WorldWideScience

Sample records for included parental work

  1. Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working-parent families are no longer exceptional. The Impact of Working When both parents are occupied with ... and perform a relaxation exercise. Or during your coffee breaks, forgo coffee and doughnuts and take a ...

  2. Group Work with Abusive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lois; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)

  3. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  4. Stress and parental competence: a study with working parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Padilla, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the role of some dimensions related with labor and family context, and examine their influence to the stress level associated with parenthood. Special attention was given to the perceived competence as a parent after controlling different characteristics from both contexts. Several analyses were performed with the information obtained from 74 active-working parents responsible for at least one school-aged child. The results indicated that the work time, the number of children at home and the perception of difficulty about child caring were the most important variables for explaining the parental stress. Furthermore, analysis showed that a positive and optimistic perception of the parental role and child care helped to mitigate the appearance of parental stress

  5. Including women in work | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-13

    Jun 13, 2017 ... Teresa hired a handful of women living near the production site to limit their travel to and from work, and she designed a business model that aligns daily work hours and vacations with school schedules. The IDRC-funded research project Counting Women's Work found that the time women and girls spend ...

  6. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  7. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    ... between decision-makers of different nationalities. In addition to nationality, a decision-maker is also a member of an organization and brings this organizational culture to his role in the work process, where it may also affect his task performance...

  8. Child-care Services for Working Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguret, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the attitudes of the public authorities in various countries concerning child-care services for working parents and the different systems of care in operation in industrial and developing nations. (Author/CT)

  9. Working Parents' Use of Work-Life Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. den Dulk (Laura); A. Peper (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we examine working parent’s use of work-life policies in three financial sector organizations in the Netherlands. We analyse the barriers and support regarding the actual take up of work-life policies by working parents and to what extent this in turn influence their

  10. Using Erikson To Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…

  11. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  12. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-07-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  13. Work at school: teacher and parent perceptions about children's participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Susan; Chapparo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Little research has been carried out on the behaviours that lead to children's successful participation in work roles at school. The objective of this study was to identify some of the elements critical to participation of students by listening to the perspectives of teachers and parents of children who have difficulties with school work. The study is part of a larger research project aimed at developing an assessment tool to describe the participation of children at school with particular reference to students who experience a difficulty with learning. 50 teachers and 44 parents of children referred to occupational therapy for problems with school work. A survey approach using an open ended written response questionnaire. The findings indicated that there are core elements of participation in work that are commonly perceived as crucial by teachers and parents. These included common definitions of work participation with the emergence of several themes relative to work roles and meaning, opportunity for inclusion in school work, risk taking and enjoyment as part of work, and thinking processes. Differences between teacher and parent responses related to perceived reasons for a difficulty with participation, activities which require high levels of participation and aspects of participation that are most difficult to change. This study provided descriptive data on which to build further research into children's experiences of work, and highlights the need for occupational therapists to consider perceptions of key stakeholders when assessing children's work ability at school.

  14. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  15. Attitude and flexibility are the most important work place factors for working parents' mental wellbeing, stress, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such as stress, symptom report, wellbeing, work-related fatigue, work engagement, and work-family conflict among working mothers and fathers with small children. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between work place factors categorised into three different dimensions; flexibility, benefits, and attitude and the outcome measures were performed, including questionnaire responses from 1562 working parents. The results showed that work place factors related to flexibility and, especially among women, attitude to parenthood appear to have the strongest effect on working parents' subjective stress and wellbeing, while benefits appear to have less impact. Except regarding factors related to attitudes at the work place, most associations were similar among men and women. Most likely, different factors are better suited or more important for some individuals than others depending on their total work, as well as family situation and also depending on individual factors such as personality and priorities. A positive attitude towards parenthood and a flexible work situation seem, however, beneficial for the general wellbeing and work engagement among working parents.

  16. Including as a Care-ful Journey: A Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Kate; Wilgosh, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue for the need of a cyclical, rather than a linear, model of family coping and life management when a child has a disability. Longitudinal support for such a cyclical model of family life management is presented, with recognition that parental control of outcome lessens as the young person ages, because the adult world is not…

  17. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  18. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  19. Workplace Triple P: A controlled evaluation of a parenting intervention for working parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Stallman, Helen M; McHale, Mala

    2011-08-01

    This paper examined the effects of a parenting intervention targeting working parents called Workplace Triple P. The intervention targeted both parenting and work factors, focusing on key transition times (e.g., from home to work) and trained parents to more effectively manage these transitions. One-hundred-and-twenty-one working parents with children ranging in age from 1-16 years were randomly assigned to either a Workplace Triple P condition (WPTP) or to a waitlist control condition (WLC). Results showed that parents who had received the intervention reported significantly lower levels on measures of personal distress and dysfunctional parenting; and higher levels of work commitment, work satisfaction, and self-efficacy. Implications for the delivery of parenting interventions as employee assistance programs are discussed along with how such interventions can enhance work and family life.

  20. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  1. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  2. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  3. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  6. Parents: How to Make Discipline Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gloria

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing parents is disciplining children. Discipline is not controlling or imposing a parent's will upon children. It is a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-discipline. Discipline tips for parents are included. (MT)

  7. Parental Work Demands and Parent-Child, Family, and Couple Leisure in Dutch Families: What Gives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Treas, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data on 898 Dutch couples with minor children to examine whether parental work demands are related differently to one-on-one parent-child, family, and couple leisure activities. The authors presume that the impact of working hours and work arrangements is smaller on activities that are prioritized highly and that are easier and…

  8. Parenting and female dermatologists' perceptions of work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattessich, S; Shea, K; Whitaker-Worth, D

    2017-09-01

    Women in medicine may feel pressure to choose between the competing demands of career goals and being a dedicated spouse and parent. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the current opinions of female dermatologists with regard to family planning, maternity leave, and career success. We surveyed 183 members of the Women's Dermatologic Society using a 13-question survey that was approved for distribution by the institutional review board committee of the University of Connecticut Health Center. We found that women were most likely to have children while they were residents (51%), despite the fact that residents were more likely to report barriers to childbearing at this career stage. These barriers included length of maternity leave, appearing less committed to residency responsibilities compared with peers, and inadequate time and privacy to breast feed. Strategies to achieve a work-life balance included hiring in-home help and working part-time. Of note, many women commented on the need for more family planning resources at work. Thought should be given to future administrative strategies that can lessen the burden of parents who are dermatologists and have academic ambitions.

  9. Food Parenting Measurement Issues: Working Group Consensus Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Frankel, Leslie A.; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on...

  10. Working with Parents of Students with Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Barbara; And Others

    Intended for educators working with children who have suffered traumatic brain injuries (TBI), this brief paper addresses parent issues, administrative issues, and programmatic issues. Noted are the five stages of adjustment typically experienced by parents: shock, elation, reality, crisis, and mourning. Professionals are encouraged to be informed…

  11. Parental work schedules and child overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, S L; Rumbold, A R; Steele, E J; Giles, L C; Davies, M J; Moore, V M

    2012-04-01

    Studies in school-age children have consistently shown a positive association between maternal paid work hours and child obesity. However, there is conflicting evidence about the impact of maternal work hours scheduled at nonstandard times (for example, evenings, nights or weekends), and no previous examination of paternal work schedules and child weight. We examined the associations between maternal, paternal and combined parental paid work schedules and overweight/obesity in children at age 9 years. Data were analysed from the most recent follow-up of 9-year-old children (n=434) in an Australian birth cohort study. Children were measured and classified as overweight/obese using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cutoff points. Current working conditions of parents were obtained from a structured interview with the primary caregiver. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of parental work schedules on child overweight/obesity with adjustment for a range of sociodemographic and household factors associated with parental employment and child weight. At 9 years of age, 99 children (22.8%) were overweight or obese. When parental work schedules were examined separately, child overweight/obesity was significantly associated with paternal nonstandard work schedules (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-3.61). There was no association with any type of maternal work schedule. We also found an association between child overweight/obesity and circumstances in which both parents worked nonstandard schedules; however, this was of borderline statistical significance in the adjusted models (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 0.99-5.16). Work hours scheduled at nonstandard times, when worked by the father or both parents, were associated with child overweight and obesity. These findings indicate the potential importance of fathers' paid work arrangements for child overweight/obesity, which until recently has largely

  12. Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children's refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Jones, Lisa A; Zadnik, Karla

    2002-12-01

    To quantify the degree of association between juvenile myopia and parental myopia, near work, and school achievement. Refractive error, parental refractive status, current level of near activities (assumed working distance-weighted hours per week spent studying, reading for pleasure, watching television, playing video games or working on the computer), hours per week spent playing sports, and level of school achievement (scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills [ITBS]) were assessed in 366 eighth grade children who participated in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia in 1991 to 1996. Children with myopia were more likely to have parents with myopia; to spend significantly more time studying, more time reading, and less time playing sports; and to score higher on the ITBS Reading and Total Language subtests than emmetropic children (chi(2) and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; P effects between parental myopia, near work, sports activity, and school achievement, suggesting that each factor has an independent association with myopia. The multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for two compared with no parents with myopia was 6.40 (2.17-18.87) and was 1.020 (1.008-1.032) for each diopter-hour per week of near work. Interactions between parental myopia and near work were not significant (P = 0.67), indicating no increase in the risk associated with near work with an increasing number of parents with myopia. Heredity was the most important factor associated with juvenile myopia, with smaller independent contributions from more near work, higher school achievement, and less time in sports activity. There was no evidence that children inherit a myopigenic environment or a susceptibility to the effects of near work from their parents.

  13. Tiger Parents or Sheep Parents?: Struggles of Parental Involvement in Working-Class Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Desirée Baolian; Han, Eun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Research on Chinese immigrant parents tends to focus on their high levels of educational involvement and its positive impact on their children's exceptional educational performances. Relatively little research has been conducted to understand the challenges Chinese immigrant parents face in helping their children with school…

  14. Food parenting measurement issues: working group consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Frankel, Leslie A; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on childhood obesity. Six subgroups were formed to address key measurement issues. The conceptualization subgroup proposed to define and distinguish constructs of general parenting styles, feeding styles, and food parenting practices with the goal of understanding interrelating levels of parental influence on child eating behaviors. The observational subgroup identified the need to map constructs for use in coding direct observations and create observational measures that can capture the bidirectional effects of parent-child interactions. The self-regulation subgroup proposed an operational definition of child self-regulation of energy intake and suggested future measures of self-regulation across different stages of development. The translational/community involvement subgroup proposed the involvement of community in the development of surveys so that measures adequately reflect cultural understanding and practices of the community. The qualitative methods subgroup proposed qualitative methods as a way to better understand the breadth of food parenting practices and motivations for the use of such practices. The longitudinal subgroup stressed the importance of food parenting measures sensitive to change for use in longitudinal studies. In the creation of new measures, it is important to consider cultural sensitivity and context-specific food parenting domains. Moderating variables such as child temperament and child food preferences should be considered in models.

  15. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  16. Parents Working Together: development and feasibility trial of a workplace-based program for parents that incorporates general parenting and health behaviour messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L; Lero, Donna; Smofsky, Allan; Gross, Deborah; Haines, Jess

    2016-11-10

    Parenting programs integrating general parenting and health behaviour messaging may be an effective childhood obesity prevention strategy. The current study explored workplaces as an alternate setting to deliver parenting programs. This study involved two phases. The objective of the first phase was to explore interest in and preferred delivery mode of a workplace program that addresses general parenting and health behaviours. The objective of the second phase was to adapt and test the feasibility and acceptability of a pre-existing program that has been successfully run in community settings for parents in their workplace. To achieve the first objective, we conducted 9 individual or small group qualitative interviews with 11 workplace representatives involved in employee wellness/wellness programming from 8 different organizations across Southwestern Ontario. To achieve the second objective, we adapted a pre-existing program incorporating workplace representatives' suggestions to create Parents Working Together (PWT). We then tested the program using a pre/post uncontrolled feasibility trial with 9 employees of a large manufacturing company located in Guelph, Ontario. Results from the qualitative phase showed that a workplace parenting program that addresses general parenting and health behaviour messages is of interest to workplaces. Results from the feasibility trial suggest that PWT is feasible and well received by participants; attendance rates were high with 89 % of the participants attending 5 or more sessions and 44 % attending all 7 sessions offered. All participants stated they would recommend the program to co-workers. Just over half of our parent participants were male (55.6 %), which is a unique finding as the majority of existing parenting programs engage primarily mothers. Impact evaluation results suggest that changes in children's and parents' weight-related behaviours, as well as parents' reports of family interfering with work were in the

  17. Food Parenting Measurement Issues: Working Group Consensus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on childhood obesity. Six subgroups were formed to address key measurement issues. The conceptualization subgroup proposed to define and distinguish constructs of general parenting styles, feeding styles, and food parenting practices with the goal of understanding interrelating levels of parental influence on child eating behaviors. The observational subgroup identified the need to map constructs for use in coding direct observations and create observational measures that can capture the bidirectional effects of parent–child interactions. The self-regulation subgroup proposed an operational definition of child self-regulation of energy intake and suggested future measures of self-regulation across different stages of development. The translational/community involvement subgroup proposed the involvement of community in the development of surveys so that measures adequately reflect cultural understanding and practices of the community. The qualitative methods subgroup proposed qualitative methods as a way to better understand the breadth of food parenting practices and motivations for the use of such practices. The longitudinal subgroup stressed the importance of food parenting measures sensitive to change for use in longitudinal studies. In the creation of new measures, it is important to consider cultural sensitivity and context-specific food parenting domains. Moderating variables such as child temperament and child food preferences should be considered in models

  18. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hysing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. Methods We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Results Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. Conclusion We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  19. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-05-12

    Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile). Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  20. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  1. Parental work characteristics and time with children: The moderating effects of parent's gender and children's age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.; Raub, W.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the association between work characteristics and parent-child interaction time. In addition to studying the commonly considered working hours, the authors investigated the effects of job demands and resources such as job insecurity, autonomy and non-standard hours.

  2. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  3. Parental self-work: governing enactments in family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselott Aarsand

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on lifelong and lifewide learning portray everyday life as a pedagogical space where requirements for how to preferably improve oneself through learning are highly significant. Drawing upon the notion of governmentality, it could be argued that techniques operate within a range of practices to shape, foster and stabilize the assumed adequate ways to perform. Using that particular lens, the case of parenting was investigated to accentuate selves and self-work in narrations on family life in Norway. The analysis illustrates how the techniques of activation and comparison are at work to define, fashion and develop the responsible, involved and attentive parental self, thereby signifying pedagogical claims one should aspire to. However, how this is accomplished differs slightly within the social contexts of family life. Parenting, then, may be discussed as a powerful educative practice for fabricating capable and wellbehaved citizens of contemporary times.

  4. A new model of techniques for concurrent psychodynamic work with parents of child and adolescent psychotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack

    2013-04-01

    To address the neglect of the importance of parent work in the psychodynamic psychotherapy of children and adolescents, the authors present a model of concurrent dynamic parent work that has demonstrated success with patients of all ages. The model includes dual goals for all therapies, addresses the challenge of confidentiality by differentiating privacy and secrecy, and emphasizes the importance of parent work throughout treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mentalizing Makes Parenting Work: A Review about Parental Reflective Functioning and Clinical Interventions to Improve It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoirano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade several studies have investigated the role of parental reflective functioning (RF), defined as the parental ability to understand his/her child's mental states, on the child's development. Herein, a narrative review on parental RF is presented aimed at (1) presenting an overview of the existing empirical studies, (2) pinpointing unrequited questions, and (3) identifying future research directions. Specifically, the current review focused on (a) the impact of parental RF on the quality of caregiving and the child's attachment security, (b) the effect of parental RF on the child's emotion regulation and the child's RF, (c) maternal RF in women with a history of neglect and abuse, (d) the efficacy of mentalization-based clinical interventions, and (e) the recently developed Parental Reflective Questionnaire. The following terms "maternal RF," "paternal RF," "parental RF," "parental mentalization," "maternal mentalization," and "paternal mentalization" were searched in titles, abstracts, and main texts using Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Next, a search in Mendeley was also conducted. Inclusion criteria comprised original articles if they refer to the RF Scale (Fonagy et al., 1998) and were published in an English language, peer-reviewed journal before July, 2016. According to exclusion criteria, dissertations, qualitative or theoretical papers, and chapters in books were not taken into account. The review includes 47 studies that, taken together, supported the notion that higher parental RF was associated with adequate caregiving and the child's attachment security, whereas low maternal RF was found in mothers whose children suffered from anxiety disorders, impairment in emotion regulation, and externalizing behaviors. In addition, higher parental RF was associated with better mentalizing abilities in children. However, unexpected findings have emerged from the most recent randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of

  6. Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deviation of 6.2 years. The teachers believed that their work was appreciated by pupils, parents, department heads and principals. Being appreciated for what one does contributes to job satisfaction which in turn leads to a high level of job productivity and retention. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2004, 14(1): 79–82 ...

  7. How to Hack it as a Working Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Bedoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems faced by working parents in technical fields in libraries are not unique or particularly unusual. However, the cross-section of work-life balance and gender disparity problems found in academia and technology can be particularly troublesome, especially for mothers and single parents. Attracting and retaining diverse talent in work environments that are highly structured or with high expectations of unstated off-the-clock work may be impossible long term. (Indeed, it is not only parents that experience these work-life balance problems but anyone with caregiver responsibilities such as elder or disabled care. Those who have the energy and time to devote to technical projects for work and fun in their off-work hours tend to get ahead. Those tied up with other responsibilities or who enjoy non-technical hobbies do not get the same respect or opportunities for advancement. Such problems mirror the experiences of women on the tenure track in academia, particularly women working in libraries, and they provide a useful corollary for this discussion. We present some practical solutions for those in technical positions in libraries. Such solutions involve strategic use of technical tools, and lightweight project management applications. Technical workarounds are not the only answer; real and lasting change will involve a change in individual priorities and departmental culture such as sophisticated and ruthless time management, reviewing workloads, cross-training personnel, hiring contract replacements, and creative divisions of labor. Ultimately, a flexible environment that reflects the needs of parents will help create a better workplace culture for everyone, kids or no kids.

  8. Working conditions and parents' ability to care for children's preventive health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether workplace flexibility policies influence parents' ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs. Study sample included 917 employed adults with at least 1 child younger than 18 years in their household from a nationally representative survey of US adults. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors influencing parental ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs were conducted. Analyses assessed the effect of having access to schedule flexibility, a supervisor who is accommodating about work adjustments when family issues arise, and the ability to make personal calls without consequences on the odds of a parents' being unable to meet their child's preventive health care needs. Being able to make a personal phone call at work was associated with a 56% (P flexibility at work could make a substantial difference in parents' ability to obtain preventive care for their children.

  9. Parents Working Together: development and feasibility trial of a workplace-based program for parents that incorporates general parenting and health behaviour messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wilson

    2016-11-01

    parents’ reports of family interfering with work were in the desired direction post-intervention; however, confidence intervals substantially overlapped zero. Contrary to expectations, parents also reported an increase in restrictive feeding practices. Conclusion Our results indicate that a workplace-based program that addresses general parenting skills and weight-related behaviours may be a feasible way to engage and educate parents, including fathers. A full-scale trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of this approach.

  10. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  11. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  12. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  13. Conceptual understanding of screen media parenting: report of a working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Hingle, Melanie; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Gorely, Trish; Hinkley, Trina; Jago, Russell; Lanigan, Jane; Pearson, Natalie; Thompson, Darcy A

    2013-08-01

    Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activity contexts, however few measures are available to assess parenting practices regarding children's screen media use. A working group of screen media and parenting researchers convened at the preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) annual meeting, "Parenting Measurement: Current Status and Consensus Reports," to identify and prioritize issues in assessing screen media parenting practices. The group identified that screen media use can pose different risks for children, depending on their age and developmental stage, across physiologic, psychosocial, and development outcomes. With that in mind, a conceptual framework of how parents may influence their child's screen-viewing behaviors was proposed to include the screen media content, context of viewing, and amount viewed. A research agenda was proposed to prioritize a validation of the framework and enhance the ability of researchers to best assess parenting influences across the three domains of content, context and amount of children's screen media use.

  14. Neglected Children: Understanding, Identifying and Working with Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce

    Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…

  15. Effects of Workplace Parent Management Training on Marital and Job Satisfaction among Iranian Working Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mousavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundShifting the focus of parent management training (PMT to parents and discussing implications for maximizing the outcomes of PMT for the entire family is new and promising.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the efficacy of work place PMT on job and marital satisfaction among staff members of an academic center.MethodsWe held 8 PMT sessions (1.5 h each for 20 staff members who were parents to children in the age range of 2–12 years. Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Occupational Descriptive Index [Health and Safety Executive (HSE] were used for baseline and post-intervention data gathering. DAS higher scores indicate higher marital adjustment satisfaction and higher HSE scores indicate higher occupational stress. To analyze changes in HSE and DAS scores over time, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, respectively.ResultsAll DAS subscales show significant increased from baseline to the final session except for affectional expression which was not significant. We found no significant changes in total or subscale HSE scores among participants.ConclusionFindings of this study underscore the role of psycho-education usage in work environment and provide evidence about the importance of designing interventions concerning working parents. Implications of PMT are discussed in the text.

  16. Attachment, Working Models of Parenting, and Expectations for Using Television in Childrearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Manohar, Uttara

    2012-01-01

    This study used attachment theory to understand college students' working models of parenting and expectations for how they would use television in parenting. We found that secure parent-child attachment histories were related to more positive expectations of parenting and that avoidant and anxious-ambivalent parent-child attachment histories were…

  17. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  18. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  19. Neighborhood Context, SES, and Parenting: Including a Focus on Acculturation among Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Hurd, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of contextual factors on parenting strategies among a sample of 104 Latina, European American, and African American mother-child pairs. The parenting constructs under investigation were selected as part of a collaborative research project among members of the parenting subgroup of the Study Group on Race, Culture,…

  20. Transformational Leadership and Proactive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model Including Work Engagement and Job Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work

  1. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  2. Validity of parental work information on the birth certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H

    2008-03-25

    In the most recent revision (2003) of the U.S. standard certificate of live births, the National Center for Health Statistics recommended that all states collect maternal and paternal usual occupation. Because such information might be useful in the surveillance of job-related risk areas, we assessed the quality of parental work information on the U.S. birth certificate. Occupational histories obtained from maternal interviews with Texas (USA) participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were linked to and compared with parental work information on birth certificates. With occupational information from interviews serving as the gold standard, we assessed the quality of occupational information on the birth certificate with measures of sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic. Of the 649 births available for study, parental occupation agreed between the birth certificate and interview for 77% of mothers and 63% of fathers with similar agreement by case-control status. Among occupations and industries with 10 or more workers by interview, sensitivity of the birth certificate information ranged from 35% to 100% for occupational groups and 55% to 100% for industrial sectors. Specificities of occupations/industries studied ranged from 93 to 100%. Kappa statistics for maternal occupations (0.76 to 0.90) and industries (0.59 to 0.94) were higher than those for paternal occupations (0.48 to 0.92) and industries (0.47 to 0.89). Mothers were frequently misclassified as homemakers or otherwise unemployed while the paternal information was often missing altogether on the birth certificate. Women who worked as health diagnosing and treating practitioners were the least likely (0%) and women in food preparation or serving occupations were the most likely (65%) to be misclassified as not employed on the birth certificate. Among fathers, the proportion of missing occupations was the lowest for occupations in business or financial operations (0%) and highest

  3. Athletic trainer perceptions of life-work balance and parenting concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberman, Lindsey E; Kahanov, Leamor

    2013-01-01

    Life-work balance may be one reason for retention concerns among athletic trainers (ATs), yet evidence does not exist to support the supposition. To assess the perceptions of ATs regarding life-work balance, specifically on parenting issues. Survey. Online survey at www.surveymonkey.com . A random sample of National Athletic Trainers' Association members (N = 9516) received the survey; 20.6% (n = 1962; male = 954, female = 816; age = 37 ± 10 years, experience = 13 ± 9 years) completed any portion of the survey. Most respondents worked in the college/university (34.5%, n = 657 of 1908) and secondary school settings (25.9%, n = 476 of 1908). A majority of participants (50.7%, n = 898 of 1770) were parents. We calculated frequencies and percentages and used Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify the differences between sexes and among job settings on life-work balance measures among parents. The questionnaire included 8 life-work balance items, 7 parenting challenge items, and 3 nonparent items. The results indicate that sex and setting significantly affected perceptions about parenting. Males articulated a stronger sense of difficulty in finding balance as a working parent (P work and family was stressful (P = .04; 3.86 ± 1.13) and caused burnout (P = .004; 3.50 ± 1.24), and that their energy tended to fall short of their needs (P work setting (P = .014; 3.37 ± 1.42). Both college/university (4.14 ± 0.85) and secondary school (4.03 ± 0.90) ATs would prefer to spend more time at home, as compared with ATs in other settings (P work. In none of the settings did ATs feel that their employment settings were particularly tolerant of their parenting responsibilities (P = .027; 1.72 ± 1.97). Male and female employees had similar perceptions of life-work balance, but occupational setting may affect these perceptions.

  4. DISTANCE PARENTING – IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seepamore, Boitumelo Khothatso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many families in the Global South are inclined to split in order to survive the complex socio-economic conditions in which they find themselves. Labour migration is entrenched in South Africa and so is parenting from a distance. This paper contests the normalisation of split families and distance parenting, and considers the associated implications for children, their parents and substitute caregivers. It further discusses the persistence of stereotypical gender roles in parenting, even where both parents are absent from home. Finally, some recommendations are made for both practitioners and policy makers in relation to distance parenting

  5. The Utility of Parent Report in the Assessment of Working Memory among Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Robyn A.; Ashford, Jason M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Santana, Victor; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Conklin, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood brain tumor survivors are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairments, including working memory (WM) problems. WM is typically assessed using performance measures. Little is known about the value of parent ratings for identifying WM difficulties, the relationship between rater and performance measures, or predictors of parent-reported WM problems in this population. Accordingly, the current study examined the utility of parent report in detecting WM difficulties among childhood brain tumor survivors treated with conformal radiation therapy (n=50) relative to siblings (n=40) and solid tumor survivors not receiving CNS-directed therapy (n=40). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants were administered WM measures (digit span, self-ordered search tasks). Findings revealed parents rated brain tumor survivors as having significantly more WM problems (p<.01) compared to controls. However, the BRIEF-WM scale demonstrated poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting performance-based problems. Significant, albeit modest, correlations were found between the BRIEF-WM scale and performance measures (r=−.24 −.22; p<.05) for the combined group. Age at testing, socioeconomic status, and IQ were significant predictors of parent reported WM problems. Rater and performance measures offer complimentary yet different information in assessing WM, which reiterates the importance of utilizing both within the context of clinical assessment. PMID:23351399

  6. Parental work demands and the frequency of child-related routine and interactive activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the frequency of child-related activities was associated with parents' own work demands and those of their partners. In addition to parental paid working hours, we considered the parents' organizational culture and experienced job insecurity. Moreover, we differentiated

  7. 45 CFR 261.35 - Are there any special work provisions for single custodial parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... custodial parents? 261.35 Section 261.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...? § 261.35 Are there any special work provisions for single custodial parents? Yes. A single custodial parent or caretaker relative with a child under age six will count as engaged in work if he or she...

  8. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time

  9. The 'Turn to Parenting': Paradigm shift or work in progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; Knijn, G.C.M.

    In the field of child and youth support, preventive and parent-oriented support programs are currently emphasized. This is understood as a new paradigm of parenting support, which is sometimes referred to as “the turn to parenting.” Using Campbell’s (Annual Review of Sociology, 28:21–38, 2002),

  10. Working with Staff Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Hollace Anne

    2012-01-01

    The author's presentation at the staff meeting centered on Diana Baumrind's parenting styles framework (Baumrind, 1967). Baumrind believed that there were four requirements for effective guidance: nurturing, communication, maturity demands, and control. She rated parents on these four dimensions and identified the pattern of parenting that…

  11. Holding parents so they can hold their children: grief work with surviving spouses to support parentally bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M

    A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.

  12. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  14. Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung won; Hill, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on parental involvement in education has been conducted largely without respect to which parent is involved. The implicit assumption is that family-school relationship frameworks function similarly for fathers and mothers. Although there is a growing body of research examining fathers' involvement in education, this assumption has…

  15. Attachment and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Balance in Portuguese Parents of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana Marina; AVila, Marisa; Matos, Paula Mena

    2012-01-01

    Given the increasingly challenging task of balancing multiple adult life roles in contemporary society, this study examined the influences of both conflicting and (positively) synergistic work and family roles in mediating associations between the quality of adult attachment and both parental satisfaction and parenting stress. Participants were…

  16. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  19. 40 CFR 35.4140 - What must be included in my group's work plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in my group's work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND...

  20. Effects of Parental Job Insecurity and Parenting Behaviors on Youth's Self-Efficacy and Work Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…

  1. Parenting That Works: Building Skills That Last a Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Edward R.; Mortweet, Susan L.

    Noting that from babyhood through the school years, children learn by observing and interacting with their parents, this book draws on nearly 40 years of combined professional experience to offer practical advice, explain proven strategies, and identify the fundamental skills parents need to encourage positive behavior without the need for…

  2. Food parenting measurement issues: Working group consensus report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those cons...

  3. Work Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationship Quality: The Mediating Role of Temporal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Van Der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on 1,008 Dutch fathers and 929 Dutch mothers with…

  4. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality : the mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  5. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality: The mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  6. Employed Parents of Children with Disabilities and Work Family Life Balance: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa J.; Clark, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Work family balance (WFB) is an individual's perception of the fit between work and family roles. Among employed parents of typically developing children WFB has been demonstrated to impact work functioning and physical and psychological health. Emerging from this mature field of research are examinations of WFB among parents of…

  7. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  8. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    change the estimates. CONCLUSION: Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal programming effect or unmeasured difference in psychosocial factors between separated and non...

  9. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effects of perceived affectionless control parenting on working models of the self and other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori

    2016-08-30

    Attachment theory contends that insecure working models of the self and other built through negative attachment experiences are predisposing factors for depression and anxiety disorders. Meanwhile, patients with these psychiatric disorders tend to perceive that they received the affectionless control parenting, which is a combination of lack of care and overprotection. To test the hypothesis that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models, we examined the effects of perceived parenting styles on qualities of working models. The subjects were 691 healthy Japanese volunteers. Working models of the self and other were assessed by the Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into one of the four types defined by combinations of levels of care and protection. In all combinations of recipient sexes and parental sexes, the subjects with the affectionless control parenting (low care/high protection) had lower scores of the self-model and other-model than those with the optimal parenting (high care/low protection). The present study suggests that the affectionless control parenting impairs the formation of positive working models of the self and other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  12. The impact of welfare to work on parents and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When Welfare to Work activities for single parents were first introduced in the 2005 Commonwealth Budget, the primary claim was that these measures would increase individual wellbeing. A decade on, the veracity of this claim has yet to be comprehensively assessed. In this article, we systematically review the 41 Australian studies of income support recipients who were the primary carers of children, to examine the impacts of welfare-to-work on child and parent wellbeing. In line with the themes contained within these studies, we synthesized the findings related to three key areas of wellbeing: financial wellbeing; social connection and subjective wellbeing; and physical and psychological wellbeing. Academic research on the impact of Welfare to Work reforms on the wellbeing of single parents and their children presents an overwhelmingly negative picture whereby reforms have forced parents to participate in services that use ‘work-first’ and ‘one size fits all’, ‘blanket’ or ‘rigid’ approaches that do not help parents to meet their aspirations. Research also suggests that the reforms have decreased the financial wellbeing of single parents and their children, resulting in parents making the transition from welfare to work feeling less satisfied with their future security and standard of living, and higher poverty rates amongst the population of single parents with dependent children. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of how Welfare to Work affects parents and their children.

  13. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication about Drug Use: Strategies for Professionals Working with Parents and Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that family connectedness is the leading protective factor against youth involvement in alcohol and other drug use. A vital component to building positive family connections is effective parent-child communication. This article discusses the importance of building positive parent-child communication skills and provides practical…

  14. Relationships between Parental Attachment, Work and Family Roles, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment and satisfaction with work and family roles, as well as the relationship of these variables to life satisfaction. Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with work and marriage, but not parenting satisfaction or parental…

  15. Co-Working: Parents' Conception of Roles in Supporting Their Children's Speech and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen E.; Marshall, Julie; Brown, Laura J. E.; Goldbart, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Speech and language therapists' (SLTs) roles include enabling parents to provide intervention. We know little about how parents understand their role during speech and language intervention or whether these change during involvement with SLTs. The theory of conceptual change, applied to parents as adult learners, is used as a framework for…

  16. Successful Approaches to Helping Students--Including English Learners--Succeed in Elementary School. Parent Guide = Enfoques exitosos para ayudar a los estudiantes--incluyendo a los que aprenden ingles--a triunfar en la escuela primaria. Guia de padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…

  17. Work-family balance, participation in the family work and parental self-efficacy in Chilean Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo Velez, G.F.P.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes differences regarding work-family balance, participation in family work, and parental self-efficacy in workers (N=300) in Chile according to their sex and their status as income providers. Three instruments (Survey Work-Home Interaction-Nijmegen, Questionnaire of Participation

  18. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  19. Parenting Without Punishment: Making Problem Behavior Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Details the concepts of reinforcement and punishment and their roles in parenting. Claims that responding only to a child's negative behavior is problematic. Disputes contrary opinions of reinforcement techniques and outlines the importance of teaching and reinforcing desirable behavior. Provides examples as illustrations. (RJM)

  20. Working With Abusive/Neglectful Indian Parents. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…

  1. Parenting the Teenage Brain: Understanding a Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Teenagers are perplexing, intriguing, and spirited creatures. In an attempt to discover the secrets to their thoughts and actions, parents have tried talking, cajoling, and begging them for answers. The result has usually been just more confusion. Light is being shed on these mysterious young adults. What was once thought to be hormones run amuck…

  2. Communities of Parental Engagement: New Foundations for School Leaders' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Daniela; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The importance of parents to the success of students in schools and to school improvement has long been established and acknowledged by researchers and educators. In this article, we present a fourth--generation model of school--family linkages, one anchored in understandings of schools as communities as opposed to schools as institutions. Our…

  3. Does Working Memory Training Transfer? A Meta-Analysis Including Training Conditions as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Matthias; Fischer, Frank; Bühner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to reexamine near- and far-transfer effects following working-memory training and to consider potential moderators more systematically. Forty-seven studies with 65 group comparisons were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed near-transfer effects to short-term and working-memory skills that were sustained at…

  4. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Audri; Delsing, Marc J M H; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently available to assess parent-team alliance. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Version (WAV-12), a widely used alliance questionnaire, was adjusted to assess parent-team alliance from both a parent and team perspective within a youth residential setting. Psychometric properties, including factor structure and validity of the subscales, were explored. A sample of youth with mainly complex developmental disorders admitted to 11 inpatient and day patient units of a child and adolescent psychiatric institute participated in this study. The case manager involved with the youth and the primary caregiver of 87 youth completed the revised WAV-12 (WAV-12R). The team version of the WAV-12R showed a good fit to the original conceptualized model, and distinguished Bond, Task and Goal scales. For the parents' version an adjusted model with Insight, Bond and combined Task/Goal scales had the best fit. The reliability and validity of the scales were shown to be good. This paper presents preliminary evidence that the parent and treatment team versions of the WAV-12R are psychometrically sound for assessing parent-team alliance within youth (semi) residential psychiatry in the Netherlands. The team and parents' versions of the WAV-12R are recommended instruments to complement outcome measures in ROM.

  5. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.

  6. Rational emotive behavior therapy: applications for working with parents and teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...

  7. Parents' nonstandard work schedules and child well-being: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Johnson, Sarah E; Han, Wen-Jui; Andrews, Sonia; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dockery, Alfred

    2014-02-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of empirical evidence linking parental nonstandard work schedules to four main child developmental outcomes: internalizing and externalizing problems, cognitive development, and body mass index. We evaluated the studies based on theory and methodological rigor (longitudinal data, representative samples, consideration of selection and information bias, confounders, moderators, and mediators). Of 23 studies published between 1980 and 2012 that met the selection criteria, 21 reported significant associations between nonstandard work schedules and an adverse child developmental outcome. The associations were partially mediated through parental depressive symptoms, low quality parenting, reduced parent-child interaction and closeness, and a less supportive home environment. These associations were more pronounced in disadvantaged families and when parents worked such schedules full time. We discuss the nuance, strengths, and limitations of the existing studies, and propose recommendations for future research.

  8. Hubungan Work-Family Conflict Dengan Continuance Commitment Pada Wanita Yang Berperan Sebagai Single Parent

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Selvia Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Being single parent for women will provide a variety of issues. The main problemis related tothe economic problems. To overcome the problems occurred woman who acts as a single parent, they must work and survive in the organization where she worked. Commitment to remain in the work referred to as continuance commitment. The decision to work and take care of the family can cause conflicts are referred to work-family conflict. This study was conducted to see the relationship between work-fa...

  9. Adolescent Work Intensity and Substance Use: The Mediational and Moderational Roles of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Kyle C.; Shanahan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The dialectic between the adolescent quest for autonomy and parents' desire to regulate this quest are explored by examining the extent to which the association between adolescent work intensity and substance use is mediated and moderated by parenting practices. Results using data from the National Survey of Youth and Religion (N = 3,290) show…

  10. Parental Attachment, Cognitive Working Models, and Depression among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Keisha M.; Murdock, Tamera B.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the cognitive mechanisms by which parental attachments predict depression among African American college students, the authors examined a mediational path model containing parental attachment, cognitive working models, and depression. The model demonstrated a close fit to the data, and several significant paths emerged.…

  11. How Do Parents and Teachers of Gifted Students Perceive Group Work in Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders-Stewart, Katie S.; Walker, Cheryl L.; Shore, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Although an abundance of information exists concerning advantages and disadvantages of certain grouping arrangements with highly able students in classroom settings, little research has focused on gifted children's parents' and teachers' opinions of group work. The present study explored potential differences between these opinions. Parents (n=…

  12. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  13. Supporting Communication for Parents with Intellectual Impairments: Communication Facilitation in Social Work Led Parenting Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alison; Stansfield, Jois

    2014-01-01

    People with intellectual impairments are recognised as having communication difficulties and even people with mild intellectual impairments can be challenged by complex language and limited literacy. The focus of this paper is parents who have learning disabilities, outlining a novel approach to support them in stressful case conference…

  14. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan

    2009-04-01

    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.

  15. Making It Work for Their Children: White Middle-Class Parents and Working-Class Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane; James, David

    2011-01-01

    The white middle-class parents who chose to send their children to urban comprehensives largely rejected engaging in the usual competitiveness for educational success. Nevertheless the parents in our study still found themselves wittingly or otherwise captured by that same discourse. Their children are high achievers and are regarded as a valuable…

  16. Mothers' work-family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-03-01

    Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work-family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work-family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Opening inquiry mathematics to parents: Can they be engaged as teachers’ partners in mathematical work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Papadopoulos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-stage project designed to develop the partnership between teacher and parents. The project began with a workshop constructed to motivate parents to be interested in doing mathematics in a way that is different from the one they experienced as students and, as a result, to be eager to become involved in the co-production of didactic materials for classroom use. Parents were engaged in real, collaborative, high-level mathematical work as a first step in engaging them as partners in mathematical work with their children.  During this first stage, parents were familiarized with inquiry mathematics tasks to provide them with the foundation necessary to become partners and co-producers during the second. The findings give evidence that the learning of reform math tasks and their co-creation supported teacher and parents’ partnership and that parents were moved mathematically and personally by the experience.

  18. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  19. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  20. Measuring Child Work and Residence Adjustments to Parents'Long-Term Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    1996-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangements of the parent, taking inot account the potential endogeneity of some of the child chararcteristics. Three equations are estimated: a care choice equation, a child location equation, and a child work equation. Results suggest a hieracrchy of family decision making; child locations affect the care decision, which affect child work decisions. The results also question previous resear...

  1. Working alliance and treatment fidelity as predictors of externalizing problem behaviors in parent management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje S; Ogden, Terje

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated treatment fidelity and working alliance in the Parent Management Training-Oregon model (PMTO) and investigated how these relate to children's externalizing problem behaviors, as reported by parents and teachers. Participants were 331 Norwegian parents who rated the client-therapist working alliance at 3 time points (Sessions 3, 12, and 20). Competent adherence to the PMTO treatment protocol was assessed by PMTO specialists from evaluations of videotaped therapy sessions using the Fidelity of Implementation (FIMP) system (Knutson, Forgatch, & Rains, 2003). Parents and teachers reported children's problem behaviors at baseline and at the end of therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the repeated measures data. Parents reported high and stable levels of alliance and fidelity from Time 1 to Time 3, with no correlational or direct relations between the 2. Treatment fidelity predicted reductions in parent-reported externalizing behavior, whereas working alliance was related to less change in problem behavior. Alliance and fidelity were unrelated to teacher-reported behavior problems. The findings point to treatment fidelity as an active ingredient in PMTO and working alliance as a negative predictor of postassessment parent-reported externalizing behavior. More research is needed to investigate whether these findings can be replicated and extended beyond PMTO.

  2. Relationship of working mothers' parenting style and consistency to early childhood development: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Maruyama, Akiko; Sawada, Yuko; Ishi, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a report of a longitudinal study of the relationship of working mothers' parenting style to their children's social competence and vocabulary/ motor/intellectual development. With an increasing number of women choosing to remain in the workforce after starting a family, there has been a concomitant increase in use of non-parental childcare facilities to help look after the child while the mother is at work. This increase in non-parental care has led to a dramatic change in the traditional child-rearing environment. Long-term investigations were conducted over a period of 2 years in 41 Japanese government-licensed childcare facilities. Child development was evaluated by childcare professionals and parenting style was assessed by questionnaire. A total of 504 children and their mothers participated in the study. Data collection was carried out in 2004 and 2006. We found that the changes in parenting style were statistically significantly related to children's development after 2 years. For instance, changes in the parent-child playing routine contributed to the child's social competence (odds ratio = 11.088). Variation in working mothers' disciplinary practices was also associated with children's vocabulary development after 2 years (odds ratio = 2246). Working mothers should increase interactions with their children in their free time to reduce the risk of developmental delay. Daily childcare support provided by family members or social organizations for long-term working mothers is helpful in mediating the negative relationship of mothers' working with children's development.

  3. Conceptual understanding of screen media parenting: Report of a working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activi...

  4. Supervision of the operations including work with radioactive sources in Kozloduy NPP, plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the operations with radioactive sources, their movement, transport and the methods of control during the work. Control during their usage is described in company instructions and include all stages of sources life: needs and requires, buying, transport and receive, storage, work, their leave off exploitation and transfer to long term source-storage. Radioactive sources in Kozloduy NPP, Plc are used for metrology assurance of devices for radiation protection measurements and quality control of measurements. That is why we pay attention mainly on this kind of sources. In article is described also requirements to qualification of people who do this work and the radiation protection control during the operations. In article take place operations with sources with short half life, liquid and gaseous, and sources for single use. (author)

  5. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  6. Parents of children diagnosed with cancer: work situation and sick leave, a five-year post end-of-treatment or a child's death follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Hovén, Emma; Cernvall, Martin; Ljungman, Gustaf; Ljungman, Lisa; von Essen, Louise

    Cancer in a child is associated with a significant impact on parental employment. We assessed the proportions of parents of survivors and bereaved parents working and reporting sick leave five years after end of successful treatment (ST)/child's death (T7) compared with one year after end of ST/child's death (T6) and the association between partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work situation and sick leave at T7. Participants and procedure: The sample included 152 parents of survivors (77 mothers, 75 fathers) and 42 bereaved parents (22 mothers, 20 fathers) of children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden. The proportions of parents working or reporting sick leave did not differ among mothers and fathers of survivors (92% vs. 96% working, 20% vs. 18% on sick leave) or among bereaved mothers and fathers (91% vs. 90% working, 14% vs. 20% on sick leave) at T7. There was no change from T6 to T7 in the proportion of fathers working (fathers of survivors 91% vs. 96%, bereaved fathers 95% vs. 90%). Although more mothers of survivors (92% vs. 82%) and bereaved mothers (91% vs. 77%) worked at T7 than at T6, this increase was not significant. Fewer bereaved mothers reported sick leave at T7 than at T6 (14% vs. 59%, p leave at T7 than at T6 (fathers of survivors 18% vs. 8%, bereaved fathers 20% vs. 15%), this was not significant. Partial PTSD was not associated with parents' work situation or sick leave at T7. Results suggest little adverse effect on work situation and sick leave among parents of survivors and bereaved parents five years after end of ST/child's death from cancer. However, the pattern of change observed differed between parents, which could potentially indicate possible delayed consequences for fathers not captured in the present paper.

  7. Non-standard work schedules, gender, and parental stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozano, M.; Hamplová, Dana; Le Bourdais, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 1435-9871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15008S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : stress * employment * non-standard work hours Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2016 http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol34/9/default.htm

  8. Non-standard work schedules, gender, and parental stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozano, M.; Hamplová, Dana; Le Bourdais, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 1435-9871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15008S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : stress * employment * non-standard work hours Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2016 http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol34/9/ default .htm

  9. Parenting in low-income families from the perspective of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovcinova A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the study was to find how poverty affects parenting. For the data collection was used questionnaire Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ, which measures parenthood through five dimensions (1 positive involvement with children, (2 Supervision and monitoring, (3 use of positive discipline techniques, (4 consistency in Theus of discipline chniques, (5 use of corporal punishment. The sample was divided into two groups, with the first group consisted of 188 parents living in poverty The reference group consisted of parents living in households with income standard (N−188.Analysis of the results showed differences between parents living in poverty and between parents with a standard rate of income especially in monitoring and supervision, and also in the use of positive disciplinary techniques. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in cooperation between the parents or the use of corporal punishment. Based on the results it is clear that poverty is one of the factors affecting parenting. Therefore, social worker who works with low-income families should focus attention on this area of family functioning.

  10. Maternal Working Models of Attachment, Marital Adjustment, and the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina Das; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the connection between maternal working models, marital adjustment, and parent-child relationship among 45 mothers and their 16- to 62-month-old children. Found that maternal working models were related to the quality of mother-child interactions and child security, as well as a significant relationship between marital adjustment and…

  11. Parental work demands and the frequency of child-related routine and interactive activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the frequency of child-related activities was associated with parents’ own work demands and those of their partners. In addition to parental paid working hours, we considered the parents’ organizational culture and experienced job insecurity. Moreover, we differentiated

  12. Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn; Trumbell, Jill M

    2012-10-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a normative rise in cortisol levels across the 30 minutes post awakening. Both the levels and the degree of change in cortisol across this time period are sensitive to the perceived challenges of the day and are thought to prepare the individual to meet these tasks. However, working parents of young children may be under unique strains at this time as they attempt to simultaneously care for their children while also preparing themselves for the workday ahead. In these analyses we examined the contributions of both work and parenting stress on maternal cortisol levels and awakening responses, and how these relationships differed on workdays compared with nonworkdays. To do this, saliva samples were collected from 56 working mothers (25% single) with a child between the ages of 2 and 4 years old (mode = 2 children), at awakening and 30 min postawakening. Samples were collected on 4 consecutive days-2 nonworkdays followed by 2 workdays. Analyses revealed mothers reporting higher levels of parenting stress had higher average a.m. cortisol on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Further, mothers reporting a combination of high job strain and high parenting stress had significantly higher cortisol levels and steeper CAR increases on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Findings are discussed by integrating knowledge from the fields of parenting stress, work-family, and stress physiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  14. Working with parents and their emotionally neglected children, being a facilitator and a role model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    This paper is part of a symposium with Amelia Oldfield as Chair. It revolves around how to approach and intervene with at risk families in music therapy specifically emotionally neglected children and their parents. In improving parent-child interaction, these families often need clear role...... modelling for them to try out new ways of communicating. For any therapist working in this area, it can be difficult to combine role modelling with being a facilitator for the parent-child relationship. The family needs to see and experience how they might chance without the disadvantages of the therapist...... forming an alliance with either child or parent. To help the family as much as possible in developing new ways of interacting and breaking inappropriate interaction patterns, the therapist must show the family how without doing it for them. The presentation has its focus on how music therapy can...

  15. A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne; Aronsson, Gunnar; Träskman Bendz, Lil; Grape, Tom; Hogstedt, Christer; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Skoog, Ingmar; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological

  16. Perspectives of school-work transitions among youth with spina bifida, their parents and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C; Maxwell, Joanne

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Youth with disabilities encounter many challenges in finding employment and transitioning to post-secondary education. In this article, we explore the nature of school-work transitions for youth with spina bifida, which few studies have previously addressed. Method We conducted in-depth interviews with 44 participants (nine youth and 12 young adults with spina bifida, 11 parents and 12 clinicians). We analyzed our data using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results We identified several enablers to school-work transitions, including professional support, social support and school accommodations. Lacking such support created several challenges for youth with spina bifida. We also identified several barriers to school-work transitions, including lack of education and information on finances, housing and transportation; discrimination and stigma; and challenges coping with spina bifida at school and work. Conclusions Although some supports are available, youth with spina bifida encounter many challenges in transitioning to post-secondary education and employment. With clinicians at the helm, efforts should be put in place within the health and social services system to better prepare youth, as they transition to adulthood, to become connected to appropriate information and resources to help them to succeed in their school and employment goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Youth with spina bifida encounter many challenges in transitioning to post-secondary education or work. Clinicians, educators and parents should continue to support youth with spina bifida in choosing their vocations, setting career goals and developing career plans. Starting from a young age, parents, clinicians and educators should help youth with spina bifida prepare for school work transitions by fostering their independence, life skills and self-management of spina bifida-related symptoms. Clinicians and educators should help connect youth with spina bifida to appropriate

  17. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  18. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  19. Adolescents' working models and styles for relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A; Shaffer, Laura; Bouchey, Heather A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the links among adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Working models of friendships were related to working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners. Working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners were inconsistently related. A similar pattern of results was obtained for self-report measures of relational styles for the three types of relationships. Perceived experiences were also related. Specifically, support in relationships with parents tended to be related to support in romantic relationships and friendships, but the latter two were unrelated. On the other hand, self and other controlling behaviors in friendships were related to corresponding behaviors in romantic relationships. Negative interactions in the three types of relationships also tended to be related. Taken together, the findings indicate that the representations of the three types of relationships are distinct, yet related. Discussion focuses on the nature of the links among the three.

  20. Schools, "Ferals", Stigma and Boundary Work: Parents Managing Education and Uncertainty in Regional Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rose

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines forms of boundary work undertaken by parents in a regional Australian city to negotiate social processes around the school market amidst rising economic insecurity. It outlines structural changes, which have increased economic inequality in Australia and impacted on educational reform, and the specific challenges faced by…

  1. The Role of the Relationship with Parents with Respect to Work Orientation and Work Ethic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Monique V.E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Henkens, Kène

    2017-01-01

    We examined the extent to which individual relationships with mother and father, social support from partner, and quality of the relationship with the partner, are related to work orientation and work ethic. Survey data were obtained from 3841 respondents from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study

  2. Work It Out Together: Preliminary Efficacy of a Parent and Adolescent DVD and Workbook Intervention on Adolescent Sexual and Substance Use Attitudes and Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Brown, L K; Barker, D; Warren, J; Weddington, P; Fortune, T; Juzang, I

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test an interactive DVD and workbook specifically designed for African-American parents and adolescents (ages 13-18), based on an efficacious face-to-face intervention, to address key factors associated with risk. A total of 170 parent-adolescent dyads were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either the "Work It Out Together" DVD or a General Health Promotion DVD (HP). Parents and adolescents completed measures of HIV knowledge, self-efficacy, and parenting behaviors. Immediately after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents demonstrated higher HIV knowledge and greater HIV prevention self-efficacy. Three months after receiving the Work It Out Together intervention, parents and adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring and sexually active adolescents reported higher levels of condom use self-efficacy and a lower rate of recent sex. These outcomes provide preliminary evidence that the "Work It Out Together" DVD impacted individual attitudes and protective parenting behaviors.

  3. Are parental leaves considered as work interruptions by survey respondents? A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Le Bourdais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental leaves and family-related work interruptions are linked to a variety of issues, such as children’s well-being or women’s work trajectories. Yet, the measurement of periods of absence from the labour market might be imprecise, especially in retrospective surveys. To evaluate the quality of the collected information, we examine whether women who reported taking a parental leave longer than six months also mentioned a corresponding work interruption, using the 2008 Living in Canada Survey (LCS – Pilot. Our analysis shows that nearly half of women failed to do so. We investigate the sources of the discrepancy and suggest possible avenues of change for future surveys.

  4. 75 FR 9442 - AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-71,375 AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Including... impacted employment at AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Mansfield, Ohio. The survey of the... Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, including on-site leased workers from Time Customized Staffing...

  5. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  6. Work absenteeism by parents because of oral conditions in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo Leite; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of oral conditions in preschool children and associated factors on work absenteeism experienced by parents or guardians. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was conducted of 837 children, 3-5 years of age, in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents or guardians answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. The item 'taken time off work' was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing sociodemographic variables, history of toothache and health perceptions (general and oral) were also administered. Clinical examinations for dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) were performed by three dentists who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Cohen's kappa (κ) was 0.83-0.88 for interexaminer agreement and 0.85-0.90 for intra-examiner agreement. Descriptive, analytical statistics were conducted, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α = 5%). The prevalence of parents' or guardians' work absenteeism because of the oral conditions of their children was 9.2%. The following variables were significantly associated with work absenteeism: mother's low schooling [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.31-4.07]; history of toothache (OR = 6.33; 95% CI: 3.18-12.61); and avulsion or luxation types of TDI (OR = 8.54; 95% CI: 1.80-40.53). Other oral conditions that do not generally cause pain, such as dental caries with a low degree of severity or inactive dental caries and uncomplicated TDI, were not associated with parents' or guardians' work absenteeism of preschool children. It is concluded that toothache, avulsion, luxation and a low degree of mother's schooling are associated with work absenteeism. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Preschool Work Teams' View of Ways of Working with Gender--Parents' Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Ingrid; Simonsson, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Lately the interest to develop a gender-perspective in preschool has grown in Sweden. The aim of this study is to focus on Swedish preschool work teams understanding of gender and gender-sensitive pedagogy and their descriptions of what they actually do to be gender-sensitive preschools. Studies of gender and children often focus construction of…

  8. Child Work Safety on the Farms of Local Agricultural Market Producers: Parent and Child Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Phillip; Quandt, Sara A; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture is a hazardous industry, yet there are few regulations on the ages at which children may engage in farm work. Local agricultural market producers (LAMPs) are a growing subset of farmers within "sustainable agriculture" who engage in direct-to-consumer and direct-to-retailer enterprises. This study explores the occupational health and safety perceptions of parents and children for children who work on their families' LAMP farms. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 parent-child dyads from LAMP farms in Illinois and North Carolina. Four themes emerged from these 24 interviews; parents and children perceived that: (1) the nature of small farms makes them safer than industrial agricultural operations; (2) child safety on farms is common sense; (3) avoiding hazardous tasks keeps children safe; and (4) parents know best (compared to regulations) about ways to keep their children safe. Some of these themes echo the results of earlier studies conducted with more conventional farms. Further research is needed to develop programs to improve child occupational safety on LAMP farms.

  9. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  11. Welfare-to-work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal

    2018-01-01

    Background Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. Objectives To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. Data collection and analysis One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction

  12. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED) patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27) and mothers (n = 53) of patients with an ED (n =50) and healthy offsprings (n = 30) were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous measurements of work function and H‒ density including caesiation of a converter surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, S.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources rely on the surface conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen and positive hydrogen ions to H-. The efficiency of this process depends on the actual work function of the converter surface. By introducing caesium into the source the work function decreases, enhancing the negative ion yield. In order to study the impact of the work function on the H- surface production at similar conditions to the ones in ion sources for fusion devices like ITER and DEMO, fundamental investigations are performed in a flexible laboratory experiment. The work function of the converter surface can be absolutely measured by photoelectric effect, while a newly installed cavity ring-down spectroscopy system (CRDS) measures the H- density. The CRDS is firstly tested and characterized by investigations on H- volume production. Caesiation of a stainless steel sample is then performed in vacuum and the plasma effect on the Cs layer is investigated also for long plasma-on times. A minimum work function of (1.9±0.1) eV is reached after some minutes of plasma treatment, resulting in a reduction by a value of 0.8 eV compared to vacuum measurements. The H- density above the surface is (2.1±0.5)×1015 m-3. With further plasma exposure of the caesiated surface, the work function increases up to 3.75 eV, due to the impinging plasma particles which gradually remove the Cs layer. As a result, the H- density decreases by a factor of at least 2.

  14. A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Aronsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies – original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms. Methods A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1 Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990–2013. 2 Prospective or comparable case control design. 3 Assessments of exposure (work and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1–5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used. Results Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3 was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2 was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout. Conclusion While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job

  15. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  16. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  17. Dose Consumptions of NSC KIPT Personnel during the Work that Includes Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilo, Yu.P.; Mazilov, A.V.; Razsukovanny, B.N.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of mean annual and maximal annual uranium concentrations in the air of NSC KIPT working premises is carried out in this paper; the high limit of possible external radiation of category A personnel engaged on works with uranium since 1961 to 2003 has been calculated. The numerical values of effective doses of internal and external radiation of personnel are determined on the basis of data acquired. It is shown that despite of breaking the principal of non excess that has taken place to be in the some years the mean value of total (external+internal) radiation during the given period of time did not exceed the effective dose limit established in Norms of radiating safety of Ukraine and that is equal to 20 mSv per year

  18. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  19. Plasma and oscillations with contributions in memoriam including a complete bibliography of his works

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir, Volume 5: Plasma and Oscillations is an 11-chapter text covers the extensive research study of Langmuir in the field of gas discharges. This book specifically tackles oscillations in ionized gases. The opening chapters describe the plasma-boundary phenomena and the use of a probe to separate the primary electron beam from the scattered electrons. The succeeding chapters deal with the collisions between electrons and gas molecules, oscillations in ionized gases, and the interaction of electron and positive ion space charges in cathode sheaths. These t

  20. Issues concerning scientific production of including people with disabilities at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, B M; Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey carried out on leading periodicals in the areas of Ergonomics, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, the aim of which was to identify scientific publications on the inclusion at work of people with disabilities. The survey of articles published on this topic in the following journals was conducted in December 2010: Applied Ergonomics, Ergonomics, the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Disability and Rehabilitation, and the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. The survey covered issues published between 2000 and 2010 and was conducted electronically using the CAPES Periodicals Portal. To collect the articles, it was necessary to check the articles published in each of the issues of each volume of these periodicals. This is how the articles on the topic in question were found. There were 27 articles on the topic of inclusion at work of people with disabilities, of which 13 were published in the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation and 12 in Disability and Rehabilitation. Thus, it is clear that the issue in question is still a subject that is seldom dealt with in these publications and it is noted that only two articles were published in Ergonomics journals in this period, thus confirming the paucity of scientific publications on this subject.

  1. Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P strategies. Long hours and nonstandard hours and schedules were positively associated among fathers with take-out meals, missed family meals, prepared entrees, and eating while working; and among mothers with restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.

  2. Financial socialization of first-year college students: the roles of parents, work, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soyeon; Barber, Bonnie L; Card, Noel A; Xiao, Jing Jian; Serido, Joyce

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional study tests a conceptual financial socialization process model, specifying four-levels that connect anticipatory socialization during adolescence to young adults' current financial learning, to their financial attitudes, and to their financial behavior. A total of 2,098 first-year college students (61.9% females) participated in the survey, representing a diverse ethnic group (32.6% minority participation: Hispanic 14.9%, Asian/Asian American 9%, Black 3.4%, Native American 1.8% and other 3.5%). Structural equation modeling indicated that parents, work, and high school financial education during adolescence predicted young adults' current financial learning, attitude and behavior, with the role played by parents substantially greater than the role played by work experience and high school financial education combined. Data also supported the proposed hierarchical financial socialization four-level model, indicating that early financial socialization is related to financial learning, which in turn is related to financial attitudes and subsequently to financial behavior. The study presents a discussion of how the theories of consumer socialization and planned behavior were combined effectively to depict the financial development of young adults. Several practical implications are also provided for parents, educators and students.

  3. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  4. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 3. Working with Youth at Risk: Behavioral Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempley, Frances A.; And Others

    This document consists of Part 3 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. It includes six readings, each dealing with a specific behavior that places a young person at risk. "The Secret and…

  5. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  6. Steinberg knew it : authoritative parenting does affect teen externalizing problems. But how does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Masche-No, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on preventive effects of authoritative parenting against externalizing problems (Steinberg, 2001) has been criticized for invalid measurements of parental control (Stattin & Kerr, 2000), and that findings might reflect parental reactions rather than parental influences (Glatz et al., 2012; Kerr et al., 2012). However, few studies have assessed bidirectional effects between parenting and externalizing problems, and even less have attempted to explore how the parent-adolescent rela...

  7. The practice of working with children left without parental care in foreign developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Larin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different approaches to work with children left without parental care, implemented in developed foreign countries. We emphasize that, to facilitate socialization and adaptation of these children in Russia, we should take into account the experience of all the systems of education, take the best of them, adapt them to the Russian mentality, increase funding for children's homes system, develop a comprehensive approach to prevent homelessness and neglect of children, and create conditions for promoting adoption of children by foster families

  8. 76 FR 29797 - International Automotive Components, North America, Including On-Site Leased Workers From At-Work...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Automotive Components, North America, Including On- Site Leased Workers From At-Work Personnel and CJR Solutions, d/b/a Harvard Resources Solutions, Lebanon, VA..., applicable to workers of International Automotive Components, North America, including on-site leased workers...

  9. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  10. Community Partnerships: Working across Institutions to Support Parent Advocacy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer; Ozuna, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze the evolution of parent advocate education standards that illustrate what parents need to know and do to effectively support their children's learning in 6th-12th grade. Focus groups conducted with parent participants revealed that parents were often unaware of the distinction between helping their child…

  11. Welfare-to-work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal

    2018-02-26

    Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and

  12. Informing social work practice through research with parent caregivers of a child with a life-limiting illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals.

  13. Welfare-to-work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcia; Thomson, Hilary; Banas, Kasia; Lutje, Vittoria; McKee, Martin J; Martin, Susan P; Fenton, Candida; Bambra, Clare; Bond, Lyndal

    2017-08-20

    Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and

  14. Parent reports of children's working memory, coping, and emotional/behavioral adjustment in pediatric brain tumor patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Leandra; Thigpen, Jennifer C; Kobritz, Molly; Bettis, Alexandra H; Gruhn, Meredith A; Ichinose, Megan; Hoskinson, Kristen; Fraley, Claire; Vreeland, Allison; McNally, Colleen; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-10-02

    Neurocognitive problems in childhood survivors of brain tumors are well documented. Further, research has shown that problems in cognitive functioning may be associated with impairment in the use of complex strategies needed to cope with stress, including secondary control coping strategies (e.g., acceptance and cognitive reappraisal) which have been associated with fewer adjustment problems. The present study measured cognitive function, coping strategies, and adjustment in children ages 6-16 years at the time of brain tumor diagnosis and at two follow-up time-points up to 1 year post-diagnosis. In a prospective design, working memory was assessed in a total of 29 pediatric brain tumor patients prior to undergoing surgery, child self-reported coping was assessed at 6 months post-diagnosis, and parent-reported child adjustment was assessed at 12 months post-diagnosis. Significant correlations were found between working memory difficulties and secondary control coping. Secondary control coping was also negatively correlated with child attention and total problems. Regression analyses did not support secondary control coping mediating the association between working memory difficulties and child attention or total problems. These findings represent the first longitudinal assessment of the association between working memory, coping, and adjustment across the first year of a child's brain tumor diagnosis and suggest a possible role for early interventions addressing both working memory difficulties and coping in children with brain tumors.

  15. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.80 Section 286.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 41 CFR 102-5.85 - What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified rather than named individuals? 102-5.85 Section 102-5.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  17. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade

    2013-01-01

    We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parentin...

  18. Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence from Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of welfare reform's parental work requirements on low-income children's cognitive and social-emotional development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the work requirement rules--namely, age-of-youngest-child exemptions--as a source of quasi-experimental variation in first-year maternal…

  19. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  20. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints.

  1. Guidance for Professionals Working with Newborns and Their Families: Pathways to Positive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jolene

    2016-01-01

    Parents of newborns and infants are especially open to learning, and many new parents are actively seeking information. What do professionals teach them? How do they teach them? "Pathways" is an educator's guide to educating and supporting new parents. "Pathways" guides professionals in developing an approach to parent…

  2. Breaking Down Barriers--Building Strong Foundations: Parents and Teachers of Exceptional Students Working Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Cathleen G.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines for fostering positive teacher-parent relationships. Discusses recent legislative mandates, how parent/teacher relationships are affected by current policy issues promoted by professional education organizations, and methods of constructive communication. Parents and teachers of students with learning disabilities are urged to…

  3. First-Year Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers: Challenges of Working with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sehba

    2013-01-01

    The significance of relationships between the parents and teachers of preschool and kindergarten children is well established. Teachers and schools are presumed to be responsible for lack of parent-teacher collaboration. Internationally, early childhood teacher education programs recognize this and offer courses related to parents and families.…

  4. Working with complexity: experiences of caring for mothers seeking residential parenting services in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2017-02-01

    To investigate staff perception of the changing complexity of mothers and infants admitted to two residential parenting services in New South Wales in the decade from 2005-2015. For many mothers with a young child, parenting is difficult and stressful. If parenting occurs within the context of anxiety, mental illness or abuse it often becomes a high-risk situation for the primary caregiver. Residential parenting services provide early nursing intervention before parenting problems escalate and require physical or mental health focused care. A qualitative descriptive design using semi-structured interview questions was used as phase three of a larger study. Data were gathered from 35 child and family health nurses and ten physicians during eight focus groups. Three main themes emerged: (1) dealing with complexity; (2) changing practice; and (3) appropriate knowledge and skills to handle greater complexity. There was a mix of participant opinions about the increasing complexity of the mothers presenting at residential parenting services during the past decade. Some of the nurses and physicians confirmed an increase in complexity of the mothers while several participants proposed that it was linked to their increased psychosocial assessment knowledge and skill. All participants recognised their work had grown in complexity regardless of their perception about the increased complexity of the mothers. Australian residential parenting services have a significant role in supporting mothers and their families who are experiencing parenting difficulties. It frequently provides early intervention that helps minimise later emotional and physical problems. Nurses are well placed to work with and support mothers with complex histories. Acknowledgement is required that this work is stressful and nurses need to be adequately supported and educated to manage the complex presentations of many families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  6. Practitioner review: When parent training doesn't work: theory-driven clinical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-12-01

    Improving the parent-child relationship by using strategies based on social learning theory has become the cornerstone for the treatment of conduct problems in children. Over the past 40 years, interventions have expanded greatly from small, experimental procedures to substantial, systematic programmes that provide clear guidelines in detailed manuals on how practitioners should implement the standardised treatments. They are now widely disseminated and there is a great deal of empirical support that they are very effective for the majority of cases. However, evaluations of even the best of these evidence-based programmes show that a quarter to a third of families and their children do not benefit. What does the practitioner then do, when a standard social learning approach, diligently applied, doesn't work? We argue that under these circumstances, some of the major theories of child development, family functioning and individual psychology can help the skilled practitioner think his or her way through complex clinical situations. This paper describes a set of practical strategies that can then be flexibly applied, based on a systematic theoretical analysis. We hold that social learning theory remains the core of effective parent training interventions, but that ideas from attachment theory, structural family systems theory, cognitive-attribution theory, and shared empowerment/motivational interviewing can each, according to the nature of the difficulty, greatly enrich the practitioner's ability to help bring about change in families who are stuck. We summarise each of these models and present practical examples of when and how they may help the clinician plan treatment.

  7. What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-03-28

    Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  9. Well-being, involvement in paid work and division of child-care in parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M B; Hwang, C P

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and child-care. Mothers and fathers of 179 children with ID and 196 typically developing children answered mailed surveys on their involvement in paid work, child-care tasks and well-being. Only two-parent families were included. The results show main effects for gender of the parent and presence of a child with ID on involvement in paid work and well-being. Interaction effects indicate that mothers of children with ID are more affected than fathers in their participation in paid work and well-being. A positive relation between level of participation in paid work and well-being was found for both mothers and fathers. No difference in division of child-care tasks was found between families of children with ID and control families. Differences in involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with ID only explained 5% of the variance in the difference between mothers' and fathers' well-being. Families with children with ID differ from control families in that the parents are less involved in paid work and have lower levels of well-being. A positive relation between involvement in paid work and well-being was found.

  10. Enhancing Sensitivity in Adolescent Mothers: Does a Standardised, Popular Parenting Intervention Work with Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Yvonne; BinNoon, Noam

    2014-01-01

    This community pilot study was designed to evaluate a small group intervention, Right From The Start (RFTS), in terms of the benefits it provides to adolescent mothers specifically. The effectiveness of the programme was examined in the areas of maternal sensitivity, parenting confidence, parenting stress, and postnatal depression. RFTS has been…

  11. Working Together in a Deficit Logic: Home-School Partnerships with Somali Diaspora Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on discursive psychology this article examines the understandings teachers and principals in Danish Public Schools have regarding Somali diaspora parenting practices. Furthermore, the article investigates what these understandings mean in interaction with children in the classrooms and with parents in home-school communication. It is…

  12. Understandings of Efficacy: Cross-National Perspectives on "What Works" in Supporting Parents and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Janet; Smith, Marjorie; Statham, June

    2011-01-01

    The research literature on parenting support typically focuses on English-speaking countries, such as England, the United States and Australia. This article draws on a review, commissioned by the English government, which examined policies and services to support parenting in five European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the…

  13. The Role of a Self-Help Group in Working with Parents of a Stillborn Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ann L.; Soule, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies how a self-help group can facilitate parents' mourning process following a stillbirth. With family-to-family contact and group discussions, the reality of the stillbirth is validated, the empty feelings of the loss the parents are experiencing are acknowledged, and the guilt the couples are feeling is eased. (Author)

  14. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica parents work harder when foraging conditions are good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferli, Luc; Grueebler, Martin U.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Visser, G. Henk; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-01-01

    In altricial birds, the great effort involved in supplying food to nestlings can create trade-offs in the allocation of resources between the current brood and parental self-maintenance. In poor foraging conditions, parents have to adjust their energy expenditure in relation to the increased

  15. Parental leave take up and return to work of mothers in Luxembourg: An application of the model of nested dichotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of parental leave after birth of a child for working mothers. Even though employment rates of women in industrialized countries are rising, women continue to assume the primary responsibility for caring for young children after they are born. Therefore it is interesting

  16. Early Childhood Administrators' Attitudes and Experiences in Working with Gay- and Lesbian-Parented Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Julie; Hegde, Archana V.; Averett, Paige; Ballard, Sharon M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes, preparation, and comfort of early childhood administrators in working with gay and lesbian (GL) parented families and the use of GL inclusive practices within centers. Data were gathered from 203 participants in the state of North Carolina using an online survey. Overall, administrators held a positive attitude…

  17. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  18. 45 CFR 286.95 - What, if any, are the special rules concerning counting work for two-parent families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What, if any, are the special rules concerning counting work for two-parent families? 286.95 Section 286.95 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  20. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arrangements are unavailable. (b) Refusal to work when an acceptable form of child care is available is not... penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section 286.150... a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? (a) If the individual is a single...

  1. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring....... The article uses comparative data from the second round of the European Social Survey carried out in 2004/05. The analysis shows that both time spent on full-time care and different care policies influence mothers' subjective feelings that caring for children has negative consequences for their careers...... care reduce mothers' perceived occupational consequences of taking leave.  ...

  2. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  3. A social work study on the effect of training program for parents of children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Azarnoush

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs a study on testing the effect of training program on marital satisfaction among parents of children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The main hypothesis of this paper studies whether parental training influences on marital satisfaction among parents having to children with ADHD or not. The population of this survey includes all parents having children ages 5-12 year with ADHD who approached medical centers during the first three months of fiscal year of 2011 in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, which includes 12 marital satisfaction characteristics with 47 questions. The study has selected a random sample of 30 couples and divided them into two equal groups with 15 people where half were considered as experiment and the other half were considered as control. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92. The result of Greenhouse-Geisser test specifies that there was not any meaningful difference between two groups before/after the exam. In other words, applying training program did not have any meaningful effect on marital satisfaction among parents of children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

  4. Influência dos valores laborais dos pais sobre os valores laborais dos filhos Parents work values influence on sons work values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barreiros Porto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Valores laborais são princípios ou metas, hierarquicamente organizadas, que as pessoas buscam e que guiam a sua vida no trabalho. A família, a escola e a experiência de trabalho são apontadas como as variáveis mais influentes na formação dos valores laborais. Os pais são considerados os agentes socializadores mais influentes nesse processo, pois servem como modelo de trabalhador para as crianças. O objetivo do presente trabalho é investigar a influência dos valores paterno e materno nos valores laborais de estudantes universitários. Participaram 129 estudantes universitários, de 17 cursos escolhidos aleatoriamente, seus pais (84 mães e 45 pais e 956 colegas de curso dos estudantes. Os participantes responderam à Escala de Valores Relativos ao Trabalho. Os resultados das regressões hierárquicas indicaram que os pais e os colegas exercem influência sobre os valores laborais de Realização Profissional e Estabilidade dos estudantes. São discutidas a relevância e as limitações desses resultados no artigo.Work values are principles or goals, ordered by importance, that people seek and that guide his/her life at work. Family, school and work experiences are indicated as the most important factors in the formation of work values. Parents are considered the most influential social agent in this process, since they serve as a role model to their children. The present study examines the impact of the work values of parents on the work values of college students. One hundred and twenty nine (129 students and their parents (84 mothers and 45 fathers in 17 randomly chosen undergraduate courses, as well as 956 colleagues of these students participated in this investigation. They answered the Work Values Scale. The results of the hierarchical regressions demonstrated that parents and colleagues influence the student's work values of Professional Achievement and Stability. The relevance and limitations of these results are discussed in

  5. Effort–reward Imbalance at Work, Parental Support, and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study from Chinese Dual-earner Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Parents' work stress (particularly mother's work stress was strongly associated with adolescent's suicidal ideation, and the association was partially mediated by low parental support. These results need to be replicated and extended in prospective investigations within and beyond China, in order to explore potential causal pathways as a basis of preventive action.

  6. Creating Concussion Management Policy: How School Leaders, Coaches and Parents Can Work Together to Ensure Kids Stay Safer in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    School leaders, parents and coaches are challenged to ensure the safety of athletes participating in interscholastic programs, including concussion management. With an estimated 300,000 sport-related concussions occurring annually in the United States and a public perception that bell ringers are not concussions, many head-injured children are…

  7. Exploring parents everyday life and emotion work related to school-home cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krab, Jimmy

    The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number of ex...... of examples of parents experience with school-home relations and discuss methodological challenges in researching everyday life practices and discuss how emotionwork – and management are connected to social differentierings processes in education......The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number...

  8. Managing Motherhood in the Australian Construction Industry: Work-family Balance, Parental Leave and Part-time Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of women in the Australian construction industrywas undertaken to examine women's work experiencesin construction. Questionnaires were distributed to threehundred women in construction occupations and 109completed and usable questionnaires were returned.Women were found to be seriously under-represented insite-based roles. Site/project engineers worked longer hoursthan other occupational groups and expressed significantlygreater work-family conflict. Lack of flexibility and theinability to balance work and family were common themesin the qualitative comments made by many respondents.Even when women indicated that part time work options andmaternity entitlements were provided by their organizations,many expressed a reluctance to use them and perceivedcareer penalty associated with this usage. It is concludedthat more flexible work schedules and the implementationof family-friendly policies may encourage more women intosite-based roles in construction. The paper concludes thatthe rigid work practices presently in place act as a subtleform of discrimination. The provision of such policies willonly be effective if cultural and attitudinal change is alsoachieved.

  9. THE ROLE OF THE SPEECH THERAPIST AND HIS INFLUENCE IN SPEECH DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CENTRAL DEFECTS AND INSTRUCTIVE AND ADVISORY WORK OF THE PARENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TORTEVSKA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern way of living in which the communication becomes a basic and upbringing factor and regulator of the relations isolates children with hard individual, family, educative and social problems.The speech and language disorders are the most remarkable symptoms pointing out the complex of defects in the communicative activities, reduced cognitive functions and cerebral dysfunction's.The modern conception in the rehabilitation field leads to a full engagement of the children’s closest environment and especially parents.The study will include the work of the speech therapist with children with a diagnosis tardy speech development (alalia and developing dysphasia in the hearing, speech and voice rehabilitation institute-Skopje, and its role introducing the parents for their right access and the systematic conduction of the rehabilitation proceedings-especially stimulating the motors and speech development.The speech therapist’s task is to find out a way and to apply means by which the children with central damages could build their speech and lingual system and to help the parents through instructive and advisory work into the comprehension of the phases and stages of that system.The conclusion is that the proceedings of the early treatment with the children with central damages are naturally caused by the difference of their early supplementation. The suggestions that are referring to what should be substituted, how much it should be substituted and how it should be done leads to the frames of the early therapeutical access.

  10. Academic Parenting: Work-Family Conflict and Strategies across Child Age, Disciplines and Career Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Anne; McDonald, Jan; Guijt, Rosanne; Leane, Elizabeth; Martin, Angela; James, Allison; Jones, Menna; Corban, Monica; Green, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    The research underpinning this article explores the impacts that parenting and primary caring responsibilities have upon academic careers. It takes an innovative approach by exploring three under-researched aspects of this issue: the longitudinal impacts that extend past the years immediately following the birth or adoption of a child; the…

  11. Motivational Interviewing: An Intervention Tool for Child Welfare Case Workers Working with Substance-Abusing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Melinda M.

    1998-01-01

    Child welfare workers have long known that abuse of alcohol and drugs is a major problem with many parents on their caseloads. This article discusses motivational interviewing, an intervention technique with substance abusers which postulates that motivation is created in an interaction between the client and worker. Principles of motivational…

  12. Visible Pedagogic Work: Parenting, Private Tutoring and Educational Advantage in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprakash, Arathi; Proctor, Helen; Hu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This article explores parents' use of private tutoring services for their primary school children in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Using Bernstein's theories of invisible and visible pedagogies, we look, through the eyes of a small group of middle-class Chinese-background interviewees, at the tensions between certain pedagogic forms associated…

  13. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  14. Parental satisfaction of U.S. physicians: associated factors and comparison with the general U.S. working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Hayes, Sharonne; Sinsky, Christine A; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff; West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Lotte N

    2016-08-27

    Physicians work considerably longer hours and are less satisfied with work-life balance than U.S. workers in other fields. There is, however, minimal data on physicians' parental satisfaction. To evaluate differences in parental satisfaction among physicians and workers in other fields, we surveyed U.S. physicians as well as a probability-based sample of the general U.S. working population between August 2014-October 2014. Parental satisfaction and the perceived impact of career on relationships with children were evaluated. Among 6880 responding physicians (cooperation rate 19.2 %), 5582 (81.1 %) had children. Overall, physicians were satisfied in their relationships with their children, with 4782 (85.9 %) indicating that they were either very satisfied [n = 2738; (49.2 %)] or satisfied [n = 2044 (36.7 %)]. In contrast, less than half believed their career had made either a major [n = 1212; (21.8 %)] or minor positive [n = 1260; (22.7 %)] impact on their relationship with their children, with a slightly larger proportion indicating a major (n = 2071 [37.2 %]) or minor (n = 501 [9 %]) negative impact. Women physicians were less likely to believe their career had made a positive impact as were younger physicians. Hours worked/week inversely correlated with the belief that career had made a positive impact on relationships with children. Both men (OR: 2.75; p impact on relationships with their children than the sex-matched U.S. working population. U.S. physicians report generally high satisfaction in their relationships with their children. Despite their high satisfaction, physicians have a more negative perception of the impact of their career on relationships with their children than U.S. workers in general.

  15. The Student and His Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ellen; Kennedy, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Responses to questionnaire to parents indicate that they want to know what is happening in the lives of their students, and students want them to know and understand. It is conceivable that the arena of personnel work may well extend to include more work with parents. (Author)

  16. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  17. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  18. Do flexible work policies improve parents' health? A natural experiment based on the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Panico, Lidia

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence of the impact of policies to promote work-family balance on family health. Exploiting the introduction of the UK Flexible Working Act (2003), we examined whether a policy that grants parents the right to request flexible work influences their health and well-being. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we focus on 6424 mothers employed in 2001-2002, when the cohort child was 9 months old, until their child's seventh birthday. We used a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach to compare changes in outcomes before and after the policy among mothers most likely to benefit and mothers unlikely to benefit from the policy. Flexible working increased in a small group of mothers (n=548) whose employer did not offer work flexibility before the reform (treatment group). By contrast, among mothers whose employer already offered flexible work before the reform (control group, n=5810), there was little change or a slight decline in flexible working. DiD estimates suggest that the policy was associated with an increase in flexible working (37.5 percentage points, 95% CI 32.9 to 41.6), but it had no impact on self-rated health (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI -4.4 to 1.1), long-term illness (-1.87 percentage points, 95% CI -4.3 to 0.5) or life satisfaction scores (β=0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.16). The Flexible Working Act increased flexible working only among a small group of mothers who had not yet the right to request work flexibility, but it had no impact on their health and well-being. Policies promoting work flexibility may require stronger incentives for both parents and employers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Family-to-work spillover and appraisals of caregiving by employed women caring for their elderly parents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Mariko; Sato, Iori; Ikeda, Mari; Hashizume, Hirofumi; Uemori, Masayo; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2016-06-10

    We examined the differences in family-to-work spillover between employed women who did and did not have caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents and the relationship between family-to-work spillover and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving using moderation analysis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with middle-aged employed women (age ≥40 years) from four large companies. Negative and positive family-to-work spillover (FWNS and FWPS, respectively) and negative and positive appraisals of caregiving were measured. Data from 386 non-caregivers and 82 caregivers were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests, Welch's t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results showed that FWNS was higher in caregivers than in non-caregivers, while there was no significant difference in FWPS. Caregiver "fulfillment from the caregiving role" (a subscale of positive appraisal) buffered the effects of caregiver "feelings of social restriction" (a subscale of negative appraisal) on FWNS. On the other hand, caregiver "commitment to caregiving tasks" (another positive subscale) intensified the effects of "feelings of social restriction" on FWNS. However, there was no relationship between negative and positive appraisals of caregiving and FWPS. These findings suggest that both negative and positive appraisals of caregiving are important contributors to FWNS among employed women caring for their parents.

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. Stress, Psychosocial Mediators, and Cognitive Mediators in Parents of Child Cancer Patients and Cancer Survivors: Attention and Working Memory Pathway Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Haegen, Marie; Luminet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long-term consequences of stress on cognitive processing in parents of child cancer survivors. Eligible studies were experimental, meta-analyses, and qualitative (2000-2013) from Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, PsycArticles, and Google Scholar. We identified 92 eligible papers. They showed that elevated stress can impede performances on tasks requiring attention and memory patterns. In pediatric oncology, parental stress increased shortly after diagnosis involving depression and anxiety. Consequences of stress on cognitive performances were observed mainly among depressed individuals. As regards parents of child cancer survivors, female gender, low Socioeconomic Status (SES), and innate traits of anxiety/anger predicted the development of PTSS. Evidence of stress on attention and working memory processes in parents of child cancer survivors is insufficiently developed.

  2. 45 CFR 261.24 - How will we determine a State's two-parent work rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK What Are the Provisions Addressing State Accountability? § 261.24... minor child) who are work-eligible individuals and living in the home, unless both are minors and...

  3. Flexible work: Ambitious parents' recipe for career success in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; van Engen, M.L.; Vinkenburg, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study sets out to examine how gender and ambition are related to work hours and the utilization of other flexible work-home arrangements, and how this use is - in turn - associated with career-related outcomes (i.e. job level, and career satisfaction). Design/methodology/approach: In

  4. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  5. Socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral correlates of different modes of transportation to work among Norwegian parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oline Anita Bjørkelund

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting to the workplace among parental adults; taking socio-demographic, personal, environmental and behavioral factors into account. Methods Data from a cross- sectional questionnaire were collected from a sample of 709 parents (23 % men and 77 % women of children aged 10–12 years-old in two Norwegian counties, Hedmark and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. Results In total, 70 % of adults were categorized as car commuters to and from work, 12 % was categorized as a cyclist and 7 % as a walker. The multivariate analyses showed that active commuters were more likely to have a shorter distance to work and perceived the traffic as more safe. Moreover, those who actively commute to the workplace considered commuting as a way to obtain health benefits and a way to reduce CO2 emissions. Active commuters also considered weather to be an obstacle to active commuting. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study of parents living in sub-urban Norway, we found that active commuting to and from the workplace were associated with a shorter distance to work, traffic safety, environmental concern, health benefits and weather condition. In light of these

  6. The Effect of Incentive Return-to-Work Policies on Single-Parent Families: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance to the labor market.

  7. Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence From Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M

    This paper assesses the impact of welfare reform’s parental work requirements on low-income children’s cognitive and social-emotional development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the work requirement rules—namely, age-of youngest- child exemptions—as a source of quasi-experimental variation in first-year maternal employment. The 1996 welfare reform law empowered states to exempt adult recipients from the work requirements until the youngest child reaches a certain age. This led to substantial variation in the amount of time that mothers can remain home with a newborn child. I use this variation to estimate the impact of work-requirement induced increases in maternal employment. Using a sample of infants from the Birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, the reduced form and instrumental variables estimates reveal sizable negative effects of maternal employment. An auxiliary analysis of mechanisms finds that working mothers experience an increase in depressive symptoms, and are less likely to breastfeed and read to their children. In addition, such children are exposed to nonparental child care arrangements at a younger age, and they spend more time in these settings throughout the first year of life.

  8. Parent-Day Care Center Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Georgia H.; Baldridge, Jane E.

    Guidelines teachers have found useful for initiating and maintaining formal and informal communication with parents are provided in this discussion for child caregivers. Topics briefly discussed include the mechanics of initiating a conference, working with parents during a conference, arranging meetings for parent groups, and techniques for…

  9. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas, Published in Not Provided, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of unknown. Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas.

  10. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  11. Park use is associated with less sedentary time among low-income parents and their preschool child: The NET-Works study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Sherwood, Nancy E; Mitchell, Nathan R; Fan, Yingling

    2017-03-01

    Parks are an important component of the neighborhood environment, and their presence is believed to support higher levels of physical activity among residents. The present study examined park use frequency among a sample of 534 low-income parents of preschool aged children. Associations with child and parent physical activity, neighborhood characteristics and physical characteristics of the block immediately surrounding the home were examined. Data are from baseline measurements completed in 2012-2014 as part of larger study (NET-Works: Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthy Kids) targeting low-income preschool children and their parents ( N  = 534 parent-child dyads). Physical activity was measured in parent and child using accelerometry. Parents reported their frequency of use with their child of parks within a half kilometer from their residence. Block audits were performed by trained research staff to describe the quality and walkability of the streets around the home. Bivariate associations between demographic variables, perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for child physical activity, and physical activity were examined using regression or Chi square analysis. Park use frequency was not significantly associated with child accelerometry light, moderate or vigorous physical activity. However, it was marginally significantly inversely associated with child accelerometry sedentary time ( p  sedentary time ( p  child frequency of being taken to a park or playground outside the home ( p  child physical activity ( p  child may support higher levels of physical activity among low-income parents and reduce sedentary time for both child and parent.

  12. Disentangling the effects of working memory, language, parental education, and non-verbal intelligence on children's mathematical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that children's performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4-6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children's performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability.

  13. Marital and parental relationships: a comparison of middle and working class families / Relações conjugais e parentais: uma comparação entre famílias de classes sociais baixa e média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pereira Braz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study the interrelatedness between marital and parental relationships in order to understand children's social adjustment and development. Therefore, this study aims to describe aspects of the quality of marital and parental relationships from Brazilian working and middle class families. Fourteen families consisting of father, mother, and target preschool children at the age of 4-5 years were selected to participate in this study. A questionnaire on social-demographic data, family structure, lifestyles, and division of home tasks was answered by mothers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with mothers and fathers, separately, including questions on marital satisfaction, conflict, coalition, values and beliefs on marriage and parenting, and their influence on parents-child interactions. The results indicate that a good marital relationship fosters sharing domestic tasks and childrearing practices between wives and husbands and promotes the development of security feelings in their children. The discussion is based on the differences between working and middle class families in terms of mutual influences between both kinds of relationships.

  14. Naturalism and Ideological Work: How Is Family Language Policy Renegotiated as Both Parents and Children Learn a Threatened Minority Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2014-01-01

    Parents who enroll their children to be educated through a threatened minority language frequently do not speak that language themselves and classes in the language are sometimes offered to parents in the expectation that this will help them to support their children's education and to use the minority language in the home. Providing…

  15. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: a conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexem, Kari R; Bosk, Abigail M; Feudtner, Chris

    2011-10-25

    The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1) performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2) the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3) operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4) over the passage of time, (5) while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  16. Training community practitioners to work more effectively with parents to prevent childhood obesity: the impact of HENRY upon Children's Centres and their staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, T A; Potrata, B; Hunt, C; Rudolf, M C J

    2012-10-01

    One in four children in England is overweight/obese upon starting school. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) offers a novel, preventive approach to this problem by training practitioners to work more effectively with the parents of preschool children around obesity and lifestyle issues. The programme is being delivered to all Sure Start Children's Centres (the UK government initiative providing family support and childcare in disadvantaged areas) in Leeds, UK. The evaluation covered the first 12 Centres to be trained (these had a reach of approximately 5000 families). A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with Centre managers, and 'drop boxes' were provided for all staff to leave their comments. Interviews took place up to 11 months post-training, allowing a consideration of any long-term impact. Data from 12 interviews and 106 comment slips indicated that HENRY training was associated with considerable changes to the Centre environment. Immediate effects included changes to Centre policy and practice, including the provision of age-appropriate portion sizes and the introduction of healthy snacks; a strengthening of team working and increased staff confidence around tackling lifestyle change; and enhanced skills when working with families. Training also induced changes within the staff's personal lives (e.g. increased physical activity and family mealtimes). The findings suggest that positive and lasting lifestyle effects can be achieved by brief training courses involving Children's Centre staff teams. Both staff and attendant families appear to benefit. The effect on levels of preschool obesity across the city once HENRY has extended to the remaining Centres is yet to be seen. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leensen, Monique C J; Groeneveld, Iris F; Heide, Iris van der; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Berkel, Sietske van; Snoek, Aernout; Harten, Wim van; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-06-15

    To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to evaluate changes in work-related quality of life and physical outcomes. Longitudinal prospective intervention study using a one-group design. Two hospitals in the Netherlands. Of the eligible patients, 56% participated; 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer receiving chemotherapy and on sick leave were included. Patients completed questionnaires on RTW, the importance of work, work ability (WAI), RTW self-efficacy, fatigue (MFI), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30) at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up. Before and after the exercise programme 1-repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) were assessed. Six months after the start of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme that combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme, 59% of the cancer patients returned to work, 86% at 12 months and 83% at 18 months. In addition, significant improvements (pfatigue levels were significantly reduced. After completing the exercise programme, 1RM muscle strength was significantly increased but there was no improvement in VO 2 peak level. RTW rates of cancer patients were high after completion of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme which combines occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme is likely to result in RTW, reduced fatigue and increased importance of work, work ability, and quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. What Children Want from Parents--and How Teachers Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    The real enemy is not working mothers, but a society that undervalues parenting. Schools can help parents address and manage their guilt and stress, stop the mommy wars (between working and nonworking parents), work to improve community childcare, include fathers in outreach efforts, and help employers become family-friendly. (MLH)

  19. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Van Widenfelt, B.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently

  20. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  1. Cerebral Inefficient Activation in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Parents during the N-Back Working Memory Task: A Family fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisi Jiang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that working memory deficits is a core feature of symptomatology of schizophrenia, which can be detected in patients and their unaffected relatives. The impairment of working memory has been found related to the abnormal activity of human brain regions in many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. This study investigated how brain region activation was altered in schizophrenia and how it was inherited independently from performance deficits.The authors used fMRI method during N-back task to assess working memory related cortical activation in four groups (N = 20 in each group, matching task performance, age, gender and education: schizophrenic patients, their unaffected biological parents, young healthy controls for the patients and older healthy controls for their parents.Compared to healthy controls, patients showed an exaggerated response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (brodmann area [BA] 46 and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and had reduced activation in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9. In the conjunction analysis, the effect of genetic risk (parents versus older control shared significantly overlapped activation with effect of disease (patients versus young control in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 46 and left inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40.Physiological inefficiency of dorsal prefrontal cortex and compensation involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex in working memory function may one physiological characteristics of schizophrenia. And relatively inefficient activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex probably can be a promising intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

  2. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to

  3. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (pparents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  5. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  6. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  7. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Including solar energy in the local heat supply of the Goettingen city works; Einbindung von Sonnenenergie in die Nahwaermeversorgung der Stadtwerke Goettingen AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Schreitmueller, K.R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Vanoli, K. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The research project `Solar local heat Goettingen` was started in 1992 in which, by including a 785 m{sup 2} flat collector plant in the return of the local heat supply of the Goettingen City Works; the potential of the combined system of solar plant and conventional heat supply system is to be proved. The size of the collector plant and inclusion in an existing local heat network promised an advantageous combination due to appreciably lower investment costs (lower collector installation costs) and savings in system technique, reduced operating costs, and higher income due to favourable operating conditions with even low collector operating temperatures and reduced piping losses. In parallel with this system, the Goettingen City Works installed an air collector plant which is used to preheat the combustion air taken to the conventional burners. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Es entstand im Jahr 1992 das Forschungsvorhaben `Solare Nahwaerme Goettingen`, in dem durch die Einbindung einer 785 m{sup 2} grossen Flachkollektoranlage in den Ruecklauf der Nahwaermeversorgung der Stadtwerke Goettingen AG das Potential der Systemkombination Solaranlage und konventionelle Waermeversorgungssystem nachgewiesen werden sollte. Die Groesse der Kollektoranlage sowie die Einbindung in ein bestehendes Nahwaermenetz versprachen eine vorteilhafte Kombination aufgrund - deutlich geringerer Investionskosten (geringe Kollektorinstallationskosten sowie Einsparungen bei der Systemtechnik); - reduzierter Betriebskosten; - hoher Ertraege durch guenstige Betriebsbedingungen wie gleichbleibend niedriger Kollektorbetriebstemperaturen und reduzierter Leitungsverluste. Parallel zu diesem System installierten die Stadtwerke Goettingen AG eine Luftkollektoranlage, die der Vorwaermung der den konventionellen Brennern zugefuehrten Verbrennungsluft dient. (orig./HW)

  9. Early Childhood Educators Working with Children Who Have Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents: What Does the Literature Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloughessy, Kathy; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) educators are expected to cater for all types of families from diverse backgrounds. Research involving EC educators and the spaces they create indicate the dominance of heteronormative practices. This silences programmes, policies, experiences and interactions that could reflect and support children with parents who identify…

  10. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental Choice in the Netherlands: Growing Concerns about Segregation. Sanford Working Paper Series. SAN10-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F.; Fiske, Edward B.; Ruijs, Nienke

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long history of parental choice and school anatomy. This paper examines why segregation by educational disadvantage has only recently emerged as a policy issue in the Netherlands. In addition, we document the levels and trends of school segregation in Dutch cities. We find segregation levels that are high both absolutely and…

  12. The Practical Side of Working with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Preschool Children with Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Inge S.; Roulstone, Sue

    2016-01-01

    A common early intervention approach for preschool children with language problems is parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). PCIT has positive effects for children with expressive language problems. It appears that speech and language therapists (SLTs) conduct this therapy in many different ways. This might be because of the variety of…

  13. Shaping internal working models : parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity affect socio-emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, Renske

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the associations between experiences of parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity (reflecting basic motivational tendencies) on the one hand, and (neural) processing of and responses to socio-emotional stimuli on the

  14. Making Families Work and What To Do When They Don't: Thirty Guides for Imperfect Parents of Imperfect Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Bill

    Taking a sometimes unconventional view of parent-child and family matters, this book contends that the facts of family living do matter--but not to the all-or-nothing degree advocated by some experts. The book disputes many well established beliefs about the importance of family life and maintains that as the sacredness of family relationships is…

  15. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual foster parents: strengths and challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A Chris; James, Steven E

    2006-01-01

    Historically, a shortage of skilled and dedicated foster parents has existed in America. Lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LBG) foster parents have received little attention in the published literature. This article documents the challenges and successes of a group of 60 LGB foster parents. All participants provided foster parenting for public (state or county) agencies. The primary successes of this group included meaningful and gratifying parenting and successful testing of whether adoption might be a natural next step after foster parenting. The primary challenges included insensitive, inappropriate, and difficult social workers; state or local laws that worked against successful foster parenting by LGB adults; failure to recognize parents' partners; and lack of support by the system to acknowledge the important role of LGB parents. Numerous recommendations are identified for improving how LGB foster parents are supported within child welfare systems including foster parent and social worker training in LGB issues.

  16. The export systems of type 1 and F1C fimbriae are interchangeable but work in parental pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P; Jørgensen, BJ; Kreft, B

    1995-01-01

    , specialized two-component assembly systems. The organization of the fim and foc gene clusters encoding these fimbriae, as well as the structure of the organelles, is very similar; however, the actual sequence homology of the structural elements is not remarkable (34 to 60%). Both gene clusters encode...... systems of the two organelle systems are reciprocally interchangeable; however, they seem to function only in parental pairs....

  17. Father’s involvement and parenting styles in Portuguese families. The role of education and working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lígia; Fernandes, Marília; Torres, Nuno; Santos, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Early studies on fathers focused mainly on their presence in or absence from children’s lives, and the amount of time they spent with them. More recently, several authors have stated the importance of understanding the quality of father involvement to comprehend fully its impact on child development. However, studies have also reported that socio-demographic variables, namely, father educational levels and employment status affect parenting and children outcomes. The aims of this ...

  18. Father’s involvement and parenting styles in Portuguese families: the role of education and working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, L.; Fernandes, M.; Torres, N.; Santos, C.

    2017-01-01

    Early studies on fathers focused mainly on their presence in or absence from children’s lives, and the amount of time they spent with them. More recently, several authors have stated the importance of understanding the quality of father involvement to comprehend fully its impact on child development. However, studies have also reported that socio-demographic variables, namely, father educational levels and employment status affect parenting and children outcomes. The aims of this study were t...

  19. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children's sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Lauer, Romy; Traub, Meike; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2016-12-12

    Based on the World Health Organization's global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children's sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children's sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Data from 1943 children (1 st grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2 nd grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old) were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children's sick days (-3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013), and maternal days off work (-0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019). The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = -0.83, p = 0.003). The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children's visits to a physician and paternal days off work. School-based health promotion slightly reduces sick days in first grade children. Subsequently, parents may not

  20. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children’s sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the World Health Organization’s global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children’s sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Methods Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children’s sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Results Data from 1943 children (1st grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2nd grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children’s sick days (−3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013, and maternal days off work (−0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019. The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = −0.83, p = 0.003. The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children’s visits to a physician and paternal days off work. Conclusions School-based health promotion

  1. The Incredible Years parenting program in Ireland: a qualitative analysis of the experience of disadvantaged parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2012-10-01

    Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere.

  2. Parenting stress and parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriela; Willnauer, Ruth; Jörgl, Gudrun; Hager, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Attachment experiences are thought to be important because of their implications for later development. The authors' aim with the questionnaire-based study was to investigate the differences between recalled parental bonding regarding 4 types of maternal and paternal bonding with respect to experienced parenting stress caused by child characteristics, parent attributes, and life events under the consideration of the child's gender and age. The authors gathered parental bonding behavior data with the German version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The authors assessed parenting stress with their German version of the "Parenting Stress Index (PSI)." They found significant differences among 120 mothers grouped in the 4 maternal and the 4 paternal bonding types regarding parenting stress caused by child, maternal bonding: F(5, 113) = 4.13, p = .002, paternal bonding: F(5, 111) = 8.50, p mothers who themselves recalled the "optimal parental bonding type" with respect to the child and parental domain. The authors did not find any significant differences between the 4 maternal, F(5, 113) = 1.25, p = .29, and the 4 paternal, F(5, 111) = 1.87, p = .106, bonding types with respect to the life stress. According to the authors' findings, the representation of attachment relationships seems to have a special impact on the adult's capacity to cope with challenges and stress, either directly or indirectly as an internal working model of attachment. For the clinical practice, these findings seem to recommend the combination of both the PSI and PBI regarding the diagnostic of stressful mother-child system to plan an optimal intervention program.

  3. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  4. Improving spatial-simultaneous working memory in Down syndrome: effect of a training program led by parents instead of an expert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePulina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that the visuospatial component of working memory (WM is selectively impaired in individuals with Down syndrome (DS, the deficit relating specifically to the spatial-simultaneous component, which is involved when stimuli are presented simultaneously. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of a computer-based program for training the spatial-simultaneous component of WM in terms of: specific effects (on spatial-simultaneous WM tasks; near and far transfer effects (on spatial-sequential and visuospatial abilities, and everyday memory tasks; and maintenance effects (one month after the training. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained when the training was led by parents at home as opposed to an expert in psychology.Thirty-nine children and adolescents with DS were allocated to one of two groups: the training was administered by an expert in one, and by appropriately-instructed parents in the other. The training was administered individually twice a week for a month, in 8 sessions lasting approximately 30 minutes each. Our participants’ performance improved after the training, and these results were maintained a month later in both groups. Overall, our findings suggest that spatial-simultaneous WM performance can be improved, obtaining specific and transfer gains; above all, it seems that, with adequate support, parents could effectively administer a WM training to their child.

  5. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; van der Heide, Iris; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L. J.; van Berkel, Sietske; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Wim; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  6. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients : A prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C.J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Heide, Iris Van Der; Rejda, Tomas; Van Veldhoven, Peter L.J.; Berkel, Sietske Van; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Willem H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Boer, Angela G.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  7. Can Parents' Right to Work Part-Time Hurt Childbearing-Aged Women? A Natural Experiment with Administrative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Kranz, Daniel; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Using a differences-in-differences approach and controlling for individual unobserved heterogeneity, we evaluate the impact of a 1999 law that granted all workers with children younger than 7 years old protection against a layoff if the worker had previously asked for a work-week reduction due to family responsibilities. As only mothers took advantage of these arrangements, we find that after the law, employers were: (i) more likely to let childbearing-aged working women "go" relative to thei...

  8. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  9. A portfolio of academic, therapeutic practice and research work : including an investigation of counselling psychologists' experience of the role of body in the therapeutic encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumbri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This portfolio was submitted to the University of Surrey for the completion of the Doctorate (PsychO) in Psychotherapeutic and Counselling Psychology. It is comprised of three dossiers which reflect the academic, clinical and research work undertaken as part of this degree. The academic dossier consists of three essays. The first essay presents Freud's dream interpretation theory and Jung's dream theory and elaborates on the features of each theory respectively. The second e...

  10. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  11. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  12. Parental Perceptions of Charter Schools: Evidence from Two Nationally Representative Surveys of U.S. Parents. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 17-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Samuel; Cheng, Albert; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    This first report of charter school parents' perceptions based on nationally representative samples finds that charter parents, as compared with parents from district schools, are less likely to see serious problems at their children's school, report more extensive communications with the school, and are more satisfied with most aspects of the…

  13. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  14. Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hancock Hoskins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of the influence of parenting behaviors and styles on adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Empirical work focusing on the associations between parenting and adolescent outcomes is important because the influence of parenting during adolescence continues to affect behaviors into adulthood. Additionally, there has been considerable attention paid to the mechanisms that shape parenting that then influence adolescent outcomes. For instance, researchers have found that neighborhood conditions moderated the association between parenting and adolescent development. In this paper, several covariates and contextual effects associated with parenting and adolescent outcomes will be discussed. Also, parental behaviors, parental styles and adolescent outcomes are discussed in this literature review. This review provides an assessment of the literature on parenting and adolescent outcomes from the past decade and includes advancements in parenting research. The review concludes with a summary of major research findings, as well as a consideration of future directions and implications for practice and policy.

  15. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  17. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  18. Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrott, F.R.; Macinnes, D.I.; Parrott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims: This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during

  19. The Effects of an Academic Restructuring Program on Parental Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Chambers, Bette; Abrami, Philip C.

    1998-01-01

    Ounce of Prevention in Schools, an early intervention program in a Quebec elementary school, includes a family support component to increase parents' involvement and assistance with their children's school work. Interviews showed that, compared to control parents, parents in the program helped their children more with homework but had lower…

  20. How Romanowsky stains work and why they remain valuable - including a proposed universal Romanowsky staining mechanism and a rational troubleshooting scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W

    2011-02-01

    An introduction to the nomenclature and concept of "Romanowsky stains" is followed by a brief account of the dyes involved and especially the crucial role of azure B and of the impurity of most commercial dye lots. Technical features of standardized and traditional Romanowsky stains are outlined, e.g., number and ratio of the acidic and basic dyes used, solvent effects, staining times, and fixation effects. The peculiar advantages of Romanowsky staining are noted, namely, the polychromasia achieved in a technically simple manner with the potential for stain intensification of "the color purple." Accounts are provided of a variety of physicochemically relevant topics, namely, acidic and basic dyeing, peculiarities of acidic and basic dye mixtures, consequences of differential staining rates of different cell and tissue components and of different dyes, the chemical significance of "the color purple," the substrate selectivity for purple color formation and its intensification in situ due to a template effect, effects of resin embedding and prior fixation. Based on these physicochemical phenomena, mechanisms for the various Romanowsky staining applications are outlined including for blood, marrow and cytological smears; G-bands of chromosomes; microorganisms and other single-cell entities; and paraffin and resin tissue sections. The common factors involved in these specific mechanisms are pulled together to generate a "universal" generic mechanism for these stains. Certain generic problems of Romanowsky stains are discussed including the instability of solutions of acidic dye-basic dye mixtures, the inherent heterogeneity of polychrome methylene blue, and the resulting problems of standardization. Finally, a rational trouble-shooting scheme is appended.

  1. Stop the Blame Game: Teachers and Parents Working Together to Improve Outcomes for Students with Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Students with behavior disorders often require specific interventions to improve their behavioral outcomes. Common interventions to use with these students include teaching appropriate behaviors, focusing on positive behaviors, noting the start of behaviors and intervening early, and providing appropriate reinforcements. To enhance the…

  2. Stress Reduction at the Work-Family Interface: Positive Parenting and Self-Efficacy as Mechanisms of Change in Workplace Triple P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Doreen; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Workplace Triple P (WPTP) is a group-based parenting skills training specifically designed to meet the needs of employed parents. Several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the training's efficacy. This study examined possible mechanisms of change that account for the stress reduction effects of this parenting skills training at the…

  3. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  5. A survey of parental self-efficacy experiences: maximising potential through health visiting and universal parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.   Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self

  6. Psychological adjustment among left-behind children in rural China: the role of parental migration and parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Li, X; Lin, D; Xu, X; Zhu, M

    2013-03-01

    Left-behind children refer to those rural children who are under 18 years of age and are left at home when both or one of their parents migrate to urban area for work. Recent findings showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged by developmental, emotional and social problems. A sample of 1165 rural children and adolescents were recruited to examine the characteristics of left-behind children and explore the differences in psychological adjustment (including satisfaction, loneliness and happiness) by patterns of parental migration (i.e. no parent migrating, one parent migrating or two parents migrating) and the level of parent-child communication in rural China. (1) Compared with children with one parent migrating, children with two parents migrating were separated from their parents at younger ages, for longer periods, and saw their migrant parents less frequently. (2) Children with two parents migrating reported the lowest level of satisfaction among the three groups of rural children. Both groups of children with one or two parents migrating experienced more loneliness compared with children with no parent migrating. There were no significant differences in school satisfaction and happiness among the three groups. (3) The children who reported a higher level of parent-child communication also reported a higher level of life and school satisfaction and happiness, and no differences in loneliness were found by levels of parent-child communication. These results indicate that loneliness was the most common and important experience of left-behind children. Parent-child communication is important for the development of all rural children, including those who were left behind by their migrant parents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The

  8. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Juan; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Chun-Li; Wang, Yue; Guo, Qiang

    2010-01-23

    Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from their parents could not be fully

  9. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from

  10. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Building partner cooperation between teachers and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Steh, Barbara; Kalin, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in whic...

  12. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the Internal Working Models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Serena ePace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families has focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence.Method. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age=51.5±4.3, and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6, who were all aged four to nine years old at time of adoption (M = 6.3 ± 1.5. Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI, while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled.Results. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction.Discussion. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  13. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia S; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4-9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers' state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents' verbal intelligence was controlled for. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers' AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents' verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent states-of-mind of adoptive mothers on the attachment

  14. Including women in work | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-13

    . In 2010, she turned her passion into a business by opening Terrium, a Chilean company that sells delicious organic and sugar-free goodies. The socially conscious food scientist turned entrepreneur didn't stop there — she ...

  15. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  16. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  17. Dietary intake at child-care centers and away: are parents and care providers working as partners or at cross-purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, M E; Jastrow, S; Vickers, J; Roberts-Gray, C

    1999-08-01

    To examine how meals and snacks children consume before and after their time at a child-care facility complement the menu at the facility. Dietary intake of children at and away from the child-care center was compared with recommended standards for child nutrition. Registered dietitians observed foods consumed at the center during 3 consecutive days. Parents reported foods consumed away from the center during the same 3 days. Six nonprofit child-care centers with strong menus (i.e., menus that come close to meeting dietary recommendations) and 6 with menus supplying less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance were selected for study. Five families at each center were invited to participate. Complete data sets were obtained for 51 children aged 3 to 6 years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated to compare the children's dietary intake during center time and family time and over a full day with recommended standards. Energy and nutrient profiles and food frequencies were included in the analysis. Children consumed plenty of foods at the center and away from the following groups: meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts; milk, yogurt, cheese; and fruit, fruit juice. Most children failed to consume enough vegetables. Nearly all the children failed to consume enough bread, cereal, pasta, and rice, especially while at the center. The majority ate more than sparing amounts of fats, oils, and sweets, especially during family time. Average percentage of energy from fat was 33 +/- 4. Intakes of concern for the full day were energy, iron, sodium, and zinc. Child-care menus are an appropriate target for increasing iron and zinc by serving more cereal and whole grains. Families are an appropriate target for reducing young children's consumption of fats, oils, and sweets. Nutrition education and advocacy are needed to strengthen the partnership between parents and caregivers.

  18. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  19. Siblings and Parents in One-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Edna K.; Wallace, Doris B.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of six one- and two-parent families reveals the following: (1) members of the same family have different perceptions of family experiences, including divorce and its impact on family relationships; (2) single parents seem to become closer to their children than do married parents; and (3) a one-parent two-sibling family differs from a…

  20. Working Parents Face Schooling Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Jean E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes development by the Bryn Mawr School in Maryland of Little School, an early childhood center offering an approved educational program with full-day year-round care, and the School Age Extended Day Program, which offers after school care for children of lower-school age. (AN)

  1. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children are harmed when their mothers work. A child’s development is influenced more by the emotional health of ... children for school, both socially and intellectually. The Importance of Quality Child Care Parents all wish for the best start ...

  2. “Collaboration with parents isn’t a burden. It’s just a natural part of my work.” - Parental Involvement in Switzerland – An Analysis of Attitudes and Practices of Swiss Primary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Egger Jürgen Lehmann Martin Straumann

    2015-01-01

    The subject of home school relationship is normatively charged and has increasingly become the focal point of pedagogical discourse in the past years. The article reports results of the project “Home School Cooperation” which was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. This qualitative study examines how teachers shape their interaction with parents. The main research question is which habitualised background convictions guide the interaction of teachers with parents. The data was...

  3. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  5. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  6. Developing Relationships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that parental involvement in their children's education is a key factor in improving outcomes for young people, and yet many schools struggle to engage parents. This article discusses the rationale for working in partnership with parents and makes the case for building parental participation in school life so that parents are…

  7. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ...

  8. Relações conjugais e parentais: uma comparação entre famílias de classes sociais baixa e média Marital and parental relationships: a comparison of middle and working class families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pereira Braz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available É importante estudar as inter-relações entre as relações parentais e maritais para a compreensão do desenvolvimento e o ajustamento social de crianças. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever aspectos da qualidade das relações parentais e maritais de 14 famílias de classes média e baixa, compostas por pai, mãe e criança-alvo na faixa etária de 4-5 anos. Um questionário sobre dados sócio-demográficos, estrutura familiar, modos de vida e divisão de tarefas domésticas foi respondido pelas mães e uma entrevista semi-estruturada foi conduzida com mães e pais, separadamente, incluindo questões sobre satisfação marital, conflito, coalizão, valores e crenças sobre casamento e educação de filhos e suas influências nas interações genitores-criança. Os resultados indicam que uma boa relação marital favorece o compartilhamento de tarefas domésticas e práticas de educação entre maridos e esposas e promove o desenvolvimento de sentimentos de segurança em suas crianças. Os dados são discutidos em termos das influências mútuas entre as relações maritais e parentais, levando em consideração as similaridades e as diferenças entre as famílias de classes média e baixa.It is important to study the interrelatedness between marital and parental relationships in order to understand children's social adjustment and development. Therefore, this study aims to describe aspects of the quality of marital and parental relationships from Brazilian working and middle class families. Fourteen families consisting of father, mother, and target preschool children at the age of 4-5 years were selected to participate in this study. A questionnaire on social-demographic data, family structure, lifestyles, and division of home tasks was answered by mothers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with mothers and fathers, separately, including questions on marital satisfaction, conflict, coalition, values and beliefs on marriage and

  9. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year…

  10. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-07-21

    Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot

  11. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  12. Parents' employment and children's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J

    2014-01-01

    Since modern welfare reform began in the 1980s, we have seen low-income parents leave the welfare rolls and join the workforce in large numbers. At the same time, the Earned Income Tax Credit has offered a monetary incentive for low-income parents to work. Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents' (and especially mothers') work, writes Carolyn Heinrich, is not unambiguously beneficial for their children. On the one hand, working parents can be positive role models for their children, and, of course, the income they earn can improve their children's lives in many ways. On the other hand, work can impair the developing bond between parents and young children, especially when the parents work long hours or evening and night shifts. The stress that parents bring home from their jobs can detract from their parenting skills, undermine the atmosphere in the home, and thereby introduce stress into children's lives. Unfortunately, it is low-income parents who are most likely to work in stressful, low-quality jobs that feature low pay, little autonomy, inflexible hours, and few or no benefits. And low-income children whose parents are working are more likely to be placed in inadequate child care or to go unsupervised. Two-generation approaches, Heinrich writes, could maximize the benefits and minimize the detriments of parents' work by expanding workplace flexibility, and especially by mandating enough paid leave so that mothers can breastfeed and form close bonds with their infants; by helping parents place their children in high-quality child care; and by helping low-income parents train for, find, and keep a well-paying job with benefits.

  13. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  14. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. The General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS) was based on prior work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin, Barber, and Slater and Power. Ten dimensions of parenting were included; 4 were classified in the emotional dimension of parenting (warmth and affection, support and sensitivity, negative affect, detachment), and 6 were classified in the behavioral dimension of parenting (firm discipline and structure, demands for maturity, psychological control, physical control, permissiveness, neglect). Overweight children age 8-12 years old and their parent (n = 44 dyads) entering a weight control program were videotaped eating a family meal. Parents were coded for their general parenting behaviors. The Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) and several self-report measures of general parenting were also used to assess the parent-child interaction. Spearman's correlations were used to assess correlation between measures. The emotional dimensions of warmth/affection and support/sensitivity, and the behavioral dimension of firm discipline/structure were robustly captured during the family meals. Warmth/affection and support/sensitivity were significantly correlated with affect management, interpersonal involvement, and communication from the MICS. Firm discipline/structure was inversely correlated with affect management, behavior control, and task accomplishment. Parents who were older, with higher educational status, and lower BMIs were more likely to display warmth/affection and support/sensitivity. Several

  15. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  16. Micro-costing in public health economics: steps towards a standardized framework, using the incredible years toddler parenting program as a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J M; Edwards, R T; Bywater, T; Hutchings, J

    2013-08-01

    Complex interventions, such as parenting programs, are rarely evaluated from a public sector, multi-agency perspective. An exception is the Incredible Years (IY) Basic Parenting Program; which has a growing clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence base for preventing or reducing children's conduct problems. The aim of this paper was to provide a micro-costing framework for use by future researchers, by micro-costing the 12-session IY Toddler Parenting Program from a public sector, multi-agency perspective. This micro-costing was undertaken as part of a community-based randomized controlled trial of the program in disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales, U.K. Program delivery costs were collected by group leader cost diaries. Training and supervision costs were recorded. Sensitivity analysis assessed the effects of a London cost weighting and group size. Costs were reported in 2008/2009 pounds sterling. Direct program initial set-up costs were £3305.73; recurrent delivery costs for the program based on eight parents attending a group were £752.63 per child, falling to £633.61 based on 10 parents. Under research contexts (with weekly supervision) delivery costs were £1509.28 per child based on eight parents, falling to £1238.94 per child based on 10 parents. When applying a London weighting, overall program costs increased in all contexts. Costs at a micro-level must be accurately calculated to conduct meaningful cost-effectiveness/cost-benefit analysis. A standardized framework for assessing costs is needed; this paper outlines a suggested framework. In prevention science it is important for decision makers to be aware of intervention costs in order to allocate scarce resources effectively.

  17. Leadership Skills for Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava

    Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…

  18. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  19. Improving parental satisfaction in pediatric orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; Pattison, Giles; Mariathas, Chrishan; Lazar, Joanna; Rashied, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    No previous studies have attempted to measure parental satisfaction and service quality with regards to pediatric orthopaedic inpatient care. We performed a prospective observational study to identify areas of inpatient care which might be improved to increase overall parental satisfaction. We used the validated Swedish parent satisfaction questionnaire to generate data from 104 pediatric orthopaedic hospital inpatients between August 2009 and May 2010 (49 elective and 55 trauma pediatric orthopaedic admissions; median age range, 2 to 6 y). Questions focused on 8 domains of quality: information on illness, information on routines, accessibility, medical treatment, care processes, staff attitudes, parent participation, and staff work environment. Scores generated a percentage of the maximum achievable for that quality index. Data were analyzed using recognized statistical methods. Overall mean combined scores for the care indices were highest for parents' perception of "medical treatment" (95%) and "staff attitudes" (95%). The medical treatment index includes questions regarding staff member's skill and competence. Lowest scores corresponded to the index "information on routines" (86%). Information on routines applies to parental awareness of ward rounds, to whom questions should be directed and which doctors and nursing staff are responsible for their child's care. Lower scores in relation to this index were substantiated by comments from relatives requesting greater information provision. The information parents required was routinely provided suggesting that retention rather than lack of information is the main issue. Provision of information pamphlets tailored to common injuries or elective procedures might prove an effective method for improving parental satisfaction and overall care. Improving information provision and parental retention of this information is the strategy most likely to improve quality of service and parental satisfaction for pediatric

  20. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    included studies, with limited information available to assess possible bias and to fully assess the findings of one included study. Whilst the evidence presented here does seem promising with regard to the ability of such interventions to improve parenting knowledge and skill in this population, there is a need for larger RCTs of interventions before conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of parent training for this group of parents.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Parental factors in children's active transport to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, H M; Tandon, P S; Frank, L D; Saelens, B E

    2014-07-01

    Identify non-distance factors related to children's active transport (AT) to school, including parental, home, and environment characteristics. Understanding the factors related to children's AT to school, beyond distance to school, could inform interventions to increase AT and children's overall physical activity. Participants were in the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study, a longitudinal, observational cohort study of children aged 6-11 and their parents in King County, WA and San Diego County, CA between 2007 and 2009. Parents reported frequency and mode of child transport to school, perceived neighbourhood, home and family environments, parental travel behaviours, and sociodemographics. Children living less than a 20 minute walk to school were in this analysis. Children classified as active transporters (walked/bicycled to or from school at least once per week) were compared with those not using AT as often. Children using AT were older and had parents who reported themselves using active transport. Having a family rule that restricts the child to stay within sight of the parent or home and more parent working hours were related to lower odds of a child using AT. Children's AT to school is associated with parental AT to work and other locations. Interventions should be considered that enable whole family AT, ameliorate safety concerns and decrease the need for parental supervision, such as walking school buses. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  4. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  6. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  7. Evolution and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwick, Judith M.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the theory and research on the physiological or genetic origins of parenting behavior, noting that an ethological or evolutionary analysis of parenting behavior supports the idea that primates, including man, have evolved psychological structures which are particularly adapted to respond to cues from young children. (Author/JM)

  8. Holding On; Being Held; Letting Go: The Relevance of Bion's Thinking for Psychoanalytic Work with Parents, Infants and Children under Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to convey how the ideas of Klein, Bion and Bick underpin psychoanalytically based interventions with parents, babies and young children in the Camden Under Fives' Service, Tavistock Clinic. As the title suggests, my focus is on ways in which anxiety relating to separation and loss, can be contained through the transformative…

  9. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  10. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  11. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN’S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children’s externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles we...

  12. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  13. Challenges in Shifting Management Responsibility From Parents to Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayle, Mariam; Tanabe, Paula; Shah, Nirmish R; Baker-Ward, Lynne; Docherty, Sharron L

    This study explored the challenges faced by adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their parents and the work they engage in to progressively shift from parent management to independent adolescent self-management. A qualitative descriptive focus-group design with semi-structured interviews was used with adolescents (11-18 years) with SCD (HbSS genotype) and their parents/primary caregivers. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Two adolescent focus groups, with a total of 14 adolescents, and two parent focus groups, with a total of 15 parents, described adaptive challenges. Adolescents' adaptive challenges included mastering complex symptom management, communicating about SCD and symptoms, and maintaining control. Parents' adaptive challenges included giving over the complex management, communicating the management with the adolescent, balancing protection against risk with fostering independence, changing a comfortable rhythm, and releasing the adolescent into an "SCD-naive" world. Adolescents' adaptive work included pushing back at parents, defaulting back to parental care, stepping up with time, learning how SCD affects them, and educating friends about SCD. Parents' adaptive work included engaging the adolescent in open dialogue and co-managing with the adolescent. Shifting management responsibility from parents to adolescents imposes adaptive challenges for both. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that improve adaptive capacity in adolescents and parents. Health care providers need to assess the parent-child relationship and their progress in shifting the management responsibility, facilitate discussions to arrive at a shared understanding of the challenges, and collaborate on adaptive work to address these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  15. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  16. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  17. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelder, H.M.; Hodes, M.W.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour

  18. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  19. Are These Parents for Real? Students' Views of Parents in Realistic and Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Janis M.; Gonzales, Monica C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes what students had to say about parental roles. Includes students' views about parental roles in real life, their expectations of parental roles in realistic and historical novels, their impressions of the parents they encountered in the selected books, and a comparison across genres about these parental characters. Presents guidelines…

  20. Building Partner Cooperation between Teachers and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Šteh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in which all of those involved are respected and recognised in their efforts to achieve common goals.The second part presents the findings of an empirical study carried out on a representative sample of Slovene primary schools. Teachers (N = 467 and parents (N = 1,690 were asked to express their pinions about the need for mutual cooperation, their view of each other when fulfilling their respective roles, and where they perceive the main obstacles to mutual cooperation. It became evident that teachers and parents have doubts about each other’s competence. This does not form a solid base on which to establish and build the necessary partner relationship, and along with it mutual cooperation. Yet both groups to a large extent agree that teacher-parent cooperation is both necessary and useful. This gives rise to the question as to how to ensure that schools adopt policies promotingopportunities for better understanding, for building quality mutualrelations and for parents to become more actively involved.

  1. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Good-parent beliefs of parents of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.

  3. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  4. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  5. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... work because he or she cannot find child care? 261.15 Section 261.15 Public Welfare Regulations... work because he or she cannot find child care? (a) No, the State may not reduce or terminate assistance based on an individual's refusal to engage in required work if the individual is a single custodial...

  7. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK)). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  8. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  9. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination ( PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading ( Raz-Kids ( RK )). The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students) for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual movement

  10. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  11. A Home Economist Speaks Out: Need for a Parenting Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolny, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Social trends indicating change in family structure and roles, more single-parent and blended families, and the important role of parents in socialization demonstrate the need for parenting education. A parenting course should include understanding of healthy family life and parental roles, parenting styles, child development, and parenting…

  12. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  13. Bringing Culture Into Parent Training With Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Esther J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional frameworks of parenting have failed to capture the distinctive nature of parenting in Latino families. Cultural values likely influence parenting practices. The study of cultural values may allow us to identify aspects of parenting that are unique to Latinos and which complement traditional frameworks of parenting. This paper presents qualitative work on two Latino cultural values, familismo and respeto, and examines ways in which these values may inform the provision of standard ...

  14. We can handle this: parents' use of religion in the first year following their child's diagnosis with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Ragsdale, Judy; Wooldridge, Jamie L; Cotton, Sian; Seid, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child's life-shortening disease leads many American parents to utilize religious beliefs. Models relating religious constructs to health have been proposed. Still lacking are inductive models based on parent experience. The specific aims of this study were: 1. develop a grounded theory of parental use of religion in the year after diagnosis; 2. describe whether parents understand a relationship between their religious beliefs and their follow-through with their child's at-home treatment regimen. Fifteen parent interviews were analyzed using grounded theory method. Parents used religion to make meaning of their child's cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Parents imagined God as active, benevolent, and interventionist; found hope in their beliefs; felt supported by God; and related religion to their motivation to adhere to their child's treatment plan. Religious beliefs are clinically significant in working with many parents of children recently diagnosed with CF. Interventions that improve adherence to treatment may be enhanced by including religious aspects.

  15. Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Narrow, William E

    2016-07-01

    A new condition, "child affected by parental relationship distress" (CAPRD), was introduced in the DSM-5. A relational problem, CAPRD is defined in the chapter of the DSM-5 under "Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention." The purpose of this article is to explain the usefulness of this new terminology. A brief review of the literature establishing that children are affected by parental relationship distress is presented. To elaborate on the clinical presentations of CAPRD, four common scenarios are described in more detail: children may react to parental intimate partner distress; to parental intimate partner violence; to acrimonious divorce; and to unfair disparagement of one parent by another. Reactions of the child may include the onset or exacerbation of psychological symptoms, somatic complaints, an internal loyalty conflict, and, in the extreme, parental alienation, leading to loss of a parent-child relationship. Since the definition of CAPRD in the DSM-5 consists of only one sentence, the authors propose an expanded explanation, clarifying that children may develop behavioral, cognitive, affective, and physical symptoms when they experience varying degrees of parental relationship distress, that is, intimate partner distress and intimate partner violence, which are defined with more specificity and reliability in the DSM-5. CAPRD, like other relational problems, provides a way to define key relationship patterns that appear to lead to or exacerbate adverse mental health outcomes. It deserves the attention of clinicians who work with youth, as well as researchers assessing environmental inputs to common mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypnosis and parents: pattern interruptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Julie H

    2011-07-01

    The role of parents in the use of hypnosis with their children raises many questions worthy of consideration. A survey of the literature reveals that this important topic has not been given the attention or depth it deserves. The author looks at (a) how, when, and whether to incorporate parents in the treatment of their children; (b) how to address attachment and trance between parent and child; (c) engaging parents in their own hypnotic abilities beginning as early as the birthing experience; and (d) improving parenting skills such as teaching parents to pay attention to their use of language with their children in order to shift patterns of communication from unproductive to useful. In addition, the author explores the ways to invite, teach, support and interact with the family system of parent and child in our hypnotic work.

  17. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...... of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms...

  18. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  19. Parenting Skillls in two Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    In modern welfare states it is becoming more and more common to work with parents in different set-tings with different goals and means (Miller, Skov & Larsen 2013) to improve their skills as parents. How do professionels work with parenting skills? What are their thoughts about methods...... and programs? In DK many municipals have picked pedagogical methods with reference to evidence based knowledge and encouraged by SocialStyrelsen (www.socialstyrelsen.dk), where programs, such as “De utrolige år”, “Pals” and “MTFC” are recommended, to be implemented in parent programs. All those programs...... are inspired by the American Early Intervention-tradition (Vik 2014, p.2). The programs are characterized by behavioristic theory, where the underlying assumption is that parents will develop better parenting skills if they just follow a program with very detailed and prefabricated manuals. To do that...

  20. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Parents' Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  2. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a morning session at a pedagogical training course for a group of teachers at a small Danish public school. Using role-play, these teachers, under the guidance of a consultant and an actor, were practicing ‘the difficult conversation' with parents. I had been given permission...... and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...... to the teachers' description, and the teachers' authority is very easily threatened by parents who suppose that their experiences are relevant. The training situation in itself confirms that the parents are the opponents, and that the teachers should take care.The training course had been developed by the school...

  3. School Dropouts in Hong Kong: Parents' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk King

    2011-01-01

    Chinese parenting emphasises parents' responsibility in training and governing children's appropriate and expected behaviors, including good academic performance. As reflected by the Attendance Ordinance and the strong involvement of parents in children's study, there is continuous emphasis on parental responsibility in children's education in…

  4. Social class and parental investment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Scott, Robert A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay critically reviews the literature on social class differences in parental investment in children including differences in (i) parenting practices or behavior; (ii) parenting styles, logics, and strategies; and (iii) parenting values and ideologies. The essay reveals how structural and

  5. Working Together? Parent and Local Authority Views on the Process of Obtaining Appropriate Educational Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is general agreement across all interested parties that a process of working together is the best way to determine which school or educational setting is right for an individual child with autism spectrum disorder. In the UK, families and local authorities both desire a constructive working relationship and see this as the best…

  6. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  7. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Positive Parenting, Beliefs about Parental Efficacy, and Active Coping: Three Sources of Intergenerational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research involving parents (G1) and their adult children (G2) shows intergenerational continuity in positive parenting. Previous research, however, has not shown circumstances under which the typically modest effect size for intergenerational continuity is augmented or attenuated. Using a multigenerational dataset involving 290 families, we evaluate two potential moderators of intergenerational continuity in positive parenting (i.e., beliefs about parenting efficacy and active coping strategies) drawn from prior theoretical work on predictors of parenting (Belsky, 1984). These personal resources of the second generation (G2) parent interacted with G1 positive parenting to predict G2 parenting behavior. Beliefs about parental efficacy and active coping both compensated for low levels of G1 positive parenting by promoting G2 positive parenting when G1 parents were comparatively low on positive parenting. An alternative interpretation of this moderation is that G1 positive parenting compensated for low levels of these personal resources by promoting G2 positive parenting when G2 parents were comparatively low on parenting efficacy and effective coping. These findings indicate the different roles that these personal resources and a history of positive parenting appear to play in promoting a positive parenting environment for the next generation of children. PMID:25221970

  9. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...

  10. THE ROLE OF SUPPORT GROUPS IN THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka NOVAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.

  11. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  12. Psoriasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Psoriasis KidsHealth / For Parents / Psoriasis What's in this article? ... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non- ...

  13. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Diabetes Movie KidsHealth / For Parents / Diabetes Movie Print Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from ...

  14. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  15. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teen Parents Page Content Article Body A girl who ... prenatal vitamins and iron is so important. Preparing Teens For Parenthood Fears about the future are common ...

  16. Parent skills training for parents of children or adults with developmental disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Kogan, Cary; Barbui, Corrado; Smith, Isaac; Yasamy, M Taghi; Servili, Chiara

    2014-08-27

    Developmental disorders, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, may limit an individual's capacity to conduct daily activities. The emotional and economic burden on families caring for an individual with a developmental disorder is substantial, and quality of life may be limited by a lack of services. Therefore, finding effective treatments to help this population should be a priority. Recent work has shown parent skills training interventions improve developmental, behavioural and family outcomes. The purpose of this review protocol is to extend previous findings by systematically analysing randomised controlled trials of parent skills training programmes for parents of children with developmental disorders including intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders and use meta-analytic techniques to identify programme components reliably associated with successful outcomes of parent skills training programmes. We will include all studies conducted using randomised control trials designs that compare a group of parents receiving a parent skills training programme to a group of parents in a no-treatment control, waitlist control or treatment as usual comparison group. To locate studies, we will conduct an extensive electronic database search and then use snowball methods, with no limits to publication year or language. We will present a narrative synthesis including visual displays of study effects on child and parental outcomes and conduct a quantitative synthesis of the effects of parent skills training programmes using meta-analytic techniques. No ethical issues are foreseen and ethical approval is not required given this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conference presentations. Updates of the review will be conducted, as necessary, to inform and guide practice. PROSPERO (CRD42014006993). Published by the BMJ Publishing

  17. Multiple Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paulo Cezar; Gramstrup, Erik Frederico

    2016-01-01

    With the modification of the family concept in human history, now considered the site of important value, aimed at personal fulfillment of its members, in line with the Federal Constitution of 1988 was enshrined in the principles of human dignity, affection, equal affiliations and plurality of family entities, recognizing the socio-affective parenting, founded in the state of emotional child, and biological, originally from consanguinity ties, arises multiple parenting in response to the full...

  18. Professional fulfillment and parenting work-life balance in female physicians in Basic Sciences and medical research: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of all 80 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji

    2017-09-15

    In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION

  19. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working Japan and Chinese Taiwan. Patient safety grade deteriorated and the number of events reported increased with long working hours. Among the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, long working hours had an impact on 'staffing' and 'teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  20. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  1. Exploring parenting as a predictor of criminogenic thinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rose; Mandracchia, Jon T; Nicholson, Bonnie; Dahlen, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Crime-promoting cognitions and attitudes, globally labeled as criminogenic thinking, are shown to perpetuate maladaptive and antisocial behavior in criminals and nonoffenders. In the nonoffender population, these thinking patterns may not lead to illegal behavior, but can result in irresponsible or maladaptive behavioral consequences. Theories suggest that early childhood parent-child interactions may be partly responsible for the development of criminogenic thinking. While the relationship between parenting and antisocial behavior is well documented, the connection between parenting and the development of criminogenic thinking styles has not yet been explored. The current study examined the nature of the relationship between exposure to parenting behaviors and subsequent criminogenic thoughts in a nonoffender, college population. The sample included 119 undergraduates. Results indicate that parenting may affect general criminogenic thinking as well as specific types of criminogenic thinking styles. Relevance and importance of the findings with regard to clinical work and parenting are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069316929; Jongmans, Marian J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258268743; Mooren, Trudy T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107551519; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the

  3. How Parents Can Promote School Bus Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofany, Vincent L.

    1982-01-01

    The president of the National Safety Council suggests ways that parents can promote school bus safety, with emphasis on preventing accidents outside the bus. Parents can explain safety rules to their children and work with their parent teacher associations and school administrators to plan and enforce safety regulations. (PP)

  4. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  5. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  6. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  7. Greek Mothers’ Narratives of the Construct of Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philia Issari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a brief overview of the ‘narrative turn’ in counselling and adopts a narrative perspective and analysis to explore Greek mothers’ experiences, and meaning making of involvement in their children’s learning. Data were collected via ten narrative interviews (life-history/biographical narrative. Participants portrayed a variety of conceptions and practices regarding children’s learning and parental participation. Mothers’ stories depicted parental engagement as a complex, multifaceted, flexible and multivoiced construct which can take various forms and is open to change. The findings can inform and enrich counselling practice and prevention efforts including parenting training programmes, family community programmes and home-school link initiatives. Of particular interest for counsellors and therapists are stories of functional and dysfunctional parental involvement practices, school expectations and cultural scripts, the working mother, identity and the process of change.

  8. The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker argue that interventions aimed at preventing childhood overweight and obesity should involve parents as important forces for change in their children's behaviors. The authors begin by reviewing evidence on how parents can help their children develop and maintain healthful eating and physical activity habits, thereby ultimately helping prevent childhood overweight and obesity. They show how important it is for parents to understand how their roles in preventing obesity change as their children move through critical developmental periods, from before birth and through adolescence. They point out that researchers, policymakers, and practitioners should also make use of such information to develop more effective interventions and educational programs that address childhood obesity right where it starts-at home. The authors review research evaluating school-based obesity-prevention interventions that include components targeted at parents. Although much research has been done on how parents shape their children's eating and physical activity habits, surprisingly few high-quality data exist on the effectiveness of such programs. The authors call for more programs and cost-effectiveness studies aimed at improving parents' ability to shape healthful eating and physical activity behaviors in their children. The authors conclude that preventing and controlling childhood obesity will require multifaceted and community-wide programs and policies, with parents having a critical role to play. Successful intervention efforts, they argue, must involve and work directly with parents from the earliest stages of child development to support

  9. Parents' daily time with their children: a workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents' daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Carpente, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Music therapy has a long history in working with children with autism in both traditional settings and those which include working with the parents. Recent studies show that music therapy programs aimed at supporting parent–child interaction have resulted in significant gains in social...... communication skills of children with autism, and improved parental competency perception. However, little is known about the amount or type of musical play that parents engage in with their child with autism, or whether parents use music as a facilitator in certain daily situations. Objective: The Music...... in Everyday Life (MEL) assessment, developed by Gottfried and Thompson, was confirmed with evidences of validity to assess the use of music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism, and was used within a large multisite research project (TIME-A) in four countries. Discussion: This round...

  11. Whose Time Is It? The Effect of Employment and Work/Family Stress on Children's Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gager, Constance T.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Demaris, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Children's time use--and specifically the time they spend on household chores--is an important arena for understanding social change. However, few studies accurately depict the multiple factors influencing children's household labor, including parent's and children's available time and parent's levels of work/family stress. We address these gaps…

  12. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelder, M; Hodes, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour problems and parenting stress. A total of 134 parents with ID and their children (ages 1-7 years) were recruited from 10 Dutch care organisations. Questionnaires were administered to the parents to obtain information on parenting stress in the parent and child domain, financial resources and their support network. Teachers and care workers reported on child behaviour problems and parental adaptive functioning, respectively. Parents experienced more stress with regard to their children than towards their own functioning and situation. Parenting stress was less in parents who were not experiencing financial hardship. Child behaviour problems were associated with high child-related parenting stress, not parent-related parenting stress. Large support networks decreased the association between child behaviour problems and child-related parenting stress. Financial resources did not significantly moderate the association. Parenting stress among parents with ID is focused on problems with the child, especially when little social support is available. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Democratic Parenting: Paradoxical Messages in Democratic Parent Education Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-01-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…

  14. Talk Time. Communicate Effectively with Parents, and Maximize Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for how teachers can build positive, strong relationships with parents or caregivers, including: telephone parents before an open house or in-person meeting; start the first conference by asking parents to share what is happening at home; be aware of different cultures, values, and parenting styles; and enlist parent input.…

  15. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting.

  16. Authoritative parenting and drug-prevention practices: implications for antidrug ads for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A

    2005-01-01

    This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.

  17. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  18. Working conditions and stress in the English education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Walsh, J

    2018-03-27

    The UK education sector has among the highest level of stress sickness absence of all occupations. However, investigations of psychosocial working conditions which contribute to stress, including behaviour of students and parents, has not been conducted. To investigate the psychosocial working conditions and prevalence of negative parental and student behaviour in a large sample of school teachers and college lecturers based in England. In addition, to assess the influence of working conditions, student behaviour and parental behaviour on perceived stress. A cross-sectional survey of teachers in England. Respondents completed the Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), Student Behaviour Scale and a two-item measure of parental behaviour. Differences in these measures across different teaching roles were assessed using analysis of variance. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of MSIT, student and parental behaviour on PSS outcomes. Compared to UK benchmark scoring, psychosocial working conditions were at a poor level, with primary teachers in particular exposed to negative parental behaviours, and secondary teachers to poor student behaviour. Demands were consistently associated with perceived stress outcomes across job roles, although management support and relationships with peers also played a part. Demands faced by teachers in England played an important part in the experience of stress. Interventions to reduce these demands, and the high frequencies of negative pupil and parental behaviours, should be considered.

  19. [A case of parental alienation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed.

  20. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  1. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  2. Parental Attitudes Toward Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Green, Sonia R.

    1987-01-01

    Five hundred and five parents of elementary through secondary school students were surveyed to determine attitudes towards physical education. The questionnaire included positive and negative statements about physical education. Responses indicated that parents were positively disposed toward physical education, favoring focus on fitness, skill,…

  3. Single-Parent and Working-Parent Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  4. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Parental satisfaction of an assessment unit for autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, Arwa; Halayem, Soumeyya; Touati, Maissa; Belhadj, Ahlem; Gouider, Riadh; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included.  Patients had received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger Syndrome in accordance with DSM IV criteria, and than that of Autism Spectrum Disorder after DSM 5 publication. The overall satisfaction rate was 63%. Most parents (84.6%) rated the Psycho Educative Profile examination positively, 75% appreciated the neurological examination and the final report steps, 55.8% appreciated step of the Autism Diagnostic Interview revised and 42.3% the genetic exploration. 67% of the parents reported an improvement of their child following the evaluation. This improvement was attributed to the unit in 57.7% of cases. Parents whose children did not have associated disorders such as intellectual disability (p = 0.02), aggressive behavior (p = 0.04), affective disorder (p = 0.01) and sleep-related disorders (p = 0.03) were the most satisfied. Parents of children with epilepsy comorbidity were the least satisfied (p <10-3). 96% of parents suggested repeating the assessment once a year. Conclusion - Assessment units are based on international recommendations. However, it would be interesting to adapt assessments and orientation to the parents' expectations.

  7. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale—ESPA29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29’s structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The scores of fathers’ and mothers’ behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers’ and fathers’ scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers’ and mothers’ scores

  8. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale-ESPA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; García, Óscar F; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29's structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scores of fathers' and mothers' behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers' and fathers' scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers' and mothers' scores. These findings validate the

  9. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale—ESPA29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; García, Óscar F.; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29’s structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scores of fathers’ and mothers’ behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers’ and fathers’ scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers’ and mothers’ scores. These findings

  10. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ''Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations'', funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Adolescent parenting in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Amanda; van Manen, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This review presents data from studies that report on adolescent parents as part of larger neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parent populations, as well as studies where adolescent parents are given central consideration. A systematic search for English publications from 1990 onward relevant to adolescent parenting in the NICU was conducted. Most studies reporting on adolescent parents focus on parental stress or parenting practices in the NICU. A few studies examine parent-staff communication, parental needs, and parent intervention programs. One study presents a qualitative examination of teenage mothers' experiences in the NICU. Areas for further research include experiences of younger adolescent parents, adolescent fathers, and same-sex partners; issues unique to adolescent parents; and support programs for adolescent parents in the NICU. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parenting the Internet: Resources for Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)

  13. Knowledge of human papillomavirus vaccination and related factors among parents of young adolescents: a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zheng, Quan-Qing; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related knowledge and factors associated with the knowledge among parents of young adolescents in China. The study was based on data of a survey carried out in seven geographic regions of China. Parents of students in junior middle school were surveyed during parents' meetings. A total of 2895 parents were included in the analyses. Of parents, 38.3% responded with "yes" to more than three of the six knowledge questions, among whom only 4.5% of them correctly answered all six questions. Social benefit programs (41.3%), doctors and/or nurses (39.7%), and newspapers and/or magazines (36.5%) were selected as the top three sources of HPV-related knowledge. Mothers, parents who work in the health care sector, and parents with a higher annual income or with vaccination experience outside the expanded program on immunization showed a better knowledge base. Parents who consented to sex education for children or showed fear of cervical cancer were likely to have more HPV-related knowledge. In particular, the knowledge level of parents with prior consultation regarding HPV vaccines was higher. Parents of young adolescents in China possessed a low level of HPV vaccine-related knowledge. Findings highlight the need for tailored health education through different channels to improve HPV-related knowledge among parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent-child relationships in Type 1 diabetes: associations among child behavior, parenting behavior, and pediatric parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweenie, Rachel; Mackey, Eleanor R; Streisand, Randi

    2014-03-01

    Interactions between parents and children can influence behavioral and emotional functioning related to Type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet have been relatively unexplored during preadolescence. The present study examined associations among child problem behaviors, critical parenting behaviors, and pediatric parenting stress in a sample of preadolescent youth with T1D. Data are available from 86 preadolescent-parent dyads who participated in the initial baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an adherence promotion program. Measures included the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. After controlling for significant demographic and medical characteristics, parents who reported their child's behavior as more problematic reported more difficulty with pediatric parenting stress, which was also associated with more child-reported critical parenting behaviors. Child problem behaviors and critical parenting behaviors were associated with one another, partially via their association with increased pediatric parenting stress. Potential clinical applications include interventions geared toward helping parents manage difficult child behaviors as well as cope with pediatric parenting stress, with the ultimate goal of improving the parent-child relationship and management of T1D.

  15. Difficult relationships between parents and physicians of children with cancer: A qualitative study of parent and physician perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer W; Ilowite, Maya; Taddei, Sarah

    2017-02-15

    Previous work on difficult relationships between patients and physicians has largely focused on the adult primary care setting and has typically held patients responsible for challenges. Little is known about experiences in pediatrics and more serious illness; therefore, we examined difficult relationships between parents and physicians of children with cancer. This was a cross-sectional, semistructured interview study of parents and physicians of children with cancer at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children's Hospital (Boston, Mass) in longitudinal primary oncology relationships in which the parent, physician, or both considered the relationship difficult. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to a content analysis. Dyadic parent and physician interviews were performed for 29 relationships. Twenty were experienced as difficult by both parents and physicians; 1 was experienced as difficult by the parent only; and 8 were experienced as difficult by the physician only. Parent experiences of difficult relationships were characterized by an impaired therapeutic alliance with physicians; physicians experienced difficult relationships as demanding. Core underlying issues included problems of connection and understanding (n = 8), confrontational parental advocacy (n = 16), mental health issues (n = 2), and structural challenges to care (n = 3). Although problems of connection and understanding often improved over time, problems of confrontational advocacy tended to solidify. Parents and physicians both experienced difficult relationships as highly distressing. Although prior conceptions of difficult relationships have held patients responsible for challenges, this study has found that difficult relationships follow several patterns. Some challenges, such as problems of connection and understanding, offer an opportunity for healing. However, confrontational advocacy appears especially refractory to repair; special

  16. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  17. Cultural Competence for Transracial Adoptive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Provides a clear conceptual definition of cultural competence for transracial-cultural adoptive (TRA) parents based on an extensive review of the literature and feedback from experts and parents. A three part definition of cultural competence for TRA parents includes: racial awareness, multicultural planning, and survival skills. Implications for…

  18. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  19. Perceived parent and peer marijuana norms: the moderating effect of parental monitoring during college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Hummer, Justin F; Chithambo, Taona P; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2015-04-01

    This study examined descriptive and injunctive normative influences exerted by parents and peers on college student marijuana approval and use. It further evaluated the extent to which parental monitoring moderated the relationship between marijuana norms and student marijuana outcomes. A sample of 414 parent-child dyads from a midsize American university completed online surveys. A series of paired and one-sample t tests revealed that students' actual marijuana use was significantly greater than parents' perception of their child's use, while students' perception of their parents' approval were fairly accurate. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that perceived injunctive parent and student norms, and parental monitoring all uniquely contributed to the prediction of student marijuana approval. Furthermore, parental monitoring moderated the effects of perceived norms. For example, at low but not high levels of parental monitoring, perceptions of other students' marijuana use were associated with students' own marijuana approval. Results from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression showed that students who reported higher descriptive peer norms, higher injunctive parental norms, and reported lower parental monitoring were likely to report more frequent marijuana use. A significant Parental Monitoring × Injunctive Parental norms interaction effect indicated that parental approval only influenced marijuana use for students who reported that their parents monitored their behavior closely. These findings have intervention implications for future work aimed at reducing marijuana approval and use among American college students.

  20. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  1. What Opportunities Are There for Parents to Be Educators? Proceedings of a Research Area Planning Conference (Washington, DC, December 10-11, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report includes proceedings from the Family as Educators Conference which aimed (1) to clarify the roles parents have in supporting their children's achievement in literacy and motivation for school learning (i.e., attitudes affecting school work and attendance), and (2) to assess the viability of parents' educative roles in light of current…

  2. Los Cambios en el Programa de Estudios de la Lengua: Folleto para los Padres de Familia (The Changing Language Arts Curriculum: A Booklet for Parents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Div.

    This Spanish-language version of a booklet intended for parents offers information about how reading instruction is changing and is now only one part of an integrated language arts curriculum. The booklet urges parents and educators to work together to help meet students' needs. Section titles include: Important Facts About Integrated Language…

  3. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  4. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  6. Preventing interpersonal violence in Panama: is a parenting intervention developed in Australia culturally appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    To explore cultural appropriateness of a transported parenting intervention in Panama. Panamanian parents (n = 25) were interviewed after participation in an Australian parenting intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted to interpret qualitative data. Three themes emerged; cultural context, appropriateness of the intervention, and development of support networks. In terms of cultural context, parents described economic difficulties, living in a dangerous world, struggling to balance parenting and work, and using aggressive communication patterns. In terms of appropriateness of the intervention, they rated materials as appropriate, although suggested modifications to its delivery by including children and teachers in the training. Finally, parents commented that the intervention prompted the development of social networks within their communities. Overall, parents considered a transported parenting intervention as appropriate to their local needs. This study might be useful to local governments and international funders in charge of deciding whether transporting parenting interventions North to South as a strategy for violence prevention would be respectful of local needs. Our findings cannot be generalized beyond Panama, but the methodology can be replicated to answer this question in other settings.

  7. Parental knowledge in pediatric otolaryngology surgical consultations: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodzinsky, Ayala Y; Hong, Paul; Chorney, Jill MacLaren

    2015-07-01

    To understand the source of parents' knowledge prior to and desire for further information following pediatric otolaryngology surgical consultations. Mixed-methods approach using descriptive and qualitative content analysis of interviews with parents following otolaryngology consultations for children under the age of 6 years was performed. The children were being seen for either tonsillitis, obstructive sleep apnea, otitis media, and/or sinusitis/nasal obstruction. Forty-one parents completed a phone interview two weeks following their child's surgical consultation. The majority of parents indicated that their primary care physician referred their child for either: investigation of symptoms (50%), to have a specific discussion about surgery (27.5%), or because other treatment options were no longer working (20%). Many parents (56.5%) indicated that the Internet was their primary source of information prior to the appointment. Most parents (93%) wanted more information; majority of these parents noted that a technology-based mode of delivery of information available prior to the appointment would be most desirable. Desired information was most often regarding the surgical procedure, including risks and benefits, and symptoms of concern prior to surgery. This study provides a description of parental knowledge and information sources prior to their child's surgical consultation and continued desire for information. This information may lead to decreased knowledge barriers and increased communication to facilitate shared decision-making between the provider and parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute otitis media in young children - what do parents say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Colin; Ille, Susanne; Vergison, Anne; Coates, Harvey

    2014-02-01

    The Ear infections Attitudes Research study investigated parental attitudes and awareness towards acute otitis media (AOM) and evaluated the burden of AOM for affected children, their families, and parental work capabilities. This study, conducted via online interviews in October-November 2010, included parents (N=2867) from 12 countries, whose children aged ≤3.5 years had experienced ≥1 professionally diagnosed AOM episode in the last 6 months (AOM-experienced group; N=1438) or had never experienced any professionally diagnosed AOM episode (non AOM-experienced group; N=1429). The interviews consisted of questions with multiple-choice, five-point scaled or free-text answers. Answers to multiple-choice questions were presented as frequencies of particular responses and those to scaled questions as mean values or percentages of parents considering each aspect as applicable. Parents considered that the main AOM burdens for affected children were pain (mean values on five-point scales: 4.4 and 4.5), disturbed sleep (4.3 and 4.3) and irritability (4.2 and 4.0) and for their families, sleepless nights (4.2 and 3.8) and worries about the child's recovery (4.1 and 4.3) and about potential long-term implications (4.0 and 4.3) in the AOM-experienced and non AOM-experienced groups, respectively. During their child's most recent AOM episode, 95% of parents in the AOM-experienced group used antibiotics, 76% reported that their doctors prescribed antibiotics for immediate use, 13% were advised to return for antibiotic prescription if symptoms did not abate and 9% received a prescription for antibiotics to use if symptoms did not improve. Both reported prescription and usage rates for antibiotics were higher than expected. When their child had AOM, 73% of parents had to be absent from work or rearrange their working hours. Among those who took leave from work, 67% stayed at home for 2-7 days. Parents perceive AOM to be a burden for their child and families, particularly the

  9. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  10. Parents Representations of the Legal Socialization of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children

  11. Influence of Parent-Youth Relationship, Parental Monitoring, and Parent Substance Use on Adolescent Substance Use Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Light, John M; Crowley, Ryann; Westling, Erika

    2018-01-04

    The quality of parent-child relationships likely influences many decisions and behaviors made by early adolescents, including their alcohol and marijuana use. We examined how parent-youth relationship quality, parental monitoring, and parent substance use were associated with initiation of alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use by 400 adolescents by the spring of 8th grade (ages 13-14), and changes in initiation through 9th grade (assessed 3 times; fall, winter, and spring). We measured both parent and adolescent report of parent-youth relationship quality and parental monitoring, expecting that both perspectives would uniquely contribute. Discrete Time Survival models showed that youth report of both a poorer parent-youth relationship and lower parental monitoring were associated with alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use onset. Parent binge drinking also predicted youth alcohol onset and parent report of poor quality relationship predicted marijuana onset. Youth report of a poor relationship with parents was a stronger predictor for girls than boys on their alcohol use onset, and youth report of parental monitoring was more protective for girls than boys for both alcohol and marijuana use onset. Implications for preventing use of these substances during early and mid-adolescence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. "I Am the Only Child of my Parents:" Perspectives on Future Elder Care for Parents among Chinese only-Children Living overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Tianhan; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The 1979 One-Child Policy in China created a generation of only children, leading to increased elder care dilemmas for this generation and its aging parents, particularly for young adults studying or working abroad. The current study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese young adults who were currently studying or working in Montreal, Canada (N = 20), whose parents still lived in China. The interviews focused on the following topics: elder care patterns of respondents' grandparents; family values and expectations; perceptions of professional long-term care institutions (in China and Canada); and future plans for taking care of aging parents. Respondents described their grandparents' care as following traditional elder care patterns with multiple familial caregivers, which they appreciated as a positive model that defined their own obligations towards parents. Respondents reported being very close to their parents. Some planned to settle down in Canada and bring their parents, others planned to go back to China. Citing the tradition of filial piety, they expected to take care of their parents in the future, but they also considered the dilemmas involved in caring for aging parents without siblings to share the task, potentially requiring them to find compromises between their personal lives and caring for older parents. Those who planned to settle in Canada raised additional concerns about the challenges of bringing over their parents, including acculturation and access to and communication with health and long-term care providers. The results are discussed in the context of contemporary demographic, economic, and policy concerns about aging, family care, and immigration.

  13. Exploration of the short-term and long-term effects of parental illness on children's educational and behavioral functioning using a large Taiwanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi

    2014-05-01

    This study used data from Waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS) to explore the potential short-term and long-term effects of parental illness and health condition on children's behavioral and educational functioning. A sample of 11,018 junior high school students and their parents and teachers in Taiwan were included in this present study. The results supported previous work that parental illness may place children at slight risk for poor psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems. Parental illness was associated with lower adaptive skills and more behavioral problems in children. Children of ill parents showed resilience in their educational functioning in the event of parental illness as children's academic achievement and learning skills were not related to parental illness/health condition.

  14. Biogenetic mechanisms predisposing to complex phenotypes in parents may function differently in their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the participants of the Long Life Family Study to elucidate whether biogenetic mechanisms underlying relationships among heritable complex phenotypes in parents function in the same way for the same phenotypes in their children. Our results reveal 3 characteristic groups...... of relationships among phenotypes in parents and children. One group composed of 3 pairs of phenotypes confirms that associations among some phenotypes can be explained by the same biogenetic mechanisms working in parents and children. Two other groups including 9 phenotype pairs show that this is not a common......-related processes in changing environment may be conceptually underestimated in current genetic association studies using genome wide resources....

  15. Neurobiological basis of parenting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.

  16. Accelerometer-assessed sedentary work, leisure time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers during one year: Effectiveness of a cluster randomized controlled trial in parents with a sedentary occupation and young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto J Pesola

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether reducing sedentary time at work and during leisure time is possible and effective during one year.Office workers with young children were recruited for this one-year cluster-randomized controlled trial through kindergartens and primary schools from 7 clusters in the city of Jyväskylä, Finland. After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding reducing and breaking up sitting periods and increasing light intensity physical activity during work and leisure time. Primary outcomes of total, work and leisure sedentary time (<100 counts/min, cpm, light activity time (<2020 cpm, moderate-to-vigorous activity time (MVPA and breaks/sedentary hour were assessed with a waist-worn Alive -accelerometer for 7 days, 5 times during the year. Anthropometrics (DXA, fasting biomarkers and self-reported diet were assessed as secondary outcomes. Data were collected between 2011-2013 and analyzed between 2013-2016 with a linear mixed-effects model fit by REML using likelihood ratio test and intention-to-treat-principle.Participants from intervention (N = 71 and control (N = 62 regions were assessed at baseline and 117 completed the study. Sedentary leisure time decreased [-21.2 (95% CI -37.3 to -5.1 min/8 hours, likelihood ratio P<0.001] and light activity time [13.4 (-2.2 to 29.0 min/8 hours, P = 0.008] and breaks per sedentary hour [1.0 (-0.2 to 2.2, P = 0.010] increased in the intervention group as compared to controls at 3 months. The decrease in sedentary leisure time was maintained throughout the year [-7.9 (-24.0 to 8.3 min/8 hours, P = 0.029]. Small decreases in the control group's work and leisure MVPA were observed mostly at 3 months. Small favorable intervention effects were observed for fasting plasma glucose at 3 months and for leg lean mass and apoB/apoA-1 ratio at 12 months, with no changes in other outcomes.Behavioral counseling induced a small decline in sedentary leisure

  17. Predictors of parenting stress in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents during early parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z

    2014-04-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured postplacement) and parent and family characteristics (measured preplacement) as predictors of postplacement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year postplacement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children reported more postplacement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the preplacement period had less postplacement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, but it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents' experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Outpatient parents' views on shared-decision-making at an Italian children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Paola; Di Salvo, Viviana; D'Amico, Roberto; Balduzzi, Sara; Giampaolo, Rosaria; Rita Marina Mazziotta, Mercedes; Guerra, Cesare; Menichella, Giovanna; Cosentino, Stefania P; Carlino, Cecilia; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-17

    Information is lacking on what parents in southern European countries know and how they view clinical shared-decision-making (SDM) for their children. This survey assesses general parental views on SDM and patient-physician SDM relationships in an Italian paediatric outpatients' clinic. In a 3-month cross-sectional survey, we enrolled 458 consecutive native and foreign Italian-speaking parents bringing their children to our public hospital for various reasons. Parents completed an anonymous questionnaire exploring their general views on SDM, including what doctor-patient relationship predominates today, and what approach reassures them most. Multivariate logistic regression analysed outcome data from parental questionnaire answers. Results are reported as percentages, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate logistic regression showed that 440 parents (96.1%) appreciated SDM, 245 (53.5%) preferred SDM for choosing children's treatment, 126 (27.5%) answered that SDM is the predominant relationship today, and most parents 275 (60.0%) felt reassured by SDM. More native than foreign Italian-speaking parents preferred SDM (97.0 vs 89.7%, OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.4-10.8). Highly-educated parents preferred SDM for choosing their child's therapy (57.9 vs 34.1%, OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6-4.4) and this approach reassured them (64.3 vs 41.2%, OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.6-4.1). In conclusion, parents bringing children to an Italian outpatient clinic, especially highly-educated parents, wish to be offered SDM and find it reassuring. These findings should encourage paediatricians working in a challenging multicultural environment to change their physician-centred approach and engage parents in tailored SDM strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Preschooler obesity and parenting styles of mothers and fathers: Australian national population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Hardy, Pollyanna; Smith, Katherine

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine relationships between BMI status at ages 4 to 5 years and mothers' and fathers' parenting dimensions and parenting styles. Participants were composed of all 4983 of the 4- to 5-year-old children in wave 1 of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with complete BMI and maternal parenting data. Mothers and fathers self-reported their parenting behaviors on 3 multi-item continuous scales (warmth, control, and irritability) and were each categorized as having 1 of 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged) using internal warmth and control tertile cut points. Using a proportional odds model, odds ratios for children being in a higher BMI category were computed for mothers and fathers separately and together, after adjustment for factors associated with child BMI, including mothers' and fathers' BMI status. The sample was composed of 2537 boys and 2446 girls with a mean age 56.9 months; 15% were overweight and 5% were obese (International Obesity Task Force criteria). Mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were not associated in any model with higher odds of children being in a heavier BMI category, with or without multiple imputation to account for missing maternal BMI data. Higher father control scores were associated with lower odds of the child being in a higher BMI category. Compared with the reference authoritative style, children of fathers with permissive and disengaged parenting styles had higher odds of being in a higher BMI category. This article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the parenting of both parents in relation to preschoolers' BMI status while also adjusting for parental BMI status. Fathers' but not mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were associated with increased risks of preschooler overweight and obesity. Longitudinal impacts of parenting on BMI gain remain to be determined.

  20. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  1. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Klest, Sihu; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention...... for parents with infants. Method We conducted a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel pilot randomized controlled trial, in which 112 families with newborns were randomized to the IYPB program (76) or usual care (36) with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome was parenting confidence measured after 20 weeks......, using the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale and Parental Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of parent health, parent-child relationship, infant development, parent-child activities, network, and family income. Interviewers and data analysts were blind to allocation status. Multiple...

  2. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  3. Marital and Parental Satisfaction of Married Physicians with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and

  4. Parents' experiences of managing their child's diabetes using an insulin pump: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D; Harden, J; Noyes, K; Waugh, N; Barnard, K; Lawton, J

    2015-05-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion delivered via a pump is increasingly recommended for younger children with Type 1 diabetes. Our aims were: to understand the impact on parents who care for young children using insulin pumps; to help interpret psychological outcomes reported in quantitative research; and to inform provision of support to future parents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 parents of children (aged ≤ 12 years) with Type 1 diabetes who used an insulin pump. Data were analysed thematically. Parents reported multiple benefits from using insulin pumps, including: no longer having to administer painful injections; fewer restrictions on the frequency, timing and carbohydrate contents of snacks and meals; and improvements in family life and their child's glycaemic control. Parents liked and felt less anxious about using bolus calculators to determine insulin doses; however, parents also described undertaking additional and unanticipated work to manage their child's diabetes using a pump. This included performing more blood glucose tests to calculate insulin doses for snacks and to address their concerns that the pump increased their child's risk of hypoglycaemia. Some parents reported doing additional blood glucose checks because they could adjust pump settings to better manage hypo- and hyperglycaemia. Parents liked and perceived benefits for their child and themselves from using an insulin pump; however, parents would benefit from being made aware of the additional work involved in using a pump and also from education and support to address concerns about hypoglycaemia. Better measures to evaluate parents' experiences are also recommended. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  5. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotion-Focused Family Therapy for Eating Disorders Across the Lifespan: A Pilot Study of a 2-Day Transdiagnostic Intervention for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance Robinson, Adèle; Dolhanty, Joanne; Stillar, Amanda; Henderson, Katherine; Mayman, Shari

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-focused family therapy is a transdiagnostic approach that affords parents and caregivers a significant role in their loved one's recovery from an eating disorder. A 2-day intervention was developed on the basis of emotion-focused family therapy principles and delivered to 33 parents of adolescent and adult children. Data were collected pre- and post-intervention. Through education and skills practice, parents were taught strategies with respect to meal support and symptom interruption as well as emotion coaching. Parents were also supported to identify and work through their own emotional blocks that could interfere with their supportive efforts. Analyses revealed a significant increase in parental self-efficacy, a positive shift in parents' attitudes regarding their role as emotion coach and a reduction in the fears associated with their involvement in treatment, including a decrease in self-blame. Overall, this broad-based, low-cost intervention shows promise, and future research is warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A low-cost, intensive emotion-focused family therapy intervention shows promise for parents of individuals with an eating disorder, regardless of their loved one's age, symptom profile or involvement in treatment. Working with parents' emotions and emotional reactions to their child's struggles has the potential to improve supportive efforts. An emotion-focused family therapy intervention for parents yields high satisfaction rates, improves parental self-efficacy and reduces fears regarding their involvement, including self-blame. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Looking for solutions: gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income, young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-12-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  8. The influence of mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and depressive symptoms on own and partner's parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Pasteels, Inge; De Backer, Charlotte; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how parenting stress and depressive symptoms experienced by mothers and fathers influence their own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) parent-child communication. Based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, data from 196 families were analyzed, with both parents rating their parenting stress and depressive feelings, and parents as well as children rating the open parent-child communication. Actor effects were found between parenting stress and open parent-child communication, whereas partner effects were prominent between depressive symptoms and open parent-child communication. The results provide no evidence for gender differences in the strength of the pathways to open parent-child communication. Our findings demonstrate the need to include both parents in studies on parent-child communication to enhance our understanding of the mutual influence among family members. © FPI, Inc.

  9. Parent Communication Prompt to Increase Shared Decision-Making: A New Intervention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Hubner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveShared decision-making (SDM is the process by which patients, clinicians, and in pediatrics, parents/caregivers, discuss treatment options, communicate available evidence for or against the different options, share preferences and values, and eventually arrive at a joint decision. This study evaluates the use of a novel, universally applicable, SDM intervention, provided to parents, intended to promote engagement and participation with their child’s clinician.MethodsTwo-arm randomized controlled trial comparing the impact of a SDM-focused intervention prompt to a neutral comparison prompt on perception of SDM participation. Participants included English-speaking parents of children (0–17 years attending one Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric (DBP clinic and their child’s clinician. Prior to visit start, parents received either the intervention prompt encouraging engagement with the clinician in decision-making, or the comparison prompt reminding them to request a school/work excuse note if needed. After the visit, SDM was assessed by both parents and DBP clinicians. SDM was scored as present if the respondent answered “strongly agree” to all SDM-related items. Logistic regression tested effects of visit, child, parent, clinician characteristics, and intervention group status on parent-reported SDM. Cohen’s kappa assessed alignment between parent and clinician perceptions of SDM.ResultsOf 88 parents screened, 50 (61% met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate (intervention n = 26; comparison n = 24. Eligible participants (parents and clinicians for analysis completed the surveys with no missing data. Overall, SDM was present in 76% of parents and 34% of clinicians. With high rates of parent-reported SDM in both intervention and comparison groups, no main intervention effect was detected. Compared to the comparison group, there was greater alignment between parent and clinician perception of SDM in the

  10. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  11. Preschoolers' dietary behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.

  12. Collaboration Between Childcare and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    2017-01-01

    other’s arrangements, but on the other hand, they are structurally connected and continuously interacting due to the crossover of the children’s activities. Therefore, collaboration and coordination between parents and professionals is an important part of childcare practice. Based on comprehensive...... empirical work in different Danish childcare centres, this chapter discusses how parental collaboration in the pedagogical practice is often a rather paradoxical effort, developed in relation to contradictory historical and institutional conditions and requirements to treat parents both as equal...... participants, consumers and clients. In this way, challenges and dilemmas in parental collaboration in childcare are analysed in relation to larger societal conflicts about the relation between society and citizen and the overall purpose of childcare as state institutions....

  13. Involving Divorced Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  14. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    the strength of the relationship between parenting style and adolescent smoking, teaching positive parenting, including facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships, may be considered as part of smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  15. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-04-02

    Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants' education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child's activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in

  16. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  17. When Parents and Young Children Go To School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Samuel J.

    1976-01-01

    By helping out in the classroom, parents can see a teacher work with children, developing their curiosity, elaborating on their interests, disciplining when necessary and, in a sense, the teacher serves as a model for the parents. (JD)

  18. Parental Reflective Functioning: An Approach to Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Webb, Denise; Sadler, Lois S; Slade, Arietta

    2015-01-01

    The current state of science suggests that safe, responsive, and nurturing parent-child relationships early in children's lives promotes healthy brain and child development and protection against lifelong disease by reducing toxic stress and promoting foundational social-emotional health. Pediatric health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to foster these relationships. However, such a role requires a shift in pediatric health care from a focus only on children to one that includes families and communities, as well as the inclusion of children's social and emotional health with their physical health. To foster healthy parent-child relationships, HCPs must develop the expertise to integrate approaches that support the family's socioemotional health into pediatric primary care. This article suggests ways in which pediatric HCPs can integrate a focus on parental reflective functioning into their clinical work, helping parents to understand some of the thoughts and feelings that underlie their children's behavior. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The theory of shared communication: how parents of technology-dependent children communicate with nurses on the inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Sabourin, Teresa; Broome, Marion E; Buelow, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Care may be compromised for hospitalized technology-dependent children if nurses do not communicate with parents to include their knowledge in the child's plan of care. A qualitative study using grounded theory methodology was undertaken to identify parental perceptions and experiences of communication with nurses. The Theory of Shared Communication was the result of this study and includes questioning, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve the outcome of mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. Nurses should be aware of parent perceptions about communication when working with families to optimize the care they provide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 34 CFR 300.612 - Notice to parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice to parents. 300.612 Section 300.612 Education... § 300.612 Notice to parents. (a) The SEA must give notice that is adequate to fully inform parents about... parents and children regarding this information, including the rights under FERPA and implementing...

  1. Teens Parenting: The Challenge of Babies and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jeanne Warren

    This parenting guide for teenage parents of infants and toddlers incorporates numerous comments from 61 teenage parents who chose to stay in school after the birth of their child. Specific problems confronting young parents are addressed. These problems include single parenthood, early marriage, and the advantages and disadvantages of living with…

  2. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  3. Reconceptualization of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and Parental Control: Some Initial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    This study compared standard conceptualizations for parenting style, parental involvement in school, and parents' socialization goals with alternative conceptualizations, in relation to children's academic achievement. Specifically, the study asked: (1) whether ethnicity is predictive of achievement scores when included in analyses involving the…

  4. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…

  5. Teen Mothers Parenting their Own Teen Offspring: The Moderating Role of Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…

  6. Associations among Child Perceptions of Parenting Support, Maternal Parenting Efficacy and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; de Baca, Tomas Cabeza; Jordan, Ashley; Tilley, Elizabeth; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and parents often rely on the support provided by non-parental adults such as extended family members. Expanding conceptualizations of social support beyond traditional nuclear family paradigms to include non-parental adults may be particularly relevant to identifying family strengths among economically disadvantaged and…

  7. The influence of fathers' parenting participation with disabled children on parenting stress in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the effects of father's parenting participation on parenting stress among mothers with disabled children and (2) more specifically, to investigate the importance of fathers' parenting participation in decreasing mothers' parenting stress. [Subjects and Methods] To examine these relationships, this study recruited 82 mothers with disabled children from rehabilitation centers in the Gwangju city. The common characteristics of parents and children, father's parenting participation, and mother's parenting stress were assessed using standard questionnaires. [Results] Based on mother reports, findings suggest that as fathers' parenting participation increases mothers' parenting stress decreases. [Conclusion] The present study reveals a need for improvement in parenting education and in providing fathers of disabled children with a temporary leave of absence from work. Specifically, this research highlights the importance of shared parenting responsibilities among family members. Finally, our findings suggest that developing a standardized national program for assisting parents with disabled children may help decrease parenting stress in mothers.

  8. "As a Parent You Become a Tiger": Parents Talking about Bullying at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rebecca; Fox, Claire L; Murray, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bullying at school can be a distressing experience for children. It is also likely to be distressing for their parents. In spite of this, research in the field of school bullying and peer victimisation has tended to overlook the experience of parents when their child is bullied. This study explored school bullying from the parent's perspective. Twenty-one parents took part in semi-structured focus groups and interviews to share their experiences. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts identified two main themes: 'perceived institutional factors' and 'being a good parent'. It was found that parents viewed their principal role as protecting their child; they referred to this as an instinct and fundamental to them being a good parent. However, during their attempts to help their child, many parents talked about difficulties working with schools and this triggered frustration and distrust towards teachers. The findings highlight the importance of communication between parents and teachers and ensuring that parents are kept informed of progress when teachers are trying to address the problem. Additionally, the findings indicate that parents may hold different views to teachers about their role in school bullying situations. This would suggest that parents looking at the situation from the teacher's perspective, and vice versa, could help to build better parent-teacher relationships when tackling school bullying.

  9. Parents' and students' reports of parenting: which are more reliably associated with college student drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Turrisi, Rob; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A; Ray, Anne E

    2013-03-01

    Recent efforts to reduce college student heavy episodic drinking have examined parental influences, with the goal of continually refining parent-based interventions (PBIs). This research has primarily relied on student-reported data, which is often cited as a methodological limitation although the degree to which parent- and student-reported data on parenting behaviors correspond is unknown. The goals of the present study were to assess the level of consistency between parent- and student-reported data for commonly examined parenting constructs and compare their associations with college student drinking. Data were collected from a sample of 145 parent-student dyads using a longitudinal design. At baseline, parents and students reported on parental monitoring, approval of light and moderate/heavy drinking, and permissiveness. At a 10-month follow up, students reported on their typical weekly drinking and consequences. Parents' and students' reports of parenting behavior at baseline were compared and their associations with student drinking and consequences at follow up were assessed. Agreement between parents' and students' reports of parenting was fair to moderate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .34 to .61. Student-reported data were more reliably associated with student drinking at follow up. Studies examining parent influences on college student drinking, including research on PBIs, do not appear to be limited by using student-reported data. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  11. Parental strategies for assisting children to wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Gilmore, Linda; Glenn, Sheila

    2006-09-01

    This study examined parents' behaviours as they waited with their child. Children were presented with an attractively wrapped gift and then asked not to touch it until the experimenter returned from finishing some work in another room. Three parent groups and their children participated in the study - parents of children with Down syndrome, parents of children with intellectual disability from another cause, and parents of children who were developing typically. There were no significant differences between children in how long they were able to wait before touching the gift. The data from the first two groups were combined for all analyses after it was established that there were no significant differences between them. There were few significant differences between parents of a child with intellectual disability and comparison parents. The former group were more likely to be classified as Authoritarian than were comparison parents, however with one exception, parenting style was unrelated to the strategies parents used in the waiting situation. Very few parents in either group used the opportunity to teach or explicitly praise effective waiting strategies in their children.

  12. Web-Based Parenting Support: Development of the COPING Confident Parenting Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hutchings

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parents have the most significant impact on children’s development and the key parenting factors that promote child development and wellbeing are well known. Furthermore, many behavioural, social and emotional problems in children are associated with poor parenting practices. Parenting interventions that address parental skill deficits and teach positive parenting principles based on social learning theory are effective and are the recommended treatment for conduct disorder. Alongside the development of treatment programmes, universal parenting programmes have been developed; many present the same core parenting principles but their rationales vary from promoting children’s development to addressing common behavioural challenges and the evidence for these programmes is less well established. Most parents now have internet access and are making daily use of it, including seeking advice on parenting matters but that advice is often anecdotal and lacking evidence. In the meantime, a small number of web-based programmes, including parenting programmes have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarises the rationale for web-based universal programmes to support parents and briefly describes the history, content and a summary of the initial research on the COPING (confident parent internet guide programme developed by the authors. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions.

  13. Families at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Peggy K.

    1988-01-01

    Today, school age and preschool children are more likely to have a working mother and to be living with one parent than in the past. Many families headed by women are living in poverty. Much of the teaching in public schools and many work force benefits are geared to the traditional models of the past. (JOW)

  14. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  15. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: Cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and

  16. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  17. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  18. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  19. Transgender People (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Headaches (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Anemia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Chlamydia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Sinusitis (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Diarrhea (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Adenovirus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Birth Defects (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Blood Culture (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...