a planning environment which is neither 'top-down' nor 'bottom-up'. This research focused on collaboration among different stakeholders (e.g. researchers, service-providers, persons with lived experience [PWLE]) at five project sites across Canada in the planning of At Home/Chez Soi, a Housing First initiative for homeless people with mental health problems. The research addressed the question of what strategies worked well or less well in achieving successful collaboration, given the opportunities and challenges within this complex 'hybrid' planning environment. Using qualitative methods, 131 local stakeholders participated in key informant or focus group interviews between October 2009 and February 2010. Site researchers identified themes in the data, using the constant comparative method. Strategies that enhanced collaboration included the development of a common vision, values and purpose around the Housing First approach, developing a sense of belonging and commitment among stakeholders, bridging strategies employed by Site Co-ordinators and multiple strategies to engage PWLE. At the same time, a tight timeline, initial tensions, questions and resistance regarding project and research parameters, and lack of experience in engaging PWLE challenged collaboration. In a hybrid planning environment, clear communication and specific strategies are required that flow from an understanding that the process is neither fully participatory nor expert-driven, but rather a hybrid of both. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dynamics of physical and functional status of students in the experiment on approvals personality oriented physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the testing of personality-oriented physical education. In the experiment involved 640 students. Found that the greatest increase in indicators of physical fitness in young men in the experimental group revealed a flexibility test (6.67% and flexion extension Hand-ups (5.75. The girls showed improvement in the flexibility test (7.09% flexion and extension of hand-ups (6.14%. Clarified the nature and content of the personal-oriented physical education, especially its use in physical education students. Pedagogical conditions of effective application of personal-oriented physical education students in self-movement towards a healthy lifestyle. The data on the importance of physical culture for the prevention of self destructive behavior (drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking.

  13. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons During Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2018-03-01

    Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A model of resilience and meaning after military deployment: personal resources in making sense of war and peacekeeping experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schok, Michaela L; Kleber, Rolf J; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J L M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the specific personal resources of self-esteem, optimism and perceived control, combined in the latent variable called 'resilience', were associated with cognitive processing of war-zone experiences. Data were collected by questionnaires from a sample of 1.561 veterans who had participated in various war or peacekeeping operations. Structural equation modelling was performed to assess the expected relationships between the observed and latent variables. The construct of resilience was well-defined and proved to be strongly associated with both construals of meaning, comprehensibility versus personal significance, after military deployment. According to our model, higher resilience predicted less distrust in others and the world, more personal growth and less intrusions and avoidance after military deployment.

  15. What do children need to know about dementia? The perspectives of children and people with personal experience of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Goodenough, Belinda; Low, Lee-Fay; Bryden, Christine; Hutchinson, Karen; Richards, Laura

    2017-10-02

    The vision for dementia-friendly communities is challenged by limited public awareness and stigma about dementia. The study aim was to elicit stakeholder priorities for the message content of an education program to improve dementia awareness among youth; specifically, what do children need to know about dementia? A qualitative inquiry using interviews and focus groups was used. Purposive sampling achieved maximum variation in dementia experience and participant characteristics. Focus groups with Scouts in the community aged 9-12 years old (n = 22) used innovative techniques to explore children's attitudes towards people with dementia. Participants with personal experience of dementia were five people with early-stage dementia; 12 adult primary carers; four non-primary carers; and six grandchildren of a person with dementia. They were asked what is important for children to understand about dementia and what attitudes they may like an education program to confer. Content analysis was performed using NVivo10. Strong themes to emerge were that children need to know the whole truth about dementia; that individuals with dementia are "still people," that it is "not the fault" of the person with dementia; and that dementia is different and typically unpredictable for everyone. Discussions also indicated a need to educate children about ways to relate to a person with dementia, and to appreciate "positives" within a relationship. Children are our future citizens. Developing an education program for children with this message content may be fundamental to de-stigmatizing dementia and laying the foundation to dementia-friendly communities.

  16. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  17. Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicholas D; Rands, Sean A; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation.

  18. Realism and Imagination in Child Foreign-Language Productions: Three Reasons for an Early Exit from the "Gold Standard" of Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongeun; Kellogg, David

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often assume that personal experience is a rich resource for classroom chat and a gold standard for meaningful exchange of information. But in this paper, we first present three kinds of reasons for suspecting that primary intersubjectivity--the "me and you" relationship in which personal experiences are directly exchanged…

  19. The shorter the better? A follow-up analysis of 10-session psychiatric treatment including the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Stulz, Niklaus; Berthoud, Laurent; Caspar, Franz; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; De Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    There is little research on short-term treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). While the core changes may occur only in long-term treatments, short-term treatments may enable the study of early generic processes of engagement in therapy and thus inform about effective treatment components. It was shown that a 10-session version of a psychiatric treatment was effective in reducing borderline symptoms at the end of this treatment [Kramer, U., Kolly, S., Berthoud, L., Keller, S., Preisig, M., Caspar, F., … Despland, J.-N. (2014). Effects of motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in a ten-session general psychiatric treatment for borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 176-186.]. Also, it was demonstrated in a randomized design that adding the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), following an individualized case formulation based on Plan Analysis, further increased general outcome after session 10 and had a positive effect on the early changes in self-esteem and alliance. The present study focuses on the follow-up period after this initial treatment, examining treatment density and outcomes after 6 months and service utilization after 12 months. Outcome was measured using the OQ-45. Results on a sub-sample of N = 40 patients with available OQ-45 data at follow-up (n = 21 for MOTR-treatment, n = 19 for comparison treatment) showed maintenance of gains over the follow-up period, which did not differ between both conditions. It appeared for this sample that MOTR treatments, while using the same number of sessions, lasted more weeks (i.e., lower treatment density, defined as the number of sessions per week), when compared to the treatments without MOTR. Density marginally predicted symptom reduction at follow-up. Patients in MOTR treatments had a greater likelihood of entering structured psychotherapy after the initial sessions than patients in the comparison

  20. Family matters: The experiences and opinions of family members of persons with (severe) or profound intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Luijkx, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    “I love my sister, but sometimes I don’t”. This is one of the statements made in the study focused on the experiences of family members of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (both of individuals living in a residential facility as persons living at home). In recent years, there has been greater recognition of the important position of parents and siblings of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities and the importance of the wellbeing of all ...

  1. Theory and practice of chaplain's spiritual care process: A psychiatrist's experiences of chaplaincy and conceptualizing trans-personal model of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Of various spiritual care methods, mindfulness meditation has found consistent application in clinical intervention and research. "Listening presence," a chaplain's model of mindfulness and its trans-personal application in spiritual care is least understood and studied. The aim was to develop a conceptualized understanding of chaplain's spiritual care process based on neuro-physiological principles of mindfulness and interpersonal empathy. Current understandings on neuro-physiological mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) and interpersonal empathy such as theory of mind and mirror neuron system are used to build a theoretical framework for chaplain's spiritual care process. Practical application of this theoretical model is illustrated using a carefully recorded clinical interaction, in verbatim, between chaplain and his patient. Qualitative findings from this verbatim are systematically analyzed using neuro-physiological principles. Chaplain's deep listening skills to experience patient's pain and suffering, awareness of his emotions/memories triggered by patient's story and ability to set aside personal emotions, and judgmental thoughts formed intra-personal mindfulness. Chaplain's insights on and ability to remain mindfully aware of possible emotions/thoughts in the patient, and facilitating patient to return and re-return to become aware of internal emotions/thoughts helps the patient develop own intra-personal mindfulness leading to self-healing. This form of care involving chaplain's mindfulness of emotions/thoughts of another individual, that is, patient, may be conceptualized as trans-personal model of MBI. Chaplain's approach may be a legitimate form of psychological therapy that includes inter and intra-personal mindfulness. Neuro-physiological mechanisms of empathy that underlie Chaplain's spiritual care process may establish it as an evidence-based clinical method of care.

  2. Self-imagination/Add Imagination on Personal Experiences: Wacini Laredj’s Dakira El-Ma (Water’s Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassina Laoudj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The autobiographical novel differs from the real autobiography since the latter relies on personal and real facts of the writing ego, and the writer is not allowed to say or talk of something that is not related to him. The writer includes his personal experience in the writing according to the conditions set by Philippe Lejeune. Whereas the autobiographical novel belongs to the novelistic genre in which the writer has recourse in the first place to the element of imagination in his artistic work, taking advantage of the factors and techniques which make his novel a higher artistic work since it provides aesthetics. The proof is that the autobiographical novel is given the term “Self-imagination” at present because of its propensity for imagination in describing real facts that the writer reports reality to others with his creative composition

  3. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  5. Experiences of falls and strategies to manage the consequences of falls in persons with late effects of polio: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Brogårdh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how persons with late effects of polio experience falls and what strategies they use to manage the consequences of falls. Design: A qualitative study with face-to-face interviews. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation. Participants: Fourteen ambulatory persons (7 women; mean age 70 years with late effects of polio. Results: Analysis resulted in one main theme, “Everyday life is a challenge to avoid the consequences of falls”, and 3 categories with 7 subcategories. Participants perceived that falls were unpredictable and could occur anywhere. Even slightly uneven surfaces could cause a fall, and increased impairments following late effects of polio led to reduced movement control and an inability to adjust balance quickly. Physical injuries were described after the falls, as well as emotional and psychological reactions, such as embarrassment, frustration and fear of falling. Assistive devices, careful planning and strategic thinking were strategies to prevent falls, together with adaptation and social comparisons to mitigate the emotional reactions. Conclusion: Experiences of falls greatly affect persons with late effects of polio in daily life. To reduce falls and fall-related consequences both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies are used. In order to increase daily functioning, these findings should be included in a multifaceted falls management programme.

  6. Who am I - and if so, where? An experiment on personality in online virtual realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aas, B.G.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual realities form a new technical platform, raising scientific questions about the human mind, communication and identity. There is hardly any scientific research on the influence of a virtual reality on the identity perception and the personality of a user of these virtual realities. The

  7. The Experience of Stress and Personal Growth among Grandparents of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the contribution of internal and external resources to stress and personal growth among grandparents of children with and without an intellectual disability. Ninety-four grandparents of children with intellectual disability and 105 grandparents of children without intellectual disability completed the…

  8. A Qualitative Exploration of College Student Retention: Personal Experiences of Millennial Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to discover personal reasons Millennial college freshmen, between the ages of 18-20, stated as obstacles to college retention. Fourteen students from a private college in the Midwest were selected to participate in an interview process. These students were asked a series of open-ended questions…

  9. Personal and Shared Experiences as Resources for Meaning Making in a Philosophy of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaja, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore health-education students' personal and collaborative meaning making activities during an online science philosophy course in the higher-education context. Through applying the dialogical perspective for learning, the focus was on studying how different contextual resources were used in building…

  10. Parkinson's, a Selfobject Loss: Theoretical Discussion and Personal Experience and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichler, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a conceptualization of physical impairment as an object loss comparable to the loss of a loved one. It exists when, for example, a person has only one limb, or an illness in an organ of the body. Parkinson's disease is just such an impairment that denies the author the ability to utilize his body's previous capacity of…

  11. Facial emotion recognition in borderline personality: an association, with childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Katie; Pope, Merrick; Hall, Jeremy

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood adversity using photographs of emotional faces. We found that those with BPD were less able to correctly identify emotional facial expressions, particularly disgust, and that this deficit in BPD correlated significantly with a measure of childhood trauma (CTQ). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  13. The Experience of Care-Giving for a Person with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Connie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    As the population continues to become more aged and at risk for chronic illness, there will be a growing need for caregivers. Caregivers to persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) face the challenge of providing care over many years due to the chronic progressive nature of this neurological disorder. The purpose of this study was to understand and…

  14. Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Blind Persons: The Experience of Sibling Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study reports the very different reactions and choices of legally blind twin sisters who were provided services through the Mississippi Vocational Rehabilitation for the Blind agency. Emphasis is on the importance of individual differences and variables, such as personality, over which the rehabilitation agency has no control. (DB)

  15. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff’s lack of awareness of mothers’ fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women’s perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. Materials and methods This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Results Three categories, including “involvement of the spouse in the labor process”, “asking for a companion during labor”, and “mother’s self-care to cope with labor pain”, emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of “trying to comply with the labor process”. Conclusion Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. Implications for practice It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor. PMID:28683112

  16. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff's lack of awareness of mothers' fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women's perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Three categories, including "involvement of the spouse in the labor process", "asking for a companion during labor", and "mother's self-care to cope with labor pain", emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of "trying to comply with the labor process". Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor.

  17. Professional and private experience with persons with special needs and attitudes of teachers of regular schools towards inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajović Vera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we seek for the factors of formation of attitudes of primary school teachers towards inclusion of children who due to some sensory, bodily, mental disability or social deprivation have the need for additional support in development and learning. Research on attitudes towards inclusive education of children with special needs so far indicates that teachers of regular schools 'hesitate' in accepting children with special needs, stating as a reason the fact that they do not feel competent enough to work with them. However, the increase in teacher readiness to work with these children can be seen from the projects for the inclusion of these children that educate the teachers and envisage the support of the school expert team. This study was conducted with the aim of determining whether teacher's experience - either private or professional - with persons with disabilities distinguishes the respondents who exhibit more favourable attitudes towards inclusive education of these children from those with less favourable attitudes. The sample consisted of 105 teachers from five regular primary schools at the territory of Belgrade, 44.2% of whom declared that they had professional experience in working with students with special needs, while 40% of respondents had private experience with persons with developmental disabilities. The results (ANOVA indicate that professional experience with working with children with special needs does not significantly affect the formation and changing of attitudes of teachers of regular schools towards inclusive education. On the other hand, private experience with persons with developmental disabilities has a significant influence both on the attitude towards inclusion as a whole and towards all its components (cognitive, conative, the feeling of competence. Based on the obtained results, implications for the development of the curriculum for educating teachers for working with children with developmental

  18. Common mental disorder including psychotic experiences: Trailblazing a new recovery pathway within the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Clarke, James; Martin, Zoe; Jassi, Christina; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Jones, Peter B

    2017-05-16

    Psychotic experiences, depressive and anxiety symptoms may be manifestations of a latent continuum of common mental distress. The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has increased the reach of psychological treatments to people with common mental disorders in England. However, psychotic experiences are neither measured nor considered in therapy. We aimed to confirm the presence of psychotic experiences among IAPT service-users and determine whether these experiences are associated with higher depression/anxiety levels and poorer recovery. All service-users that attended the Fenland and Peterborough IAPT teams in Cambridgeshire between November 16, 2015 and January 29, 2016 participated in a service evaluation. In addition to routine mesures, such as the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), we introduced a shortened version of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-P15) to measure psychotic experiences. Classes of individuals were identified with latent class analysis. Associations were reported using Pearson correlation coefficient. One hundred and seventy-three services-users were included, mostly females (N = 133; 76.9%). The mean age was 36.6 (SD = 13.3). Around 30% likely belonged to a class with psychotic experiences. CAPE-P15 frequency was significantly correlated to PHQ-9 (r = 0.44; P < .001) and GAD-7 (r = 0.32; P < .001). Similarly, CAPE-P15 distress and both PHQ-9 (r = 0.43; P < .001) and GAD-7 (r = 0.38; P < .001) were highly correlated. These associations were replicated after the initial period of the therapy, indicating poor recovery. Some IAPT service-users suffer psychotic experiences. Tailoring available evidence-based psychological therapies for these people in IAPT settings might trailblaze a new care pathway to improve recovery in this group. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Experience of being the spouse/cohabitant of a person with bipolar affective disorder: a cumulative process over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe spouses'/cohabitants' experiences of living with a partner with bipolar affective disorder over time. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with eight spouses/cohabitants. Transcribed interviews were analysed structurally based on Ricoeur's phenomenological hermeneutics as described by Lindseth and Norberg. The participants' shared lives ranged from 6 to 51 years, and the study found three major aspects that characterized their experience along this time-dimension; experience formed part of a cumulative process containing up to 14 experiences. Each experience created a preunderstanding that affected how subsequent experiences were perceived, and mastered. These three major aspects had a reciprocal influence on the following 14 experiences over time: Fear and the incomprehensible. Accusations. Self-doubt and doubt about own powers of judgement. Care and information vs. being overlooked or turned away by health personnel. Stigmatization and loss of social network. Uncertainty, powerlessness and hope. Loneliness. Anger and despair. The persistent threat. Own health problems. Grief over loss. Dawning acceptance. Reconciliation. New hope. A theoretical understanding using gestalt therapy theory suggests that burdensome experience can be seen as an inner imbalance in the spouse/cohabitant when she/he cannot find meaning in their experiences. When only parts of the whole are perceived, an incomplete gestalt is formed in the person's lived-experience that counteracts the equilibrium of the organism. Insight and meaning can protect them against burdensome experiences and nurses can empower them through care, health-promoting education and guidance. Nursing research should develop methods of education and guidance sensitive enough to help each spouse/cohabitant, regardless of where they are in their cumulative process.

  20. Centre of nuclear research experience in the control of personal exposition between 2002 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayardo, Karina; Blanco, Daniel; Garcia, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The control of the personal exposition in the public University is done by the Centre of Nuclear Research since 1999. A look at the last years permitted to note the increase in the Personal Dosimeter users. In this work we study the annual collective dose, the annual effective dose average and the different dose in each University area between 2002-2005. The annual effective dose limit for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear), are the suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The actual application of the Basics Principles of Radiological Protection demand exposition levels as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) considering economics and social factors. In this way we decrease the probability to induce illness in the expose personal and their descendants. The different dependences of the University where the service is given are: Faculty of Medicine (Radiology, Oncology, Clinical Oncology, Nuclear Medicine), Faculty of Chemistry (Radiochemistry), Faculty of Odontology (Radiology), Faculty of Veterinary (Radiology) and Faculty of Sciences (Centre of Nuclear Research). The number of users between 2002-2006 varied from 292 in year 2002 to 329 in the year 2006. We see a maximum of persons in the year 2004. The annual collective dose have been changing too, the lowest was 0.13 Sv.person in the year 2002 and the highest was 0.21 Sv.person in the year 2005. The annual collective dose permits the evaluation of the radiological impact of the radiation ionising manipulation in the University. In these 5 years the 96% of the annual effective dose average were under 4 mSv, and the 76% were smaller than the minimum detectable limit. This 76% were obtained in teach and researches areas. In the 4% higher than 4 mSv we can find areas where works with open radioactive sources like: Nuclear Medicine and Radiochemistry (Faulted de Pumice). In these places we detect annual effective doses of 15 mSv, these levels

  1. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Erik; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Henze, Mogens

    2009-07-01

    The perspective of this work is to develop a model, which can be used to better understand and optimize wastewater treatment plants that are able to remove xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in combination with removal of traditional pollutants. Results from dynamic experiments conducted with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which simultaneously utilizes steady-state background concentrations and dynamic step response data, as well as conceptual simplifications of the plant configuration. Validation results show that biodegradation of BPA is sensitive to operational conditions before and during the experiment and that the proposed model structure is capable of capturing important characteristics of the observed BPA removal, thus increasing the potential for generalizing knowledge obtained from plant specific experiments.

  2. Nobody asked me how I felt: experiences of adult children of persons with young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Maria Lage; Thorsen, Kirsten; Engedal, Knut; Haugen, Per Kristian; Johannessen, Aud

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies of young persons (old) with dementia, and the situation of their children has been a neglected research field. The aim is explore how adult children of a parent with young-onset dementia have experienced the development of their parents' dementia and what needs they have for assistance. Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 20-37 years; 12 daughters, 2 sons) during 2011 were conducted and analyzed thematically. The informants experienced great burdens and felt neglected during the development of their parents' dementia, both by their family and by health and social services. They emphasized a need to be seen as individuals, with their experiences, feelings, and personal needs for assistance. The stresses experienced during the development of parental dementia seemed to increase conflicts in the family. There were variations in reactions between children, depending on age, gender, family structure and relationships, responsibilities, personal relations with both parents, and whether there was an adult primary caregiver. The length of time living together with the parent with dementia seemed to increase the stress and burden to the children. They expressed a great need for information and support. The findings strengthen the notion of the need for family-oriented support, combined with person-centered care for the children according to their needs. In addition, group meetings and contact with other young people in the same stage of life could be of interest for some.

  3. Rehabilitation of drug-addicted persons: the experience of the Nav-Chetna Center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Shukla, V

    1988-01-01

    The Nav-Chetna Drug De-addiction and Rehabilitation Center, Varanasi, India, was established in December 1985. It provides out-patient and residential rehabilitation services, medical treatment, counseling, educational and vocational guidance, yoga therapy and after care. Drug-dependent persons under rehabilitation treatment at the Center are encouraged and helped to promote personal development, to build up and strengthen their initiative and confidence and to bring about improvements in their maturation, attitude and behaviour to overcome drug addiction. This is accomplished through a therapeutic-oriented programme, which creates conditions that optimize the natural tendency of the individual to self-actualize and eventually stabilize. Yoga plays a crucial role in this programme at both pre- and post-clinical stages. It offers a new avenue for positive mental and physical health and helps to free individuals from drug dependency and its associated problems.

  4. Rethinking social inclusion: experiences of persons in recovery from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Stanton, Megan C; Sands, Roberta G

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examines the relational dimension of social inclusion by exploring the ways in which persons in recovery from mental illness understand and define their relationships with various communities. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 participants who were heterogeneous with respect to gender, psychiatric diagnoses, sexual orientation and gender identity, and living environments. We found competencies for establishing reciprocal social relationships and taking on responsibility as citizens and community members, rendering support for the capabilities approach as a promising schema for understanding social inclusion. We propose a competencies-based framework to facilitate thoughtful, proactive, and meaningful engagement of persons in recovery with communities of their choice. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The Role Culture and Personality Play in an Authentic Online Group Learning Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelmeier, J; Héliot, Y; Rienties, B; Whitelock, D

    2015-01-01

    Both educators and students face challenges in successful collaborative work, particularly when students come from a diverse set of backgrounds and cultures. This is especially the case at business schools, which have some of the most diverse student populations in the UK. One explanation for this could be that culture and personality influence behaviour in group work, creating mismatched expectations. This assumption has led to current research focusing upon student reflections and perceptio...

  6. Integrated Personal Health and Care Services deployment: Experiences in eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villalba, Elena; Casas, Isabel; Abadie, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...... mechanisms, interoperable information systems, policy commitment, engaged professionals, national investments and funding programmes, and incentives and financing. Conclusion: In those cases which provided evidence of success beyond the pilot stage, we observed a promising trend: awareness and introduction...

  7. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  8. Caregiver bodywork: family members' experiences of caring for a person with motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robin A; Street, Annette F

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports a study of how family members caring for people living with motor neurone disease managed the deteriorating body, their own bodywork and the associated emotional labour. People living with the neurodegenerative condition of motor neurone disease face the prospect of dying in 3-5 years from progressive loss of voluntary muscle mass and function, culminating in respiratory failure. Theories concerning the body in illness have been used to illustrate patient perspectives; however, family caregivers' experiences of the body have been neglected. An ethnographic case study was undertaken with 18 primary family caregivers and six peripheral caregivers. Primary caregivers participated over 10 months in three face-to-face, semi-structured interviews which included mapping their support networks using ecomaps. Observational data were also recorded as field notes. Peripheral caregivers were interviewed once during the same time period. The data were generated between 2003 and 2004. Informal caregiving requires engagement in various aspects of bodywork. Three body concepts were identified: the visible body--how the disease affected the patient and caregivers; the dependent body--the resulting care requirements; and the social body--how living with motor neurone disease affected their social support networks. The visible body is a continual reminder of the ravages of the disease, while the dependent body demands physical and emotional care. Social interactions decline over time, depriving family caregivers of the much needed support for sustaining their commitment to the bodywork required in caregiving. The demands of bodywork for family caregivers are increased by the continual presence of emotional labour as they seek to implement the best way to support their relative with motor neurone disease. Nurses and allied healthcare workers need to assess each family situation, asking appropriate questions to establish the most appropriate interventions to

  9. Personalized Medicine and Adverse Drug Reactions: The Experience of An Italian Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, Raffaele; Finesch, Vittorio; Di Sanzo, Mariantonia; Gatto, Vittorio; Santurro, Alessandro; Martini, Gabriella; Scopetti, Matteo; Frati, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The personalized medicine is a model of medicine based on inherent difference given by the genetic heritage that characterizes us, diversity that can affect also our response to administered therapy. Nowadays, the term "adverse drug reaction" is identified with any harmful effect involuntary resulting from the use of a medicinal product; pharmacogenomics, in this field, has the aim to improve the drug response and to reduce the adverse reaction. We analyzed all reports of adverse reaction collected in the Pharmacovigilance Centre database of an Italian University Hospital, at the Sant'Andrea Hospital Sapienza University of Rome, in a period of two years. Comparing the data result from our analysis with several studies found in literature, it is evident that adverse drug reactions represent an important problem in the management of a health care system. However, the development of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, allowing a personalized treatment, can improve clinical practice. This study highlights the great potential of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse reactions and suggests the need for further pharmacogenomic clinical trials to better personalize drug treatment and to refine the current pharmacovigilance strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Stories of Transformation: Using Personal Narrative to Explore Transformative Experience among Undergraduate Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Bryce; Williams, David

    2017-01-01

    While past researchers suggest undergraduate peer mentors (PMs) benefit from mentoring their peers, this experience is rarely associated with transformative learning. Using narrative analysis of authentic mentoring stories, we explored how particular types of mentoring experiences contribute to transformative learning for PMs of first-year…

  11. Creating a Context for Flow: The Importance of Personal Insight and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathunde, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Kevin Rathunde reflects on his early studies of flow in Montessori adolescents and surmises that adults need to experience their own flow in order to guide young people to peak levels. He recounts his early music experiences as having "peaked" and that he needed to come back to his flow of the past to fully enter into his work with flow…

  12. “Sacred Work”: Reflections on the Professional and Personal Impact of an Interdisciplinary Palliative Oncology Clinical Experience by Social Work Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Middleton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of an oncology palliative care clinical experience with older adults on social work learners. A three-member research team conducted a qualitative content analysis of reflective writings. 27 Master of Science in Social Work students enrolled in an interprofessional palliative oncology curriculum and completed a reflective writing assignment to summarize the clinical scenario, analyze the patient/family care provided, and describe the impact of the experience. Using a constant comparison approach based on grounded theory, the research team analyzed the reflections to come to consensus related to the overall impact of the experience. Two overarching themes (professional and personal impact and 11 subthemes (appreciation of interdisciplinary teams, recognition of clinical skills of other disciplines, insight into clinical skills of the social worker, perception of palliative care, embracing palliative care principles, centrality of communication, importance of social support, family as the unit of care, countertransference, conflict between personal values and patient/family values, and emotional reactions were identified. Experiential learning opportunities for social work learners in interprofessional palliative care build appreciation for and skills in applying palliative care principles including teamwork, symptom control, and advanced care planning along with a commitment to embrace these principles in future practice.

  13. Role of Creative Activity in the Formation of Professional and Personal Experience of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Popovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated and substantiated the role of creative activity in the formation of professional and personal experience of the future music teacher. It was determined that the creative activity as a complex personality formation acts as a prerequisite and the result of musical and educational activities, provides an unusual approach and creative solution of professional problems. It is proved that the high level of creative activity is determined by positive motivation, strong interest and focus on music and teaching activities, expression of emotions and significant willpower, self-reliance, initiative, imagination, the ability to perform the academic tasks in a non-standard way, and the availability of adequate self-assessment of one’s own musical abilities and professional activities.

  14. Experiences of Professional Helping Relations by Persons with Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, E; Lien, L; Biong, S

    2018-01-01

    Recovery in co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders often involves relationships with professional helpers, yet little is known about how these are experienced by service users. The aim of this study was to explore and describe behaviour and attributes of professional helpers that support recovery, as experienced by persons with co-occurring disorders. Within a collaborative approach, in-depth individual interviews with eight persons with lived experience of co-occurring disorders were analysed using systematic text condensation. The analysis yielded four categories of recovery-supporting behaviour and attributes of professional helpers and the ability to build trust cuts across all of them: Building trust through (a) hopefulness and loving concern, (b) commitment, (c) direct honesty and expectation and (d) action and courage. Services should allow for flexibility and continuity, and training should recognise the importance of establishing trust in order to reach out to this group.

  15. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and childhood adversity are associated with the personality trait openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Guban, Peter; Wang, Mei; Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of human personality. 5-HTTLPR has also been found to interact with stressful life events to increase risk of psychopathology. In the present study, by taking into account stressful life events in the form of childhood adversity, we examined the association between 5-HTTLPR and FFM traits using an adult Swedish cohort (N = 3112). We found that 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with openness (to experience). Specifically, homozygote carriers of the short allele had lower levels of openness compared to carriers of the long allele. In addition, childhood adversity was found to influence openness. These findings support a previously reported association of 5-HTTLPR with openness in a younger cohort and may provide insights into the neurobiological basis of human personality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cursus Honorum: Personal Background, Careers and Experience of Political Leaders in Democracy and Dictatorship—New Data and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Baturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Politics in democracy and dictatorship is markedly different; democracy and dictatorship are also associated with distinct policy outcomes. Do political regimes also select different leaders, i.e., do democratic leaders have distinct personal backgrounds to those of their peers in dictatorships, do they tend to hold different prior careers and posts while climbing the “greasy pole” of politics? The aim of this paper is to introduce the new data on leaders’ careers in democracy and dictatorship and compare their personal background, experience in politics, careers and significant posts prior to their tenure, and details about their time in office, inter alia. In general, democratic leaders differ from nondemocratic ones in terms of their educational, social and career background. The paper also finds significant differences among leaders in different nondemocratic regimes, and suggests possible venues for further research.

  17. Lived experiences of Iranian family member caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease: caring as 'captured in the whirlpool of time'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Elham; Negarandeh, Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to understand the experiences of Iranian family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Increasing rate of Alzheimer's disease along with the ageing population has made this disease an urgent public health challenge worldwide. As non-professional caregivers, family members play a significant role in delivering care to elders, most of whom have one or more chronic diseases. Family-based caregiving has expanded with the encouragement of non-institutionalisation but at the same time creates challenges for caregivers. A qualitative study was conducted using Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology. Eight Iranian family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease were interviewed. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed; data were analysed by Van Manen's methodology. One of the most important themes that emerged was 'captured in the whirlpool of time', which also contained the subthemes of 'reminiscence of past' and 'being afraid of the future'. Family caregivers frequently remembered their common past experiences when interacting with their loved ones with Alzheimer's disease, as though travelling with him/her to the past. Furthermore, caregivers continually compared the past abilities of their relative with their present condition, which resulted in feelings of loss and regret. Further, the unpredictable nature of Alzheimer's disease created fear about the future deterioration of the condition and caregivers' future suffering. The findings demonstrated the necessity of providing continuous education and support for family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Nurses are among front-line professionals who are in a position to support and provide information for family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409

  19. Examining the personal experience of student skill learning: a narrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, D J

    1995-06-01

    Examining the meaning of student skill learning from the learner's perspective is a valued but understudied topic in physical education. This paper investigated the learner's perspective as a storied experience and used narrative theory to interpret the meanings students derived from their learning experiences. Four narrative accounts were presented involving university students enrolled in a beginning level bowling class. The narratives centered on describing student goals and the conflicts and resolution of conflicts experienced by these students during skill learning. Two sources of generating meaning from experience were delineated: (a) an individual's active construction of meaning and (b) the enculturing influence of the social context. These narratives provided an opportunity for teachers and researchers to examine the realities constructed by students as a result of their learning experiences.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound. Early personal experience with a dedicated unit and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarani, F.; Isolato, G.; Capello, S.; Bianchi, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report our preliminary clinical experience with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) in abdominal and small parts imaging, comparing the yield of 3D versus 2D US and the through a literature review [it

  1. Experiences of participation in everyday occupations among persons aging with a tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Gray, David; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to gain understanding of participation in everyday occupations through life stories of persons aging with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A narrative method was used for data collection and a paradigmatic analysis was used to analyze data. The analysis resulted in three themes that illustrate how the participants acted to participate in everyday occupations, how that changed over time, and some concerns about their future. The first theme illustrates how participants following SCI acted to become agents of their lives and participate in everyday occupations. The second theme illustrates how participants had to prioritize participation in meaningful occupations due to personal and environmental factors. The third theme shows how they had to try new strategies to continue participation in occupations, due to secondary health complications related to aging. This study captures how persons aging with tetraplegia acted to participate in everyday occupations from soon after the injury until several decades later. In addition, their ability to act and participate changed over time. Our findings provide knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Besides, it can also guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems. Aging with a SCI is a complex daily struggle in order to be able to continue acting and participating in everyday occupations, and thereby this gives implications for a lifelong support. This study provides knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Knowledge from this study can guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems.

  2. Family caregivers' experiences of relinquishing the care of a person with dementia to a nursing home: insights from a meta-ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, Ulla H; Johansson, Anneli; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2014-06-01

    Many people with dementia are cared for in their homes by family caregivers. As the dementia progresses, admission of the family member to a nursing home becomes inevitable. The aim of this meta-ethnographic study was to describe caregivers' experiences of relinquishing the care of a family member with dementia to a nursing home. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Cinahl and PsychInfo, between the years 1992 and 2012, was performed, and 10 qualitative articles, based on 180 family caregivers' experiences, were included. The family caregivers' described their experiences as a process that went from being responsible for the decision, through living with the decision, adjusting to a new caring role and having changed relationships. They felt unprepared and lonely with these changes. They experienced loss, guilt and shame, but also feelings of relief. Their roles in the nursing home environment were to make sure that the individual needs of the person with dementia were respected and to monitor the quality of care. They wished to maintain their relationship with the person with dementia and to establish meaningful relationships with caring staff. The process of relinquishing care is similar to a crisis process, which starts with a turning point, followed by a coping face and finally the outcome of the process. The adaption to the new situation can be facilitated if the family caregivers are recognised as partners in the care of the person with dementia. The family caregivers' unique knowledge of their relatives' previous life story should be acknowledged in both care planning and daily care. Welcoming family caregivers to regular meetings with staff can contribute to increase the feeling of partnership. Offering staff clinical supervision could be one way of preparing them to deal with the emotional strain reported by family caregivers. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Art Activity and Personal Intelligence: Its Influence to Children Adaptation Skill (Experiments at Hidayatullah Islamic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana, M. Pd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Art, one of the elements of human culture has been evolving over a long time. It is a product of working which involving skills, creative, sense, thought and heart sensibility to produce a piece of work, beauty, and harmony. The aim of this research was to find art activities for children with personal intelligence. In term of my hypothesis, children have ability to adapt and confidence to show their feelings, also demonstrate cooperated work with others. Singing and drawing were used as treatments to present how it all works to show any influence for children in the classroom. These activities were chosen in order to capture the condition as singing and drawing were rarely used by teachers in managing children in the first time they came into the classroom. Researcher discovered that drawing was one of the activities teachers used only in a spare time, otherwise as a stimuli to adjust children in the new place. This condition also happened in singing activity, teachers tend to introduce national anthem and let students only to memorise the songs. Using T-test for analysing the data, researcher found out that Fsum= 3,604 and Ftable = 2,861. It meant that there was a significant interaction between singing and drawing activity with personal intelligence to children adaptation skill.

  4. A Case Study Perspective: The Experiences of Young Persons Testifying to Child Sexual Exploitation in British Criminal Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth; Kowalski, Marlene; Lamb, Michael E

    2017-11-21

    Three young persons who gave evidence about child sexual exploitation in criminal court using various testimonial supports were interviewed about their testimony experiences. The witnesses reported that they felt extreme pressure to remember events accurately and cared greatly about being believed. None reported their own coping strategies to alleviate stress and took comfort breaks only after they cried on the stand. Defense attorney questions were reportedly repetitive, rapid, confusing, and focused on secondary content rather than the central criminal acts. The witnesses mentioned dissatisfaction in having supportive social workers whom they trusted leave the case and be replaced.

  5. The Impact of Death-Risk Experiences and Religiosity on the Fear of Personal Death: The Case of Israeli Soldiers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Victor; Mikulincer, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Examined impact of death-risk experience (life-threatening experiences of 134 Israeli soldiers who served in Lebanon after 1982 Lebanon War) and religiosity on diverse aspects of fear of personal death. Religious participants reported lower levels of fear of death than did nonreligious participants. Exposure to death-risk experience produced…

  6. Cancer beliefs in cancer survivors, cancer relatives and persons with no cancer experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Negative cancer beliefs have been associated with late stage at cancer diagnosis. High levels of negative cancer beliefs have been found among individuals with low socioeconomic position and ethnic minority women, but the impact of cancer experience on cancer beliefs is unexamined. The aim...... of this study was to examine whether cancer beliefs are associated with cancer experience. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Telephone interviews of 2992 Danish residents (30+) were carried out using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer Measure (ABC). Respondents reported whether...... they or someone close had been diagnosed with cancer and whether they agreed/disagreed with three positively and three negatively framed cancer beliefs. Results: Respondents with someone close diagnosed was reference group. Compared with these, respondents with no cancer experience (RRadj=0.91, 95% CI=0...

  7. Health care students' personal experiences and coping with bullying in clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakojärvi, Henna-Riikka; Salminen, Leena; Suhonen, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that health care students have experienced bullying by nursing staff in clinical training. Although these studies provide plenty of information considering the manifestation and consequences of bullying on students, there is a gap of knowledge on how health care students' cope with bullying. In addition, previous studies seem to have focused only on the experiences of nursing and midwifery students. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the bullying experiences of Finnish health care students (n=41) representing two Universities of Applied Sciences. In order to provide information for faculties of health care on bullying intervention and prevention strategies, this study aimed at describing health care students' experiences and coping with bullying in clinical training. Based on previous study findings, an electronic semi-structured questionnaire was developed for the data collection. The qualitative data was analysed using inductive content analysis. The results show that the students experienced verbal and non-verbal bullying in clinical training. In addition to psychological and physical symptoms, bullying also decreased the students' learning, their studying motivation and their professional engagement. One reason why some students did not share their bullying experiences with their teachers and clinical instructors was their idea that sharing their experiences would be useless. On the other hand, students who did share their experiences with a teacher or a clinical instructor usually received emotional support, information, and help in the form of bullying intervention. The results of this study suggest that faculties of health care need to develop action plans against bullying in co-operation with clinical training sites in order to ensure students' learning and professional engagement. In the future, it is suggested that research is focused on factors preventing and contributing to bullying towards health care

  8. Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  9. Personality, basic emotions, and satisfaction: primary emotions in the mountaineering experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faullant, Rita; Matzler, Kurt; Mooradian, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption-related emotions – usually operationalized as broad, summary dimensions such as positive and negative emotions or, alternatively, pleasure and arousal – have been shown to be influenced by enduring personality traits and, in turn, to influence customer satisfaction. Experiential tourism...... activities such as mountaineering evoke powerful emotions that strongly influence tourist satisfaction. Although Zajonc (1980) proposed and more recent neurophysiological evidence confirms that emotions, especially fear, can be primary (can precede cognitions), consumption-related emotions have heretofore...... been modeled as occurring concurrently with or consequent to cognitive appraisals. Our results show that two basic consumption-related emotions, fear and joy, are influenced by neuroticism and extraversion, respectively, and in turn and in conjunction with cognitive appraisals influence tourist...

  10. Differences in Waiting List Prioritization Preferences of Occupational Therapists, Elderly People, and Persons With Disabilities: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Demers, Louise; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2018-01-01

    To compare the preferences of occupational therapists, elderly people, and adults with disabilities regarding prioritization criteria for occupational therapy waiting lists in home care. Discrete choice experiment survey. Survey mailed to occupational therapists working in home care and community-dwelling elderly or disabled persons. A sample (N=714) of home-based occupational therapists (n=241), elderly persons from a bank of research participants (n=226), and adults with physical disabilities recruited through community organizations (n=247). Not applicable. The dependent variable was whether the referral scenario was prioritized or not in each question. The results were analyzed through logistic regression using conditional logit models. Prioritization preferences differed between groups (Ppeople who had a few falls (odds ratio vs no falls, 48.7), whereas elderly people and adults with disabilities most strongly prioritized people who were unable to enter and exit the home (odds ratio vs no difficulty entering and exiting the home, 30.8 for elderly people and 16.8 for persons with disabilities.) CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the gap between the priorities of home-based occupational therapists and their target clientele. Although further inquiry is needed to inform priority setting, the findings emphasize the importance of public or patient involvement in decisions on waiting list prioritization. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BEWARE, PERSON-YEARS! EXPERIENCE OF SIMPSON PARADOX OBSERVATION IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RISK EXAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Obesnyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, on the examples of concrete publications, that "person-years" category application in multi-factor health risks analysis can lead to false conclusions in the process of observation data grouping due to Simpson paradox influence when examinations are performed via demographic or epidemiological techniques. The paradox occurs when heterogeneous strata are being compared. "Person-years" category first appeared in the middle of the 17th century, long before first applications of mathematical tools in statistics and probability theory; it does not fully correspond to up-to-date requirements of epidemiological research. Risk theory should change 17–18 century paradigm as it focuses on conditional probability of unwanted events occurrence and not on a principle of comparing their intensities. It is particularly vital in case when we deal with determining possible damage to health caused by effects exerted by such factors and under such conditions when individual damage cannot be measured objectively but when it is possible to quantitatively determine regularities of changes in stochastic ability to survive for a large group of people or remote consequences occurrence for it. We prove it is necessary to create specialized mathematical tools and hybrid software able to solve a risks assessment task as an inverse one. Mathematical tools of large contingency tables could serve as prototypes of such tools; we can also use multi-factor logistical and Poisson regressions which are usually applied in countable events analysis. We should note that it is also necessary to eliminate a number of methodological drawbacks which are attributable to the said tools.

  12. Looking Back into Trans Persons' Experiences in Heteronormative Secondary Physical Education Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devís-Devís, José; Pereira-García, Sofía; López-Cañada, Elena; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Fuentes-Miguel, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Background: School is one of the primary settings where non-gender conformer children and adolescents emerge as vulnerable groups at high risk of suffering violence and harassment. Within schooling contexts, embodied experiences in physical education (PE) may become particularly problematic for trans students. However, there is little research…

  13. Communication for Development: A Personal Experience with Implications for Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunga, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication for Development (C4D) is a new academic discipline and profession for addressing human dimension concerns in development, such as local participation, integration and capacity building, which are the main issues limiting aid effectiveness. However, my experience in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Africa and where a…

  14. Student Musicians' Experiences of Reflexivity during Internships: Personal Narratives and Complex Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Reid, Anna; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    A presumption behind work-integrated learning activities such as internship programmes is that student thinking will shift as a result of exposure to industry practice. We wondered if all students experience this change in the positive sense that teachers expect. To examine this presumption we asked to what extent and in what ways students…

  15. A Facet Theory Model for Integrating Contextual and Personal Experiences of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…

  16. The ARSQ 2.0 reveals age and personality effects on mind-wandering experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, B Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Stoffers, Diederick; Hardstone, Richard; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Van Someren, Eus J W; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The human brain frequently generates thoughts and feelings detached from environmental demands. Investigating the rich repertoire of these mind-wandering experiences is challenging, as it depends on introspection and mapping its content requires an unknown number of dimensions. We recently developed

  17. Can a Discrete Choice Experiment contribute to person-centred healthcare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    be little point consulting the averages if this is done. A scan of recent Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) publications reveals frequent claims that the group-level results can somehow contribute to, or facilitate, better clinical decision making. Typically there are only vague or ambiguous indications...

  18. The effects of sensory impairments on product experience and personal well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the roles the sensory modalities play in user-product interactions, one modality was blocked during the execution of eight simple tasks. Participants reported how they experienced the products and how they felt during the experiment. Blocking vision resulted in the largest loss of

  19. Sailing the Stormy Seas: The Illness Experience of Persons with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Hermanns, Melinda; Engebretson, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive disorder with no known cause or promising cure. While substantial information is known about the pathophysiology, little is known about the illness experience of living with the disease. A qualitative study using an ethnographic approach was conducted to provide a rich understanding of the illness…

  20. Broadening Student Understanding of Wartime Experience through Original Works of Art and Personal Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Tracy A. Sugarman served in the U.S. Navy as a lieutenant, junior grade, in the European theater during World War II. During his years of service from 1942-45, in addition to writing letters home, he recorded his experiences through original artwork. His sketches and watercolor paintings, completed before, during, and after D-Day, with titles such…

  1. Qualitative insights into women's personal experiences of perinatal depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Nicole; Stevenson, Amanda L; Purtell, Carol; Coo, Soledad

    2014-09-01

    Symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety are usually described and understood from a nosological perspective. This research sought to gain insight into women's lived experience of postnatal depression and anxiety, the factors that contribute to these symptoms and the context in which they develop. Face to face and telephone interviews were conducted with 28 women from metropolitan and rural areas across Australia, who had experienced postnatal depression and/or anxiety within the last five years. Analysis was conducted from a grounded theory perspective. Particular symptoms of anxiety and depression develop in the context of the numerous changes inherent to the transition to motherhood and contribute to a common experience of frustration and loss. Symptoms were also associated with feelings of dissatisfaction with the pregnancy and motherhood experience. The findings provide useful insights into women's experiences of mental health symptoms during the perinatal period, how these symptoms present and the factors involved in their development and maintenance. The need to consider women's perspectives to develop resources and health promotions strategies, as well as within the context of relationships with health professionals is highlighted. The study emphasizes the need for greater, more accurate information surrounding perinatal depression and the need to increase the profile and awareness of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of personal experience on choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis; Jose Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss and cost. Preference heterogeneity among survey respondents was examined using three econometric models and risk preferences were evaluated by comparing willingness to pay for wildfire protection...

  3. Does personal experience affect choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Thomas P. Holmes; John B. Loomis; José J. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss, and cost. A phone-mail-phone survey was used to collect data from homeowners predominantly living in medium and high wildfire risk communities in Florida. We tested three hypotheses: (1) homeowner...

  4. Subjective experiences of an art museum engagement activity for persons with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Jason D; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2015-06-01

    To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer's disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRDs) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion of a 1-time, 3-hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and self-esteem. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants' overall satisfaction with the program. Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer's disease and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. “IF A PERSON USES ALCOHOL THE REAL YOU COMES OUT”: EXPLORING THE SELF, SEXUAL EXPERIENCES AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botes, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the role substances play in relation to the experiences of the self and sexual behaviour of the substance users, which may be of significance for the rehabilitation process. Based on Carl Rogers’s person-centred approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a voluntary sample of seven participants in a treatment centre in Pretoria, South Africa. The findings suggest that the use of substances assists the individual in relieving psychological tensions and to experience euphoric sexual encounters in the process in a way that is congruent with the self-perception. These aspects needs to be taken into consideration in the treatment regimen

  6. Subjective Experiences of an Art Museum Engagement Activity for Persons with Early Alzheimer’s disease and their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Jason D.; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRD) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion one-time, three hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and a sense of self. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants’ overall satisfaction with the program. Discussion Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. PMID:25216658

  7. It is not just a meal, it is an emotional experience – A segmentation of older persons based on the emotions that they associate with mealtimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijl, den L.C.; Jager, G.; Graaf, de C.; Waddell, W.J.; Kremer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the group of older persons is growing fast. To aid this important group in their food and meal requirements, a deeper insight into the expectations and experiences of these persons regarding their mealtimes and snack times is needed. In the current study, we aim to identify consumer

  8. The Impact of Personal Loss on the Experience of Health Professions: Graduate Students in End-of-Life and Bereavement Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P.; Vaughn-Cole, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of prior personal experience with grief on self-reported personal and professional development of graduate students in nursing, social work, counseling, pastoral care, and genetic counseling involved as cofacilitators in bereavement support groups, and of medical students observing interdisciplinary inpatient…

  9. Social determinants, lived experiences, and consequences of household food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Magerenge, Richard O; Young, Sera L; Oguta, Joel O; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity is a considerable challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, disproportionately affecting persons living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigates the lived experience, determinants, and consequences of food insecurity and hunger among individuals living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria in Suba District, Kenya. Parallel mixed methods included semi-structured interviews and administration of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale among a systematic sample of 67 persons living with HIV/AIDS (49 of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART]). All respondents were either severely (79.1%) or moderately (20.9%) food insecure; no respondents were mildly food insecure or food secure. Qualitative data and simple and multiple linear regression models indicated that significant determinants of food insecurity include increased age, a greater number of children, and not being married. A number of themes related to food insecurity and ART emerged, including: (1) an increase in hunger or appetite since initiating ART; (2) exacerbation of ART-related side effects; and (3) non-adherence to ART due to hunger, food insecurity, or agricultural work responsibilities. HIV interventions should address food insecurity and hunger, particularly among at-risk populations, to promote ART adherence and better health outcomes.

  10. Participation in physical and social activities among home-dwelling persons with dementia – experiences of next of kin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn U

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn,1 Bjørg Landmark,2,3 Sissel Eriksen,2 Olle Söderhamn11Center for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, 2Institute of Research and Development for Nursing and Care Services, Municipality of Drammen, Drammen, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayIntroduction: To be next of kin to a home-dwelling person with dementia is known to be a heavy burden, especially early in the process. Studies have revealed a need for information and support during the disease process. Likewise, there is support for the positive impacts of physical and social activities for wellbeing in home-dwelling people with dementia. It is important to obtain experiences from next of kin whose spouses or parents participate in such physical and social activities.Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate the experiences of next of kin to home-dwelling persons in an early stage of dementia who had an opportunity to participate in organized physical and social activities.Method: The study has a qualitative design. Focus group interviews were conducted with ten next of kin to home-dwelling dementia sufferers, who participated in physical and social activities in an activity center. The interview texts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Findings: In the analysis, two categories emerged: "a break in the everyday" and "being attended and cared about." Two sub-categories identified in each of the two main categories were: "need of relief" and "meaningful activities;" and "being confirmed" and "sharing experiences and getting advice and help," respectively. These categories were interpreted in an overall theme: "contentment with adapted activities and group meetings provided with a person-centered approach."Conclusion: Adapted physical and social activities led by highly qualified personnel can provide needed relief and support to the next of kin, and

  11. Integrating Remote Labs into Personal Learning Environments - Experiential Learning with Tele-operated Experiments and E-portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Terkowsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of laboratories in Higher Engineering Education is an adequate opportunity to implement forms of experiential learning like problem-based or research-based learning into manufacturing technology. The introduction of remote laboratories gives students the opportunity to do self-directed research and by that having their own and unique learning experiences. Recently finished research projects, e.g. the PeTEX project, implemented research-based learning by deploying real laboratory equipment without being physically in the laboratory but by accessing it via the Internet. One essential question in this context is on the one hand how the student can document his/her own learning processes and how the teacher can guide the student through these processes on the other hand. The proposed solution in this paper is a personal learning environment that integrates a remote lab and an e-portfolio system. E-portfolios enable the student to individually and collectively document and reflect what he/she has been doing and to share his/her outcomes with others. The paper outlines the important role that e-portfolios can play as personal learning environments to experience remote laboratory work and to foster creative attitudes.

  12. The Impact of Stigma and Personal Experiences on the Help-Seeking Behaviors of Medical Students With Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Eacker, Anne; Durning, Steven J; Brazeau, Chantal; Moutier, Christine; Massie, F Stanford; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2015-07-01

    Because of the high prevalence of burnout among medical students and its association with professional and personal consequences, the authors evaluated the help-seeking behaviors of medical students with burnout and compared their stigma perceptions with those of the general U.S. population and age-matched individuals. The authors surveyed students at six medical schools in 2012. They measured burnout, symptoms of depression, and quality of life using validated instruments and explored help-seeking behaviors, perceived stigma, personal experiences, and attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment. Of 2,449 invited students, 873 (35.6%) responded. A third of respondents with burnout (154/454; 33.9%) sought help for an emotional/mental health problem in the last 12 months. Respondents with burnout were more likely than those without burnout to agree or strongly agree with 8 of 10 perceived stigma items. Respondents with burnout who sought help in the last 12 months were twice as likely to report having observed supervisors negatively judge students who sought care (odds ratio [OR] 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-3.39], P student's emotional/mental health problem to others (OR 1.63 [95% CI 1.08-2.47], P = .02). A smaller percentage of respondents would definitely seek professional help for a serious emotional problem (235/872; 26.9%) than of the general population (44.3%) and age-matched individuals (38.8%). Only a third of medical students with burnout seek help. Perceived stigma, negative personal experiences, and the hidden curriculum may contribute.

  13. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Smith, Adrienne; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about trans womens' experiences accessing gender-segregated health and housing services, particularly services for marginalized individuals living in poverty. As such, we conducted a qualitative investigation into experiences of accessing women-specific health and housing services among trans women and two-spirit persons in a downtown neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2012 and May 2013 interviews were conducted with 32 trans women and two-spirit individuals who had accessed women-specific health and/or housing services. Participants were recruited from four open prospective cohorts of sex workers and individuals who use drugs. Interview data were analyzed using a participatory analysis approach with two participants who were hired as research assistants. Participants were generally able to access women-specific services in the neighborhood. However, there were reports of discrimination related to gender identity, discrimination based on gender expression (e.g., requirement of a feminine gender expression), and lack of staff intervention in harassment from other service users. Trans women and two-spirit persons in our study relied upon services for their health and safety and, therefore, exclusion from women-specific services had potentially severe adverse consequences such as homelessness and sexual violence. Recommendations to improve accessibility, including policy development and procedural recommendations, are put forth.

  14. Prior Negative Experience, Online Privacy Concerns and Intent to Disclose Personal Information in Chinese Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei “Chris†Yang

    2014-01-01

    A paper survey of 489 Chinese college students was conducted in spring, 2012 to test a conceptual model of online information disclosure in social media. It shows that young Chinese SNS users' prior negative experience of online disclosure significantly increased their online privacy concerns and their perceived risk. Their online privacy concerns undermined their trust of online companies, marketers and laws to protect privacy and elevated their perceived risk. Their trust strongly predicted...

  15. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  16. Impact of dialectical behavior therapy versus community treatment by experts on emotional experience, expression, and acceptance in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S; Rizvi, Shireen L; Linehan, Marsha M

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Adverse childhood experience effects on opioid use initiation, injection drug use, and overdose among persons with opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Conti, Micah T; Kenney, Shannon; Anderson, Bradley J; Flori, Jessica N; Risi, Megan M; Bailey, Genie L

    2017-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the development of substance use disorders. With opioid use disorder, a growing concern in the United States, we were interested in examining the relationship between adverse experiences and three landmarks of opioid use: age of opioid initiation, injection drug use, and lifetime overdose. Between May and December 2015, we interviewed consecutive persons seeking inpatient opioid detoxification. Participants were asked about age of opioid initiation, last month injection drug use, and lifetime history of overdose, and completed the ten-item Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Participants (n=457) averaged 32.2 (±8.64) years of age, 71.3% were male, and 82.5% were non-Hispanic White. The mean score on the ACE scale was 3.64 (±2.75). Mean age at time of initiating opioid use was 21.7 (±7.1) years, 68.7% had injected drugs within the past month, and 39.0% had overdosed. After adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity, the ACE score was inversely associated with age of initiating opioid use (b=-0.50, 95% CI -0.70; -0.29, pchildhood experiences are associated with three landmarks of opioid use risk. ACE screening may be useful in identifying high-risk subsets of opioid-using populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are you a ``physics person''? Understanding students' experiences, identities, and beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Geoff

    2015-03-01

    For several years, there has been much attention paid to the dearth of women in physics. Discussion has centered on various explanatory frameworks as to why women do not pursue physics in college as a career and on their persistence in such pursuits. In this talk, I will summarize efforts by our group to investigate recruitment and persistence issues for women in high school and undergraduate physics. Viewed through the lens of identity, we have repeatedly seen the importance of high school students' beliefs about the recognition they receive as a ``physics person'' to their identity development (especially so for women) and, ultimately, their physics-related career choices. Separately, we have studied the ways in which students evaluate their male and female physics teachers, which is an avenue to unravel students' beliefs and (possible) gender biases towards competency in physics. We have found statistically significant and replicable bias (in repeated independent measurements) against female physics teachers, exhibited by both male and female students. Lastly, I will report on a series of interventions that we have implemented in introductory college physics classrooms as attempts to positively affect women's attitudes towards physics, and their physics identities specifically. NSF Grant No. 1036617.

  19. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers’ and helpers’ experiences of teacher–student relationships in upper secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Krane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher–student relationship (TSR is developed and promoted in upper secondary school.We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants’ descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1 to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2 collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3 flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4 organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students’ everyday life.

  20. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers’ and helpers’ experiences of teacher–student relationships in upper secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher–student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school. We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants’ descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students’ everyday life. PMID:27707451

  1. My personal experiences at the BEST Medical Center: A day in the clinic-the afternoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Ida Lystic is a gastroenterologist who recently began her new faculty position at the BEST (Byron Edwards and Samuel Thompson) Medical Center. After completing her MD degree at the prestigious Harvey Medical School (recently renamed the Harvey Provider School), she did her internal medicine residency and fellowship training at the OTHER (Owen T. Henry and Eugene Rutherford) Medical Center. Her morning in gastroenterology clinic was highlighted by: (1) being reprimanded by the clinic nurse manager for a patient who not only arrived early, before clinic had opened, but also neglected to schedule the anesthesiologist for his colonoscopy; (2) the continued challenges of LEGEND (also known as Lengthy and Excessively Graded Evaluation and Nomenclature for Diagnosis by her colleagues), the new electronic medical record system after the BEST discarded the SIMPLE (Succinct Input Making Patient's Lives Electronic) system; (3) a nurse's interruption of an office visit-once the egg timer on the examination room door ran out-because she had exceeded the allocated time for the appointment; and (4) her chairman's unanticipated arrival in the clinic to visit with the clinic nurse manager. In addition to seeing her patients, Dr. Lystic's afternoon is occupied by attending a LOST (Laboratory OverSight and Testing) Committee meeting and a visit from a wayfinding and signage specialist to depersonalize the doorpost plaques of the examination rooms. Her day ends with a demeaning email from her chairman regarding the poor results of the most recent patient satisfaction survey and being personally held accountable to develop solutions to improve not only her performance but also that of the clinic. Although Dr. Ida Lystic and the gastroenterology clinic at "the BEST Medical Center" are creations of the authors' imagination, the majority of the anecdotes mentioned in this essay are based on individual patients and their physicians, clinics in medical centers and their administration

  2. Personal drug selection: problem-based learning in pharmacology: experience from a medical school in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P Ravi; Palaian, Subish; Gyawali, Sudesh; Mishra, Pranaya; Mohan, Lalit

    2007-06-13

    At the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, Pharmacology is taught during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Personal or P-drug selection is an important exercise. The present study was carried out to obtain student opinion about the P-drug learning sessions, the assessment examinations, and on the small group dynamics. The practical sessions on P-drug selection are carried out in small groups. Student feedback about the session was obtained using focus group discussions. The focus groups were selected to represent both genders and the three main nationalities, Nepalese, Indians, and Sri Lankans. There were four Nepalese, five Indians, and three Sri Lankans. Within each nationality and gender category the students were randomly selected. The respondents were explained the objectives of the study and were invited to participate. Written informed consent was obtained. The discussion lasted around two hours and was conducted in the afternoon in two groups of six students each. The first author (PRS) acted as a facilitator. The responses were recorded and analyzed qualitatively. The overall student opinion was positive. Around 25% (3 respondents) of respondents were confused about whether P-drugs were for a disease or a patient. Group consensus was commonly used to give numerical values for the different criteria. The large number of brands created problems in calculating cost. The students wanted more time for the exercise in the examination. Formative assessment during the learning sessions may be considered. The group members usually got along well. Absenteeism was a problem and not all members put in their full effort. The physical working environment should be improved. Based on what the students say, the sessions on P-drugs should be continued and strengthened. Modifications in the sessions are required. Sessions during the clinical years and internship training can be considered.

  3. Personal drug selection: problem-based learning in pharmacology: experience from a medical school in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, Pharmacology is taught during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Personal or P-drug selection is an important exercise. The present study was carried out to obtain student opinion about the P-drug learning sessions, the assessment examinations, and on the small group dynamics. METHOD: The practical sessions on P-drug selection are carried out in small groups. Student feedback about the session was obtained using focus group discussions. The focus groups were selected to represent both genders and the three main nationalities, Nepalese, Indians, and Sri Lankans. There were four Nepalese, five Indians, and three Sri Lankans. Within each nationality and gender category the students were randomly selected. The respondents were explained the objectives of the study and were invited to participate. Written informed consent was obtained. The discussion lasted around two hours and was conducted in the afternoon in two groups of six students each. The first author (PRS acted as a facilitator. The responses were recorded and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: The overall student opinion was positive. Around 25% (3 respondents of respondents were confused about whether P-drugs were for a disease or a patient. Group consensus was commonly used to give numerical values for the different criteria. The large number of brands created problems in calculating cost. The students wanted more time for the exercise in the examination. Formative assessment during the learning sessions may be considered. The group members usually got along well. Absenteeism was a problem and not all members put in their full effort. The physical working environment should be improved. CONCLUSIONS: Based on what the students say, the sessions on P-drugs should be continued and strengthened. Modifications in the sessions are required. Sessions during the clinical years and internship training

  4. Community-based medical education: is success a result of meaningful personal learning experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Len; Walters, Lucie; Rosenthal, David

    2014-01-01

    Community-based medical education (CBME) is the delivery of medical education in a specific social context. Learners become a part of social and medical communities where their learning occurs. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) are year-long community-based placements where the curriculum and clinical experience is typically delivered by primary care physicians. These programs have proven to be robust learning environments, where learners develop strong communication skills and excellent clinical reasoning. To date, no learning model has been offered to describe CBME. The characteristics of CBME are explored by the authors who suggest that the social and professional context provided in small communities enhances medical education. The authors postulate that meaningfulness is engendered by the authentic context, which develops over time. These relationships with preceptors, patients and the community provide meaningfulness, which in turn enhances learning. The authors develop a novel learning model. They propose that the context-rich environment of CBME allows for meaningful relationships and experiences for students and that such meaningfulness enhances learning.

  5. Promoting Media Literacy’ as Practicing “Media Reform”: Reflecting on Personal Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ju Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses conceptions and practices in critical media literacy. In particular, it focuses on teaching experience and the processes which combine the educator’s reflection of theories of the ‘public sphere’, ‘media literacy’, and ‘communication civil rights’. The paper is divided into three main parts. The first of four sections will briefly cover the history of media reform and the relationship between the media reform movement and critical media literacy lessons in community colleges. It will connect this to the idea of ‘turn to the public’. The meaning and position of ‘media literacy’ in the broad media reform movement will also be analyzed. Following this, in the second section, conceptualizations of the ‘public sphere’, ‘public pedagogy’, and ‘critical media literacy pedagogy’ will be developed. Finally, three stages of the lesson design and practical interactions will be examined dialectically. In particular, the community college field research on my teaching experience will be described in the third section, and the suggestions, reflections and conclusions from the research will be examined in the last section.

  6. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  7. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant

  8. Exploring the experiences of older Chinese adults with comorbidities including diabetes: surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Background Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1) expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines); 2) comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals); 3) inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice); 4) impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress); and 5) weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support). Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion This study found that the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes was similar to that of a single disease, but the extent was greater than a single disease. The biggest difference is that the elderly think that their most serious problem is not diabetes, but rather, the comorbidities causing life limitations

  9. [Personal experiences with induced abortions in private clinics in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Paloma; McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice

    2016-02-01

    Based on a qualitative study conducted in 2012, the article analyzes middle-class individuals' experiences with induced abortions performed in private clinics. Thirty-four stories of induced abortions were narrated by 19 women and five men living in two state capitals in Northeast Brazil. Thematic analysis revealed differences in types of clinics and care provided by the physicians. The article shows that abortion in private clinics fails to guarantee safe or humane care. The narratives furnish descriptions of diverse situations and practices, ranging from flaws such as lack of information on medicines to others involving severe abuses like procedures performed without anesthesia. The article concludes that criminalization of abortion in Brazil allows clinics to operate with no state regulation; it does not prevent women from having abortions, but exposes them to total vulnerability and violation of human rights.

  10. Personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...

  11. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  12. The effect of postoperative symptom experience, and personality and psychosocial factors on depression among postgastrectomy patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takako; Onuoha, Francis N; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2006-01-01

    Depression, the most common affective disorder in cancer, has a major impact on quality of life. Various risk factors may interact and affect a cancer patient's depressive state. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and postoperative symptom experience, personality, and psychosocial factors in Japanese gastrectomy patients. Causal relationships of these variables were also estimated. Eighty-two Japanese gastrectomy patients (M age = 63.63 years, SD = 10.21; men = 50, women = 32), who had been discharged within the last 3 years with no indication of cancer recurrence, participated in the study. Results showed significant correlations between depression and age, time-since-discharge, postoperative symptom experience, frequency of symptoms, self-esteem, and emotional support. Path analysis showed sufficient goodness of fit index (GFI = 0.993, AGFI = 0.963). Interpersonal dependency, emotional support, and marital status showed a direct effect on self-esteem, which, along with postoperative symptom experience, had a direct effect on depression. Findings provide a useful reference point for further understanding the mental health condition of postgastrectomy patients.

  13. Understanding of emotional experience in autism: insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Capps, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed for thematic content and discourse structure. Whereas high-functioning children with autism were able to discuss contextually appropriate accounts of simple emotions, their strategies for interpreting all types of emotional (but not nonemotional) experiences differed from those used by typically developing children. High-functioning children with autism were less inclined to organize their emotional accounts in personalized causal-explanatory frameworks and displayed a tendency to describe visually salient elements of experiences seldom observed among comparison children. Findings suggest that children with autism possess less coherent representations of emotional experiences and use alternative strategies for interpreting emotionally evocative encounters. Discussion focuses on the significance of these findings for informing the nature of emotional dysfunction in autism as well as implications for theories of emotional understanding in typical development.

  14. Reported emergency department avoidance, use, and experiences of transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Deutsch, Madeline B; Massarella, Carys

    2014-06-01

    Transgender, transsexual, or transitioned (trans) people have reported avoiding medical care because of negative experiences or fear of such experiences. The extent of trans-specific negative emergency department (ED) experiences, and of ED avoidance, has not been documented. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a survey of trans people in Ontario, Canada (n=433) in 2009 to 2010, using respondent-driven sampling, a tracked network-based method for studying hidden populations. Weighted frequencies and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the trans population in Ontario and for the subgroup (n=167) reporting ED use in their felt gender. Four hundred eight participants completed the ED experience items. Trans people were young (34% aged 16 to 24 years and only 10% >55 years); approximately half were female-to-male and half male-to-female. Medically supervised hormones were used by 37% (95% CI 30% to 46%), and 27% (95% CI 20% to 35%) had at least 1 transition-related surgery. Past-year ED need was reported by 33% (95% CI 26% to 40%) of trans Ontarians, though only 71% (95% CI 40% to 91%) of those with self-reported need indicated that they were able to obtain care. An estimated 21% (95% CI 14% to 25%) reported ever avoiding ED care because of a perception that their trans status would negatively affect such an encounter. Trans-specific negative ED experiences were reported by 52% (95% CI 34% to 72%) of users presenting in their felt gender. This first exploratory analysis of ED avoidance, utilization, and experiences by trans persons documented ED avoidance and possible unmet need for emergency care among trans Ontarians. Additional research, including validation of measures, is needed. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA

    OpenAIRE

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...

  16. The personal development tutor role: an exploration of student and lecturer experiences and perceptions of that relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Janis; Head, Kevin; King, Linda; Perry, Patricia M; Smith, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study formed part of the Leadership in Compassionate Care Programme (LCCP) that considered embedding the principles of person-centred compassionate care within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Currently, there is a lack of literature regarding compassionate care in relation to the student-personal development tutor (PDT) relationship. The aim of the study was to explore the current personal development tutor role, within a pre-registration adult nursing programme, in relation to the support provided to students by PDTs and from this, establish what was important in the role from the student and lecturer perspectives, within the context of the LCCP. A qualitative approach utmilising participant interviews was employed. Six undergraduate nursing students on a Bachelor of Nursing adult programme and five PDTs participated in the study and Emotional Touchpoint technique was used to elicit participant experiences. Data were analysed using an adapted version of the Senses Framework, originally proposed by Nolan et al. (2006). The results demonstrate the importance that students and their PDTs attach to the relationship and how elements of care arising from the Senses Framework are fundamental to developing and sustaining this relationship. Further, it is apparent that role modelling in relation to care is considered an important element of the PDT role which has relevance to nurse education and practice. In light of these findings a range of strategies are proposed to enhance the PDT relationship by utilising a modified version of the Senses Framework as a model for PDT and student interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  18. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  19. Sensory Processing Dysfunction in the Personal Experience and Neuronal Machinery of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Freedman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing deficits, first investigated by Kraeplin and Bleuler as possible pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia, are now being re-characterized in the context of modern understanding of the involved molecular and neurobiological brain mechanisms. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria position these deficits as intermediaries between molecular and cellular mechanisms and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations. The pre-pulse inhibition of startle responses by a weaker preceding tone, the inhibitory gating of response to paired sensory stimuli characterized using the auditory P50 evoked response, and the detection of slightly different stimuli that elicits the cortical Mismatch Negativity potential demonstrate deficits in early sensory processing mechanisms, whose molecular and neurobiological bases are increasingly well understood. Deficits in sensory processing underlie more complex cognitive dysfunction and, vice versa, are affected by higher-level cognitive difficulties. These deficits are now being used to identify genes involved in familial transmission of the illness and to monitor potentially therapeutic drug effects for both treatment and prevention. This research also provides a clinical reminder that patients’ sensory perception of the surrounding world, even during treatment sessions, may differ considerable from others’ perceptions. A person’s ability to understand and interact effectively with surrounding world ultimately depends upon an underlying sensory experience of it. PMID:25553496

  20. Mi fuerza/my strength. The academic and personal experiences of Chicana/Latina transfer students in math and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Yvonne

    This study unravels Chicana/Latina college students' perceptions of their experiences after transfer to two four-year universities. The study expands current research and provides a richer, detailed perspective of transfer students' experiences in the fields of math and science through the lens of a Feminist Critical Race Theory. The study specifically focuses on the experience of these students through their narratives, including their academic preparation, reasons for campus selection, and their academic and social integration after transferring to the senior institution. The study includes students who transferred from Santa Ana College, a Hispanic Serving Institution, that enrolls over 24,000 students, 42% of which are from "Hispanic" backgrounds. Female students who transferred from Santa Ana College to one of two four-year universities, University of California, Irvine, or California State University, Fullerton, were selected for participation. A comparative analysis of experiences at the two senior institutions was conducted. Also included was an examination of how each campus promoted or hindered the success of students. Findings will guide policy recommendations at the two- and four-year college level, and may impact statewide policies regarding transfer of Chicanas/Latinas into math and science fields. Moreover, this study will add to the limited research available in the field of community college students and transfer student experiences.

  1. Double-duty caregivers: healthcare professionals juggling employment and informal caregiving. A survey on personal health and work experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the work-related experiences and personal health status of double-duty caregivers with those of caregivers who do not provide informal care to a family member or close friend in need. The interest in providing informal care alongside employment is growing. However, little attention has been paid to the dual role of the healthcare professional who also has caregiving responsibilities for a needy person in his/her private situation. It is important to study the negative and positive consequences of this combination of professional and family care giving. A cross-sectional study. In 2011, we distributed a digital questionnaire to employees with a professional care function working at a healthcare organization in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance and tests of linearity were performed. Analyses of variance demonstrated that as professional healthcare workers provide more hours of informal care in their private lives, their mental and physical health significantly worsens, while their need for recovery increases. Also, statistical significant increases were seen for emotional exhaustion, presenteeism and negative experiences with Work-Home and Home-Work Interferences. Remarkably, positive Home-Work Interference increased significantly with increasing hours of informal care. Double-duty caregivers appeared to be equally motivated and satisfied with their work as their co-workers. No differences were seen with respect to absenteeism. Double-duty caregivers prove to be employees who are at risk of developing symptoms of overload. This finding calls for special attention, with long-term solutions at both legislative and organizational level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism and childhood social experiences shape adult personality, brain structure and neural correlates of mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Jansen, A; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Witt, S H; Rietschel, M; Kircher, T

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin system is involved in human social behavior and social cognition such as attachment, emotion recognition and mentalizing (i.e. the ability to represent mental states of oneself and others). It is shaped by social experiences in early life, especially by parent-infant interactions. The single nucleotid polymorphism rs53576 in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene has been linked to social behavioral phenotypes. In 195 adult healthy subjects we investigated the interaction of OXTR rs53576 and childhood attachment security (CAS) on the personality traits "adult attachment style" and "alexithymia" (i.e. emotional self-awareness), on brain structure (voxel-based morphometry) and neural activation (fMRI) during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (prisoner's dilemma game; subgroup: n=163). We found that in GG-homozygotes, but not in A-allele carriers, insecure childhood attachment is - in adulthood - associated with a) higher attachment-related anxiety and alexithymia, b) higher brain gray matter volume of left amygdala and lower volumes in right superior parietal lobule (SPL), left temporal pole (TP), and bilateral frontal regions, and c) higher mentalizing-related neural activity in bilateral TP and precunei, and right middle and superior frontal gyri. Interaction effects of genotype and CAS on brain volume and/or function were associated with individual differences in alexithymia and attachment-related anxiety. Interactive effects were in part sexually dimorphic. The interaction of OXTR genotype and CAS modulates adult personality as well as brain structure and function of areas implicated in salience processing and mentalizing. Rs53576 GG-homozygotes are partially more susceptible to childhood attachment experiences than A-allele carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal experiences of women with diabetes who do not attend pre-pregnancy care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, H. R.; Temple, R. C.; Ball, V. E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To explore the views of women who did not attend pre-pregnancy care (PPC), in particular their accounts of contraception, previous pregnancies and the influence of healthcare advice. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 pregnant women (21 with Type 1 diabetes, eight...... with Type 2 diabetes) at three UK specialist diabetes antenatal clinics. Interviews explored women's journeys to becoming pregnant, including use of contraception, their views regarding diabetes and pregnancy and the factors which encouraged and discouraged them from attending PPC. Results All women had...... some understanding of the issues concerning diabetes during pregnancy, predominantly regarding the benefits of PPC (90%) and optimal glycaemic control (80%) and risks of malformation (48%) and macrosomia (35%). Most were not regularly using contraception (70%), having stopped deliberately (45%), become...

  4. The adverse effects of oral desmopressin lyophilisate (MELT): personal experience on enuretic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Franceschini, Giulia; Mercurio, Serena; Del Vescovo, Ester; Ianniello, Francesca; Petitti, Tommasangelo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse effects of oral desmopressin lyophilisate (MELT) in enuretic children. We enrolled 260 children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) referred to the Pediatric Service, 'Campus Bio-Medico' University of Rome, from April 2014 to April 2017 in the study, of these 23 were excluded. The study was characterized by 2 phases. During Phase 1 a careful patient's medical history was obtained and physical examination was performed. After 3 months of treatment with MELT (Minirin/DDAVP ® ) at the dose of 120 mcg a day, a micturition diary was kept, adherence to therapy and any possible adverse effects were checked during the Phase 2. The study was carried out in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration. Among 237 patients included in the study 11 male and 6 female (n=17; 7.2%) patients with a mean age 10.06±2.49 years, reported 22 adverse effects, with an absolute risk of 7.17%. In particular, 5 neurological symptoms, 3 gastrointestinal effects, 4 sleep disturbances, 8 psycho-behavioral disorders, 2 symptoms of fatigue were reported. In our study MELT with its higher bioavailability guaranteed lower frequency of adverse effects which resolved spontaneously and rapidly. The MELT formulation actually represents the first line and safe treatment for the NE.

  5. 'Bringing respite in the burden of illness' - dog handlers' experience of visiting older persons with dementia together with a therapy dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swall, Anna; Ebbeskog, Britt; Lundh Hagelin, Carina; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2016-08-01

    To illuminate meanings of the lived experiences of dog handlers' when visiting older persons with dementia with their therapy dog. Studies indicate that care of persons with dementia should focus on a person-centred approach with the person's interests in the centre. Animal-assisted therapy using a therapy dog in the care of persons with dementia has been shown to increase well-being and decrease problematic behaviours associated with the illness. A qualitative lifeworld approach was adopted for this study. Data were collected from open-ended interviews with nine dog handlers, and the analysis conducted using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. The structural analysis resulted in one theme, 'Respite from the burden of illness for persons with dementia'. Visiting a person with dementia can be seen as an act of caring, providing temporary respite from their illness, and creating a special relationship between handler and patient. A therapy dog visit can represent a moment of communion between the handler and the person with dementia. Dog handlers use their skills and knowledge to promote a situation that reduces symptoms of illness and encourages healthier behaviour. The results of this study may be of interest to researchers, clinical practitioners, caregivers and dog handlers who care for persons with dementia using therapy dog teams on prescription as an alternative method to minimise behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Relationships between self-reported childhood traumatic experiences, attachment style, neuroticism and features of borderline personality disorders in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Joffe, Grigori; Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Aaltonen, Kari; Suominen, Kirsi; Rosenström, Tom; Näätänen, Petri; Karpov, Boris; Heikkinen, Martti; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, and multivariate regression (MRA) and mediation analyses were conducted. Spearman's correlations were strong (rho=0.58; p<0.001) between total scores of MSI and S5 Neuroticism and moderate (rho=0.42; p<0.001) between MSI and TADS as well as between MSI and ECR-R Attachment Anxiety. In MRA, young age, S5 Neuroticism and TADS predicted scores of MSI (p<0.001). ECR-R Attachment Anxiety mediated 33% (CI=17-53%) of the relationships between TADS and MSI. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. We found moderately strong correlations between self-reported BPD features and concurrent high neuroticism, reported childhood traumatic experiences and Attachment Anxiety also among patients with mood disorders. Independent predictors for BPD features include young age, frequency of childhood traumatic experiences and high neuroticism. Insecure attachment may partially mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and borderline features among mood disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: personal experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Andrea; Autieri, Gaspare; Centrella, Danilo; Gastaldi, Christian; Pedaci, Giuseppe; Rivolta, Lorenzo; Pozzi, Emilio; Anghileri, Alessio; Cerabino, Maurizio; Bianchi, Carlo Maria; Roggia, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. In the future, a significant further increase in the incidence of prostate cancer is expected. The indication to perform a prostate biopsy is digital rectal examination suspicious for prostate cancer, total prostate specific antigen (PSA) value, free PSA/total PSA ratio, PSA density and PSA velocity, and an evidence of hypoechoic area at transrectal ultrasound scan. Unfortunately the specificity and sensibility are still poor. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the specificity and sensibility of real time elastography versus ultrasound transrectal B-mode scan. We retrospectively evaluated 108 pts. having undergone TRUS-guided transrectal prostate biopsy (10 samples). The indication for biopsy is: digital rectal examination, total prostate specific antigen (PSA) value, PSA ratio, PSA density and PSA velocity suspicious for prostate cancer, and/or an evidence of hypoechoic area at transrectal ultrasound scan, and/or hard area at real-time elastography. The mean age of patients is 66.8 years, mean PSA 6.5 ng/mL, and mean ratio 16.5%. We compared the histopathological findings of needle prostate biopsies with the results of transrectal ultrasound and transrectal real-time elastography. 32/108 (29.6%) pts. were positive for prostate cancer (mean Gleason score 7.08), mean PSA 14 ng/mL and mean ratio 9.5%. Transrectal ultrasound scan shows a sensibility of 69% and specificity of 68%. Transrectal ultrasound scan shows a VPP of 51.4%. Transrectal ultrasound scan shows a VPN of 80.9%. Real-time elastography shows a sensibility of 56% and specificity of 85.7%. Real-time elastography shows a VPP of 60.1%. Real-time elastography shows a VPN of 83%. Elastography has a significantly higher specificity for the detection of prostate cancer than the conventionally used examinations including DRE and TRUS. It is a useful real-time diagnostic method because it is not invasive, and simultaneous evaluation is possible

  8. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning.

  9. "Broken covenant": healthcare aides' "experience of the ethical" in caring for dying seniors in a personal care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClement, Susan; Lobchuk, Michelle; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Dean, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and seniors constitute the fastest growing demographic in the nation. The chronic health conditions, limited social support, functional decline, and cognitive impairment experienced by seniors may necessitate admission to a personal care home (PCH) setting up until the time of their death. The ethical problems that arise in the care of dying patients are numerous and complicated. The care of dying seniors in PCHs, however, is largely provided by frontline workers such as healthcare aides (HCAs), who usually have little training in palliative care or ethics. Research examining the identification and resolution of ethical problems in care of the dying has been conducted from the perspectives of nurses and physicians in various clinical settings, but the voice of HCAs in PCHs is virtually absent from clinical ethics. Given that the inability to satisfactorily resolve ethical issues in clinical practice is associated with feelings of guilt, powerlessness, avoiding contact with patients, failing to provide good physical care, and increased staff turnover, an empirical examination of HCAs' experiences of ethically challenging situations is warranted. We conducted a phenomenological study to access the lived experience of HCAs (N = 12) working in proprietary and nonproprietary care homes as they encountered situations they deemed ethically challenging in providing end-of-life care to dying seniors. The findings reported here explicate: (1) the types of situations that are ethically problematic for HCAs; (2) the meanings they assign to these situations, and (3) the impact such situations have on the provision of end-of-life care.

  10. The impact of personal loss on the experience of health professions: graduate students in end-of-life and bereavement care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P; Vaughn-Cole, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of prior personal experience with grief on self-reported personal and professional development of graduate students in nursing, social work, counseling, pastoral care, and genetic counseling involved as cofacilitators in bereavement support groups, and of medical students observing interdisciplinary inpatient palliative care. Personal experience with death of a family member or close friend was reported in 80% of the 35 participating students. Findings suggest that grief and the students' construction of the meaning of their loss can mediate the students' developing sense of self as a professional helper. Active engagement with suffering persons, the opportunity for self-disclosure and reflection, and teacher-facilitator provision of emotional guidance and modeling contributed positively to learning.

  11. Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress among male train drivers after the experience of 'person under the train' incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja; Nanninga, Imke; Fauth, Mathias; Schäfer, Ingo

    2012-09-01

    The present prospective study aimed to identify the frequency and course of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in train drivers after the experience of 'person under the train' incidents. Furthermore, associations between predictors of posttraumatic stress stratified by pre-, peri- and posttraumatic factors, psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), sense of coherence, lack of meaning in life, and post-trauma thoughts are analyzed. Patients (100% male, mean age 48 years) were assessed at the beginning (n=73), at the end (n=71) and six months (n=49) after a four-week rehabilitation program and completed validated self-report questionnaires (e.g. Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey). Train drivers experienced averagely 1.8 'person under the train' incidents (range 1-8); the majority (81%) was involved in a railway suicide. At the beginning of the rehabilitation, 44% of the patients were classified as having moderate to severe PTSD, and 14% as having severe PTSD. Posttraumatic stress decreased significantly over time (p=.003, η²=.17). We found no significant differences in the course of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, distress and QoL between patients who experienced one or more than one railway related accident or suicide. Anxiety, sense of guilt and sense of alienation emerged as the most important factors in predicting posttraumatic stress six months after rehabilitation (R²=0.55). Findings emphasize the importance of rehabilitation programs for train drivers after railway-related incidents. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation interventions particularly tailored to this patient group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between personality traits and psychotic like experiences in a large non-clinical adolescent sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, S.; Nelson, B.; Velthorst, E.; Wigman, J. T. W.; Lin, A.; Baksheev, G.; Cosgrave, E.; Ross, M.; Ryan, J.; Yung, A. R.

    Objective: The relationship between personality and psychosis is well established. It has been suggested that this relationship may be partly accounted for by higher levels of depression in individuals with certain personality traits. We explored whether the link between personality and psychotic

  13. Cross-contextual stability of bullying victimization: a person-oriented analysis of cyber and traditional bullying experiences among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erentaitė, Rasa; Bergman, Lars R; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Using a person-oriented approach the study examined whether bullying victimization at school continued into cyberspace victimization in a large sample of high school students in Lithuania (N = 1667, 58% girls), age 15-19 (M = 17.29, SD = 0.95). Three forms of traditional bullying (verbal, physical and relational) and seven forms of cyberbullying victimization through cell phones and computers were included in the analysis. The findings revealed that 35% of traditional bullying victims were also bullied in cyberspace. In particular, adolescents who experienced predominantly verbal and relational bullying at school, showed a higher risk of victimization in cyberspace a year later, while this was not observed for predominantly physical forms of traditional bullying. The findings point to the importance of a cross-contextual perspective in studies on stability of bullying victimization. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Craniofacial Surgery: Current Techniques, Clinical Experiences, and the Future of Personalized Stem Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer E. Chenard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical-size osseous defects cannot heal without surgical intervention and can pose a significant challenge to craniofacial reconstruction. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard for repair but is limited by a donor site morbidity and a potentially inadequate supply of autologous bone. Alternatives to autologous bone grafting include the use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are essential mediators of bone formation involved in the regulation of differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Here we focus on the use of BMPs in experimental models of craniofacial surgery and clinical applications of BMPs in the reconstruction of the cranial vault, palate, and mandible and suggest a model for the use of BMPs in personalized stem cell therapies.

  15. The experiences of persons living with HIV who participate in mind-body and energy therapies: a systematic review protocol of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Marie; Blake, Barbara; Stiles, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the experiences and perceptions of persons living with HIV who participate in mind-body and energy therapies. The review will focus on the use of mind-body medicine and energy therapies that include meditation, prayer, mental healing, Tai Chi, yoga, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, Qigong, reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch and electromagnetic therapy. These mind-body and energy therapies are selected categories because they do not involve options that might be contraindicated to an individual's current treatment regime. More specifically, the review questions are: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular adjunct to conventional medicine across global populations. Complementary generally refers to a non-mainstream approach together with conventional medicine whereas alternative refers to a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine. Most people use non-mainstream approaches along with conventional treatments. The World Health Organization [WHO] defines CAM as distinct health-care practices that have not been assimilated into a country's mainstream health care system.The USA's National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), formerly National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), organizes CAM into five medical system categories: whole medical systems, mind-body medicine, biologically based practices, manipulative and body-based practices, and energy therapies. Whole medical systems include homeopathy, naturopathy, traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda. Mind-body medicine includes meditation, prayer, mental healing, Tai Chi, yoga, art therapy, music therapy and dance therapy. Biologically based practices include dietary supplements, herbal supplements and a few scientifically unproven therapies. Manipulative and body-based practices include massage and spinal manipulation such as chiropractic and osteopathic. Energy therapies

  16. The impact of personal and/or close relationship experience on memorable messages about breast cancer and the perceived speech acts of the sender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Nazione, Samantha; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Memorable messages and their speech acts (purposes of the messages) can promote protection against breast cancer and guide health behaviors. Participants reported their personal, friends', and relatives' experiences with breast cancer and a memorable message about breast cancer if one came to mind. Those with a memorable message reported its perceived speech acts. Individuals who had personal and friend or relative experience with breast cancer were significantly more likely to recall memorable messages than other respondents. The most frequently perceived speech acts were providing facts, providing advice, and giving hope. This information should be used to form messages in future breast cancer protection campaigns.

  17. Patient experiences with full electronic access to health records and clinical notes through the My HealtheVet Personal Health Record Pilot: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan S; Schwartz, Erin; Tuepker, Anais; Press, Nancy A; Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nichol, W Paul

    2013-03-27

    Full sharing of the electronic health record with patients has been identified as an important opportunity to engage patients in their health and health care. The My HealtheVet Pilot, the initial personal health record of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, allowed patients and their delegates to view and download content in their electronic health record, including clinical notes, laboratory tests, and imaging reports. A qualitative study with purposeful sampling sought to examine patients' views and experiences with reading their health records, including their clinical notes, online. Five focus group sessions were conducted with patients and family members who enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oregon. A total of 30 patients enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot, and 6 family members who had accessed and viewed their electronic health records participated in the sessions. Four themes characterized patient experiences with reading the full complement of their health information. Patients felt that seeing their records positively affected communication with providers and the health system, enhanced knowledge of their health and improved self-care, and allowed for greater participation in the quality of their care such as follow-up of abnormal test results or decision-making on when to seek care. While some patients felt that seeing previously undisclosed information, derogatory language, or inconsistencies in their notes caused challenges, they overwhelmingly felt that having more, rather than less, of their health record information provided benefits. Patients and their delegates had predominantly positive experiences with health record transparency and the open sharing of notes and test results. Viewing their records appears to empower patients and enhance their contributions to care, calling into question common provider concerns about the effect of full record access on patient well-being. While shared

  18. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with schizoid personality disorder: Are in touch with reality, so they're unlikely to experience paranoia or ... People with schizoid personality disorder are at an increased risk of: Developing schizotypal personality disorder, schizophrenia or ...

  19. Evaluating the impact of a 'virtual clinic' on patient experience, personal and provider costs of care in urinary incontinence: A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Jones

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of using a 'virtual clinic' on patient experience and cost in the care of women with urinary incontinence.Women, aged > 18 years referred to a urogynaecology unit were randomised to either (1 A Standard Clinic or (2 A Virtual Clinic. Both groups completed a validated, web-based interactive, patient-reported outome measure (ePAQ-Pelvic Floor, in advance of their appointment followed by either a telephone consultation (Virtual Clinic or face-to-face consultation (Standard Care. The primary outcome was the mean 'short-term outcome scale' score on the Patient Experience Questionnaire (PEQ. Secondary Outcome Measures included the other domains of the PEQ (Communications, Emotions and Barriers, Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ, Short-Form 12 (SF-12, personal, societal and NHS costs.195 women were randomised: 98 received the intervention and 97 received standard care. The primary outcome showed a non-significant difference between the two study arms. No significant differences were also observed on the CSQ and SF-12. However, the intervention group showed significantly higher PEQ domain scores for Communications, Emotions and Barriers (including following adjustment for age and parity. Whilst standard care was overall more cost-effective, this was minimal (£38.04. The virtual clinic also significantly reduced consultation time (10.94 minutes, compared with a mean duration of 25.9 minutes respectively and consultation costs compared to usual care (£31.75 versus £72.17 respectively, thus presenting potential cost-savings in out-patient management.The virtual clinical had no impact on the short-term dimension of the PEQ and overall was not as cost-effective as standard care, due to greater clinic re-attendances in this group. In the virtual clinic group, consultation times were briefer, communication experience was enhanced and personal costs lower. For medical conditions of a sensitive or intimate nature, a virtual clinic

  20. The practicality of including the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the definition of polytrauma: experience of a level one trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has been advocated as a significant predictor of outcome in trauma. Recent trauma literature has proposed SIRS as a surrogate for physiological derangements characteristic of polytrauma with some authors recommending its inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. The practicality of daily SIRS collection outside of specifically designed prospective trials is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of SIRS variables and its appropriateness for inclusion into a definition of polytrauma. We hypothesised SIRS variables would be readily available and easy to collect, thus represent an appropriate inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. A prospective observational study of all trauma team activation patients over 7-months (August 2009 to February 2010) at a University affiliated level-1 urban trauma centre. SIRS data (temperature>38°C or 90 bpm; RR>20/min or a PaCO(2)12.0×10(9)L(-1), or 10 immature bands) collected from presentation, at 24 h intervals until 72 h post injury. Inclusion criteria were all patients generating a trauma team activation response age >16. 336 patients met inclusion criteria. In 46% (155/336) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. Lowest rates of missing data observed on admission [3% (11/336)]. Stratified by ISS>15 (132/336), in 7% (9/132) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. In 123 patients ISS>15 with complete data, 81% (100/123) developed SIRS. For Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)>2 in at least 2 body regions (64/336) in 5% (3/64) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated, with 92% (56/61) of patients with complete data developing SIRS. For Direct ICU admissions [25% (85/336)] 5% (4/85) of patients could not have serial SIRS calculated [mean ISS 15(±11)] and 90% (73/81) developed SIRS at least once over 72 h. Based on the experience of our level-1 trauma centre, the practicability of including SIRS into the

  1. Grower networks support adoption of innovations in pollination management: The roles of social learning, technical learning, and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbach, Kelly; Morgan, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-15

    Management decisions underpinning availability of ecosystem services and the organisms that provide them in agroecosystems, such as pollinators and pollination services, have emerged as a foremost consideration for both conservation and crop production goals. There is growing evidence that innovative management practices can support diverse pollinators and increase crop pollination. However, there is also considerable debate regarding factors that support adoption of these innovative practices. This study investigated pollination management practices and related knowledge systems in a major crop producing region of southwest Michigan in the United States, where 367 growers were surveyed to evaluate adoption of three innovative practices that are at various stages of adoption. The goals of this quantitative, social survey were to investigate grower experience with concerns and benefits associated with each practice, as well as the influence of grower networks, which are comprised of contacts that reflect potential pathways for social and technical learning. The results demonstrated that 17% of growers adopted combinations of bees (e.g. honey bees, Apis mellifera, with other species), representing an innovation in use by early adopters; 49% of growers adopted flowering cover crops, an innovation in use by the early majority 55% of growers retained permanent habitat for pollinators, an innovation in use by the late majority. Not all growers adopted innovative practices. We found that growers' personal experience with potential benefits and concerns related to the management practices had significant positive and negative relationships, respectively, with adoption of all three innovations. The influence of these communication links likely has different levels of importance, depending on the stage of the adoption that a practice is experiencing in the agricultural community. Social learning was positively associated with adopting the use of combinations of bees

  2. 'Wouldn't it be easier if you continued to be a guy?' - a qualitative interview study of transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin; Milton, Camilla; Ericsson, Ingrid; Strömberg, Lars

    2016-12-01

    To describe transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals during the sex reassignment process. Transsexual persons are individuals who use varying means to alter their natal sex via hormones and/or surgery. Transsexual persons may experience stigma, which increases the risk of psychological distress. Mistreatments by healthcare professionals are common. Qualitative studies addressing transsexual persons' experiences of healthcare are scarce. Qualitative descriptive design. A Swedish non-clinical convenience sample was used, consisting of six persons who had been diagnosed as transsexual, gone through sex reassignment surgery or were at the time of the interview awaiting surgery. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, and data were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Three categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The encounters were perceived as good when healthcare professionals showed respect and preserved the transsexual person's integrity, acted in a professional manner and were responsive and built trust and confidence. However, the participants experienced that healthcare professionals varied in their level of knowledge, exploited their position of power, withheld information, expressed gender stereotypical attitudes and often used the wrong name. They felt vulnerable by having a condescending view of themselves, and they could not choose not to be transsexual. They felt dependent on healthcare professionals, and that the external demands were high. Transsexual persons are in a vulnerable position during the sex reassignment surgery process. The encounters in healthcare could be negatively affected if healthcare professionals show inadequate knowledge, exploit their position of power or express gender stereotypical attitudes. A good encounter is characterised by preserved integrity, respect, responsiveness and trust. Improved education on transgender issues in nursing and medical education is

  3. An ICF-CY-based approach to assessing self- and observer-reported functioning in young persons with achondroplasia - development of the pilot version of the Achondroplasia Personal Life Experience Scale (APLES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rachel; Blömeke, Janika; Dabs, Michaela; Witt, Stefanie; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common disproportionate short stature which impacts patients' well-being. Little is known about the burden of disease in terms of functioning of patients and few disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures exist. To understand the consequences of achondroplasia, the objective of the study was to develop an achondroplasia-specific PRO tool. Focus group discussions including 34 German patients (age 8-18 years) and 21 parents were conducted and qualitatively analyzed. To identify relevant concepts, statements were coded according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children & Youth version (ICF-CY). Upon condensation, relevant statements were reformulated as items. 1950 statements related to 125 ICF-CY categories were identified. After condensation and prioritization, 59 items were retained. These were generated based on the ICF-CY domains environmental factors (27 items), activities and participation (18 items), body functions (9 items), and body structures (5 items). A new instrument, the Achondroplasia Personal Life Experience Scale (APLES) to assess burden of disease and functioning from the patients perspective of children and adolescents with achondroplasia has been developed in its pilot version based on the classification of the ICF-CY. Psychometric performance of the APLES is currently being examined. Implications for Rehabilitation Using the ICF-CY within the development of a disease-specific instrument to assess burden of disease and functioning provides guidance for clinicians and researchers in the selection of appropriate instruments complying with ICF categories. Qualitative research based on focus group interviews is an effective method to elicit experiences, beliefs, points of view, understandings, perceptions, impressions, needs and concerns as well as attitudes from the perspective of the individuals on a specific topic such as functioning. Direct assessment of the

  4. Criteria for assessing expert knowledge and reliability of responsible persons in nuclear facilities and experience gained in the testing of expert knowledge and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, J.

    1980-01-01

    The reports shows the criteria and standards set for those persons who have to take the responsibility for erection and for operating and supervising a nuclear power plant. Experiences from the testing of expert knowledge and reliability are presented. (orig.) [de

  5. "It's One of the Hardest Jobs in the World": The Experience and Understanding of Qualified Nurses Who Work with Individuals Diagnosed with Both Learning Disability and Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work…

  6. Formation and Development of the System of Metasubject and Oversubject Concepts in the Structure of the Person's Cognitive Experience within General Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letyagin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problems arising within transition from the traditional to the modern educational paradigm. Taking the use of school geography textbooks and teachers' guides as examples the author offers innovative technology for the development of student's personality cognitive experience implemented due to the combination of…

  7. Using E-Portfolios in a Field Experience Placement: Examining Student-Teachers' Attitudes towards Learning in Relationship to Personal Value, Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Trent, John; Ng, Eugenia M. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study extends the ownership of learning model by using e-portfolios in a field experience placement to examine student-teachers' attitudes towards learning in relationship to personal value, feeling in control and taking responsibility. A research model is presented based on research into ownership of learning. The student e-portfolio…

  8. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  9. Sean Leneghan, The Varieties of Ecstasy Experience: An Exploration of Person, Mind and Body in Sydney’s Club Culture (Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Langridge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book: The Varieties of Ecstasy Experience: An Exploration of Person, Mind and Body in Sydney’s Club Culture, by Sean Leneghan. Lambert Academic Publishing: Saarbrücken, Germany, 2011. ISBN: 978-3-8454-1634-2. 286 pp. (Paperback $112 U.S.

  10. Role of International Study Experiences in the Personal and Professional Development of University Lecturers in the Humanities and Social Sciences Fields in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaowiwattanakul, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of international experience on personal and professional development of university academic staff in the Humanities and Social Sciences fields in Thailand. The participants were 23 lecturers from nine universities in Thailand. A semi-structured face-to-face interviewing method was employed. The findings reveal that…

  11. Depression during pregnancy among young couples: the effect of personal and partner experiences of stressors and the buffering effects of social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divney, Anna A; Sipsma, Heather; Gordon, Derrick; Niccolai, Linda; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relationship between personal and romantic partner's experiences of stressful life events and depression during pregnancy, and the social moderators of this relationship, among 296 young couples with low incomes from urban areas. We recruited couples who were expecting a baby from four ob/gyn and ultrasound clinics in southern Connecticut; women were ages 14-21 and male partners were 14+. We analyzed self-reports of stressful events in the previous six months, depression in the past week and current interpersonal social supports. To determine the influence of personal and partner experiences of stressful events on depression, we used multilevel dyadic models and incorporated interaction terms. We also used this model to determine whether social support, family functioning and relationship satisfaction moderated the association between stressful events and depression. Experiences of stressful life events were common; 91.2% of couples had at least one member report an event. Money, employment problems, and moving were the most common events. Personal experiences of stressful life events had the strongest association with depression among men and women; although partner experiences of stressful life events were also significantly associated with depression among women. Social support, family functioning, and romantic relationship satisfaction significantly buffered the association between personal and partner stressful events and depression. Interventions that improve relationships, support systems, and family functioning may reduce the negative impact of stressors, experienced both personally and by a romantic partner, on the emotional well-being of young expectant parents. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer simulations of the experiments at RAL, LULI, and PALS carried out under HiPER including those performed at ILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yong-Joo

    2011-06-01

    Comparison of computer simulations applied to the experiments at RAL(UK), LULI(France), PALS(Czech Republic), and ILE(Japan) is given. Temporal evolution of densities, electron temperatures, compression/implosion velocities, are discussed using one dimensional hydrodynamic code (HYADES).

  13. Empirical Investigation of Select Personality, Attitudinal, and Experience-Based Antecedents of Cultural Intelligence in Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpis, Lada V.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering cultural intelligence development in undergraduate business students should be one of the goals of diversity education in undergraduate business programs due to the demands of the increasingly global workplace of today. A number of personality-based (e.g., self-monitoring personality trait), attitudinal (e.g., preference for jobs…

  14. The experiences and perceptions of persons with disabilities regarding work skills development in sheltered and protective workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Mohammed Shaheed; De Jongh, Jo Celene; Diedericks, Amy; Matthys, Kelly; Swart, Nicole; van der Pol, Petra

    2018-01-18

    Protective workshops and sheltered employment settings have been instrumental in developing the work skills of people with disabilities, however there has been a void in the literature about its influence on the ability of individuals to find employment in the open labor market. The aim of the study is to explore the experiences and perceptions of people with disabilities about the development of their work skills for transitioning into the open labor market. Five individuals with various types of disabilities and two key informants participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the qualitative paradigm specifically utilizing an exploratory and descriptive research design. In order to gather data from the participants, semi structured interviews were used. Three themes emerged from the findings of the study. Theme one, designated as "Reaching a ceiling", reflected the barriers that the participants experienced regarding work skills development. Theme two, designated as "Enablers for growth within the workplace", related to the enabling factors related to development of the work skills of persons with a disability (PWD). The final theme related to the meaning that PWD associated to their worker role and was designated as "A sense of universality". The participants highlighted that they felt their coworkers in the workshops were "like family" to them and thoroughly enjoyed the work tasks and work environment, expressing specific support from their fellow workers. Through reaching their goals, engaging in their work tasks and having the sense of universality in the workplace, the workers felt that the work they participated in gave them meaning to their life. The findings of the study indicated that managers of protective workshops and sheltered employment settings should consider selecting work tasks that enable the development of skills needed in the open labour market. A work skills development system whereby PWD in these workshops could

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between personality traits, experience, education and biosecurity compliance on poultry farms in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Manon; Venne, Daniel; Durivage, André; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Biosecurity compliance is an issue in all types of animal production. Poor compliance is frequently related to lack of knowledge or comprehension. Human dimensions, such as personality and attitudes were also suggested as being related to compliance. As part of a larger study, personality traits, experience, education and training of employees, visitors and growers were evaluated to assess their relationship with their compliance with biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. Biosecurity compliance was evaluated using hidden cameras. One hundred fourteen individuals involved in a total of 2379 visits on 23 poultry farms responded to a personality test. Results demonstrated that several determinants of compliance exist, and some are related to personality, experience and education. Three personality traits were significantly associated with compliance: responsibility, complexity and action-oriented. Such information has important implications for the selection of job applicants or task attribution and to enhance effectiveness of training programs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...

  17. Inelastic collisions of OH (2Pi) with H2: Comparison between theory and experiment including rotational, fine structure, and Λ-doublet transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, R.; Andresen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed cross section calculations for inelastic collisions of OH ( 2 Pi) in the ground state j = 3/2, Omega-bar = 3/2 with H 2 are presented using an ab initio potential energy surface without adjustable parameters. The OH molecular wave function is described within the intermediate coupling case. The results are compared with recent experiments. The agreement is satisfactory for the final rotational state distributions within both the Omega-bar = 3/2 and the Omega-bar = 1/2 ladder. Also the relative magnitude of Omega-bar = 1/2 and 3/2 cross sections is in good accord with experiment and thus indicates that the difference potential V/sub A/'-V/sub A/'' is realistically described by the ab initio calculation. The dynamical calculations yield prefential excitation of one Λ-doublet state. The extent of this preference increases with j and is larger for Omega-bar = 3/2 in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with experiment. Possible interpretations in terms of the potential energy surfaces are briefly discussed

  18. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  19. Assessing movement quality in persons with severe mental illness - Reliability and validity of the Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Lena; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik; Waldegren, Tomas; Hansson, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Motor disturbances and disturbed self-recognition are common features that affect mobility in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Physiotherapists in Scandinavia assess and treat movement difficulties in persons with severe mental illness. The Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E) is a new and shortened version of the commonly used Body Awareness Scale-Health (BAS-H). The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability and the concurrent validity of BAS MQ-E in persons with severe mental illness. The concurrent validity was examined by investigating the relationships between neurological soft signs, alexithymia, fatigue, anxiety, and mastery. Sixty-two persons with severe mental illness participated in the study. The results showed a satisfactory inter-rater reliability (n = 53) and a concurrent validity (n = 62) with neurological soft signs, especially cognitive and perceptual based signs. There was also a concurrent validity linked to physical fatigue and aspects of alexithymia. The scores of BAS MQ-E were in general higher for persons with schizophrenia compared to persons with other diagnoses within the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder. The clinical implications are presented in the discussion.

  20. Treatment of Thyroid Cancer: A Review of the Regional Experiences (including countries from Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, Africa and Latin America)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.; Nagataki, S.; Padhy, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioiodine (I-131) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases for the past six decades. Although the use of radioiodine has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial, varied and in many instances based on personal and institutional philosophy. The practice is also influenced by available infrastructure, national policy with regard to health, financial and human resources; as well as social, cultural and ethnic milieu of a particular region or country. The World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council had carried out a survey on the practice of radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer around the world. This paper is a compilation of information from several countries/ regions around the world, which may offer insight into the practice of one of the most important and widely practiced radionuclide therapeutic procedures in clinical medicine. It is interesting to note that despite regional or national differences with regard to history, culture, finance, resources, beliefs, practices and attitude there has been more or less a universal unanimity on the 'basics' related to the practice of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  1. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  2. Gender and personal breastfeeding experience of rural GP registrars in Australia--a qualitative study of their effect on breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, W E; Jackson, C; Fallon, A B; Hegney, D

    2007-01-01

    While most doctors believe they have a major role to play in breastfeeding promotion, and consider it worthwhile taking time to assist women to continue to breastfeed, it appears that gender and personal breastfeeding experience affect their attitude and confidence concerning breastfeeding issues. As doctors practicing in rural and regional areas may be expected to provide a greater degree of assistance and support for breastfeeding women, their views on these topics are of particular interest. This article reports the results of qualitative interviews with eight GP registrars from rural and regional Australia, and their views about the influence gender and personal experience have on their ability to assist breastfeeding women. The study is part of a larger project investigating the breastfeeding skills and knowledge of GP registrars as a basis for designing a tailored educational breastfeeding resource. This project uses mixed methods and triangulation of data. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with eight GP registrars from southern Queensland, Australia. The participants were chosen so that there were eight unique combinations of age ( or =34), gender (male or female) and breastfeeding experience (self or spouse had breastfed/had not breastfed) to ensure diversity of responses and increase the transferability of results. Demographics were collected from each participant, as well as information about: their attitudes to breastfeeding and to counselling breastfeeding women; their perception of breastfeeding knowledge needs and their confidence assisting breastfeeding women; and prior training about breastfeeding. Transcripts of the recorded interviews were returned to the participants for verification before analysis. Emergent themes were identified both within and between interviews following content analysis. Four male and four female registrars with a mean age of 35 years (range 28-43 years) were recruited. Two participants of each gender

  3. Beyond the diagnosis: a qualitative exploration of the experiences of persons with hepatitis B in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Charles Ampong; Naab, Florence; Donkor, Ernestina S

    2017-11-03

    This study explored the experiences of people with hepatitis B in the Accra metropolis. The study employed qualitative exploratory descriptive design with purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through face-to-face interview and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using content analysis. Participants were recruited from one government and one mission hospital in Ghana. Fourteen individuals aged between 26 and 45 years with hepatitis B infection were interviewed. The findings of the study showed that people with hepatitis B in the Accra metropolis were unclear about the impact of their infection. Furthermore, they experienced psychological and social problems especially when they were initially informed about their hepatitis B status. Sadness, fear, shock, shame and disbelief were some of the experiences reported by participants. Coping strategies adopted include religiosity, denial and lifestyle modification. It is, therefore, necessary as a country to integrate hepatitis B counselling into the already existing HIV structures in the health delivery system to offer support for individuals diagnosed with hepatitis B. Furthermore, it is important to draw lessons from the process used in the diagnosis of HIV, particularly in ensuring that people provide consent for being tested. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Representational coexistence in the God concept: Core knowledge intuitions of God as a person are not revised by Christian theology despite lifelong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2018-01-25

    Previous research has shown that in the minds of young adult religious adherents, acquired theology about the extraordinary characteristics of God (e.g., omniscience) coexists with, rather than replaces, an initial concept of God formed by co-option of the person concept. We tested the hypothesis that representational coexistence holds even after extensive experience with Christian theology, as indexed by age. Christian religious adherents ranging in age from 18 to 87 years were asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about persons and Christian theology about God were consistent (both true or both false) or inconsistent (true on one and false on the other). Results showed, across adulthood, more theological errors in evaluating inconsistent versus consistent statements. Older adults also exhibited slower response times to inconsistent versus consistent statements. These findings show that despite extensive experience, indeed a lifetime of experience for some participants, the Christian theological God concept does not separate from the initial person concept from which it is formed. In fact, behavioral signatures of representational coexistence were not attenuated by experience. We discuss the broader implications of these findings to the acquisition of evolutionarily new concepts.

  5. Effects of personal experiences on the interpretation of the meaning of colours used in the displays and controls in electric control panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inseok; Hwang, Won-Gue

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the meaning of display and control colours on electric control panels (ECPs). In Korea, the red light on ECPs represents a normal state of operation, while the green light represents a stopped state of operation; this appears to contradict the general stereotypes surrounding these colours. The survey results indicated that the participants who had experience in using ECPs interpreted the colour meaning differently from the other participant group. More than half of the experienced participants regarded the coloured displays and controls as they were designed, while most participants in the other group appeared to interpret the colours in accordance with the stereotypes. It is presumed that accidents related to human errors can occur when non-experienced people use the ECPs, which are easily accessible in many buildings. Practitioner Summary: A survey was conducted to investigate how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the function meanings of coloured lights on electrical control panels. It was found that the interpretation varies according to personal experiences, which can induce accidents related to human errors while operating electrical equipment.

  6. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  7. The role of personal opinions and experiences in compliance with mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris W Njomo

    Full Text Available The main strategy adopted for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination globally is annual mass drug administration (MDA for 4 to 6 rounds. At least 65% of the population at risk should be treated in each round for LF elimination to occur. In Kenya, MDA using diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC and albendazole data shows declining compliance (proportion of eligible populations who receive and swallow the drugs levels (85%-62.8%. The present study's aim was to determine the role of personal opinions and experiences in compliance with MDA.This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted between January and September 2009 in two districts based on December 2008 MDA round. In each district, one location with high and one with low compliance was selected. Through systematic sampling, nine villages were selected and interviewer-based questionnaires administered to 965 household heads or adult representatives also systematically sampled. The qualitative data were generated from opinion leaders, LF patients with clinical signs and community drug distributors (CDDs all purposively selected and interviewed. Sixteen focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted with single-sex adult and youth male and female groups. Chi square test was used to assess the statistical significance of differences in compliance with treatment based on the records reviewed. The house-to-house method of drug distribution influenced compliance. Over one-quarter (27% in low compared to 15% in high compliance villages disliked this method. Problems related to size, number and taste of the drugs were more common in low (16.4% than in high (14.4% compliance villages. Reasons for failure to take the drugs were associated with compliance (p0.05.Community sensitization on treatment, drugs used, their regimen and distribution method involving all leaders should be strengthened by the Programme Implementers. The communities need to be made aware of the potential side effects of the

  8. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  9. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  10. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing the personal narrative skills of elementary school-aged students who use AAC: the effectiveness of personal narrative intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Solomon-Rice, Patti; Caputo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Children who use augmentative and alternative communication have been found to experience significant difficulties in the production of fictional and personal narratives. The important role of personal narratives in establishing personal and social identity has received substantial attention in developmental psychology but little attention in the field of communication disorders. The present study analyzes the effect of an intervention program designed to improve the personal narrative skills of three girls who experience severe communication disorders and use AAC. The study included two personal narrative activities, a description of a personally meaningful photograph and a recount of a personal experience. Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program had a positive effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narratives. Participants will demonstrate better understanding of activities to use, strategies to implement, and methods for measuring progress when providing personal narrative intervention for students who use AAC.

  12. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  13. Study of direct Cp violation in B decay into vector mesons including rho zero-omega mixing in the framework of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbault, C.

    2004-02-01

    ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on direct CP violation in B decay into vector mesons is one of the main studies of this work. The first part is dedicated to the calculation of the decay amplitudes of the channels B → Vρ 0 (ω) which have been represented by a model. We have used the helicity formalism. In such a way branching ratios and asymmetries depending on form factor models and other parameters are predicted. Direct CP violation appears at several levels: in branching ratios, in angular distributions and in differential asymmetry as a function of ρ 0 - ω mass. The dominance of the longitudinal polarization in the studied channels is confirmed by Babar and Belle experimental results. We calculated too the strong phase and the ratio of Penguin to Tree amplitudes for each channel. In a second part, was developed an analysis of the channel B 0 → K *0 ρ 0 (ω) in the framework of LHCb experiment. It will start in 2007 and is dedicated to b flavor study and CP violation. The realistic analysis which has been performed shows that this channel is not appropriate to observe ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on asymmetry in LHCb, while the ρ + ρ 0 (ω) channel, for which we have predicted a branching ratio value confirmed by Babar and Belle, is much more promising. (author)

  14. Risk-averse personalities have a systemically potentiated neuroendocrine stress axis: A multilevel experiment in Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Alexander T; Senft, Rebecca A; Firke, Marian; Lauder, Abigail; Schroeder, Julia; Meddle, Simone L; van Oers, Kees; Hau, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback. We show high among-individual variation and covariation (i.e. personality) in risk-taking behaviors and demonstrate that four aspects of glucocorticoid physiology (baseline, stress response, negative feedback strength and adrenal sensitivity) are also repeatable and covary. Further, we establish that high expression of mineralocorticoid and low expression of glucocorticoid receptor in the brain are linked with systemically elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels and more risk-averse personalities. Our findings support the hypothesis that steroid hormones can exert pleiotropic effects that organize behavioral phenotypes and provide novel evidence that neuroendocrine factors robustly explain a large fraction of endocrine and personality variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Professional Identity Experiences of LIS Graduates in Non-Library Roles Can Be Described by the Theory of Personalizing Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2018-03-01

    profession and an understanding of personal motivations and interests. The second is an externally expressed identity that represents how an individual presents himself or herself to achieve professional goals. This can include self-imposed labels, such as "librarian", or strategies used to find a path within the profession. This process involves reflections and actions aimed at identifying what type of professional to be and steps required to achieve goals. The results also indicate that interactions with others impact an individual’s internal appraisal of self and externally expressed identity. Areas of conflict were identified when commonly held views of how a professional identity should be expressed did not match the identity that an individual developed or displayed to others. When conflicts arose, individuals used a variety of strategies to resolve the discrepancy between internal and external identities: assimilation, attempting to influence or change the perceptions of the group, or withdrawal. In terms of self-identifying as a librarian, the study found that participants who chose the term as a professional label believed that the work they do in non-library settings was still compatible with their definition of what it meant to be a librarian. Participants who identified as librarians some of the time and by their job title at other times did so based on an evaluation of which label would best advance their position with a given audience. Finally, participants who chose not to use the label of librarian had never internally associated with the role or job title; these individuals completed a LIS program to gain transferable skills or qualify for a wide variety of employment opportunities. Conclusion – The theory of Personalizing Professionalism provides insight into the development and expression of professional identity experiences when LIS graduates work in non-library roles. The results have value to practitioners and educators who market LIS programs or

  16. The Experience of High Levels of Grief in Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Sara; Ott, Carol H.; Kelber, Sheryl T.; Noonan, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    An abundance of literature on caregivers of individuals with dementia has been written since the mid-1980s. However, most of this literature focused on the experience of stress, burden, and depression in caregivers, thus excluding the grief experience that also accompanies the caregiving experience. The purpose of this multimethod study is to…

  17. Sorption of Sr, Co and Zn on illite: Batch experiments and modelling including Co in-diffusion measurements on compacted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    occupancies. The pH dependent sorption determined for trace Zn concentrations showed large Rd values across the entire pH range with almost no dependence on the background electrolyte concentration. Additional sorption experiments carried out at substantial fractional Zn loadings demonstrated that the selectivity for the exchange of Na+ for Zn2+ at the planar sites could not explain the large Rd values measured at low pH and trace Zn concentrations. This suggests that another mechanism is ruling Zn uptake under these conditions.

  18. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  19. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1979-01-01

    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  20. "Understanding my ALS". Experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives on participation in peer group rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential...

  1. Prevention of falls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers among older persons - nursing staff's experiences of a structured preventive care process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannering, Christina; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Johansson, Linda

    2017-05-01

    A structured and systematic care process for preventive work, aimed to reduce falls, pressure ulcers and malnutrition among older people, has been developed in Sweden. The process involves risk assessment, team-based interventions and evaluation of results. Since development, this structured work process has become web-based and has been implemented in a national quality registry called 'Senior Alert' and used countrywide. The aim of this study was to describe nursing staff's experience of preventive work by using the structured preventive care process as outlined by Senior Alert. Eight focus group interviews were conducted during 2015 including staff from nursing homes and home-based nursing care in three municipalities. The interview material was subjected to qualitative content analysis. In this study, both positive and negative opinions were expressed about the process. The systematic and structured work flow seemed to only partly facilitate care providers to improve care quality by making better clinical assessments, performing team-based planned interventions and learning from results. Participants described lack of reliability in the assessments and varying opinions about the structure. Furthermore, organisational structures limited the preventive work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Complex caring needs without simple solutions: the experience of interprofessional collaboration among staff caring for older persons with multimorbidity at home care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anne; Broberger, Eva; Petersson, Pia

    2017-06-01

    Older persons with multimorbidity being cared for at home often have complex needs which cannot be met by one single caregiver. Interprofessional collaboration is therefore considered necessary if care is to be organised according to the needs of the older person. To achieve coherent health care, municipalities and county councils need to develop their collaboration. The aim of this study was to illustrate how various professionals belonging to homemaker services, home care services in municipality and hospital-based home care services experience collaboration in caring for older persons with multimorbidity. A hermeneutic approach was used. Eleven informants participated in the study and were individually interviewed. The findings show that collaboration between players comprises various types of experiences which influence not only the staff who are involved in collaboration but also the outcome of the collaboration itself. The informants' experience of collaboration was defined by distrust and trust and by insecurity and security. To focus on patients' needs and to develop the collaboration further, it was important for informants to take the relations into account and have a reflective and questioning approach. This attitude resulted in a feeling of trust and security, and a flexible and critical approach without boundary drawings between basic and specialised care. Complex situations cannot be solved with simple models. Instead, a flexible approach appears necessary with focus shifting from structures to interpersonal relations and interactions. Therefore, the different professionals have to work as a transprofessional team where close interactions, flexibility and improvisation are keys to success. The transprofessional team approach is suggested to have the potential to take the competence of all staff into account when high-quality home health care to older persons with multimorbidity is to be provided by multiple caregivers. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring

  3. The experience sampling method as an mHealth tool to support self-monitoring, self-insight, and personalized health care in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Verhagen, Simone; Marsman, Anne; Peeters, Frenk; Bak, Maarten; Marcelis, Machteld; Drukker, Marjan; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Jacobs, Nele; Lataster, Tineke; Simons, Claudia; Lousberg, Richel; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Leue, Carsten; Groot, Peter C; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Delespaul, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The experience sampling method (ESM) builds an intensive time series of experiences and contexts in the flow of daily life, typically consisting of around 70 reports, collected at 8-10 random time points per day over a period of up to 10 days. With the advent of widespread smartphone use, ESM can be used in routine clinical practice. Multiple examples of ESM data collections across different patient groups and settings are shown and discussed, varying from an ESM evaluation of a 6-week randomized trial of mindfulness, to a twin study on emotion dynamics in daily life. Research shows that ESM-based self-monitoring and feedback can enhance resilience by strengthening the capacity to use natural rewards. Personalized trajectories of starting or stopping medication can be more easily initiated and predicted if sensitive feedback data are available in real time. In addition, personalized trajectories of symptoms, cognitive abilities, symptoms impacting on other symptoms, the capacity of the dynamic system of mental health to "bounce back" from disturbance, and patterns of environmental reactivity yield uniquely personal data to support shared decision making and prediction in clinical practice. Finally, ESM makes it possible to develop insight into previous implicit patterns of thought, experience, and behavior, particularly if rapid personalized feedback is available. ESM enhances clinical practice and research. It is empowering, providing co-ownership of the process of diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and routine outcome measurement. Blended care, based on a mix of face-to-face and ESM-based outside-the-office treatment, may reduce costs and improve outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Association between approach-avoidance commitment to romantic relationships, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and personal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson's (1999) and Levinger's (1999) theoretical argument.

  5. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  6. How does practicing psychotherapy affect the personal life of the therapist? A qualitative inquiry of senior therapists' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råbu, Marit; Moltu, Christian; Binder, Per-Einar; McLeod, John

    2016-11-01

    To investigate how psychotherapists' lives and relationships are influenced by their work. Twelve senior psychotherapists took part in qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis yielded four significant themes: (i) it has been a privilege to know and contribute, and to be allowed to grow personally; (ii) facing suffering and destructiveness has been a burden; (iii) being a therapist has had an impact on my personal relationships-for better and worse; and (iv) I have needed to construct a way of living that allowed me to continue to do the work. Working as a therapist seem to imply a potential for developing openness, tolerance, and creativity, while being vulnerable to becoming overwhelmed with responsibility and feelings of inadequacy, isolation, and despair.

  7. Cursus Honorum: Personal Background, Careers and Experience of Political Leaders in Democracy and Dictatorship—New Data and Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Baturo

    2016-01-01

    Politics in democracy and dictatorship is markedly different; democracy and dictatorship are also associated with distinct policy outcomes. Do political regimes also select different leaders, i.e., do democratic leaders have distinct personal backgrounds to those of their peers in dictatorships, do they tend to hold different prior careers and posts while climbing the "greasy pole" of politics? The aim of this paper is to introduce the new data on leaders' careers in democracy and dictatorshi...

  8. Influence of Catastrophizing and Personality Traits on Recalled Ratings of Acute Pain Experience in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallegama, Ranjith Wasantha; Ariyasinghe, Sajjiv; Perera, Eranthi Dinoka; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pain catastrophizing and personality traits bias recalled ratings of acute pain in an experimental tonic pain model. Fifty-six undergraduates (14 males) recruited from the University of Peradeniya (mean age 21.7 ± 0.8 SD years). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were subjected to two cold pressor tests (dominant and non-dominant hands) and pain threshold, maximum pain intensity, and pain tolerance were recorded. One-week later, the maximum pain intensities of both hands were recalled and percentage distortions in recalling were calculated. Based on a 180 s cutoff, two participants were considered pain-insensitive during the test and were excluded from the analysis. The maximum pain intensity was recalled with a moderate accuracy (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients = 0.68 for dominant and 0.59 for non-dominant hands). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that maximum pain intensity ( P  memory for painful events in healthy subjects was reasonably accurate over a period of 1 week. Pain catastrophizing biased pain recall, whereas among personality traits only neuroticism exhibited a weak positive association with the recalled ratings.

  9. Making It Personal: The Importance of Student Experience in Creating Autonomy-Supportive Classrooms for Millennial Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews andragogy as the philosophy resident in the broad arena of experience-based learning. Beneath the umbrella of experience-based learning lie the specific classroom orientations of student-centered learning, problem-based learning, and classrooms as organizations. These orientations contribute to the creation of…

  10. What makes the hedonic experience of a meal in a top restaurant special and retrievable in the long term? Meal-related, social and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Francisco; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Schacht, Annekathrin; Stürmer, Birgit; Bröcker, Felix; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2018-06-01

    Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant variables have been examined in isolation without an integrative perspective. Here we investigated 80 guests enjoying a 23-course meal in a top gastronomy restaurant, in groups of four. Our main question concerned the factors driving the overall evaluation of the meal at its conclusion and after three months. To this aim we administered the Big Five Personality Inventory before the meal, dish-by-dish hedonic ratings, and a multi-dimensional Meal Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) at the end of the meal. Hedonic evaluations of the meal were collected immediately after the meal and three months later. Better immediate overall evaluations were predicted by both the number of peaks in dish-by-dish ratings and by positive ratings of the final dish. Both factors and the number of troughs were also critical for the long-term evaluation after three months. The MEQ dimensions overall interest, valence and distraction predicted immediate evaluations, while the long-term evaluations were determined by interest and high scores on the personality traits agreeableness and conscientiousness. High consistency of the hedonic ratings within quartets indicated the relevance of commensality for the meal experience. The present findings highlight the simultaneous relevance of food- and personality-related factors and commensality for a top gastronomy meal experience in the short and long-run. The uncovered relationships are of theoretical interest and for those involved in designing meals for consumers in various settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 'It Takes Me Half a Bottle of Whisky to Get through One of Your Assignments': Exploring One Teacher Educator's Personal Experiences of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan; Dale, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    This article uses a life history approach to explore personal experiences of dyslexia of one higher-education lecturer and its impact on her professional identity. The informant is currently employed as a lecturer of initial teacher training in a UK university. She worked as a primary school teacher for over a decade prior to embarking on an academic career in teacher education. The informant draws on her own experiences as a pupil, teacher and lecturer, and additionally, she presents accounts of student teachers with dyslexia drawn from her current professional context. Although the data are not generalizable, the account nevertheless illustrates the positive impact of the social model of disability for the informant and her students who had been identified as dyslexic during their initial training as teachers. Additionally, the account also illustrates the ways in which teachers' personal experiences of dyslexia can shape professional identities in very positive ways. Implications for both teacher training and pedagogic approaches in schools to support learners with dyslexia are drawn out of the narrative. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Elementary teachers past experiences: A narrative study of the past personal and professional experiences of elementary teachers who use science to teach math and reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acre, Andrea M.

    This qualitative study investigated the experiences of four elementary teachers who have elected to use science to teach math and reading/language arts in an attempt to identify what motivates them to do so. Identifying what experiences have motivated these teachers to go against the gain and teach elementary science in this current era of high-stakes tests is of the upmost importance given that science is being eliminated from the elementary curriculum and it is during the elementary years that students' nurture and develop their interest in science. Additionally, the United States is failing to produce enough college graduates in STEM areas to fill the thousands of STEM jobs each year. Through a review of the literature, the past trends and current trends of elementary science education were explored as well as teacher training. Furthermore, the literature reviewed inquiry teaching which is considered to be the most effective teaching method when teaching science at any level. Using John Dewey's Interest and Effort Relationship Theory and the Self-Determination Motivation Theory to guide this study, there were five prominent themes which emerged from the reconstructed stories of the four teachers: positive experiences with science, neutral/negative experiences with science, seeks meaningful professional development, influence and support from others, and regret/wants to do more.

  13. Dissociation and schizotypal personality features in women with schizophrenia and with a different experience of childhood abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Damberga, Ilze

    2011-01-01

    Disociācija un šizotipiskas personības pazīmes sievietēm ar šizofrēnijas diagnozi un vardarbības pieredzi Promocijas pētījuma mērķis bija izpētīt, kādas saistības pastāv starp disociatīviem simptomiem un šizotipiskas personības pazīmēm šizofrēnijas pacientēm ar dažādu vardarbības pieredzi. Pētījumā piedalījās 215 latviski runājošas sievietes. No šīm 215 sievietēm, 100 sievietes bija ar paranoīdas šizofrēnijas (F 20.0 saskaņā ar 10. Starptautisko slimību klasifikatoru, turpmāk ...

  14. The impact of personal educational experiences and communication practices on the construction of deaf identity in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, Kika; Nikolaraizi, Magda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time the impact of educational experiences on the development of Cypriot deaf people's identity. To obtain relevant information in depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 Cypriot deaf individuals ages 19-54 years who had graduated from a variety of school settings. The findings indicated that the type of school, and the academic and social experiences shared within the school between the participants and their classmates and teachers, played a crucial role in these deaf individuals' identity development. The findings have implications for curriculum development for deaf pupils, and for parents' counseling about their deaf children's development of "healthy" identities.

  15. Moderation Effects of Personality and Organizational Support on the Relationship between Prior Job Experience and Academic Performance of Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Nishant; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between prior job experience and current academic performance among management students in India. It further explores the impact of individual and situational factors on the above relationship. Based on a longitudinal study spanning over nine months in the academic year 2010-11 among a sample of 324…

  16. 'It's one of the hardest jobs in the world': the experience and understanding of qualified nurses who work with individuals diagnosed with both learning disability and personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy; Kiemle, Gundi

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the experiences of qualified nurses working with individuals diagnosed with both intellectual disability and personality disorder (PD) in a medium-secure forensic intellectual disability setting. Potential training needs are highlighted, as well as other ways in which services could better support staff to work effectively with this client group. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore the nine participants' experiences; the narratives were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four master themes emerged from (i) disorder overriding disability; (ii) resilience; (iii) ambivalence towards label and (iv) knowledge. The findings highlight that for these participants, the clients' intellectual disability appeared to be lost under the complexity of the PD diagnosis. The clinical implications are discussed in terms of developing training, supervision and support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Experiences of persons with spinal cord injury undertaking a physical activity programme as part of the SCIPA 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allyson; Nunnerley, Jo; Mulligan, Hilda; Ahmad Ali, Nordawama; Kensington, Gemma; McVicar, Tim; van Schaik, Olivia

    2018-04-01

    For individuals with spinal cord injury the long term benefits of physical activity are well documented, however the majority of this population report inactivity secondary to participatory barriers. Research investigating physically intensive exercise programs for people with spinal cord injury is limited, with even less attention paid to the experience of the participants. To explore the experiences of persons with spinal cord injury of their participation in the New Zealand arm of the Spinal Cord Injury and Physical Activity (SCIPA) 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial. Eight participants recruited to SCIPA Full-On completed individual virtual video diary interviews three times across the duration of their twelve week Full-On trial. Expectations and highs and lows of the program were recorded via a webcam. The video diary data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively for themes. Three independent themes were identified from the data: the participants' excitement of opportunity to participate in SCIPA Full-On' randomized controlled trial, personal rewards from participation and also the frustrations to participation they experienced. This study provides valuable information on factors that motivate participation in physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury, within a research setting. The findings highlighted the importance of accessibility and a supportive network which may be a way to provide individuals with spinal cord injury the means to become self-efficacious to participate in community physical activity outside of the research environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The structural relationships between organizational commitment, global job satisfaction, developmental experiences, work values, organizational support, and person-organization fit among nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P; Candela, Lori L; Carver, Lara

    2012-07-01

    GUTIERAIM: The aim of this correlational study was to examine the relations between organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, work values, person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction among nursing faculty. The global nursing shortage is well documented. At least 57 countries have reported critical shortages. The lack of faculty is finally being recognized as a major issue directly influencing the ability to admit and graduate adequate numbers of nurses. As efforts increase to both recruit and retain faculty, the concept of organizational commitment and what it means to them is important to consider. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. The present study investigated the underlying structure of various organizational factors using structural equation modelling. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of nurse faculty during the academic year 2006-2007. The final model demonstrated that perceived organizational support, developmental experiences, person-organization fit, and global job satisfaction positively predicted nurse faculty's organizational commitment to the academic organization. Cross-validation results indicated that the final full SEM is valid and reliable. Nursing faculty administrators able to use mentoring skills are well equipped to build positive relationships with nursing faculty, which in turn, can lead to increased organizational commitment, productivity, job satisfaction, and perceived organizational support, among others. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  20. Gender, social class, and the subjective experience of aging: self-perceived personality change from early adulthood to late midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Winter, David G; Stewart, Abigail J

    2004-12-01

    This study explored the applicability of previous research (obtained with groups of college-educated women) about the subjective experience of aging in midlife to men and less-educated people. Two-hundred fifty-nine men and women who graduated from a public high school in 1955-1957 retrospectively assessed their feelings of identity certainty, confident power, generativity, and concern about aging for their 60s, 40s, and 20s. Participants reported higher levels of identity certainty, confident power, and concern about aging at each age, and a leveling off of generativity in their 60s. There were some gender and social class differences. Although men and women recalled the same trajectory of these feelings, men reported higher levels of identity certainty and confident power across age. Non-college-educated men recalled the highest levels of concern about aging across age. We discuss how these findings add to our understanding of the experience of aging in these domains.

  1. Academic performance and personal experience of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in an Australian pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2013-09-12

    To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.

  2. Lessons from the experience of U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: addressing the democratic deficit in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E; Suozzi, David; Taylor, Allyn L

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) to the progressive development of both international human rights law and global health law and governance. It provides a summary of the global situation of persons with disabilities and outlines the progressive development of international disability standards, noting the salience of the shift from a medical model of disability to a rights-based social model reflected in the CRPD. Thereafter, the article considers the Convention's structure and substantive content, and then analyzes in specific detail the particular contributions of the Convention to health and human rights law and global health governance. It concludes with an exploration of the potential implications of the CRPD's innovations for some of the most pressing issues in global health governance, including the Convention's contributions to the principle of participation in decision-making. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Aging in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Contemporary Older Persons' Views About Daily Life, Health, and the Experience of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nancy J; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults' own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  4. The Scientific Life of Modern Russia: Experience of Organizing and Publishing The Ancient Rus in Time, in Personalities, in Ideas Anthology

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    Aleksey V. Petrov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of six printed books of a new ongoing scientific project, The Ancient Rus in Time, in Personalities, in Ideas anthology, on the basis of the current state of the features of the Russian history about the Russian Middle Ages. The authors try to show that in the modern history, which is characterized by multi-pronged approaches (based on both the traditions emerged more than one century and a half ago and those currently emerging, new forms of cooperation between research institutions and individual researchers are possible on the basis of independent publications underpinned by a private initiative. An example of the anthology, which is being published during the last three years and on which its publishers work in cooperation with individual researchers and scientific institutions (St. Petersburg Theological Academy, St. Petersburg State University and the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, illustrates that coordination activity of the scientific community, at least in one discipline, may be based on a nonprofit private publishing project. The experience of the print edition and, more broadly, the experience of the comprehension of the national history are inseparable from national traditions and culture, understanding of which lies, perhaps, in a framework of historical knowledge. Translation of these experiences have the primary task of any science, primarily humanities, and the anthology is a new convenient platform for the dissemination of this experience, as exemplified by the content of the already published issues of the anthology.

  5. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

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    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  6. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p < .001) throughout childhood. It was also noted that child perfectionism increased the symptoms of depression (p < .001), decreased feelings of gratitude (p = .018), increased the recognition of self-worth (p = .009) and activated certain aspects of sympathy towards others' pain (p = .043). These processes linked to perfectionism are discussed, clarifying their effects on children's mental health.

  7. TUTORIAL COACHING AS A STRATEGY OF PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPERIENCE-BASED STUDY IN A SECONDARY EDUCATION INSTITUTE

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    GLADYS IBETH ARIZA ORDÓÑEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tutorial accompaniment constitutes at present a necessary alternative in the framework of higher education. This workstarts with a general conceptualization of the tutorial, and makes a review of the styles, methods and proceduresrelated to this academic life facet which can effectively contribute to reach the goals the present higher education pursuitwhen it is applied in a coherent and systematic way.Considering the changes that the economy as well as the legislation have generated in education, and mainly in thoseLatin-American university programs, it is necessary to generate changing processes on the curriculum conceptualization,the teaching activities and the academic planning, and also to promote tutorial programs to the students, in order torespond to the difficulties they confront along the different stages of their lives. This research emerges from the onecarried out about the effectiveness of a tutorial program at a Psychology Department. It pretends to highlight theprincipal points of the accompaniment tutorial programs that require to be adjusted and adapted, in order to facilitatean educational service aimed to consider not only the professional training but the personal formation as well.

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in methotrexate treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Review of the literature and personal experience

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    R. Cattaneo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate is still a mainstay of rheumatoid arthritis treatment, but a significant variability in drug response is observed among patients. It has been proposed that C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, an enzyme involved in the folate pathway, could be related to its efficacy and toxicity. Many studies have investigated the predictive value of such polymorphisms for Methotrexate outcome, though with discordant results. Our experience on 79 patients did not find any significant association between genotype and drug response and the review of the literature did not provide sufficient evidences to support the use of MTHFR genetic screening in clinical practice.

  9. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of CRPS: insights from a clinical immunologist's personal experience with an underrecognized neuroinflammatory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Karen E

    2013-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a neuroinflammatory condition associated with overactive glial cells that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Early recognition and treatment are thought to be critical for good outcomes, yet many patients experience a delay in diagnosis and have difficulty accessing expert medical care. While there are no universally effective treatments, there are several promising new therapies, but these are not widely available. Some of the specific barriers to diagnosis and treatment are reviewed, with suggestions as to how they might be eliminated, leading to better care for all patients with CRPS.

  10. Psychedelics, Personality and Political Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure). Participants also rated the degree of ego dissolution experienced during their "most intense" recalled psychedelic experience (Ego-Dissolution Inventory). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that lifetime psychedelic use (but not lifetime cocaine use or weekly alcohol consumption) positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views, after accounting for potential confounding variables. Ego dissolution experienced during a participant's "most intense" psychedelic experience positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views. Further work is needed to investigate the nature of the relationship between the peak psychedelic experience and openness to new experiences, egalitarian political views, and concern for the environment.

  11. Qualitative Investigation of Exercise Perceptions and Experiences in People With Multiple Sclerosis Before, During, and After Participation in a Personally Tailored Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Helen; Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Sharrack, Basil; Petty, Jane; Saxton, John M

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) before, during, and after participation in a personally tailored program designed to promote long-term maintenance of self-directed exercise. Focus groups and semistructured telephone interviews. University exercise science department close to the recruiting hospital. PwMS (N=33; mean age ± SD, 47.6±7.9y). Participants were recruited after participation in a randomized controlled exercise trial; all had been allocated to a 12-week exercise program comprising supervised and self-directed exercise sessions. Exercise perceptions and experiences before, during, and after participation in the program. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the transition to inactivity; (2) lack of knowledge and confidence; (3) positive exercise experiences; and (4) perspectives on exercise adherence. Lack of confidence and exercise knowledge, coupled with negative perceptions about physical capabilities after an MS diagnosis, are clear barriers to exercise participation in PwMS. These issues are not being adequately addressed as part of the health care pathway or in community settings. Perceptions of improved posture, ability to overcome everyday difficulties, acute mood enhancements during and after exercise, and increased opportunities for social interaction were among the reported benefits of exercise participation. Despite the provision of a personally tailored exercise plan and use of cognitive behavioral strategies, self-directed exercise continued to present challenges to PwMS, and the importance of seeking cost-effective ways to maintain motivational support was implicit in participant responses. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Young people's topography of musical functions: personal, social and cultural experiences with music across genders and six societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Tekman, Hasan Gürkan; Abubakar, Amina; Njenga, Jane; Zenger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    How can we understand the uses of music in daily life? Music is a universal phenomenon but with significant interindividual and cultural variability. Listeners' gender and cultural background may influence how and why music is used in daily life. This paper reports the first investigation of a holistic framework and a new measure of music functions (RESPECT-music) across genders and six diverse cultural samples (students from Germany, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, and Turkey). Two dimensions underlie the mental representation of music functions. First, music can be used for contemplation or affective functions. Second, music can serve intrapersonal, social, and sociocultural functions. Results reveal that gender differences occur for affective functions, indicating that female listeners use music more for affective functions, i.e., emotional expression, dancing, and cultural identity. Country differences are moderate for social functions (values, social bonding, dancing) and strongest for sociocultural function (cultural identity, family bonding, political attitudes). Cultural values, such as individualism-collectivism and secularism-traditionalism, can help explain cross-cultural differences in the uses of music. Listeners from more collectivistic cultures use music more frequently for expressing values and cultural identity. Listeners from more secular and individualistic cultures like to dance more. Listeners from more traditional cultures use music more for expressing values and cultural identity, and they bond more frequently with their families over music. The two dimensions of musical functions seem systematically underpinned by listeners' gender and cultural background. We discuss the uses of music as behavioral expressions of affective and contemplative as well as personal, social, and sociocultural aspects in terms of affect proneness and cultural values.

  13. Palliative care and support for persons with HIV/AIDS in 7 African countries: implementation experience and future priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla S; Memiah, Peter; Henley, Yvonne B; Kaiza-Kangalawe, Angela; Shumbusho, Anna Joyce; Obiefune, Michael; Enejoh, Victor; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Eze, Charity; Odion, Ehekhaye; Akpenna, Donald; Effiong, Amana; Miriti, Kenneth; Aduda, Samson; Oko, John; Melaku, Gebremedhin D; Baribwira, Cyprien; Umutesi, Hassina; Shimabale, Mope; Mugisa, Emmanuel; Amoroso, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    To combat morbidity and mortality from the worldwide epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the United States Congress implemented a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in 30 resource-limited countries to integrate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both prevention and cure. Over 35% of eligible persons have been successfully treated. Initial legislation cited palliative care as an essential aspect of this plan but overall health strengthening became critical to sustainability of programming and funding priorities shifted to assure staffing for care delivery sites; laboratory and pharmaceutical infrastructure; data collection and reporting; and financial management as individual countries are being encouraged to assume control of in-country funding. Given infrastructure requisites, individual care delivery beyond ART management alone has received minimal funding yet care remains necessary for durable viral suppression and overall quality of life for individuals. Technical assistance staff of one implementing partner representing seven African countries met to clarify domains of palliative care compared with the substituted term "care and support" to understand potential gaps in on-going HIV care. They prioritized care needs as: 1) mental health (depression and other mood disorders); 2) communication skills (age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status); 3) support of care-providers (stress management for sustainability of a skilled HIV workforce); 4) Tied Priorities: symptom management in opportunistic infections; end-of-life care; spiritual history-taking; and 5) Tied Priorities: attention to grief-related needs of patients, their families and staff; and management of HIV co-morbidities. This process can inform health policy as funding transitions to new priorities.

  14. Physical activity-related experiences, counseling expectations, personal responsibility, and altruism among urban African American women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephania T; Marolen, Khensani

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity-related experiences, perceptions, and counseling expectations among urban, underactive, African American women with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited via flyers and endocrinologist referral. A professional, African American female moderator led 2 focus groups among 11 participants. Focus groups were conducted in a video- and audio-equipped focus group room in the evening hours. Using a content-based, stepped analytic approach, 2 raters independently analyzed data and collaborated to compare results and finalize themes. Competing priorities and lack of motivation were perceived as significant barriers to physical activity. Physical activity-related counseling expectations (ie, physician encouragement) and experiences (physician advising) were inconsistent. Participants expressed a high degree of physical activity-related health responsibility. Altruistic intentions were high relative to helping others incorporate healthful lifestyle changes. When counseling women about physical activity, diabetes educators should acknowledge and provide support and resources to help women incorporate more physical activity into their regular routines and enhance motivation for physical activity. Educators should also couple physical activity-related advice with encouragement and support. Because of high levels of altruism, educators should consider implementing group- and/or peer-based physical activity interventions in this patient group.

  15. Vivência comunitária Católica e crescimento pessoal = Community Catholic experience and personal growth

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    Amorim, Henri Karam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou compreender os sentidos da experiência de fé vivida em uma comunidade católica como crescimento pessoal daqueles que dela participam. Em vista disso, foi proposto, em uma paróquia católica, a realização de um grupo de partilha de experiências comunitárias. Foram nove participantes, todos comprometidos com o trabalho voluntário; cinco encontros, com duração média de duas horas cada, numa periodicidade quinzenal. Após cada encontro foram redigidas narrativas registrando os momentos mais significativos do grupo. Deste conjunto de narrativas foi elaborada uma análise qualitativo-fenomenológica, reunindo por eixos de significados tudo o que foi vivido pelos participantes. Concluiu-se que a vivência da fé cristã num contexto comunitário católico é promotora de crescimento pessoal, embora tal crescimento nem sempre esteja garantido pelo simples fato de participar da comunidade, uma vez que ela é também sentida e percebida como um espaço de contradições

  16. Taller "la persona del terapeuta": una experiencia de formación que promueve el aprendizaje Workshop: "the therapist as a person": A formative experience that enhances learning

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    Ana Margarita Maida Sosic

    2003-04-01

    work is achieved through activities that integrate theoretical content and personal experience. Results: By the end of this workshop the students value this way of learning, reporting they have acquired therapeutical skills and, at the same time, experienced transformations in their personal lives.

  17. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    WIDIGER, THOMAS A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  18. “The Big Three”: Historical Experience of Personal Contacts (Book Review: Costigliola, F. Roosevelt’s Lost Alliances. How Personal Politics Provoked the Cold War [Text] / F. Costigliola. – Princeton and Oxford : Princeton University Press, 2012. – 533 p.

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    Irina V. Bystrova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The book of Frank Costigliola is devoted to the role of personal factor in the evolution of relations between the USA, the USSR and Great Britain during World War II. The author used different sources from the archives of the USA, the USSR and Great Britain, first of all, the sources of personal origin, diaries and interviews as well as unpublished memoirs of comrades-in-arms of the leaders of the “Big Three”. The main hero of the book is President of the United States F.D. Roosevelt. The author claimed a rather controversial thesis that it was only Roosevelt who managed to establish very specific relations with Stalin, while opposing Roosevelt’s art of constructing bridges to the behavior of W. Churchill and H. Truman. We are now diminishing really great merits of the US President, but it seems hardly possible to establish some equality between Churchill and Truman. W. Churchill was a kind of liaison unit – a “cement” of the Big Three countries in real practice, for he actively moved from one front to another. Therefore he was the person who established personal contact with I.V. Stalin earlier, than Roosevelt. Special attention is devoted to the activities of a famous American diplomat G. Kennan and his colleagues – American representatives in Moscow during the more prolonged period from 1933 to 1946, i.e. more long-term tendencies in Soviet-American relations, including the informal ones, have been studied. As for the position of foreign ambassadors in the USSR, the author clarifies and studies thoroughly a very bad tendency, on his view, of their “isolation” from the Soviet people. This isolation aggravated the negative image of the Soviet state abroad. The main stages, problems and difficulties of creation of the “Big Three” alliance have been studied in the book. From the point of view of F. Costigliola, unprecedented unity of the leaders of the “Big Three” – F.D. Roosevelt, I.V. Stalin and W. Churchill had been

  19. May I long experience the joy of healing: professional and personal wellbeing among physicians from a Canadian province

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    Frank Erica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of best practices to promote physician wellbeing at the individual and organisational levels is receiving increased attention. Few studies have documented how physicians perceive their wellbeing in these contexts. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify and discuss the reported factors that hinder wellbeing, as well as the reported factors that would promote wellbeing among physicians. Methods There were 165 physicians from a province of Canada who wrote their open-ended responses to two questions, as part of a larger self-report questionnaire. The questions asked what causes them stress, and what interventions should be implemented at organisational/institutional levels. The largest specialty was family medicine, followed by internal medicine, and surgical disciplines, with 58% of participants male. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the data and themes and sub-themes were discovered using the socio-ecological model as the framework. Results Reponses were both personal and professional which resulted in the emergence of four major themes to reflect this diversity. These themes were external constraints on the practice of medicine, issues at the professional/institutional levels, issues at the individual practice level, and work/life balance. The work/life balance theme received the highest number of responses followed by external constraints on the practice of medicine. In the major theme of work-life balance, work-life conflict received the most responses, and in the major theme of external constraints on practice of medicine, lack of resources (human and material and restrictions to autonomy received the most responses. Ideas for interventions in the work/life balance theme were health promotion, and healthy workplace initiatives. In the second largest theme, suggested ideas for interventions were collegiality/professionalism and policy formulation at the health care system

  20. May I long experience the joy of healing: professional and personal wellbeing among physicians from a Canadian province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Brenda L; Lee, Raymond T; Frank, Erica

    2009-02-24

    The development of best practices to promote physician wellbeing at the individual and organisational levels is receiving increased attention. Few studies have documented how physicians perceive their wellbeing in these contexts. The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify and discuss the reported factors that hinder wellbeing, as well as the reported factors that would promote wellbeing among physicians. There were 165 physicians from a province of Canada who wrote their open-ended responses to two questions, as part of a larger self-report questionnaire. The questions asked what causes them stress, and what interventions should be implemented at organisational/institutional levels. The largest specialty was family medicine, followed by internal medicine, and surgical disciplines, with 58% of participants male. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the data and themes and sub-themes were discovered using the socio-ecological model as the framework. Reponses were both personal and professional which resulted in the emergence of four major themes to reflect this diversity. These themes were external constraints on the practice of medicine, issues at the professional/institutional levels, issues at the individual practice level, and work/life balance. The work/life balance theme received the highest number of responses followed by external constraints on the practice of medicine. In the major theme of work-life balance, work-life conflict received the most responses, and in the major theme of external constraints on practice of medicine, lack of resources (human and material) and restrictions to autonomy received the most responses. Ideas for interventions in the work/life balance theme were health promotion, and healthy workplace initiatives. In the second largest theme, suggested ideas for interventions were collegiality/professionalism and policy formulation at the health care system. Our findings have implications for governance and health