WorldWideScience

Sample records for included open-ended questions

  1. Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Why use open-ended questions? This chapter provides an up-to-date overview on the use of open-ended questions in novel rapid sensory methodologies and the potential applications in which they could provide unique benefits. Next, the step-by-step process is described (from task performance to

  2. Semi-automated categorization of open-ended questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Text data from open-ended questions in surveys are difficult to analyze and are frequently ignored. Yet open-ended questions are important because they do not constrain respondents’ answer choices. Where open-ended questions are necessary, sometimes multiple human coders hand-code answers into one of several categories. At the same time, computer scientists have made impressive advances in text mining that may allow automation of such coding. Automated algorithms do not achieve an overall accuracy high enough to entirely replace humans. We categorize open-ended questions soliciting narrative responses using text mining for easy-to-categorize answers and humans for the remainder using expected accuracies to guide the choice of the threshold delineating between “easy” and “hard”. Employing multinomial boosting avoids the common practice of converting machine learning “confidence scores” into pseudo-probabilities. This approach is illustrated with examples from open-ended questions related to respondents’ advice to a patient in a hypothetical dilemma, a follow-up probe related to respondents’ perception of disclosure/privacy risk, and from a question on reasons for quitting smoking from a follow-up survey from the Ontario Smoker’s Helpline. Targeting 80% combined accuracy, we found that 54%-80% of the data could be categorized automatically in research surveys.

  3. The effects of e-simulation interview training on teachers' use of open-ended questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine; Skouteris, Helen; Guadagno, Belinda

    2015-05-01

    Teachers in many parts of the world are mandated reporters of child abuse and maltreatment but very little is known concerning how they question children in suspicious circumstances. Teachers (n=36), who had previously participated in a mock interview scenario designed to characterize their baseline use of various question-types when attempting to elicit sensitive information from children, were given online training in choosing effective questions. They engaged in simulated interviews with a virtual avatar several times in one week and then participated in a mock interview scenario. The amount and proportion of open-ended questions they used increased dramatically after training. The overall number of questions, and amount and proportions of specific and leading questions decreased. In particular, large decreases were observed in more risky yes-no and other forced-choice questions. Given that most teachers may feel the need to ask a child about an ambiguous situation at some point during their careers it is worthwhile to incorporate practice asking effective questions into their training, and the present research suggests that an e-learning format is effective. Additionally, effective questions encourage the development of narrative competence, and we discuss how teachers might include open-ended questions during regular classroom learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physics 30 Program Machine-Scorable Open-Ended Questions: Unit 2: Electric and Magnetic Forces. Diploma Examinations Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document outlines the use of machine-scorable open-ended questions for the evaluation of Physics 30 in Alberta. Contents include: (1) an introduction to the questions; (2) sample instruction sheet; (3) fifteen sample items; (4) item information including the key, difficulty, and source of each item; (5) solutions to items having multiple…

  5. Comparison of performance on multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions in an introductory astronomy laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle M. Wooten; Adrienne M. Cool; Edward E. Prather; Kimberly D. Tanner

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students’ learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students’ understanding. One method that can be used to learn more about students’ learning is the analysis of the open-ended responses students’ provide when explaining their multiple-choice response. I...

  6. Comparison of Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions and Open-Ended Questions in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can…

  7. Determining the Response Behaviors of Middle School Students for Open-Ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Tuğçe ŞİMŞEK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When the literature for measurement and evaluation in education is reviewed, research related to student achievement are mainly outcome-oriented rather than process-oriented. Researchers pay attention to the responses that a student constructs or chooses, and ignore the cognitive processes that forces students to construct or choose that specific response. Recognizing the cognitive processes a student uses in responding to a question affects the item construction process and psychometric audit on items. Response behavior is a result of a cognitive process used to respond to a question and is accepted as an indicator of student cognitive competence. This study aims to determine the students’ response behaviors for open-ended questions. The study group consisted of 70 students from the 5th grade studying during the 2015-2016 education year spring term in the Cankaya and Mamak districts of Ankara province, Turkey. An authentic achievement test which consisted of eight open-ended questions is used as the data collection tool. Students are asked to write in detail how they construct their response in their mind in the blank space set aside after each question. Data is analyzed via grouping students’ response behaviors and expert opinions. Research findings revealed that students perform 14 different response behaviors for open-ended questions. These behaviors are themed as responses constructed directly from the text, responses constructed by interpreting the text, and responses constructed by linking real life and the text.

  8. The Use of Open-Ended Questions with Giving Feedback (OEQGF) for Effective Mathematic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabilah, I.; Manoy, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Feedback deals with giving information to students related to their task which is done through score of their achievement, reaction, and comments. Considering its hierarchy, task difficulty level consists of low, middle and high levels. The difficulty level of open-ended questions is middle to high. Open-ended question is a good way to train students’ knowledge. This research is a descriptive research which aims at describing teacher’s learning management, students’ activities, students’ learning achievement, and students’ responses in mathematic learning using OEQGF. The subject was a teacher of mathematics who teaches eighth graders, and students themselves. The research design used is one shot case study. The result shows that: management learning has been very well implemented by the teacher; every students’ activity has been carried out by students; the students’ learning achievement have reached the criteria of completeness, and the students’ responses can be considered as positive. Therefore, it can be concluded that mathematic learning using OEQGF is effective.

  9. Point of data saturation was assessed using resampling methods in a survey with open-ended questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Porcher, Raphael; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    To describe methods to determine sample sizes in surveys using open-ended questions and to assess how resampling methods can be used to determine data saturation in these surveys. We searched the literature for surveys with open-ended questions and assessed the methods used to determine sample size in 100 studies selected at random. Then, we used Monte Carlo simulations on data from a previous study on the burden of treatment to assess the probability of identifying new themes as a function of the number of patients recruited. In the literature, 85% of researchers used a convenience sample, with a median size of 167 participants (interquartile range [IQR] = 69-406). In our simulation study, the probability of identifying at least one new theme for the next included subject was 32%, 24%, and 12% after the inclusion of 30, 50, and 100 subjects, respectively. The inclusion of 150 participants at random resulted in the identification of 92% themes (IQR = 91-93%) identified in the original study. In our study, data saturation was most certainly reached for samples >150 participants. Our method may be used to determine when to continue the study to find new themes or stop because of futility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the sequence of data collection influence participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions? A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya; Ritchie, Judith A

    2012-06-01

    The sequence used for collecting quantitative and qualitative data in concurrent mixed-methods research may influence participants' responses. Empirical evidence is needed to determine if the order of data collection in concurrent mixed methods research biases participants' responses to closed and open-ended questions. To examine the influence of the quantitative-qualitative sequence on responses to closed and open-ended questions when assessing the same variables or aspects of a phenomenon simultaneously within the same study phase. A descriptive cross-sectional, concurrent mixed-methods design was used to collect quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interview) data. The setting was a large multi-site health care centre in Canada. A convenience sample of 50 registered nurses was selected and participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two sequences for data collection, quantitative-qualitative or qualitative-quantitative. Independent t-tests were performed to compare the two groups' responses to the survey items. Directed content analysis was used to compare the participants' responses to the interview questions. The sequence of data collection did not greatly affect the participants' responses to the closed-ended questions (survey items) or the open-ended questions (interview questions). The sequencing of data collection, when using both survey and semi-structured interviews, may not bias participants' responses to closed or open-ended questions. Additional research is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  12. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  13. Questões discursivas para avaliação escolar = Open-ended questions in school tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever questões discursivas presentes em atividades escolares do Ensino Médio para avaliação da aprendizagem. Foram estudadas, à luz de teorias sobre atividades e tarefas escolares (Chartrand, 2002, sobre elaboração de provas eexercícios (Moretto, 2005; Bloom, 1973 e sobre perguntas de compreensão (Marcuschi, 1996, 93 questões recolhidas nas disciplinas Literatura Brasileira, História e Geografia. Foram descritas questões (descontextualizadas, propondo, do ponto de vista cognitivo,tarefas funcionais (predominantes, seguidas de formativas e metacognitivas. Seus comandos são dados por meio de pronomes interrogativos (principalmente e de verbos no imperativo ou no infinitivo. As questões focalizam os conteúdos específicos das disciplinas, privilegiando seus conceitos, e enfatizam o desenvolvimento cognitivo dos alunos, sem relação com aspectos sociais. Parece ser suficiente a demonstração passiva de conhecimentoscomo resultado de uma aprendizagem correspondente a acúmulo de informações e de um ensino entendido como repasse de dados.Open-ended questions in high school activities are described to evaluate the learning process. Ninety-three questions fromBrazilian Literature, History and Geography were analyzed, based on school activity and task theories (Chartrand, 2002, test and exercise theories (Moretto, 2005; Bloom, 1973, and comprehension question theories (Marcuschi, 1996. (Decontextualized questions,which propose (predominantly functional, formative and metacognitive tasks, were described from the cognitive point-of-view. Question instructions were given by using (mainly interrogative pronouns and verbs either in the infinitive or in the imperative. Questions focus on the specific contents of the subject matter, emphasizing concepts and the students’ cognitive development, regardless of social aspects. Passive demonstration of knowledge as a result of learning related to collected passive

  14. Computer-Assisted, Self-Interviewing (CASI Compared to Face-to-Face Interviewing (FTFI with Open-Ended, Non-Sensitive Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fairweather PhD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results from research on cultural models, and assesses the effects of computers on data quality by comparing open-ended questions asked in two formats—face-to-face interviewing (FTFI and computer-assisted, self-interviewing (CASI. We expected that for our non-sensitive topic, FTFI would generate fuller and richer accounts because the interviewer could facilitate the interview process. Although the interviewer indeed facilitated these interviews, which resulted in more words in less time, the number of underlying themes found within the texts for each interview mode was the same, thus resulting in the same models of national culture and innovation being built for each mode. Our results, although based on an imperfect research design, suggest that CASI can be beneficial when using open-ended questions because CASI is easy to administer, capable of reaching more efficiently a large sample, and able to avoid the need to transcribe the recorded responses.

  15. Chiropractors' perception of occupational stress and its influencing factors: a qualitative study using responses to open-ended questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Job stress and emotional exhaustion have been shown to have a negative impact on the helping professional. The development and causal relations of job stress and emotional exhaustion are rather unclear in the chiropractic profession. The objective of this study is to understand the main sources of occupational stress and emotional exhaustion among doctors of chiropractic. Analysis of the written responses to web-based open-ended questionnaire was performed using an interpretive research methodology. Additionally, cross tabulation and Chi square statistical tests were conducted to match and couple the demographic data with the categorical themes. Fourteen professional stress categories emerged from the 970 completed surveys. "Managed Care Organization regulation", "Managed Care reimbursement" and "Scope of Practice Issues" were the most common stressors that negatively influenced chiropractors' professional and personal lives. The results of the categorical analysis suggests that age, marital status, number of years in practice and location of practice may have an influence on the category of stress reported by chiropractors. The qualitative approach revealed common, conventional and culture-specific job stressors in doctors of chiropractic. Notably, these findings suggest an association between third-party payer influences (increased regulation/decreased reimbursement) with that of increased job stress. Further research will be undertaken to refine the stress and satisfaction parameters and address stress interventions.

  16. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  17. The value of open-ended questions in surveys on patient experience: number of comments and perceived usefulness from a hospital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiskjær, Erik; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2012-10-01

    To analyse the patients' inclination to comment in generic patient surveys, and to evaluate how these comments were received and used for quality improvement by the hospitals. The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data from four rounds of patient satisfaction surveys from 1999 to 2006. The open-ended questions and their applicability were evaluated by hospital and department management teams in a survey and by hospital employees and leaders, in semi-structured interviews. Eight public hospitals in a Danish county (amt). In this study, the participants were 75 769 patients, 173 department/hospital management teams, and 24 hospital employees and leaders. Questionnaires with open-ended questions to patients and hospital/department management teams. Semi-structured interviews with hospital employees and leaders. Main outcome measure The number of comments from patients and the usefulness of the comments as perceived by employees and leaders. A total of 76% of the patients chose to add one or more comments to their questionnaires. The patients' inclination to comment increased over time. The patient's inclination to comment was highest for the most and the least satisfied patients. The comment-gathering was viewed as 'Very useful' or 'Useful' by 80.7% of the department management teams (31 responses). To gather comments and to forward these to small organizational entities seems to make patient satisfaction measurements more informative and patient-centred. The wording of the open-ended questions, the number of questions and an appeal in the cover letter appear to be important in relation to the patient's inclination to comment.

  18. Open-Ended Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Tim; Bedau, Mark A.; Channon, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the First Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones (OEE1), held during the ECAL 2015 conference at the University of York, U.K., in July 2015. We briefly summarise the content of the talks and discussions and the workshop, and provide links...

  19. Open-ended education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Paaskesen, Rikke Berggreen

    2016-01-01

    ST CENTURY LEARNING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES. THE ARTICLE PRESENTS AN ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THOROUGHLY COLLABORATIVE, COMMUNICATIVE, CREATIVE, AND CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE THROUGH THE CASE AND THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION. IT OUTLINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS CALL...

  20. Numerical Methods through Open-Ended Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a design for a junior level numerical methods course that focuses on a series of five open-ended projects in applied mathematics. These projects were deliberately designed to present many of the ambiguities and complexities that appear any time we use mathematics in the real world, and so they offered the students a variety of possible…

  1. Open-end Investment Funds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Morić Milovanović

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses investment funds in Croatia, with a particular emphasis on openend investment funds. After a short review of the development of the funds, the perception of the funds is analysed, as are the trends in total assets and in average yields. The degree of concentration of open-end investment funds is shown with statistical measures of concentration (the Gini Coefficient, the Lorenz Curve and concentration ratios. All these indicators show that the concentration is moderate to strong. The greatest yields are given by the equity funds, but these are also the most risky.

  2. Open-ended fusion devices and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, T.; Nariai, H.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies on fusion reactors based upon open-ended confinement schemes, such as the tandem mirror and rf plugged cusp, have been carried out in Japan. These studies may be classified into two categories: near-term devices (Fusion Engineering Test Facility), and long-term fusion power recators. In the first category, a two-component cusp neutron source was proposed. In the second category, the GAMMA-R, a tandem-mirror power reactor, and the RFC-R, an axisymetric mirror and cusp, reactor studies are being conducted at the University of Tsukuba and the Institute of Plasma Physics. Mirror Fusion Engineering Facility parameters and a schematic are shown. The GAMMA-R central-cell design schematic is also shown

  3. Open-ended response theory with polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ringholm, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory and implementation of an open-ended framework for electric response properties at the level of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory that includes effects from the molecular environment modeled by the polarizable embedding (PE) model. With this new state......) properties can be studied by evaluating single residues of the response functions. The PE approach includes mutual polarization effects between the quantum and classical parts of the system through induced dipoles that are determined self-consistently with respect to the electronic density. The applicability...

  4. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  5. Características dos Problemas que os Alunos Constroem a partir do Enunciado de uma Questão Aberta de Matemática Characteristics of Problems that Students build from the Enunciation of a Mathematical Open-ended Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Viola dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta características dos problemas que alunos da 4ª e 8ª série do Ensino Fundamental e 3ª série do Ensino Médio construíram a partir do enunciado de uma questão discursiva, inferidas da sua produção escrita na questão comum da AVA-2002. Esses problemas se caracterizaram, parte por terem uma estrutura de resolução linear constituída a partir de interpretações das informações contidas no enunciado uma a uma sem relacioná-las, e, parte por uma estrutura de resolução não-linear constituída a partir de inter-relações entre as informações contidas no enunciado. A análise da produção escrita se mostra como uma alternativa para os professores conhecerem a atividade matemática dos alunos, bem como seus modos particulares de interpretação de enunciados. Palavras chaves: Educação Matemática. Análise da Produção Escrita. Avaliação em Matemática.The present paper shows characteristics of problems that students of 4th year Elementary School, 8th year Middle School and 3rd year High School built from an open-ended question enunciation, taken from their written work in the common question of AVA-2002 (Paraná State Large-Scale Assessment-2002. These problems have, on one hand, a linear resolution structure built from student interpretation of information of the enunciation, one by one, without connection, and, on other hand, they have a non-linear resolution structure built among information of the enunciation. The analysis of students’ written work is one alternative for teachers to know students' mathematical activity, as well as their particular ways of interpretation of enunciations. Keywords: Mathematics Education. Analysis of written work. Assessment in Mathematics.

  6. Open-Ended Behavioral Complexity for Evolved Virtual Creatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Dan; Fussell, Don; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    In the 19 years since Karl Sims' landmark publication on evolving virtual creatures (Sims, 1994), much of the future work he proposed has been implemented, having a significant impact on multiple fields including graphics, evolutionary computation, and artificial life. There has, however been one...... notable exception to this progress. Despite the potential benefits, there has been no clear increase in the behavioral complexity of evolved virtual creatures (EVCs) beyond the light following demonstrated in Sims' original work. This paper presents an open-ended method to move beyond this limit, making...... use of high-level human input in the form of a syllabus of intermediate learning tasks--along with mechanisms for preservation, reuse, and combination of previously learned tasks. This method (named ESP for its three components: encapsulation, syllabus, and pandemonium) is employed to evolve a virtual...

  7. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes suc...

  8. Effects of Factors on Open-End Rotor Yarn Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde BUHARALI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Open-end rotor spinning system, which was begun to be used commercially during late 1960s, is now used as successfully as the conventional ring spinning system. Thanks to open-end rotor yarn spinning machines are very suitable to automation and have high production speeds, use of these machines have increased permanently and today open-end rotor yarn spinning in the world has a share of about 30%. In open-end rotor spinning system yarn properties and production are effected from three main parameters. They are material, sliver preparing process and machine parameters. In this system which manufacture with very high-speed and uses a high-tech, parameters must be selected carefully to ensure best yarn quality with high performance in yarn production

  9. Comparative Kinetic Analysis of Closed-Ended and Open-Ended Porous Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiliang; Gaur, Girija; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Laibinis, Paul E.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient mass transport through porous networks is essential for achieving rapid response times in sensing applications utilizing porous materials. In this work, we show that open-ended porous membranes can overcome diffusion challenges experienced by closed-ended porous materials in a microfluidic environment. A theoretical model including both transport and reaction kinetics is employed to study the influence of flow velocity, bulk analyte concentration, analyte diffusivity, and adsorption rate on the performance of open-ended and closed-ended porous sensors integrated with flow cells. The analysis shows that open-ended pores enable analyte flow through the pores and greatly reduce the response time and analyte consumption for detecting large molecules with slow diffusivities compared with closed-ended pores for which analytes largely flow over the pores. Experimental confirmation of the results was carried out with open- and closed-ended porous silicon (PSi) microcavities fabricated in flow-through and flow-over sensor configurations, respectively. The adsorption behavior of small analytes onto the inner surfaces of closed-ended and open-ended PSi membrane microcavities was similar. However, for large analytes, PSi membranes in a flow-through scheme showed significant improvement in response times due to more efficient convective transport of analytes. The experimental results and theoretical analysis provide quantitative estimates of the benefits offered by open-ended porous membranes for different analyte systems.

  10. Technology of interdisciplinary open-ended designing in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. P.; Plotnikov, L. V.; Fomin, N. I.

    2017-11-01

    Author’s technology of interdisciplinary open-ended engineering is presented in this article. This technology is an integrated teaching method that significantly increases the practical component in the educational program. Author’s technology creates the conditions to overcome the shortcomings in the engineering education. The basic ideas of the technology of open-ended engineering, experience of their implementation in higher education and the author’s vision of the teaching technology are examined in the article. The main stages of development process of the author’s technology of open-ended engineering to prepare students (bachelor) of technical profile are presented in the article. Complex of the methodological tools and procedures is shown in the article. This complex is the basis of the developed training technology that is used in educational process in higher school of engineering (UrFU). The organizational model of the technology of open-ended engineering is presented. Organizational model integrates the functions in the creation and implementation of all educational program. Analysis of the characteristics of educational activity of students working on author’s technology of interdisciplinary open-ended engineering is presented. Intermediate results of the application of author’s technology in the educational process of the engineering undergraduate are shown.

  11. Optimizing Open-Ended Crowdsourcing: The Next Frontier in Crowdsourced Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Aditya; Sarma, Akash Das; Venkataraman, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the primary means to generate training data at scale, and when combined with sophisticated machine learning algorithms, crowdsourcing is an enabler for a variety of emergent automated applications impacting all spheres of our lives. This paper surveys the emerging field of formally reasoning about and optimizing open-ended crowdsourcing, a popular and crucially important, but severely understudied class of crowdsourcing—the next frontier in crowdsourced data management. The underlying challenges include distilling the right answer when none of the workers agree with each other, teasing apart the various perspectives adopted by workers when answering tasks, and effectively selecting between the many open-ended operators appropriate for a problem. We describe the approaches that we’ve found to be effective for open-ended crowdsourcing, drawing from our experiences in this space. PMID:28951893

  12. Near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousaf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils using an electrically small loop antenna. Wirelessly characterized parameters of open-ended micro coils include its resonance frequency, quality factor and inductance. Moreover a wireless frequency-dependent analytical model was developed. Micro coil inductance was extracted from the wirelessly measured signal using a constraint-based least-squares approach. Wireless measurements and analytical fit of micro coils are in strong agreement which validates the analytical model. Finite element method (FEM simulations of the coupled system were done in COMSOL Multiphysics.

  13. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ''closed'' and 'open''. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research

  14. Phase Radiation Characteristics of an Open-Ended Circular Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, A.V.; Pivnenko, Sergiy; Kim, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    Analytic expressions for phase radiation characteristics of a semi-infinite open-ended circular waveguide regardless of its aperture size and operating frequency have been obtained making use of the rigorous Weinstein's theory. The analysis of phase radiation patterns has been carried out...... for the dominant mode (TE11) as well as for the high order modes TM01 and TE01, both for a single and multimode propagation. The measurement of radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide has been carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility. It is shown...

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Soal Open-Ended Terhadap Kemampuan Penalaran Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriana S. Ruslan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian eksperimen ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan penalaran matematis antara siswa yang diberi soal open-ended dengan siswa yang diberi soal rutin, perbedaan peningkatan kemampuan penalaran matematis ditinjau dari level siswa, serta interaksi antara pemberian soal dan level pengetahuan awal matematika (PAM siswa dalam peningkatan kemampuan penalaran matematis siswa. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui tes. Nilai gain diperoleh dari rumus Meltzer dengan hasil: untuk kelas eksperimen nilai gain minimum = -0,07 dan maksimum 0,86, sedangkan untuk kelas kontrol nilai gain minimum = -0,63 dan maksimum 0,55. Dari hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa (1 terdapat perbedaan signifikan dalam peningkatan kemampuan penalaran matematis siswa antara siswa yang diberi soal open-ended dan siswa yang diberi soal rutin, (2 terdapat perbedaan signifikan dalam peningkatan kemampuan penalaran matematis antara siswa pada level pengetahuan awal matematika tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Kata kunci : penelitian eksperimen, penalaran matematis, soal open-ended  AbstractThe aim of this experimental study was to determine differences in mathematical reasoning skills improvement among students who were given open-ended questions with the students who were given a routine matter, differences in mathematical reasoning ability improvement in terms of the level of students , as well as the interaction between the administration and the level of prior knowledge about mathematics ( PAM students in improving students' mathematical reasoning abilities . Data collected through the test . Gain value obtained from the formula Meltzer with the results : for the experimental class minimum gain value = -0.07 and maximum 0.86 , while the value of the gain control for a class of minimum and maximum = -0.63 From the results of the study concluded that (1 there is a significant difference in the improvement of students' mathematical reasoning ability

  16. Performance Evaluation of Open-Ended ELSS Mutual Fund ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of the open-ended equity linked saving mutual fund schemes (ELSS) in India during the financial distress in 2008-2009. In this study, the month end net asset values of selected equity linked saving mutual fund schemes were considered and the data was obtained from the website of ...

  17. Two Open-Ended, Experiential Learning Cases in Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglister, Jayne; Stegmoyer, Matthew; Castrigano, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly changing environment in international business provides an excellent opportunity for instructors to design timely, adaptable, experiential learning, and open-ended cases. This paper presents and discusses how to prepare and use two such cases in the areas of bank accounting and international accounting. The cases can be offered and…

  18. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MATA KULIAH ALJABAR LINEAR BERBASIS OPEN ENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Farida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching materials is one important component in learning because teaching materials can be used for independent study. On the other hand, the lack of teaching materials are on open-ended problems leads to an underdevelopment of creativity in learning. With the open-ended problems, students are expected to have more than one solution to solve problems in everyday life, especially in mathematical problem solving. The purpose of this study is to develop teaching materials based on open-ended valildly, practically and effectively in the subject of linear algebra. This research is the development by using Plomp models which consists of three stages: preliminary research, prototyping, and assessment. Data collection technique through observation, questionnaires and tests. The instruments used were observation sheet, questionnaire sheet and a test sheet. Based on result of the research that has been done shows that the teaching materials is based on open-ended in the subject linear algebra that have been developed otherwise valid with a value of 3.43, practice with a value 3,11 or in the percentage reached 77,75%, and effective with value of learning outcomes experiment class (use teaching materials developed higher than control class.

  19. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  20. Phase radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, Anna; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2007-01-01

    General analytical expressions are derived for the far-field amplitude and phase radiation patterns of an open-ended circular waveguide (OE-CWG) regardless of its radius or the operation frequency for the dominant and symmetric higher-order excitation modes. The derivation is based on the rigorous...... of the derived expressions and a good agreement was obtained....

  1. A Computational Analysis Model for Open-ended Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Junya; Miwa, Kazuhisa

    In this paper, we propose a novel usage for computational cognitive models. In cognitive science, computational models have played a critical role of theories for human cognitions. Many computational models have simulated results of controlled psychological experiments successfully. However, there have been only a few attempts to apply the models to complex realistic phenomena. We call such a situation ``open-ended situation''. In this study, MAC/FAC (``many are called, but few are chosen''), proposed by [Forbus 95], that models two stages of analogical reasoning was applied to our open-ended psychological experiment. In our experiment, subjects were presented a cue story, and retrieved cases that had been learned in their everyday life. Following this, they rated inferential soundness (goodness as analogy) of each retrieved case. For each retrieved case, we computed two kinds of similarity scores (content vectors/structural evaluation scores) using the algorithms of the MAC/FAC. As a result, the computed content vectors explained the overall retrieval of cases well, whereas the structural evaluation scores had a strong relation to the rated scores. These results support the MAC/FAC's theoretical assumption - different similarities are involved on the two stages of analogical reasoning. Our study is an attempt to use a computational model as an analysis device for open-ended human cognitions.

  2. Open-Ended Evolution: Perspectives from the OEE Workshop in York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tim; Bedau, Mark; Channon, Alastair; Ackley, David; Banzhaf, Wolfgang; Beslon, Guillaume; Dolson, Emily; Froese, Tom; Hickinbotham, Simon; Ikegami, Takashi; McMullin, Barry; Packard, Norman; Rasmussen, Steen; Virgo, Nathaniel; Agmon, Eran; Clark, Edward; McGregor, Simon; Ofria, Charles; Ropella, Glen; Spector, Lee; Stanley, Kenneth O; Stanton, Adam; Timperley, Christopher; Vostinar, Anya; Wiser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe the content and outcomes of the First Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution: Recent Progress and Future Milestones (OEE1), held during the ECAL 2015 conference at the University of York, UK, in July 2015. We briefly summarize the content of the workshop's talks, and identify the main themes that emerged from the open discussions. Two important conclusions from the discussions are: (1) the idea of pluralism about OEE-it seems clear that there is more than one interesting and important kind of OEE; and (2) the importance of distinguishing observable behavioral hallmarks of systems undergoing OEE from hypothesized underlying mechanisms that explain why a system exhibits those hallmarks. We summarize the different hallmarks and mechanisms discussed during the workshop, and list the specific systems that were highlighted with respect to particular hallmarks and mechanisms. We conclude by identifying some of the most important open research questions about OEE that are apparent in light of the discussions. The York workshop provides a foundation for a follow-up OEE2 workshop taking place at the ALIFE XV conference in Cancún, Mexico, in July 2016. Additional materials from the York workshop, including talk abstracts, presentation slides, and videos of each talk, are available at http://alife.org/ws/oee1 .

  3. An examination of the association between interviewer question type and story-grammar detail in child witness interviews about abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Snow, Pamela C; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H

    2010-06-01

    This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years (M age=9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their relative sub-types were classified according to definitions reported in the child interview training literature. The children's responses were classified according to the proportion of story grammar and the prevalence of individual story grammar elements as defined by Stein and Glenn (1979). Open-ended questions were more effective at eliciting story grammar than specific questions. This finding was revealed across three age groups, two interview phases and irrespective of how question effectiveness was measured. However, not all types of open-ended questions were equally effective. Open-ended questions that encouraged a broad response, or asked the child to elaborate on a part of their account, elicited more story-grammar detail compared to open-ended questions that requested clarification of concepts or descriptions of the next (or another) activity or detail within a sequence. This study demonstrates that children's ability to provide story-grammar detail is maximised when there is minimal prompting from the interviewer. Given the association between story grammar production and victim credibility, greater guidance is warranted in interviewer training programs in relation to the effects and administration of different types of open-ended questions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A qualitative analysis of kindergarteners’ open-ended drawing and story telling opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirtle Jody M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the themes in the written productions of 114 kindergarten students. Participants were from two schools in different regions in the United States and were given an open-ended opportunity to draw and subsequently dictate a story. Content analysis was performed and six themes emerged: (a family, (b inanimate objects/personal belongings, (c activities/events, (d fantasy stories, (e self-talk/reflection, and (f nature/outdoors. Comparative analysis was performed for both gender and ethnicity and few differences were found between boys’ and girls’ stories or across ethnicities. Recommendations were included for teachers and families to allow young children more open-ended literacy opportunities and future research to analyze children’s drawings and stories between classrooms and across grade levels were included.

  5. Course Evaluation Systems for Open-ended Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed

    2013-01-01

    Quality in higher education is widely controlled through surveys asking students to evaluate teaching. However, control of quality does not necessarily lead to enhancement of quality. Drawing on accounting research and a case study, a measurement-based and open-ended quality control system...... emphasising quality enhancement is suggested. The case shows how interactive use of performance measurement can lead to more engaged and enabling dialogue amongst involved actors concerning quality enhancement, however institutionalised beliefs regarding course evaluation systems makes a change challenging...

  6. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes...... analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course....

  7. Open-Ended Interaction in Cooperative Pro-to-typing: A Video-based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj; Trigg, Randal

    1991-01-01

    that are tied concretely to some current version of the prototype. On the other hand, the users learn more about the potential for change in their work practice, whether computer-based or otherwise. This paper presents the results of a field study of the cooperative prototyping process. The study is based...... on a fine-grained video-based analysis of a single prototyping session, and focuses on the effects of an open-ended style of interaction between users and designers around a prototype. An analysis of focus shifts, initiative and storytelling during the session is brought to bear on the question of whether...

  8. Vortex formation at the open end of an acoustic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Del Rio, Leon; Rendon, Pablo L.; Malaga, Carlos; Zenit, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    For high enough levels of acoustic pressure inside a cylindrical tube, a nonlinear mechanism is responsible for the formation of annular vortices at the open end of the tube, which results in energy loss. Higher sound pressure levels in the tube lead, in turn, to larger values of the acoustic velocity at the exit, and thus to higher Reynolds numbers. It has been observed [Buick et al., 2011] that, provided the magnitude of the acoustic velocity is large enough, two nonlinear regimes are possible: in the first regime, the vorticity appears only in the immediate vicinity of the tube; for higher velocities, vortex rings are formed at the open end of the tube and are advected outwards. We use a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate the velocity and the pressure fields at the exit of the tube in 3D, with Reynolds numbers based on the acoustic boundary layer thickness 18 >Rδ > 1.8 . We also conduct experiments with phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PL-PIV) 2D within a range of 25.5 >Rδ > 10.2 . Experimental and numerical results are compared for a range of Womersley numbers. The effects of varying both the tube geometry and the end shape are addressed.

  9. Discontinuous phase transition in an open-ended Naming Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Brigatti, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study on a 2D square lattice a recent version of the Naming Game, an agent-based model used for describing the emergence of linguistic structures. The system is open-ended and agents can invent new words throughout the evolution of the game, picking them up from a pool characterised by a Gaussian distribution with standard deviation σ. The model displays a nonequilibrium phase transition at a critical point σ c  ≈ 25.6, which separates an absorbing consensus state from an active fragmented state where agents continuously exchange different words. The finite-size scaling analysis of our simulations strongly suggests that the phase transition is discontinuous. (paper)

  10. 40 CFR 63.167 - Standards: Open-ended valves or lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Open-ended valves or lines... National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.167 Standards: Open-ended valves or lines. (a)(1) Each open-ended valve or line shall be equipped with a cap, blind...

  11. Open-ended song learning in a hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Wright, Timothy

    2013-10-23

    Vocal learning in birds is typically restricted to a sensitive period early in life, with the few exceptions reported in songbirds and parrots. Here, we present evidence of open-ended vocal learning in a hummingbird, the third avian group with vocal learning. We studied vocalizations at four leks of the long-billed hermit Phaethornis longirostris during a four-year period. Individuals produce a single song repertoire, although several song-types can coexist at a single lek. We found that nine of 49 birds recorded on multiple days (18%) changed their song-type between consecutive recordings. Three of these birds replaced song-types twice. Moreover, the earliest estimated age when song replacement occurred ranged from 186 to 547 days (mean = 307 days) and all nine birds who replaced song-types produced a crystallized song before replacement. The findings indicate that song-type replacement is distinct from an initial early learning sensitive period. As half of lekking males do not survive past the first year of life in this species, song learning may well extend throughout the lifespan. This behaviour would be convergent to vocal learning programmes found in parrots and songbirds.

  12. Open-Ended Coaxial Dielectric Probe Effective Penetration Depth Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Paul M.; Gregory, Andrew P.; Seppälä, Jan; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments which demonstrate the effect of open-ended coaxial diameter on the depth of penetration. We used a two layer configuration of a liquid and movable cylindrical piece of either Teflon or acrylic. The technique accurately demonstrates the depth in a sample for which a given probe diameter provides a reasonable measure of the bulk dielectric properties for a heterogeneous volume. In addition we have developed a technique for determining the effective depth for a given probe diameter size. Using a set of simulations mimicking four 50 Ω coaxial cable diameters, we demonstrate that the penetration depth in both water and saline has a clear dependence on probe diameter but is remarkably uniform over frequency and with respect to the intervening liquid permittivity. Two different 50 Ω commercial probes were similarly tested and confirm these observations. This result has significant implications to a range of dielectric measurements, most notably in the area of tissue property studies. PMID:27346890

  13. Levels of arithmetic reasoning in solving an open-ended problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyvas, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental teaching carried out on 12-year-old students. An open-ended task was given to them and they had not been taught the algorithmic process leading to the solution. The formal solution to the problem refers to a system of two linear equations with two unknown quantities. In this mathematical activity, students worked cooperatively. They discussed their discoveries in groups of four and then presented their answers to the whole class developing a rich communication. This study describes the characteristic arguments that represent certain different forms of reasoning that emerged during the process of justifying the solutions of the problem. The findings of this research show that within an environment conducive to creativity, which encourages collaboration, exploration and sharing ideas, students can be engaged in developing multiple mathematical strategies, posing new questions, creating informal proofs, showing beauty and elegance and bringing out that problem solving is a powerful way of learning mathematics.

  14. Vegetation dielectric characterization using an open-ended coaxial probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrovic, A.; Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Boone, F.; Pappas, C.; Filali, B.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of freeze/thaw (F/T) physical state of soil is one of the main objectives of the SMAP mission as well as one of the secondary objectives of the SMOS mission. Annual F/T cycles have substantial impacts on surface energy budgets, permafrost conditions, as well as forest water and carbon dynamics. It has been shown that spaceborne L-band passive radiometry is a promising tool to monitor F/T due to the substantial differences between the permittivity of water and ice at these frequencies. However, the decoupling of the signal between soil and vegetation components remains challenging for all microwave remote sensing applications at various spatial scales. Radiative transfer models in the microwave domain are generally poorly parameterized to consider the non-negligible contribution of vegetation. The main objective of this research is to assess the skill of a recently developed Open-Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) to measure the complex microwave permittivity of vegetation and soils and to derive a relation between the impact of vegetation on the microwave signal and the vegetation permittivity that could serve as a validation tool for soil models especially in frozen state. Results show that the OECP is a suitable tool to infer the radial profile of the complex permittivity in L-band of trees. A clear distinction can be made between the dielectric characterization of the sapwood where the permittivity is high because of the high permittivity of water but decrease with depth, and the heartwood where the permittivity is low and relatively constant. The seasonal cycle of the F/T state of the vegetation can also be observed since it is strongly correlated with the permittivity of the wood. The permittivity of a tree over the winter season is very low and homogenous since the permittivity of ice is significantly lower than water and the sap flow is negligible. The fluctuation of the frozen and thawed permittivity for different tree species was evaluated, focusing

  15. Communicating Quantitative Literacy: An Examination of Open-Ended Assessment Items in TIMSS, NALS, IALS, and PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Kosko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Literacy (QL has been described as the skill set an individual uses when interacting with the world in a quantitative manner. A necessary component of this interaction is communication. To this end, assessments of QL have included open-ended items as a means of including communicative aspects of QL. The present study sought to examine whether such open-ended items typically measured aspects of quantitative communication, as compared to mathematical communication, or mathematical skills. We focused on public-released items and rubrics from four of the most widely referenced assessments: the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS-95: the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS; now the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, NAAL in 1985 and 1992, the International Adult Literacy Skills (IALS beginning in 1994; and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA beginning in 2000. We found that open-ended item rubrics in these QL assessments showed a strong tendency to assess answer-only responses. Therefore, while some open-ended items may have required certain levels of quantitative reasoning to find a solution, it is the solution rather than the reasoning that was often assessed.

  16. 12 CFR 250.400 - Service of open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of open-end investment company. 250.400....400 Service of open-end investment company. An open-end investment company is defined in section 5(a)(1) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 as a company “which is offering for sale or has outstanding...

  17. The Effect of Reading Involvement through Open-Ended Strategy vs. Fill-in- the- Blanks Strategy on Young EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Salehi Sepehr; Esmaeil Bagheridoust; Massood Yazdani Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of integrating strategy instruction (open-ended strategy and fill-in-the blanks strategy) with motivation- support affected on reading result for young EFL learners. The central area of exploration included a comparison among three approaches to reading instruction: First, fill-in-the blanks strategy intervention; second, open-ended strategy intervention; and last, a control group which received the conventional rea...

  18. Learning autonomy in two or three steps: linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C; van den Bosch, Kirsten A; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into a reliable tool. Preconditioned on success in step two, step three aims to effectively co-create an optimal living environment. We argue that these steps correspond to right-left-right hemispheric dominance, where the left hemisphere specializes in control and the right hemisphere in exploration. Control (e.g., problem solving) requires a closed and stable world that must be maintained by external authorities or, in step three, by the right hemisphere acting as internal authority. The three-step progression therefore corresponds to increasing autonomy and agency. Depending on how we appraise the environment, we formulate four qualitatively different motivational states: submission, control, exploration, and consolidation. Each of these four motivational states has associated reward signals of which the last three-successful control, discovery of novelty, and establishing new relations-form an open-ended development loop that, the more it is executed, helps the agent to become progressively more agentic and more able to co-create a pleasant-to-live-in world. We conclude that for autonomy to arise, the agent must exist in a (broad) transition region between order and disorder in which both danger and opportunity (and with that open-ended development and motivation) are defined. We conclude that a research agenda for artificial cognitive system research should include open-ended development through intrinsic motivations and ascribing more prominence to right hemispheric strengths.

  19. Learning autonomy in two or three steps: linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into a reliable tool. Preconditioned on success in step two, step three aims to effectively co-create an optimal living environment. We argue that these steps correspond to right-left-right hemispheric dominance, where the left hemisphere specializes in control and the right hemisphere in exploration. Control (e.g., problem solving) requires a closed and stable world that must be maintained by external authorities or, in step three, by the right hemisphere acting as internal authority. The three-step progression therefore corresponds to increasing autonomy and agency. Depending on how we appraise the environment, we formulate four qualitatively different motivational states: submission, control, exploration, and consolidation. Each of these four motivational states has associated reward signals of which the last three—successful control, discovery of novelty, and establishing new relations—form an open-ended development loop that, the more it is executed, helps the agent to become progressively more agentic and more able to co-create a pleasant-to-live-in world. We conclude that for autonomy to arise, the agent must exist in a (broad) transition region between order and disorder in which both danger and opportunity (and with that open-ended development and motivation) are defined. We conclude that a research agenda for artificial cognitive system research should include open-ended development through intrinsic motivations and ascribing more prominence to right hemispheric

  20. Open-Ended Narrative and Moral Formation | Klaasen | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  1. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  2. A Study of Approaches to Solving Open-Ended Problems in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tina; Potter, Nicholas; Leng, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a qualitative investigation into the range of different approaches that students use to solve open-ended, context rich problems. The study involved a small cohort of students individually solving open-ended, context-rich problems using a think aloud protocol. The problems required the students to develop a…

  3. 12 CFR 221.109 - Loan to open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the general nature and operations of such a company, any loan by a bank to such a company should be... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan to open-end investment company. 221.109... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.109 Loan to open-end investment company. In...

  4. 40 CFR 60.482-6a - Standards: Open-ended valves or lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Open-ended valves or lines... Equipment Leaks of VOC in the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry for Which Construction... lines. (a)(1) Each open-ended valve or line shall be equipped with a cap, blind flange, plug, or a...

  5. The Extend of Adaptation Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain In English Questions Included in General Secondary Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels (level three and level four during 2010-2013 composed the sample of the study. Frequencies and percentages were tabulated to facilitate the analysis of the results. The result of the study revealed that the total percentage of the first three levels (comprehension, knowledge, and analysis is (69.6 but the total percentage of the last three levels (application, synthesis, and evaluation is (30.4 so it indicated that the English questions included in general secondary examinations emphasize low order thinking levels. The researcher recommended that the questions designers should improve their questioning techniques in writing questions of exams.

  6. Values and motivations of private forest owners in the United States: a framework based on open-ended responses in the national woodland owner survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Brett J. Butler; Stanley T. Asah

    2009-01-01

    The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of private forest landowners in the United States, and is a social complement to the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program's biologic resource inventory. An open-ended question in the NWOS explores private forest owners' motivations and values...

  7. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    OpenAIRE

    Faqi Li; Dan Song; Deping Zeng; Zhou Lin; Min He; Guangrong Lei; Junru Wu; Dong Zhang; Zhibiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasoun...

  8. EFEKTIVITAS OPEN-ENDED EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CASES DALAM PENINGKATAN PERTIMBANGAN PROFESIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andian Ari Istiningrum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas implementasi model pembelajaran Open-Ended Experiential Learning Cases dalam usaha peningkatan kemampuan mahasiswa untuk memberikan pertimbangan profesional. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pre-experimental design dengan jenis one-group pretes-postes design. Popolasi penelitian adalah mahasiswa jurusan Akuntansi yang mengambil mata kuliah Akuntansi Keuangan Menengah 1 sebanyak 75 orang, sedangkan sampel yang digunakan adalah 44 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan convenience sampling. Data dikumpulkan dengan tes uraian dan dianalisis dengan uji beda t test untuk sampel berhubungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan signifikan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memberikan pertimbangan profesional sebelum dan sesudah model pembelajaran open-ended experiential learning cases diimplementasikan yang menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan pertimbangan profesional setelah mahasiswa mengikuti pembelajaran dengan model pembelajaran openended experiential learning cases. Kata Kunci: open-ended experiential learning cases, pertimbangan profesional THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN-ENDED EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CASES TO IMPROVE PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT Abstract: This study was aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the implementation of the open-ended experiential learning cases to improve students’ professional judgment. To achieve this purpose, the study was designed as the pre-experimental design with the one-group pretest-post-test design type. The population of the study was the Accounting Department Students at Yogyakarta State University taking the 1 st Intermediate Financial Accounting course. There were 75 students as the population and 44 students were chosen as the research sample. The sampling technique used was the convenience sampling. The data were collected by using the essay test and analyzed by t-test for paired samples. The findings showed that there was a

  9. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  10. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  11. Open-ended response theory with polarizable embedding: multiphoton absorption in biomolecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ringholm, Magnus; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Ruud, Kenneth; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2016-10-12

    We present the theory and implementation of an open-ended framework for electric response properties at the level of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory that includes effects from the molecular environment modeled by the polarizable embedding (PE) model. With this new state-of-the-art multiscale functionality, electric response properties to any order can be calculated for molecules embedded in polarizable atomistic molecular environments ranging from solvents to complex heterogeneous macromolecules such as proteins. In addition, environmental effects on multiphoton absorption (MPA) properties can be studied by evaluating single residues of the response functions. The PE approach includes mutual polarization effects between the quantum and classical parts of the system through induced dipoles that are determined self-consistently with respect to the electronic density. The applicability of our approach is demonstrated by calculating MPA strengths up to four-photon absorption for the green fluorescent protein. We show how the size of the quantum region, as well as the treatment of the border between the quantum and classical regions, is crucial in order to obtain reliable MPA predictions.

  12. Development of Open-Ended Problems for Measuring The Higher-Order-Thinking-Skills of High School Students on Global Warming Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianti; Najwa, F. L.; Linuwih, S.

    2017-04-01

    Higher-order-thinking-skills can not be developed directly, except by training which is employing open-ended problems for measuring and developing critics, creativeness, and problem-solving thinking-skills of students. This study is a research and development producing open-ended problems. The purpose of this study is to measure the properness and effectiveness of the developed product and to observe the profile of higher-order-thinking-skills of students on global warming phenomenon. The result of properness test of open-ended problems according to the experts is 92,59% on the first stage and 97,53% on the second stage, so we can assume that the product isvery proper. The result of effectiveness test shows the coefficient of correlation between student’s midterm test scores and open-ended questions is 0,634 which is in the category of strong. Higher-order-thinking-skills of SMA Negeri 1 Salatiga students is in the category of good with the average achievement scores 61,28.

  13. Designing students’ worksheet based on open-ended approach to foster students’ creative thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, S.; Abdurrahman; Riyadi, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at designing an open-ended worksheet to enhance students’ creative thinking skills. The study was conducted at one private school in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. The participants of the study were twenty students of tenth grade students and two physics teachers. This study used descriptive data. Data were collected by analyzing qualitative data, literature and focus group discussion to gain information about students’ conceptions of physics in the context of open-ended learning. The result showed that students needed innovative learning resources in form of open ended-based worksheet which could give the students an opportunity to develop various solutions related to physics problem. Therefore, students’ creative thinking skill could be improved.

  14. The Richness of Open-ended Play - Rules, feedback and adaptation mechanisms in intelligent play environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepijn Rijnbout

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How can we design intelligent play environments for open-ended play that support richness in play? Rich play can be described as ongoing play that changes over time in character, form and nature. This paper elaborates on our initial insights on how rules and goals develop from interaction opportunities of the system, based on two pilot studies with an interactive play environment for open-ended play. Furthermore we will discuss the roles of feedback and adaptation mechanisms in the environment. Those system properties will change the interaction opportunities to match with the current situation in the play environment and to support richness in play.

  15. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF MATEMATIS SISWA SMA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN OPEN ENDED PADA MATERI SPLDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa SMA melalui pembelajaran open ended problem materi SPLDV. Jenis penelitian ini, yaitu deskriptif kualitatif. Subjeknya adalah siswa kelas X.2 SMA Negeri 1 Woja Dompu. Tahap pembelajaran dalam penelitian ini adalah (1 Orientasi, (2 pembekalan materi, (3 penyajian dan pengerjaan soal open ended, (4 presentasi, (5 kesimpulan. Kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa meliputi: (a fluency, kemampuan siswa lancar dalam memberikan jawaban benar, (b flexibility, kemampuan siswa dalam menggunakan berbagai cara penyelesaian masalah, (c novelty, kemampuan siswa dalam memberikan jawaban yang baru dan berbeda dengan siswa lain. Penelitian ini hasilnya, bahwa siswa mempunyai kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis.

  16. Open-ended formulation of self-consistent field response theory with the polarizable continuum model for solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Remigio, Roberto; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Cornaton, Yann; Ringholm, Magnus; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Ruud, Kenneth; Frediani, Luca

    2016-12-21

    The study of high-order absorption properties of molecules is a field of growing importance. Quantum-chemical studies can help design chromophores with desirable characteristics. Given that most experiments are performed in solution, it is important to devise a cost-effective strategy to include solvation effects in quantum-chemical studies of these properties. We here present an open-ended formulation of self-consistent field (SCF) response theory for a molecular solute coupled to a polarizable continuum model (PCM) description of the solvent. Our formulation relies on the open-ended, density matrix-based quasienergy formulation of SCF response theory of Thorvaldsen, et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 214108] and the variational formulation of the PCM, as presented by Lipparini et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 014106]. Within the PCM approach to solvation, the mutual solute-solvent polarization is represented by means of an apparent surface charge (ASC) spread over the molecular cavity defining the solute-solvent boundary. In the variational formulation, the ASC is an independent, variational degree of freedom. This allows us to formulate response theory for molecular solutes in the fixed-cavity approximation up to arbitrary order and with arbitrary perturbation operators. For electric dipole perturbations, pole and residue analyses of the response functions naturally lead to the identification of excitation energies and transition moments. We document the implementation of this approach in the Dalton program package using a recently developed open-ended response code and the PCMSolver libraries and present results for one-, two-, three-, four- and five-photon absorption processes of three small molecules in solution.

  17. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  18. Using Peer Feedback to Promote Reflection on Open-Ended Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for learning from homework called Peer-Assisted Reflection (PAR). PAR involves students using peer feedback to improve their work on open-ended homework problems. Collaborating with peers and revising one's work based on the feedback of others are important aspects of doing and learning physics. While notable…

  19. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  20. Levels of Arithmetic Reasoning in Solving an Open-Ended Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyvas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental teaching carried out on 12-year-old students. An open-ended task was given to them and they had not been taught the algorithmic process leading to the solution. The formal solution to the problem refers to a system of two linear equations with two unknown quantities. In this mathematical activity,…

  1. Designing EEG Neurofeedback Procedures to Enhance Open-Ended versus Closed-Ended Creative Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Lun; Shih, Yi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrated that open-ended creativity (which refers to creativity measures that require various and numerous responses, such as divergent thinking) correlated with alpha brain wave activation, whereas closed-ended creativity (which refers to creativity measures that ask for one final correct answer, such as insight…

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Information Seeking in Open-Ended Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janette R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a theoretically and empirically based framework for how users formulate and employ information-seeking strategies in open-ended information systems (OEISs). Discusses challenges related to OEISs. Describes OEIS theoretical and users' perspectives. Presents an example based on a recent study to illustrate use of the OEIS…

  3. Students’ Spatial Ability through Open-Ended Approach Aided by Cabri 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatna, N.

    2017-09-01

    The use of computer software such as Cabri 3D for learning activities is very unlimited. Students can adjust their learning speed according to their level of ability. Open-ended approach strongly supports the use of computer software in learning, because the goal of open-ended learning is to help developing creative activities and mathematical mindset of students through problem solving simultaneously. In other words, creative activities and mathematical mindset of students should be developed as much as possible in accordance with the ability of spatial ability of each student. Spatial ability is the ability of students in constructing and representing geometry models. This study aims to determine the improvement of spatial ability of junior high school students who obtained learning with open-ended approach aided by Cabri 3D. It adopted a quasi-experimental method with the non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design and the 2×3 factorial model. The instrument of the study is spatial ability test. Based on analysis of the data, it is found that the improvement of spatial ability of students who received open-ended learning aided by Cabri 3D was greater than students who received expository learning, both as a whole and based on the categories of students’ initial mathematical ability.

  4. 78 FR 79298 - Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-End Management Investment Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... in a position to take advantage of the fund. \\6\\ Transactions of Investment Companies With Portfolio... indirect financial interest in any person (other than such investment company or controlled company) who is...] Securities Exempted; Distribution of Shares by Registered Open- End Management Investment Company...

  5. Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

  6. Open-Ended Tasks and the Qualitative Investigation of Second Language Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Vygotskyan sociocultural theory, this qualitative, classroom-based investigation incorporates an open-ended task framework. Open tasks in the present study were defined as ones designed to take shape in the second language classroom as teacher and adult learners jointly worked through exploratory problems. One central feature of open…

  7. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions.

  8. Authentic Learning Enviroment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-09-01

    this course by cooperative take-home examinations. Students can discuss problems but their answers must be their own. This format allows more realistic and complex questions, although there are limits to the sophistication level that is achievable. Typical questions might include simulating the spectra that result for different pH and reagent concentrations when Cd2+, a chelating agent, and a complexation indicator are mixed. The question uses concepts that appeared in the first research paper exercise, but it requires reformulating it in a different context. Students report that the examinations are a reliable indicator of their comprehension and problem-solving skills. Correlation plots of cooperative vs. traditional examination results show no significant differences. Spreadsheets Spreadsheet programs have become recognized as very powerful devices for teaching in analytical chemistry because they provide the power required to tackle complex equilibria. At the same time, they are accessible to the unsophisticated student and they are important tools for a student to master. The spreadsheet programs are used in both lecture and laboratory contexts. Exercises are assigned that increase student proficiency gradually. Starting from a simple successive approximation exercise, students advance to creating species distribution functions (alpha-plots) for weak acids and then to modeling a titration curve including nonideality corrections. They also use computers for data acquisition in conjunction with a scanning spectrophotometer and data analysis of the overlapping spectra in a two-component mixture. Open-Ended Laboratory Projects The open-ended projects are the heart of the course. They have well-defined goals, but students are free to use their own creativity in reaching the goals. A listing of projects that have been used in the course is given in Table 1. The measurement of the pKa of an indicator and the development of a spectroscopic pH meter were projects used in

  9. Expressivity in Open-ended Constructive Play: Building and Playing Musical Lego Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kasper; Stougaard, Jeppe; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2016-01-01

    and performed with their instruments on stage. The workshop was facilitated by a tangible music-making platform called Hitmachine, aiming to empower children to collectively make expressive music without the need for prior musical skills. The findings show how age influenced the children’s expressivity......This paper presents the findings from a case study in designing for open-ended constructive play for children. The study is based on a workshop where more that 150 children in ages 3-13 built and played their own musical instruments from Lego. The children used different sensors for playing......, and gives insight into the open-ended qualities of constructive play with music. Based on these findings we propose the Constructive Play Expressivity Model, as a tool for guiding designers’ way of thinking about different areas of expressivity, when designing for constructive play interaction....

  10. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102. This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  11. The Solving of Problems in Chemistry: the more open-ended problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Norman; Yang, Mei-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Most problem solving in chemistry tends to be algorithmic in nature, while problems in life tend to be very open ended. This paper offers a simple classification of problems and seeks to explore the many factors which may be important in the successful solving of problems. It considers the place of procedures and algorithms. It analyses the role of long-term memory, not only in terms of what is known, but how that knowledge was acquired. It notes the great importance of the limitations of working memory space and the importance of confidence which comes from experience. Finally, various psychological factors are discussed. This paper argues that solving open-ended problems is extremely important in education and that offering learners experience of this in a group work context is a helpful way forward.

  12. Transparency in Transcribing: Making Visible Theoretical Bases Impacting Knowledge Construction from Open-Ended Interview Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Skukauskaite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflexive analysis of two transcripts of an open-ended interview and argues for transparency in transcribing processes and outcomes. By analyzing ways in which a researcher's theories become consequential in producing and using transcripts of an open-ended interview, this paper makes visible the importance of examining and presenting theoretical bases of transcribing decisions. While scholars across disciplines have argued that transcribing is a theoretically laden process (GREEN, FRANQUIZ & DIXON, 1997; KVALE & BRINKMAN, 2009, few have engaged in reflexive analyses of the data history to demonstrate the consequences particular theoretical and methodological approaches pose in producing knowledge claims and inciting dialogues across traditions. The article demonstrates how theory-method-claim relationships in transcribing influence research transparency and warrantability. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201146

  13. Comparing Open-Ended Choice Experiments and Experimental Auctions: An Application to Golden Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jay R. Corrigan; Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Rodolfo M. Nayga, Jr.; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

    2009-01-01

    We use two experimental valuation methods to estimate consumer demand for genetically modified golden rice. The first is an open-ended choice experiment (OECE) where participants name the quantities of golden rice and conventional rice demanded at each of several price combinations, one of which will be randomly chosen as binding. This allows us to estimate market demand by aggregating demand across participants. This estimate of market demand also allows us to estimate own-price elasticity a...

  14. Designing to bring the field to the showroom through open-ended provocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, J; Wensveen, SAG Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Engaging formats are required to communicate designerly understandings of field studies to a broader audience within organisations. Here we present a case where the format of an exhibition, consisting of a collection of open-ended provocative design concepts, has been used to disseminate knowledge and engage two medical device manufactures in the results of field studies that involved the pre-users of their devices. We go in to detail with examples as to how the concepts in the exhibition ref...

  15. Microwave Interferometry Based On Open-ended Coaxial Technique for High Sensitivity Liquid Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bakli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified open-ended coaxial technique for microwave dielectric characterization in liquid media. A calibration model is developed to relate the measured transmission coefficient to the local properties of the sample under test. As a demonstration, the permittivity of different sodium chloride solutions is experimentally determined. Accuracies of 0.17% and 0.19% are obtained respectively for the real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity at 5.9 GHz.

  16. Undecidability and Irreducibility Conditions for Open-Ended Evolution and Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orozco, Santiago; Hernández-Quiroz, Francisco; Zenil, Hector

    2018-01-01

    Is undecidability a requirement for open-ended evolution (OEE)? Using methods derived from algorithmic complexity theory, we propose robust computational definitions of open-ended evolution and the adaptability of computable dynamical systems. Within this framework, we show that decidability imposes absolute limits on the stable growth of complexity in computable dynamical systems. Conversely, systems that exhibit (strong) open-ended evolution must be undecidable, establishing undecidability as a requirement for such systems. Complexity is assessed in terms of three measures: sophistication, coarse sophistication, and busy beaver logical depth. These three complexity measures assign low complexity values to random (incompressible) objects. As time grows, the stated complexity measures allow for the existence of complex states during the evolution of a computable dynamical system. We show, however, that finding these states involves undecidable computations. We conjecture that for similar complexity measures that assign low complexity values, decidability imposes comparable limits on the stable growth of complexity, and that such behavior is necessary for nontrivial evolutionary systems. We show that the undecidability of adapted states imposes novel and unpredictable behavior on the individuals or populations being modeled. Such behavior is irreducible. Finally, we offer an example of a system, first proposed by Chaitin, that exhibits strong OEE.

  17. Metacognition Difficulty of Students with Visual-Spatial Intelligence during Solving Open-Ended Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbatmojo, S.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to find out students metacognition difficulty during solving open-ended problem in mathematics. It focuses on analysing the metacognition difficulty of students with visual-spatial intelligence in solving open-ended problem. A qualitative research with case study strategy is used in this study. Data in the form of visual-spatial intelligence test result and recorded interview during solving open-ended problems were analysed qualitatively. The results show that: (1) students with high visual-spatial intelligence have no difficulty on each metacognition aspects, (2) students with medium visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on knowledge aspect on strategy and cognitive tasks, (3) students with low visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on three metacognition aspects, namely knowledge on strategy, cognitive tasks and self-knowledge. Even though, several researches about metacognition process and metacognition literature recommended the steps to know the characteristics. It is still important to discuss that the difficulties of metacognitive is happened because of several factors, one of which on the characteristics of student’ visual-spatial intelligence. Therefore, it is really important for mathematics educators to consider and pay more attention toward students’ visual-spatial intelligence and metacognition difficulty in designing better mathematics learning.

  18. Magnetic integration of the harmonic filter inductor for dual-converter fed open-end transformer topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Many high power converter systems are often connected to the medium voltage network using a step-up transformer. In such systems, the converter-side windings of the transformer can be configured as an open-end and multi-level voltage waveforms can be achieved by feeding these open-end windings from...

  19. Open-Ended Cases in Agroecology: Farming and Food Systems in the Nordic Region and the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles; King, James; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Salomonsson, Lennart; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Porter, Paul; Wiedenhoeft, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is to describe open-ended case studies for learning real-life problem solving skills, and relate this approach to conventional, closed-ended decision case studies. Teaching methods are open-ended cases in agroecology, an alternative to traditional strategies that lead students through prepared materials and structured discussions to…

  20. Toward an Open-Ended BCI: A User-Centered Coadaptive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Kiret; Carcone, Dean; Becker, Suzanna

    2017-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to control a device by interpreting their brain activity. For simplicity, these devices are designed to be operated by purposefully modulating specific predetermined neurophysiological signals, such as the sensorimotor rhythm. However, the ability to modulate a given neurophysiological signal is highly variable across individuals, contributing to the inconsistent performance of BCIs for different users. These differences suggest that individuals who experience poor BCI performance with one class of brain signals might have good results with another. In order to take advantage of individual abilities as they relate to BCI control, we need to move beyond the current approaches. In this letter, we explore a new BCI design aimed at a more individualized and user-focused experience, which we call open-ended BCI. Individual users were given the freedom to discover their own mental strategies as opposed to being trained to modulate a given brain signal. They then underwent multiple coadaptive training sessions with the BCI. Our first open-ended BCI performed similarly to comparable BCIs while accommodating a wider variety of mental strategies without a priori knowledge of the specific brain signals any individual might use. Post hoc analysis revealed individual differences in terms of which sensory modality yielded optimal performance. We found a large and significant effect of individual differences in background training and expertise, such as in musical training, on BCI performance. Future research should be focused on finding more generalized solutions to user training and brain state decoding methods to fully utilize the abilities of different individuals in an open-ended BCI. Accounting for each individual's areas of expertise could have important implications on BCI training and BCI application design.

  1. Wakefield radiation from the open end of an internally coated metallic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivanyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of radiation from the open end of a semi-infinite circular metallic waveguide with perfectly conducting walls and a thin internal low-conducting metal coating is considered. Electromagnetic fields are generated by the ultrarelativistic point charge moving along the axis of the waveguide. The far fields of radiation are obtained using the near-field to far-field recovery technique. The technique is extended for the nonmonochromatic waves. It is shown that the radiation has a narrow-band and narrow-directional character.

  2. Student’s Critical Thinking in Solving Open-Ended Problems Based on Their Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, L. D.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking plays an important role for students in solving open-ended problems. This research aims at describing student’s critical thinking in solving open-ended problems based on Keirsey’s personality types, namely rational, idealist, guardian, and artisan. Four students, with the higher rank in the mathematics’ test and representing each type of Keirsey personality, were selected as the research subjects. The data were collected from the geometry problem and interviews. The student’s critical thinking is described based on the FRISCO criteria. The result underlines that rational and idealist students fulfilled all FRISCO criteria, and but not for guardian and artisan students. Related to the inference criteria, guardian and artisan students could not make reasonable conclusions and connect the concepts. Related to the reason of criteria, rational student performed critical thinking by providing logical reason that supported his strategy to solve the problem. In contrast, the idealist student provided subjective reason. This results suggest that teachers should frequently train the students’ logical thinkingin every lesson and activity to develop student’s critical thinking and take the student’s personality character into account, especially for guardian and artisan students.

  3. Authentic Learning Environment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the format of a semester course and provides details about grading, formative assessment, research papers, lecture activities, cooperative examinations, use of spreadsheets, and open-ended laboratory projects. Contains 15 references. (DDR)

  4. PENERAPAN PEMBELAJARAN QUICK ON THE DRAW MENGGUNAKAN MASALAH OPEN ENDED TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF MATEMATIS SISWA SMP

    OpenAIRE

    Suryadinata, Nurain

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: (1) untuk mengetahui mana yang lebih tinggi kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa yang diberi pembelajaran quick on the draw masalah open ended dengan pembelajaran konvensional, dan (2) untuk mengetahui mana yang lebih tinggi peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematis siswa yang diberi pembelajaran quick on the draw masalah open ended dengan pembelajaran konvensional. Penelitian ini dilakukan di SMP Islam Roudlotus Saidiyyah Semarang pada kelas VIII Se...

  5. Didactical contract: An analytical concept to facilitate successful implementation of open-ended physics labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    What seems straightforward on paper might turn out to be complex in reality. This is a lesson often learned by educational designers when implementing variations of open-ended alternatives to traditional education and disappointedly reviewing the outcome. Based on observations of discouraging...... of the traditional laboratory learning environment that would lead to resistance from those involved if faced with alternatives. We conclude that both teachers and students lean heavily on a type of algorithm that ensures an appearance of having successfully completed the assigned tasks. This algorithmic didactical...... outcomes of alternative laboratory work in secondary and tertiary physics education we decided to approach the underlying cause of the problem. Framed in the theory of Didactical Situations in mathematics we adapt the concept of the didactical contract to the physics education context to locate aspects...

  6. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listwan Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

  7. Open-Ended Online Diaries: Capturing Life as it is Narrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kaun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Weblogs and life journals are popular forms of reflecting and reporting online about one's everyday life. In this article the author examines whether solicited online diaries can be used in qualitative research. She discusses advantages and disadvantages of the online research, diaries as a source of data, and narration as a method. The discussion is exemplified by the presentation of an online diary study conducted in two parts in the spring and autumn of 2009 with students from Tartu, Narva, and Tallinn, Estonia. This article shows the illuminating potential and richness of solicited online diaries applied in an open-ended, qualitative understanding as a way to investigate everyday life. At the same time, the main challenges are presented and discussed.

  8. PENGARUH BERPIKIR KREATIF DENGAN MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR FISIKA SISWA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TES OPEN ENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Hartini

    2014-04-01

    pemikiran kreatif yang signifikan dengan menggunakan model PBL prestasi siswa fisika menggunakan uji terbuka berakhir. This study aims to determine whether there is influence creative thinking by using the model Problem Based Learning (PBL to the learning achievement of students with a physics test open ended. The hypothesis of this research is there influence creative thinking with the PBL model of physics achievement tests students through open ended. This study was conducted at Al-Hidayah MTs Cinangka Class VIII in the second semester of academic year 2012/2013. The method used in this research is the Pre-Experimental. With the target of the entire student population of MTs Al-Hidayah Cinangka, while the population of the class VIII student affordability. Data collection techniques using test instruments such as open ended research in narrative form. The research instrument before given to the object of research is done before the test instrument validity test, reliability test, test and test level difficulty distinguishing. Test the validity of the product moment formula obtained 17 valid questions and 3 questions that are not valid, while the reliability test with alpha formula for rhitung = 0.81> 0.361 = r table. Before the data were analyzed first tested for normality with the requirements of the test and the Lilliefors test homogeneity test using the test Bartlet. Normality test obtained Lhitung = 0.091 <0.161 = Ltabel it can be concluded that the samples are normally distributed. Calculation results obtained X2 hitung = 6.83991, and X2 tabel = 30.1 table it can be concluded in the second class X2 hitung < X2  tabel. Thus H0 is accepted and classes in a homogeneous state. Description of the results of the analysis of data obtained average values for pre-test of 49.3, while the average value of 79.2 for the post-test means there is an increase in student achievement. Whereas Hypothesis testing using t-test obtained thitung = 2.53> 1.994 = t table using a

  9. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  10. Formal Definitions of Unbounded Evolution and Innovation Reveal Universal Mechanisms for Open-Ended Evolution in Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alyssa; Zenil, Hector; Davies, Paul C W; Walker, Sara Imari

    2017-04-20

    Open-ended evolution (OEE) is relevant to a variety of biological, artificial and technological systems, but has been challenging to reproduce in silico. Most theoretical efforts focus on key aspects of open-ended evolution as it appears in biology. We recast the problem as a more general one in dynamical systems theory, providing simple criteria for open-ended evolution based on two hallmark features: unbounded evolution and innovation. We define unbounded evolution as patterns that are non-repeating within the expected Poincare recurrence time of an isolated system, and innovation as trajectories not observed in isolated systems. As a case study, we implement novel variants of cellular automata (CA) where the update rules are allowed to vary with time in three alternative ways. Each is capable of generating conditions for open-ended evolution, but vary in their ability to do so. We find that state-dependent dynamics, regarded as a hallmark of life, statistically out-performs other candidate mechanisms, and is the only mechanism to produce open-ended evolution in a scalable manner, essential to the notion of ongoing evolution. This analysis suggests a new framework for unifying mechanisms for generating OEE with features distinctive to life and its artifacts, with broad applicability to biological and artificial systems.

  11. Attorneys' Questions and Children's Productivity in Child Sexual Abuse Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J Zoe; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the links between questions child witnesses are asked in court, children's answers, and case outcome. Samples of acquittals and convictions were matched on child age, victim-defendant relationship, and allegation count and severity. Transcripts were coded for question types, including a previously under-examined type of potentially suggestive question, declarative questions. Children's productivity was conceptualized in a novel way by separating new from repeated content and by adjusting the definition based on the linguistic demands of the questions. Attorneys frequently used declarative questions, and disconcertingly, attorneys who used these and other suggestive questions more frequently were more likely to win their case. Open-ended and closed-ended questions elicited similar levels of productivity from children, and both elicited more productivity compared with suggestive questions. Results highlight how conceptualization of questions and answers can influence conclusions, and demonstrate the important real-world implications of attorney questioning strategies on legal cases with child witnesses.

  12. The validity of the Martinello Open-ended Science Task: A performance assessment of children's scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ellen Williamson

    The Martinello Open-ended Science Task (MOST), a performance assessment of children's scientific thinking, was subjected to tests of reliability and validity and to factor analysis. Results indicated that the MOST is capable of yielding scores that are (1) stable over time, (2) related to criterion scores, and (3) sensitive to instruction designed to improve students' scientific thinking skills. The past fifteen years have seen the development of a variety of assessment techniques designed as alternatives to norm-referenced, standardized science achievement tests. The MOST was developed as a diagnostic tool to measure children's observational and inferential thinking skills with minimal time and resource requirements. Students' responses to questions about an unfamiliar natural object presented to them are coded for the number of occurrences of descriptors, metaphors, incorrect inferences, correct inferences, information-seeking questions, and hypothesis-testing questions, yielding six scale scores and a grand total. Data for the study came from the evaluation of the Minority Mathematics and Science Education Cooperative (MMSEC), a federally funded teacher training project designed to improve science and mathematics instruction. Elementary students (n = 230) from four elementary schools, one participating in MMSEC and one control school in each of two urban Texas cities, completed the MOST in Year One of the study. A subset of these subjects (n = 172) was recovered for a second administration of the MOST in the spring of Year Two. Standardized science achievement test scores were available for a subsample of these students. Significant test/retest reliability was identified for the MOST Grand Total and three of its scales. Significant criterion-related validity evidence was provided by Year One data only. Evidence of predictive validity was found for the combined subjects and the control group taken alone. Construct validity (instructional sensitivity) evidence was

  13. In verbis, vinum? Relating themes in an open-ended writing task to alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert D; Heim, Derek; Chung, Cindy K; Duffy, John C; Davies, John B; Pennebaker, James W

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol's function as a regulator of emotions has long been denoted in figures of speech, most famously 'in vino, veritas' (in wine, truth). In contrast, we ask whether an individual's self-reported alcohol consumption and related attitudes can be correlated with the words they use to write about alcohol. Participants completed an open-ended essay as part of a survey on alcohol attitudes and behaviors. We used a computerized technique, the Meaning Extraction Method, to summarize the responses into thematic tropes, and correlated these with quantitative measurements of demographics, attitudes and behaviors. Participants were recruited using a random population postal survey in the UK (n=1001). Principal components analysis identified regular co-occurring words, to locate themes in the responses. Seven themes were identified that corresponded to both negative and positive aspects of alcohol consumption ranging from concern for the influence of alcohol on others (e.g., children and family) to participants' own enjoyment of alcohol (e.g., social drinking). Small but significant correlations suggested a relationship between the essay responses and individual consumption patterns and attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Open-Ended Measurement of Whole-Body Movement: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn, Michael T. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of embodiment emerges for psychology, there is a need to advance methodology for measuring the dynamics of movement in an open-ended fashion. Such a tool should be versatile across contexts and track spontaneous and natural movement with minimal constraints. We test the feasibility of a method for measuring whole-body movement over time that attempts to meet this need. We use a motion capture system comprised of two Microsoft Kinect version 2.0 cameras and iPiSoft Motion Capture software, and compare its estimates of magnitude rotational velocity and whole-body movement complexity (multivariate multiscale sample entropy; MMSE to that of a gold standard motion capture system across a variety of movement sequences. The candidate system satisfactorily estimated the instantaneous velocity of 13 body segments in agreement with the gold standard system across movement sequences demonstrating initial feasibility of this process. Summary calculations of velocity by sequence and MMSE calculations were also in high agreement with the gold standard, crucially suggesting that the candidate system could pick up on the complex dynamics of movement over time. The candidate system was feasible and demonstrates preliminary validity for general use in the tracking of continuous human movement for clinical and experimental psychology. We also provide R code and sample data for the importing and processing of movement data exported from iPiSoft Motion Capture Studio.

  15. Experimental study on pressure wave propagation through the open end of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Kumagai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The steam generators of a double pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are used in a large sodium pool which is formed between the primary vessel and the secondary vessel and accommodates the entire secondary heat transport system. Therefore, if there is a sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator, it becomes important to evaluate the pressure rises at the walls of the primary and secondary vessels as well as those at the other secondary components. An experimental study was performed, focusing on the propagation of the initial pressure spike of the-sodium-water reaction from the bottom end of the steam generator to the sodium pool. Pressure wave propagation from inside of a pipe to an open space through the pipe end was measured. Two kinds of pressure propagation media, water and air, ensured a wide range of experimental conditions. The experimental results revealed that the pressure attenuation at the open end of a pipe can be put in order using the concept of inertial length, and that the dimensionless inertial length, i.e., the inertial length divided by the half wave length of the pressure pulse, is proportional to the square of the dimensionless diameter. These results provide a prediction method for a pressure rise by the initial pressure spike in the secondary sodium pool of the Double Pool LMFBR

  16. Nitrate supplementation improves physical performance specifically in non-athletes during prolonged open-ended tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Helton O; Drummond, Lucas R; Rodrigues, Quezia T; Machado, Frederico S M; Pires, Washington; Wanner, Samuel P; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v. graded-exercise tests) influence the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted and reported according to the guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. A systematic search of electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus and ProQuest, was performed in August 2017. On the basis of the search and inclusion criteria, fifty-four and fifty-three placebo-controlled studies evaluating the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance in humans were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. NO3 - supplementation was ergogenic in non-athletes (mean effect size (ES) 0·25; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·38), particularly in evaluations of performance using long-duration open-ended tests (ES 0·47; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·71). In contrast, NO3 - supplementation did not enhance the performance of athletes (ES 0·04; 95 % CI -0·05, 0·15). After objectively classifying the participants into different performance levels, the frequency of trials showing ergogenic effects in individuals classified at lower levels was higher than that in individuals classified at higher levels. Thus, the present study indicates that dietary NO3 - supplementation improves physical performance in non-athletes, particularly during long-duration open-ended tests.

  17. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining-a previously undocumented process-to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants' efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity's hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition.

  18. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members’ roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining—a previously undocumented process—to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants’ efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity’s hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition. PMID:26273105

  19. Integrating Model-Driven and Data-Driven Techniques for Analyzing Learning Behaviors in Open-Ended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew, John S.; Segedy, James R.; Biswas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Research in computer-based learning environments has long recognized the vital role of adaptivity in promoting effective, individualized learning among students. Adaptive scaffolding capabilities are particularly important in open-ended learning environments, which provide students with opportunities for solving authentic and complex problems, and…

  20. Learning autonomy in two or three steps : linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Tjeerd; van den Bosch, Kirsten; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a

  1. FIXED ASSETS WITH AN OPEN-ENDED USEFUL LIFE AS A NEW OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING IN THE SHIP REPAIR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zharikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The industry-specific factors that contribute to the allocation of a new object of accounting in property, plant and equipment of the ship repair industry organizations are revealed. Specificity the salvaging operation of hydraulic structures, which affect the organization and methodology of objects` accounting, is described. The definition of "fixed assets with an open-ended useful life" is proposed.

  2. OPEN-ENDED APPROACH: AN EFFORT IN CULTIVATING STUDENTS’ MATHEMATICAL CREATIVE THINKING ABILITY AND SELF-ESTEEM IN MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the use of open-ended approach in cultivating senior high school students’ mathematical creative thinking ability (MCTA and self-esteem (SE in mathematics viewed from school category. The subjects of this research were the students grade XI at three schools; high, middle and low category in Kota Serang, Banten Province. In every school category, two classes were chosen; one class was the experimental group which was taught by open-ended approach, while another class was a control group which was taught by conventional way. This quasi-experimental research employed MCTA test and SE in mathematics scale as the instruments. In general, the research result shows that the MCTA improvement and SE level of the students who are taught by open-ended approach is better than those who are taught conventionally. The results of students’ MCTA and SE viewed from school category will be further discussed.Keywords: mathematical creative thinking ability, self-esteem, open-ended approach DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.1.2813.9-18

  3. Open-Ended Approach: An Effort in Cultivating Students' Mathematical Creative Thinking Ability and Self-Esteem in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, Abdul; Suryadi, Didi; Sabandar, Jozua; Turmudi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at examining the use of open-ended approach in cultivating senior high school students' mathematical creative thinking ability (MCTA) and self-esteem (SE) in mathematics viewed from school category. The subjects of this research were the students grade XI at three schools; high, middle and low category in Kota Serang, Banten…

  4. Open-Ended Science Inquiry in Lower Secondary School: Are Students' Learning Needs Being Met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Robert; Quinn, Fran; Taylor, Subhashni; Harris, Katherine; Cornish, Scott; Sharma, Manjula

    2018-01-01

    Australian science curricula have promoted the use of investigations that allow secondary students to engage deeply with the methods of scientific inquiry, through student-directed, open-ended investigations over an extended duration. This study presents the analysis of data relating to the frequency of completion and attitudes towards long…

  5. Development of a microwave dielectric spectroscopy system for materials characterization using the open-ended coaxial probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, I.; Aviles-Castro, D. [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Queretaro (Mexico); Jardon-Aguilar, H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is a measurement technique to characterize the interaction between electromagnetic energy and macroscopic samples as a function of frequency. It is based on the measurement of complex permittivity plus conductivity and it has shown to be very useful to provide information about internal structure of matter. It has some advantages over others like optical or chemical analysis: it is very fast, easy to implement, requires little or no preparation of the sample, it can be non-destructive and/or minimally intrusive. In this paper the development of a dielectric spectroscopy system for the microwave frequency range (50 MHz-20 GHz), using an open-ended coaxial probe as sensor, is described. The complete system includes a vector network analyzer, a microwave coaxial cable, the probe, a sample holder and a computer to automate measurements and further data processing. This system has been used to measure some liquid and solid materials such as alcohol, water and Teflon. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity as function of frequency, for several sugarcane alcohol and deionised water mixtures, tequilas and Teflon samples are given. Measurement repeatability and accuracy considerations were taken and it was identified that uncertainty of reference standards and system repeatability are the most important error sources. Also, it was found that open-ended coaxial probe technique is appropriate for measuring not only liquids but also solid materials. Some of the obtained results were compared to those reported in literature and good convergence was observed. [Spanish] La espectroscopia dielectrica es una tecnica moderna de medicion para caracterizar la interaccion entre la energia electromagnetica y muestras macroscopicas como funcion de la frecuencia. Esta tecnica se basa en la medicion de la permitividad compleja y conductividad de los materiales y ha mostrado ser muy util para proporcionar informacion sobre la estructura interna de estos. Tiene

  6. The Effect of Reading Involvement through Open-Ended Strategy vs. Fill-in- the- Blanks Strategy on Young EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salehi Sepehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of integrating strategy instruction (open-ended strategy and fill-in-the blanks strategy with motivation- support affected on reading result for young EFL learners. The central area of exploration included a comparison among three approaches to reading instruction: First, fill-in-the blanks strategy intervention; second, open-ended strategy intervention; and last, a control group which received the conventional reading strategies. The participants were sampled from amongst a group of seventy-seven pre-intermediate EFL learners in a language school in Tehran- Iran based on convenient sampling technique. For the sake of measurement, the researchers administered PET and CELT along with reading strategy based-test to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement after treatment. For measurement’s sake, different types of tests such as PET, reading comprehension test (CELT, and reading strategy based- test were employed to quantify the participants’ current level of knowledge as well as the degree of achievement before and after instruction. The result of the present study indicated that the experimental groups had a significant improvement over the control group. Also, the level of learners’ reading engagement during classroom work mediated the instructional effects on reading outcomes. The results of this study can be to the benefit of both EFL and ESL teachers to teach reading comprehension using the student's critical mind as well as critical involvement in the reading tasks.

  7. The dark and the bright side of liquidity risks: evidence from open-end real estate funds in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fecht, Falko; Wedow, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique and comprehensive data set on open-end real estate funds in Germany to study a liquidity crisis that hit this industry between 2005 and 2006. Since this industry is comparably unregulated our data set permits us to contrast competing explanations of liquidity crisis. We find that fundamental factors matter for the liquidity outflow in normal times. During the crisis, however, they do not play a role. During the panic only strategic complementarities drive withdrawals. Furtherm...

  8. A Possible Link between Supra-Second Open-Ended Timing Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Ashkenazi, Hamutal; Dar, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the persistent feeling of uncertainty, affecting many domains of actions and feelings. It was recently hypothesized that OCD uncertainty is related to attenuated access to internal states. As supra-second timing is associated with bodily and interoceptive awareness, we examined whether supra-second timing would be associated with OC tendencies. We measured supra-second (~9 s) and sub-second (~450 ms) timing along with control non-temporal perceptual tasks in a group of 60 university students. Supra-second timing was measured either with fixed criterion tasks requiring to temporally discriminate between two predefined fixed interval durations (9 vs. 9.9 s), or with an open-ended task requiring to discriminate between 9 s and longer intervals which were of varying durations that were not a priori known to the participants. The open-ended task employed an adaptive Bayesian procedure that efficiently estimated the duration difference required to discriminate 9 s from longer intervals. We also assessed symptoms of OCD, depression, and anxiety. Open-ended supra-second temporal sensitivity was correlated with OC tendencies, as predicted (even after controlling for depression and anxiety), whereas the other tasks were not. Higher OC tendencies were associated with lower timing sensitivity to 9 s intervals such that participants with higher OC tendency scores required longer interval differences to discriminate 9 s from longer intervals. While these results need to be substantiated in future research, they suggest that open-ended timing tasks, as those encountered in real-life (e.g., estimating how long it would take to complete a task), might be adversely affected in OCD.

  9. Measurements of electric properties using an open-ended probe blocked by a non-conducting foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wolny

    Full Text Available An open-ended coaxial probe separated from the investigated medium by a thin non-conducting layer (foil is proposed for making dielectric permittivity measurements within the RF range. The method was originally applied by the authors for intraoperative tissue assessment, but it could also be suitable for food control (requirement of purity or measurements in aggressive media (protection from corrosion. Keywords: Electric permittivity, Conducting media, Electrode polarisation

  10. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA MENGGUNAKAN METODE TPS (THINK-PAIR-SHARE BERBASIS OPEN-ENDED-PROBLEM TERHADAP KREATIVITAS BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hudia Rohmatin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding out whether or not Open-Ended-Problem Based TPS Method was effective on student’s mathematics learning creativity. The type of this research was quasi-eksperimental with one-group pretet posttest desaign. The sample of this research was 33 students. Instrument in form of 4 essay that was valid and reliable. Normality testing with Chi-kuadrat and homogeneity testing with Barlett-test  while hypotesis testing with paramteric statistical analysis t-test. Based on the data analysis average pre test was 44 and post test was 64. The results of the normality testing pre-test group obtained x2count < x2tabel or 4.452  < 11.070 and post test group obtained x2count < x2tabel or 5,946 < 11.070. Data homogeneity testing results obtained x2count < x2tabel 2,484  < 3,841. The results of hypothesis testing data was obtained tcount > ttabel or 12,317 > 2,001. Based on the test results concluded that the hypothesis Ho was rejected and Ha accepted. To sum up, Open-Ended-Problem-Based TPS was significantly effective on student’s mathematics learning creativity. Key words: effectiveness, TPS method, open-ended-problem, students creativity DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jpm.9.2.2085.178 - 187

  11. Educational Implication For Adopting Open-Ended Response Systems In Higher Education The Scenario Of Wa Polytechnic Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Tetteh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning is fundamentally a two-way affair the teacher transferring knowledge and the learner making meaning from the knowledge. Teaching becomes complete when the learner acquires the knowledge transferred and applies it appropriately to real life situations. However in Ghana teaching and learning has undergone a lot of alteration coupled with both negative and positive effects. In Wa Polytechnic teaching and learning has seen little or no improvement with regards to information and communication Technology ICT making it difficult for students to acquire 21st century skills and be part of the digitally connected ecosystem. Active classroom participation and engagement information sharing communication collaboration coupled with large class sizes have been a problem for teachers and students in Wa Polytechnic hence the need to conduct a study to identify productive solutions that enhance students participation and engagement in the classroom. The study investigates the role of ICT in augmenting active participation and engagement of students in the classroom via open-ended response systems. The study was conducted using Educational Design Research EDR methods. A critical analysis was done by studying the responses of the respondents which identified three forms of students classroom participation and engagement verbal classroom participation non-verbal classroom participation and after classroom teaching and learning activities. Smart phones laptop tablet iPad and regular cellular phone were the predominant devices used by students for other purpose rather than teacher-led class activities. When students were made to actively participate in the classroom using the devices as open-ended response system students engagement and their ability to contribute during lectures appreciated comparatively. It was however evident that open-ended response system was effective tool to manage large class sizes as students who were timid could

  12. The Effect of an Open-Ended Design Experience on Student Achievement in an Engineering Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cullin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of incorporating an Open-Ended Design Experience (OEDE into an undergraduate materials science laboratory taken by third-year mechanical engineering students. The focus of the OEDE was carbon fiber reinforced plastics and sandwich structures. The results indicate that the incorporation of OEDE’s in laboratory courses produces significant benefits in terms of student engagement, participation, and perception of competence. In addition, the OEDE was found to enhance students’ ability to apply related concepts as compared to non-OEDE lab activities. The authors conclude that the incorporation of OEDE’s can increase the effectiveness of engineering laboratory courses.

  13. Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-end Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-end Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulut

    2005-01-01

    The important part of this study attempts to explain that both venture capital and interest-free financing are based on similar ground, if not the same. Two new models called Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-End Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-End Mutual Funds, based on both the similarities and the needs of financial innovation in the interest-free financing system, are detailed. It is believed that the development of these two models could make some improvements not only in th...

  14. Conscious Augmentation of Creative State Enhances "Real" Creativity in Open-Ended Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Adam B; Iyer, Hari; Green, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Humans have an impressive ability to augment their creative state (i.e., to consciously try and succeed at thinking more creatively). Though this "thinking cap" phenomenon is commonly experienced, the range of its potential has not been fully explored by creativity research, which has often focused instead on creativity as a trait. A key question concerns the extent to which conscious augmentation of state creativity can improve creative reasoning. Although artistic creativity is also of great interest, it is creative reasoning that frequently leads to innovative advances in science and industry. Here, we studied state creativity in analogical reasoning, a form of relational reasoning that spans the conceptual divide between intelligence and creativity and is a core mechanism for creative innovation. Participants performed a novel Analogy Finding Task paradigm in which they sought valid analogical connections in a matrix of word-pairs. An explicit creativity cue elicited formation of substantially more creative analogical connections (measured via latent semantic analysis). Critically, the increase in creative analogy formation was not due to a generally more liberal criterion for analogy formation (that is, it appeared to reflect "real" creativity rather than divergence at the expense of appropriateness). The use of an online sample provided evidence that state creativity augmentation can be successfully elicited by remote cuing in an online environment. Analysis of an intelligence measure provided preliminary indication that the influential "threshold hypothesis," which has been proposed to characterize the relationship between intelligence and trait creativity, may be extensible to the new domain of state creativity.

  15. Use of Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis to Optimize Multiple Yarn Characteristics in Open-End Rotor Spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Tanveer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotor speed and twist per metres (tpm are two key parameters in open-end rotor spinning of cotton yarns. High spinning productivity can be obtained by keeping the rotor speed high and twist level as low as possible. However, too high rotor speed may result in yarn imperfections and too low twist level may result in lower tenacity yarns. This study aimed at optimising the multiple yarn characteristics in open-end rotor spinning using the Taguchi method and the grey relational analysis. Cotton yarn samples of 30 tex were produced on rotor spinning machine with different twist levels (i.e. 500, 550, 600 and 700 tpm at different rotor speeds (i.e. 70,000, 80,000, 90,000 and 100,000 rpm according to the Taguchi design of experiment. Optimal spinning process parameters were determined using the grey relational grade as the performance index. It was concluded that for the cotton fibres and yarn count used in this study, optimum properties of the yarns could be obtained at 90,000 rpm rotor speed and 700 tpm.

  16. Cross-border mergers and minority protection
    An open-ended harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Wyckaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minority protection is an important, though difficult, issue in company law, and a subtle balance must be struck between the legitimate interests of the majority and minority shareholder(s. The rules on minority protection in the context of the Cross-border Mergers Directive, which was recently adopted and should have been transposed into Member States’ national law towards the end of 2007, are examined in this paper. The authors analyse how minority shareholders are protected within the scope of this Directive and how some of the Member States (such as Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands have transposed or will transpose some of these protective provisions. The different levels of minority protection (information rights, consultation rights, rights to challenge majority decisions and other specific rights are considered, as well as which types of shareholders can benefit from such protection, and why they should be afforded protection. With respect to the last question, the authors conclude that the change in corporate law encountered especially by the shareholders of the disappearing company seems to be the major rationale underlying the European legislator's decision to introduce minority protection (but not oblige Member States to do so. The authors submit that this reflects too narrow a vision on the need for minority protection because it ignores the fact that the change of the corporate form as a consequence of a merger is in itself sufficient rationale for protecting minority shareholders. It remains somewhat of a mystery as to why the European legislator, while confirming that a cross-border merger should be subject to the same rules as a national merger, has created one possible and very vague exception to that rule.

  17. Conscious Augmentation of Creative State Enhances “Real” Creativity in Open-Ended Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Adam B.; Iyer, Hari; Green, Adam E.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have an impressive ability to augment their creative state (i.e., to consciously try and succeed at thinking more creatively). Though this “thinking cap” phenomenon is commonly experienced, the range of its potential has not been fully explored by creativity research, which has often focused instead on creativity as a trait. A key question concerns the extent to which conscious augmentation of state creativity can improve creative reasoning. Although artistic creativity is also of great interest, it is creative reasoning that frequently leads to innovative advances in science and industry. Here, we studied state creativity in analogical reasoning, a form of relational reasoning that spans the conceptual divide between intelligence and creativity and is a core mechanism for creative innovation. Participants performed a novel Analogy Finding Task paradigm in which they sought valid analogical connections in a matrix of word-pairs. An explicit creativity cue elicited formation of substantially more creative analogical connections (measured via latent semantic analysis). Critically, the increase in creative analogy formation was not due to a generally more liberal criterion for analogy formation (that is, it appeared to reflect “real” creativity rather than divergence at the expense of appropriateness). The use of an online sample provided evidence that state creativity augmentation can be successfully elicited by remote cuing in an online environment. Analysis of an intelligence measure provided preliminary indication that the influential “threshold hypothesis,” which has been proposed to characterize the relationship between intelligence and trait creativity, may be extensible to the new domain of state creativity. PMID:26959821

  18. Conscious Augmentation of Creative State Enhances "Real" Creativity in Open-Ended Analogical Reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Weinberger

    Full Text Available Humans have an impressive ability to augment their creative state (i.e., to consciously try and succeed at thinking more creatively. Though this "thinking cap" phenomenon is commonly experienced, the range of its potential has not been fully explored by creativity research, which has often focused instead on creativity as a trait. A key question concerns the extent to which conscious augmentation of state creativity can improve creative reasoning. Although artistic creativity is also of great interest, it is creative reasoning that frequently leads to innovative advances in science and industry. Here, we studied state creativity in analogical reasoning, a form of relational reasoning that spans the conceptual divide between intelligence and creativity and is a core mechanism for creative innovation. Participants performed a novel Analogy Finding Task paradigm in which they sought valid analogical connections in a matrix of word-pairs. An explicit creativity cue elicited formation of substantially more creative analogical connections (measured via latent semantic analysis. Critically, the increase in creative analogy formation was not due to a generally more liberal criterion for analogy formation (that is, it appeared to reflect "real" creativity rather than divergence at the expense of appropriateness. The use of an online sample provided evidence that state creativity augmentation can be successfully elicited by remote cuing in an online environment. Analysis of an intelligence measure provided preliminary indication that the influential "threshold hypothesis," which has been proposed to characterize the relationship between intelligence and trait creativity, may be extensible to the new domain of state creativity.

  19. Perceived Effects of Pornography on the Couple Relationship: Initial Findings of Open-Ended, Participant-Informed, "Bottom-Up" Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, William A; Campbell, Lorne

    2017-02-01

    The current study adopted a participant-informed, "bottom-up," qualitative approach to identifying perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship. A large sample (N = 430) of men and women in heterosexual relationships in which pornography was used by at least one partner was recruited through online (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and offline (e.g., newspapers, radio, etc.) sources. Participants responded to open-ended questions regarding perceived consequences of pornography use for each couple member and for their relationship in the context of an online survey. In the current sample of respondents, "no negative effects" was the most commonly reported impact of pornography use. Among remaining responses, positive perceived effects of pornography use on couple members and their relationship (e.g., improved sexual communication, more sexual experimentation, enhanced sexual comfort) were reported frequently; negative perceived effects of pornography (e.g., unrealistic expectations, decreased sexual interest in partner, increased insecurity) were also reported, albeit with considerably less frequency. The results of this work suggest new research directions that require more systematic attention.

  20. Why do you think you should be the author on this manuscript? Analysis of open-ended responses of authors in a general medical journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malički, Mario; Jerončić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Marušić, Ana

    2012-12-20

    To assess how authors would describe their contribution to the submitted manuscript without reference to or requirement to satisfy authorship criteria of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), we analyzed responses of authors to an open-ended question "Why do you think you should be the author on this manuscript?". Responses of authors (n=1425) who submitted their manuscripts (n=345) to the Croatian Medical Journal, an international general medical journal, from March 2009 until July 2010 were transcribed and matched to ICMJE criteria. Statements that could not be matched were separately categorized. Responses according to the number of authors or their byline position on the manuscript were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Moses test of extreme reactions. The number of authors per manuscript ranged from 1 to 26 (median=4, IQR=3-6), with the median of 2 contributions per author (IQR=2-3). Authors' responses could be matched to the ICMJE criteria in 1116 (87.0%) cases. Among these, only 15.6% clearly declared contributions from all 3 ICMJE criteria; however, if signing of the authorship form was taken as the fulfillment of the third ICMJE criterion, overall fraction of deserving authorship was 54.2%. Non-ICMJE contributions were declared by 98 (7.6%) authors whose other contributions could be matched to ICMJE criteria, and by 116 (13.0%) authors whose contributions could not be matched to ICMJE criteria. The most frequently reported non-ICMJE contribution was literature review. Authors on manuscripts with more than 8 authors declared more contributions than those on manuscript with 8 or fewer authors: median 2, IQR 1-4, vs. median 2, IQR 1-3, respectively (Mann Whitney U test, p=0.001; Moses Test of Extreme Reactions, pauthors (n=9; 31.0%) reported contributions that could not be matched to any ICMJE criterion. In cases of multi-author collaborative efforts but not in manuscripts with fewer authors open-ended authorship declaration

  1. OPEN ENDED RESULTS OF ACUTE DIARRHEA AGENT DETECTION TO VERIFY DIAGNOSIS IN ADULT CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kozhukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 264 adult acute diarrhea cases with moderate course it was analyzed both symptoms and agents detected by different methods: in 91 cases (examined in the period of shigellosis high incidence level — by culture and serologic (specific antibodies detection methods to detect Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. plus ELISA method to detect rotavirus antigen in feces; in 173 cases (examined in the period of shigellosis low incidence level — by above mentioned methods plus PCR based method. Data obtained in the period of shigellosis high incidence level have shown that there has been no significant difference in clinical scores (including colitis frequency between cases positive only for rotavirus antigen and those positive both for rotavirus antigen and Shigella spp. culture. That let suspect that acute diarrhea had been likely to be caused by association of rotavirus with any bacterial agent undetected by the methods used. PCR-based diagnostic method additionally used (in the period of shigellosis low incidence level resulted in detection of Campylobacter spp. accounted for campilobacteriosis as mono infection in 20,8% cases and as mixed infection (in association with other enteropatho-gens — in 4% cases. In cases with colitis the additional usage of PCR-based diagnostic method resulted in Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. detection in every third case, Shigella spp. and agent association detection — in every fifth case. The target analysis of enteropathogens detected in 15 cases positive for rotavirus (examined in the period of shigellosis low incidence level has shown that in 6 of them there has been detected association of rotavirus with other agents predominantly bacterial ones (in 5 of 6 cases. So, the PCR method might be quite useful to broaden the spectrum of detected enteropathogens in adult acute diarrhea cases especially in those with colitis syndrome available.

  2. Trends in Modelling, Simulation and Design of Water Hydraulic Systems – Motion Control and Open-Ended Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2006-01-01

    is that the components operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap......, dedicated pumps and accessories running with sea-water as fluid are available. A unique solution is to use reverse osmosis to generate drinking water from sea-water, and furthermore for several off-shore applications. Furthermore, tap water hydraulic components of the Nessie® family and examples of measured......The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in modelling, simulation and design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus...

  3. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Open-Ended Channels with Application to Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timchenko V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow and heat transfer in open-ended channel formed by the double skin façade have been undertaken in order to improve understanding of the phenomena and to apply it to passive cooling of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Both uniform heating and non-uniform heating configurations in which heat sources alternated with unheated zones on both skins were studied. Different periodic and asymmetric heating modes have been considered for the same aspect ratio 1/15 of wall distance to wall height and for periodicity 1/15 and 4/15 of heated/unheated zones and heat input, 220 W/m2. In computational study three dimensional transient LES simulation was carried out. It is shown that in comparison to uniformly heating configuration, non-uniformly heating configuration enhances both convective heat transfer and chimney effect.

  4. A Rectangular Ring, Open-Ended Monopole Antenna with Two Symmetric Strips for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Han Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A triple-band rectangular ring, open-ended monopole antenna with symmetric L strips for wireless local area network (WLAN/Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access (WiMAX applications is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two symmetric folded arms and L strips. Based on the concept, a prototype of the proposed triple antenna has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The numerical and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed antenna satisfied the −10 dB impedance bandwidth requirement while simultaneously covering the WLAN and WiMAX bands. Furthermore, this paper presented and discussed the 2D radiation patterns and 3D gains according to the results of the experiment. The proposed antenna’s peak gain varied between 2.17 and 4.93 dBi, and its average gain varied between −2.97 and −0.53 dBi.

  5. On the multimode quadratic vibronic coupling problem: An open-ended solution using a parallel Lanczos algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, Michael S.; Young, Richard A.; Yarkony, David R.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to solve the secular equation that arises in the time independent multimode expansion of the quadratic vibronic coupling problem in parallel. The implementation can handle expansions of arbitrary length, with the open-ended character of the algorithm achieved through the use of fine grained parallelism to partition the trial vectors. The characteristics of the algorithm are discussed and its utility is illustrated by determining a model photoelectron spectrum of the ethoxy radical (C 2 H 5 O) using a vibronic expansion involving more than 1 billion vibronic basis states. This calculation also represents the first determination of a photoelectron spectrum obtained using a diabatic Hamiltonian obtained with a recently introduced ab initio surface reshaping procedure

  6. Experimental Investigation of Damage and Fracture Mechanisms Controlling the Performance of Full Aperture Easy Open Ends for Food Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. L. P.; Nagy, G. T.; Owen, D. R. J.

    2011-05-01

    Can manufacturers produce hundreds of millions of cans annually, increasingly, food cans are being opened by lifting a tab on the can end that initiates a fracture, which then propagates around a circumferential score. The damage and fracture mechanisms that lead to crack initiation and propagation in the opening process, however, are not fully understood, therefore optimisation of easy open end scores is largely based on trial and error. This paper presents an experimental analysis that concentrates on the combined shear and bending forces as applied to the particular industrial method concerning full aperture easy open ends. The influence of a gradually increasing gap measured between the score and shear force location on traditional groove geometries and depths are examined for two different packaging steels. Earlier studies have shown that the complete opening cycle depends on fracture modes I, II & III as well as their combination. Experimental results for Modes I, II & III will be presented, however attention will focus on the behaviour of the initial fracture point, whereby prior investigations have shown it to be influenced primarily by mode II shearing. After initial specimen manufacture, where the score is formed by pressing a punch into a thin steel sheet the predeformed scored specimens are loaded in shear to simulate the local stress field found during the initial opening phase. Experiments have been completed using a novel Mode II experimental technique that has been designed for use in the majority of commercially available tensile test machines. Experimental results indicate that opening forces can change radically with different gap sizes and that there is considerable potential for the industrialised process of can end manufacture to be optimised through the efficient management and control of the can ends dimensional parameters.

  7. Method of questioning and the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, A; Louw, D A

    2005-03-01

    System variables are integrally part of factors that can be controlled by the legal system to enhance the accuracy of testimony by eyewitnesses. Apart from examining the relationship between questioning as system variable and the accuracy of testimony, the present study furthermore explores the relationship between type of questioning and certain biographical variables (occupation, age, gender and race). To achieve the aim of the study, 412 respondents consisting of 11 to 14-year-olds, university students, the public and Police College students participated and were exposed to open-ended or closed-ended questions. It was found that the participants who responded to the closed-ended questions were significantly more accurate than those who answered the open-ended questions. All the biographical groups, except the public, were more accurate in responding to the closed-ended questions. The scholars obtained the lowest scores (although not always significant) for both the open-ended and closed-ended questions. With respect to age the 18 to 25-year-olds obtained significantly higher scores than the other groups for the closed-ended questions. Whites performed significantly better than blacks in response to the open-ended and closed-ended questions.

  8. The surfacing of past assessment strategies within interdisciplinary teams when encountering an open-ended assignment in an undergraduate sustainability course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K.; Dzulkifli, D. D. B.; Moynihan, M. A.; Salman, R.; Goodkin, N.

    2017-12-01

    267 undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary environmental sustainability course were divided into 66 groups for the duration of the semester. The formation of the groups proceeded by first assigning all of the science majors to groups in a random order. This was followed by assigning the engineering majors, the liberal arts majors, and finally the business majors in turn. After all of the students had been assigned to a group, every group had at least one engineering student and one science student. 11 groups had a liberal arts student but no business student. 26 groups had a business student but no liberal arts student. 29 groups were composed of students from all four majors. During the semester, the groups created an environmental action plan to address one of Singapore's major sustainability concerns: food. In service of the course's emphasis on interdisciplinary communication, the groups were required to create a video to support their environmental action plan. The evaluation method for the videos built on our prior work with rubrics (Hartman & Goodkin, 2016). While we provided a number of examples of videos communicating environmental action plans, students were not prescribed a particular format for their video. To the consternation of some students, the instructor deliberately left the video assessment open-ended. After the semester ended, a researcher coded all 66 videos for the food sustainability issues they identified, their proposed solutions, and their video approach. Approaches included animations, virtual handwriting/drawing, role-playing, PowerPoint presentations, and picture slideshows. Given the open-ended nature of the video project, we hypothesized that groups would converge on approaches that at least one team member was familiar with. We knew from prior work with the business school, that its students engage in role-play activities fairly frequently. Teams with a business major and without a liberal arts major adopted the role

  9. The effect of confidence and method of questioning on eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, A; Louw, D A

    2005-06-01

    Very often eyewitnesses are perceived as being accurate due to the confidence in the accuracy of their own testimony. The confidence displayed by an eyewitness may possibly be increased by the method of questioning used by legal professionals and police. The present study examines the confidence-accuracy relationship and the effect the method of questioning (open-ended versus closed-ended questions) may have on the confidence of eyewitnesses. The sample of 412 respondents consisted of scholars (11 to 14-year-olds), university students, the public and Police College students. A significant relationship between memory accuracy and confidence was found for more than 70% of the questions. Closed-ended questions provided a significantly higher rate of accuracy than open-ended questions. A significantly larger proportion of respondents to the closed-ended questions were more confident about their answers than those who responded to the open-ended questions.

  10. Willingness to pay more for value-added pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.): An open-ended contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Karen Rodrigues; Dias Bartolomeu Abadio Finco, Fernanda; Rosenthal, Amauri; Vinicius Alves Finco, Marcus; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at estimating the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) more for value-added pomegranate juice using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The WTP was estimated applying the open-ended elicitation technique with 454 consumers in two supermarkets located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The average consumer's WTP more for pomegranate juice was estimated in R$2.04 (Brazilian currency) and the income elasticity coefficient at the midpoint was 0.19, i.e., a 10% increase in consumer income will increase, on average, 1.9% the WTP of pomegranate juice (ceteris paribus). Therefore, the income elasticity coefficient was considered inelastic, once an increase in income would have low effect on the WTP for these consumers. The results indicated that the consumers were interested in acquiring a non-traditional juice processed using a technology that preserves vitamins and antioxidants, maintains the flavor of "fresh juice" without colorants and preservatives, despite the pomegranate is not part of the Brazilian diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Enhanced Three-Level Voltage Switching State Scheme for Direct Torque Controlled Open End Winding Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisetti, V. Praveen Kumar; Thippiripati, Vinay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Open End Winding Induction Motors (OEWIM) are popular for electric vehicles, ship propulsion applications due to less DC link voltage. Electric vehicles, ship propulsions require ripple free torque. In this article, an enhanced three-level voltage switching state scheme for direct torque controlled OEWIM drive is implemented to reduce torque and flux ripples. The limitations of conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) are: possible problems during low speeds and starting, it operates with variable switching frequency due to hysteresis controllers and produces higher torque and flux ripple. The proposed DTC scheme can abate the problems of conventional DTC with an enhanced voltage switching state scheme. The three-level inversion was obtained by operating inverters with equal DC-link voltages and it produces 18 voltage space vectors. These 18 vectors are divided into low and high frequencies of operation based on rotor speed. The hardware results prove the validity of proposed DTC scheme during steady-state and transients. From simulation and experimental results, proposed DTC scheme gives less torque and flux ripples on comparison to two-level DTC. The proposed DTC is implemented using dSPACE DS-1104 control board interface with MATLAB/SIMULINK-RTI model.

  12. A New Dual Circularly Polarized Feed Employing a Dielectric Cylinder-Loaded Circular Waveguide Open End Fed by Crossed Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new dual circularly polarized feed that provides good axial ratio over wide angles and low cross-polarized radiation in backward direction. A circular waveguide open end is fed with two orthogonally polarized waves in phase quadrature by a pair of printed crossed dipoles and a compact connectorized quadrature hybrid coupler. The waveguide aperture is loaded with a dielectric cylinder to reduce the cross-polarization beyond 90 degrees off the boresight. The fabricated feed has, at 5.5 GHz, 6.33-dBic copolarized gain, 3-dB beamwidth of 106°, 10-dB beamwidth of 195°, 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth of 215°, maximum cross-polarized gain of −21.4 dBic, and 27-dB port isolation. The reflection coefficient of the feed is less than −10 dB at 4.99–6.09 GHz.

  13. Acoustic field of an ultrasonic cavity resonator with two open ends: Experimental measurements and lattice Boltzmann method modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Tu, Juan; Cheng, Jianchun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2017-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become an attractive therapeutic tool for noninvasive tumor treatment. The key component of HIFU systems is the acoustic transducer, which generates a focal region of high-intensity focused ultrasonic energy. A key determinant of safety in HIFU treatment is the size of the focal region. To achieve subwavelength focusing, we previously investigated the feasibility of an ultrasonic spherical cavity resonator (USCR) with two open ends. To further investigate the properties of the USCR, experiments and simulations were performed to comprehensively characterize the acoustic field generated. The emphasis was on the field formation process, the pressure distribution, the frequency dependence, and the acoustic nonlinearity. As a novel simulation approach, an axisymmetric isothermal multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) model was used to numerically analyze the acoustic field. The reliability of this model was verified by comparing the results generated with those from experiments. The MRT-LBM model gave new insight into conventional acoustic numerical simulations and provided significant indications for USCR parameter optimization. The USCR demonstrated its feasibility for application in HIFU treatment or in other fields that demand high-precision focusing.

  14. An open-ended waveguide system for SAR system validation or probe calibration for frequencies above 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingxiang; Gandhi, Om P; Kang Gang

    2004-01-01

    Compliance with safety guidelines prescribed in terms of maximum electromagnetic power absorption (specific absorption rate or SAR) for any 1- or 10-g of tissue is required for all newly introduced personal wireless devices such as wireless PCs. The prescribed SAR measuring system is a planar phantom with a relatively thin base of thickness 2.0 mm filled with a lossy fluid to simulate dielectric properties of the tissues. A well-characterized, broadband irradiator is required for SAR system validation or submerged E-field probe calibration for the Wi-Fi frequencies in the 5-6 GHz band. We describe an open-ended waveguide system that may be used for this purpose. Using a fourth-order polynomial least-squares fit to the experimental data gives SAR variations close to the bottom surface of the phantom that are in excellent agreement with those obtained using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method. The experimentally determined peak 1- and 10-g SARs are within 1 to 2% of those obtained using the FDTD both at 5.25 and 5.8 GHz

  15. Effects of Question Repetition on the Eyewitness Testimony of Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Debra A.; White, Lawerence T.

    1991-01-01

    In their answers to questions about a novel event, children were as accurate as adults when responding to open-ended questions, and four year olds were more likely than six and eight year olds and adults to change responses to yes-no questions. Adults speculated more frequently than did children when they answered specific questions. (BC)

  16. Open-ended Laboratory Investigations in a High School Physics Course: The difficulties and rewards of implementing inquiry-based learning in a physics lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szott, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    often closed-ended. The outcomes are known in advance and students replicate procedures recommended by the teacher. Over the years, I have come to appreciate the great opportunities created by allowing students investigative freedom in physics laboratories. I have realized that a laboratory environment in which students are free to conduct investigations using procedures of their own design can provide them with varied and rich opportunities for discovery. This paper describes what open-ended laboratory investigations have added to my high school physics classes. I will provide several examples of open-ended laboratories and discuss the benefits they conferred on students and teacher alike.

  17. Theoretical and experimental comparisons for damping coefficients of a short-length open-end squeeze film damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Andres, L.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-10-01

    Squeeze film dampers (SFD) provide load isolation and attenuate rotor vibrations in high speed turbomachinery. Operating parameters such as whirl frequency, amplitude of journal motion, and value of external pressure supply determine the SFD dynamic force response and its dissipation of mechanical energy. Measurements of pressure fields and fluid film forces in a fully submerged open-end squeeze film damper are presented for tests with rotor speeds to 5,000 cpm and low supply pressures. The damper has a clearance of 381 {micro}m (0.015 in.) and the journal describes circular centered orbits of amplitudes ranging from 30 to 50% of the bearing clearance. Experimental film pressures depict a vapor cavitation (close to zero absolute pressure) zone increasing in extent as the whirl frequency increases. Estimated fluid film forces from the measured pressure profiles are found to be proportional to whirl speed and lubricant viscosity. Test cross-coupled damping coefficients (C{sub rt}) are smaller than predicted values based on the short-length bearing model with a {pi} film cavitation assumption. The direct damping coefficients (C{sub tt}) are larger than theoretical values, especially at low frequencies where the dynamic cavitation region has not grown to half the circumferential flow extent. The experiments demonstrate the viscous character of the fluid film forces in a SFD test apparats where fluid inertia effects are minimal (squeeze film Reynolds number less than one). On the other hand, the extent of the cavitation zone appears to be dominant on the generation of fluid film forces.

  18. 26 CFR 25.2512-6 - Valuation of certain life insurance and annuity contracts; valuation of shares in an open-end...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments are to be made, the value may be approximated by adding to the interpolated terminal reserve at...) makes a gift of the contract. The value of the gift is the amount which the company would charge for a...) The fair market value of a share in an open-end investment company (commonly known as a “mutual fund...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2031-8 - Valuation of certain life insurance and annuity contracts; valuation of shares in an open-end...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the value may be approximated by adding to the interpolated terminal reserve at the date of the... value of the insurance policy at the date of Y's death is the amount which the company would charge for... Value of the insurance policy 15,384.33 (b) Valuation of shares in an open-end investment company. (1...

  20. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  1. The Value of Learning Talk: Applying a Novel Dialogue Scoring Method to Inform Interaction Design in an Open-Ended, Embodied Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jessica; Lyons, Leilah

    2017-01-01

    Museum researchers have long acknowledged the importance of dialogue in informal learning, particularly for open-ended exploratory exhibits. Novel interaction techniques like full-body interaction are appealing for these exploratory exhibits, but designers have not had a metric for determining how their designs are supporting productive learning…

  2. Comparisons of an open-ended vs. forced-choice 'mind reading' task: implications for measuring perspective-taking and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G Cassels

    Full Text Available Perspective-taking and emotion recognition are essential for successful social development and have been the focus of developmental research for many years. Although the two abilities often overlap, they are distinct and our understanding of these abilities critically rests upon the efficacy of existing measures. Lessons from the literature differentiating recall versus recognition memory tasks led us to hypothesize that an open-ended emotion recognition measure would be less reliant on compensatory strategies and hence a more specific measure of emotion recognition abilities than a forced-choice task. To this end, we compared an open-ended version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with the original forced-choice version in two studies: 118 typically-developing 4- to 8-year-olds (Study 1 and 139 5- to 12-year-olds; 85 typically-developing and 54 with learning disorders (Study 2. We found that the open-ended version of the task was a better predictor of empathy and more reliably discriminated typically-developing children from those with learning disorders. As a whole, the results suggest that the open-ended version is a more sensitive measure of emotion recognition specifically.

  3. Open-Ended Waveguide Measurement and Numerical Simulation of the Reflectivity of Petri Dish Supported Skin Cell Monolayers in the mm-wave Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Open-ended waveguide reflectometry is a promising tool for permittivity and other material properties calculation at mm-waves (30-300 GHz). Measurement of the reflection coefficient does not require sample manipulation, allowing in vivo and in vitro non destructive studies on cells. Here we used this technique for measuring the power reflection coefficient (reflectivity) of water and Petri dish supported human skin melanoma and keratinocyte cell cultures, in the 53-72 GHz frequency range. The dependence of the reflectivity on polystyrene or glass thickness of the Petri base plate and on the cell layer thickness was analyzed. Permittivity data were then easily retrieved by using a plane wave-dominant mode approach for formulating the reflectivity at the aperture of the flange-mounted open-ended rectangular waveguide probe. Limits and validity of such an approximate approach were analyzed and compared with full-wave near field formulations for which magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient must be measured and solved using complicated systems of integral equations and extensive numerical calculation. Finally, Petri dish reflectivity measured by the open-ended waveguide method was compared with that numerically simulated under far-field exposure conditions used in a large number of in vitro studies. Such an analysis showed that, under certain conditions, open-ended reflectivity values approach the far field ones.

  4. Threats to Validity When Using Open-Ended Items in International Achievement Studies: Coding Responses to the PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Test in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arffman, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended (OE) items are widely used to gather data on student performance in international achievement studies. However, several factors may threaten validity when using such items. This study examined Finnish coders' opinions about threats to validity when coding responses to OE items in the PISA 2012 problem-solving test. A total of 6…

  5. Effect Of Open Ended Teaching Learning Approach On Secondary School Students Mathematics Achievement In Learning Three Dimensional Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chogo C.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is globally valued for use by an individual and society. It plays a significant role in the development of modern science and technology. Despite its importance students motivation to learn and achievement at national examinations globally and at the KCSE mathematics examination in Kenya particularly has been dismal over the years. The learners low achievement in the subject has been attributed to the didactic teaching methods that the teachers use among other factors. The study of geometry in Mathematics poses a number of difficulties to learners which are different in nature from those of arithmetic and algebra. This is because geometry is primarily abstract in nature. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Open Ended Teaching and Learning Approach OETLA on Secondary School students mathematics achievement in learning Three Dimensional Geometry 3DG. The study employed Solomon four non-equivalent control group design. The two experimental groups E1amp E2 received OETLA treatment while the control groups C1ampC2 were taught using the conventional teaching and learning methods. Only E1amp C1 took a pre-test and a post test for all the groups. The target population for this study was form four 17 year old students of secondary schools in Marani Sub County in Kisii County. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the four county mixed-sex secondary schools for the study. A total of 152 students formed the sample size. Students Mathematics Achievement Test SMAT was used to collect data. The instruments were validated by three experts from the department of curriculum and instruction of Egerton University and three Secondary School Mathematics Heads of Department. The reliability of the instruments were established using Cronbachs Alpha. A reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained and thus considered acceptable. The SMAT was administered to two groups as a pretest before the treatment and as a posttest to all the four

  6. Renal access in PNL under sonographic guidance: Do we really need to insert an open end ureteral catheter in dilated renal systems? A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryildirim, Bilal; Tuncer, Murat; Camur, Emre; Ustun, Fatih; Tarhan, Fatih; Sarica, Kemal

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the true necessity of open end ureteral catheter insertion in patients with moderate to severe pelvicalyceal system dilation treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) under sonographic guidance. 50 cases treated with PNL under sonographic guidance in prone position for solitary obstructing renal stones were evaluated. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group 1: Patients in whom a open end ureteral catheter was inserted prior to the procedure; Group 2: Patients receiving no catheter before PNL. In addition to the duration of the procedure as a whole and also all relevant stages as well, radiation exposure time, hospitalization period, mean nephrostomy tube duration, mean drop in Hb levels and all intra and postoperative complications have been evaluated. Mean size of the stones was 308.5 ± 133.2 mm2. Mean total duration of the PNL procedure in cases with open end ureteral catheter was significantly longer than the other cases (p < 0.001). Evaluation of the outcomes of the PNL procedures revealed no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the stone-free rates (86% vs 84%). Additionally, there was no significant difference with respect to the duration of nephrostomy tube, hospitalization period and secondary procedures needed, complication rates as well as the post-operative Hb drop levels in both groups (p = 0.6830). Our results indicate that the placement of an open end ureteral catheter prior to a PNL procedure performed under sonographic access may not be indicated in selected cases presenting with solitary obstructing renal pelvic and/or calyceal stones.

  7. Ag Nanoparticle-Functionalized Open-Ended Freestanding TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays with a Scattering Layer for Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Chun, Myeung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Sub; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays functionalized with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the channel to create a plasmonic effect, and then coated with large TiO₂ NPs to create a scattering effect in order to improve energy conversion efficiency. Compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs without Ag or large TiO₂ NPs, the energy conversion efficiency of closed-ended DSSCs improved by 9.21% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.40%) with Ag NPs, 6.48% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.24%) with TiO₂ NPs, and 14.50% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.71%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. By introducing Ag NPs and/or large TiO₂ NPs to open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs, the energy conversion efficiency was improved by 9.15% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.68%) with Ag NPs and 8.17% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.62%) with TiO₂ NPs, and by 15.20% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 7.05%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays, the energy conversion efficiency of open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays increased from 6.71% to 7.05%. We demonstrate that each component-Ag NPs, TiO₂ NPs, and open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays-enhanced the energy conversion efficiency, and the use of a combination of all components in DSSCs resulted in the highest energy conversion efficiency.

  8. EKSPERIMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE THINK PAIR SHARE (TPS DENGAN PENDEKATAN OPEN-ENDED DITINJAU DARI DISPOSISI MATEMATIS SISWA KELAS VIII SMP NEGERI DI KABUPATEN PURWOREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainnur Wijayanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available prestasi belajar matematika lebih baik, siswa dengan disposisi matematis tinggi, sedang, atau rendah, 4 pada masing-masing kategori disposisi matematis, manakah yang mempunyai prestasi belajar matematika lebih baik, siswa yang dikenai model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS dengan pendekatan open-ended atau pembelajaran langsung. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental semu. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Purworejo tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa SMPN 20 Purworejo, SMPN 14 Purworejo, SMPN 13 Purworejo yang diambil secara stratified cluster random sampling. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data adalah instrumen tes prestasi belajar matematika, instrumen angket disposisi matematis siswa. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji hipotesis menggunakan anava dua jalan dengan sel tak sama. Dari hasil analisis disimpulkan bahwa : 1 prestasi belajar matematika siswa yang diberi pembelajaran dengan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS dengan pendekatan open-ended lebih baik daripada siswa yang diberi pembelajaran langsung, 2 prestasi belajar matematika siswa dengan disposisi matematis tinggi lebih baik daripada siswa dengan disposisi matematis sedang dan rendah, begitu juga dengan prestasi belajar matematika siswa dengan disposisi matematis sedang lebih baik daripada siswa dengan disposisi matematis rendah, 3 pada model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS dengan pendekatan open-ended prestasi belajar matematika siswa yang memiliki disposisi matematis tinggi lebih baik daripada siswa yang memiliki disposisi matematis sedang maupun rendah. Pada pembelajaran langsung, siswa dengan disposisi matematis tinggi memiliki prestasi belajar yang lebih baik daripada siswa yang memiliki disposisi matematis sedang dan rendah, siswa dengan disposisi matematis sedang memiliki prestasi belajar yang sama dengan siswa yang memiliki disposisi matematis rendah, 4 Pada siswa

  9. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN STRATEGI QUICK ON THE DRAW DENGAN MASALAH OPEN ENDED UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF MATERI PRISMA DAN LIMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurain Suryadinata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research to gain the result of developing instructional sets through quick on the draw with open ended problem of pyramid and prism subject validly, practically, and effectively. The learning instrument deve-lopment using Plomp model. TKKM data processed by t test, and the proportion of z.The instructional sets valid based on the average score of validity: Syllabus 4.0; Lesson Plan 4.2; Supplementary Books 4.3; Students’ Worksheets 4.3; and creative thinking test on mathematics was valid, the level of difficulty was balance, and distinctive feature was significant and reliable. The instructional sets were practical by gaining average score 3,87, the implementation of learning process was good. Students and teachers had positive responses. The instructional sets were effective by gaining: students’ creative thinking competence of mathematics beyond the KKM; creative thinking abilities of students who were given a quick on the draw learning with open ended problems better than students were given the conventional learning; and the improvement of creative thinking competence of students who were given a quick on the draw learning with open ended problems better than students were given the conventional learning.

  10. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  11. Observation of enhanced electric field in an RF-plugged sheet plasma in the RFC-XX-M open-ended machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, T.; Takiyama, K.; Kadota, K.

    1987-12-01

    We report nonperturbing observation of the electric field in the sheet plasma for RF end-plugging on the RFC XX-M open-ended machine by using the Stark effect with a combined technique of beam-probe and laser-induced fluorescence. Under the optimum condition for the RF plugging, enhanced electric field is found in the sheet plasma by about 2.5 times with respect to the electric field when no plasma is produced. The field spatial profile is also measured, which is discussed in connection with the electrostatic eigenmode. (author)

  12. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN STRATEGI QUICK ON THE DRAW DENGAN MASALAH OPEN ENDED UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF MATERI PRISMA DAN LIMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurain Suryadinata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research to gain the result of developing instructional sets through quick on the draw with open ended problem of pyramid and prism subject validly, practically, and effectively. The learning instrument deve-lopment using Plomp model. TKKM data processed by t test, and the proportion of z.The instructional sets valid based on the average score of validity: Syllabus 4.0; Lesson Plan 4.2; Supplementary Books 4.3; Students’ Worksheets 4.3; and creative thinking test on mathematic...

  13. Two Years Later: Effects of Question Repetition and Retention Interval on the Eyewitness Testimony of Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Debra A.; White, Lawrence T.

    1993-01-01

    Building upon a previous study, examined 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old and adult witnesses' memories of an event experienced 2 years earlier. Found that children were less consistent than adults across sessions of yes-no questions, less accurate in responses to open-ended questions, and more likely to fabricate answers to a question about a man's…

  14. Question time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer

    Choosing to train as a nurse is a major decision, rife with different emotions and considerations. Regardless of what point you have reached in your studies, whether you are studying towards a degree or diploma, whatever your age and whether you are from the UK or overseas, you face common challenges. These include surviving financially, juggling study and clinical placements, learning new information and addressing patients' needs. While the profession certainly offers exciting opportunities, nursing students in 2006 face a range of uncertainties. There have been cuts and freezes to existing and vacant posts across NHS trusts, while students from overseas face the additional problem that band 5 and 6 nursing posts have been removed from the Home Office's shortage occupation list. Will there be enough mentors to teach students? Will there be jobs when they qualify? How can students survive financially? Will overseas students be able to stay once qualified? NT put students' key questions to a panel of experts and influential figures.

  15. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  16. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  17. Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Keller Celeste

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010. Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.

  18. The use of open-ended problem-based learning scenarios in an interdisciplinary biotechnology class: evaluation of a problem-based learning course across three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Todd R; Dibiase, Warren; Wang, Chuang; Boukhtiarov, Anatoli

    2012-01-01

    Use of open-ended Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in biology classrooms has been limited by the difficulty in designing problem scenarios such that the content learned in a course can be predicted and controlled, the lack of familiarity of this method of instruction by faculty, and the difficulty in assessment. Here we present the results of a study in which we developed a team-based interdisciplinary course that combined the fields of biology and civil engineering across three years. We used PBL scenarios as the only learning tool, wrote the problem scenarios, and developed the means to assess these courses and the results of that assessment. Our data indicates that PBL changed students' perception of their learning in content knowledge and promoted a change in students' learning styles. Although no statistically significant improvement in problem-solving skills and critical thinking skills was observed, students reported substantial changes in their problem-based learning strategies and critical thinking skills.

  19. Shifting investments strategy from equity funds to money market funds – the case of Romanian open - end fund market during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds are one of the key suppliers of liquidity in Romanian capital market. This paper uses quarterly data on Romanian open-end funds starting with 2006 until 2010. We find that significant negative flows (outflows were registered beginning with the end of 2007 (equity funds, during 2008 (equity funds, balanced funds, other funds and bond funds in the last 2 quarters of the year and from 2009 to 2010 (in the case of money market funds. There is evidence that the changing market conditions attract differently the incoming flows in these mutual funds. This is the reason why such perturbations affect investors’ confidence for these investment vehicles and impose the reorientation of the investment funds and of their investors to other alternatives in order to preserve their capital.

  20. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  1. Do You Remember? How Caregivers Question Their Spouses Who Have Alzheimer's Disease and the Impact on Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jeff A.; Perry, JoAnn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the types of questions caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended questions and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and…

  2. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  3. Questions about Answers: Probing Teachers' Awareness and Planned Remediation of Learners' Misconceptions about Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an exploratory multi-case study on how science teachers understand and envisage addressing learners' misconceptions about electric circuits. Four teachers from schools in and around a large South African city participated in the study. An open-ended questionnaire was designed in a novel way, questioning teachers about wrong…

  4. [Role of school lunch in primary school education: a trial analysis of school teachers' views using an open-ended questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayama, T; Kashiwazaki, H; Sakamoto, M

    1998-12-01

    We tried to analyze synthetically teachers' view points associated with health education and roles of school lunch in primary education. For this purpose, a survey using an open-ended questionnaire consisting of eight items relating to health education in the school curriculum was carried out in 100 teachers of ten public primary schools. Subjects were asked to describe their view regarding the following eight items: 1) health and physical guidance education, 2) school lunch guidance education, 3) pupils' attitude toward their own health and nutrition, 4) health education, 5) role of school lunch in education, 6) future subjects of health education, 7) class room lesson related to school lunch, 8) guidance in case of pupil with unbalanced dieting and food avoidance. Subjects described their own opinions on an open-ended questionnaire response sheet. Keywords in individual descriptions were selected, rearranged and classified into categories according to their own meanings, and each of the selected keywords were used as the dummy variable. To assess individual opinions synthetically, a principal component analysis was then applied to the variables collected through the teachers' descriptions, and four factors were extracted. The results were as follows. 1) Four factors obtained from the repeated principal component analysis were summarized as; roles of health education and school lunch program (the first principal component), cooperation with nurse-teachers and those in charge of lunch service (the second principal component), time allocation for health education in home-room activity and lunch time (the third principal component) and contents of health education and school lunch guidance and their future plan (the fourth principal component). 2) Teachers regarded the role of school lunch in primary education as providing daily supply of nutrients, teaching of table manners and building up friendships with classmates, health education and food and nutrition

  5. Une question

    OpenAIRE

    Resweber, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Dans deux conférences consacrées à une analyse critique du discours de Freud, L. Althusser, pose, semble-t-il, la bonne question , quoique d’une manière quelque peu embarrassée et péremptoire. Le rapport de Freud à la philosophie, qu’il soit examiné au travers d’une confrontation problématique entre celle-ci et psychanalyse naissante, ou bien au travers d’un dialogue entre les postulats nouveaux et les thèses classiques défendues par Platon, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer ou Wittgenstein, ne s...

  6. Machinery Question

    OpenAIRE

    Meacci, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The “machinery question” was developed by the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823) in the chapter “On Machinery” added to the third edition of his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821). This question related, in his words, to the “influence of machinery on the interests of the different classes of society” and particularly to the “opinion entertained by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently detrimental to their interests”. Ricardo’s argument was pres...

  7. [What is the situation with human rights of the elderly? : UN Open-ended Working Group on Ageing - review and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    In November 2010 the United Nations General Assembly set up a working group to strengthen the protection of human rights for older persons (UN Open-ended Working Group on Ageing) with the United Nations Resolution A/C.3/65/L.8/Rev.1. In December 2016 the members of the working group met for the seventh time and discussed how they can approach the fulfillment of the mandate. In addition to better implementation, the strengthening of rights can consist of closing existing gaps or further differentiation of the rights in order to give the member states better guidance on how to implement them. To improve the human rights of older persons a task of the members of the working group would be to examine the existing rights and, where possible, adjust them to the real needs of the group. One of the major challenges facing the working group is already apparent: who belongs to the group of older persons and how could the group be described? This article deals with the presentation of the international process, new developments at the regional level and the attitudes of the member states and the civil society. A further aim is to present the possibilities and effects of a comprehensive legally binding instrument.

  8. The Use of Open-Ended Problem-Based Learning Scenarios in an Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Class: Evaluation of a Problem-Based Learning Course Across Three Years†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Todd R.; DiBiase, Warren; Wang, Chuang; Boukhtiarov, Anatoli

    2012-01-01

    Use of open-ended Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in biology classrooms has been limited by the difficulty in designing problem scenarios such that the content learned in a course can be predicted and controlled, the lack of familiarity of this method of instruction by faculty, and the difficulty in assessment. Here we present the results of a study in which we developed a team-based interdisciplinary course that combined the fields of biology and civil engineering across three years. We used PBL scenarios as the only learning tool, wrote the problem scenarios, and developed the means to assess these courses and the results of that assessment. Our data indicates that PBL changed students’ perception of their learning in content knowledge and promoted a change in students’ learning styles. Although no statistically significant improvement in problem-solving skills and critical thinking skills was observed, students reported substantial changes in their problem-based learning strategies and critical thinking skills. PMID:23653774

  9. Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Daniels, Elizabeth A; Bates, Morgan E; Tylka, Tracy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  11. Study of the polysemic term of minerality in wine: Segmentation of consumers based on their textual responses to an open-ended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneulin, Pascale; Le Fur, Yves; Bavaud, François

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20years, the word "minerality" has been increasingly used in the description of wines. However, a precise definition of the concept of minerality appears to be inexistent, and no consensual meaning, even among wine professionals, can be identified. Although this word usage seems to spread out from wine professionals to consumers, research on what consumers assume about minerality is scarce. This paper aims to study the various concepts about minerality held by consumers by using an open-ended questionnaire. A total of 1697 French-speaking consumers responded to an online survey and their free answers were analysed using statistical textual methods. The clustering around latent variables (CLV) method was used, taking into account both the lexicon used and the personal characteristics of consumers to classify them. Word associativities were then computed by means of renormalized Markov associativities, generating textual networks associated to each group, as well as to personal characteristics of the consumers. Typically, the most inexperienced consumers confess to have never heard about minerality in wine. Then, young women, also endowed with little wine competences, mainly associate minerality to mineral ions as those found in bottled water. Slightly older consumers embed the concept of minerality into the idea of terroir. Finally, the most experienced consumers refer to sensory perceptions such as gunflint or acidity. Those findings are consistent with a lexical innovation process, diffusing from wine professionals to consumers, referring to the mineral kingdom (as opposed to animal or vegetal), and aiming to stress that the style of their wines has changed towards more subtlety. Beyond the specific minerality issue investigated in this paper, the methodology (CLV approach used in conjunction with renormalized Markov associativities) demonstrates its ability to generate informative clusters of textual networks, highlighting the cores of prototypical

  12. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  13. State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later. Online Appendix--State Responses to Open-Ended Questions about the ARRA SIG Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    To learn more about states' experiences with implementing school improvement grants (SIGs) funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the Center on Education Policy (CEP) administered a survey to state Title I directors. (Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provides federal funds to schools in low-income…

  14. Exploring spiritual value in earth science concept through learning using chain till unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Henny; Suhandi, Andi; Samsudin, Ahmad; Ratna Wulan, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Now days, the youth's moral decline is an urgent problem in our country. Natural science especially earth and space science learning is potential to insert spirituality value in its learning activities. The aim of this study is to explore concept of planet earth to embed spirituality attitude through earth science learning. Interactive conceptual learning model using chain till unanswered questions (CTUQ) with help visualizations was implemented in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A sixth indicator of spiritual aspect about awareness of divinity were used to identify the shifted of students' spirituality. Quasi experimental research design had been utilized to implement the learning model. The data were collected using a questionnaire in pretest and posttest. Open ended question was given at post-test only. Questionnaire was analyzed quantitative while open ended question was analyzed qualitatively. The results show that after implementation student's spiritual shifted to be more awareness of divinity. Students' response at scale 10 increased been 97.8% from 87.5% of total responses. Based on analysis of open ended question known that the shifted was influenced by spiritual value inserted in concepts, CTUQ, and media visualization used to show unobservable earth phenomenon during learning activities. It can be concluded that earth science concepts can be explored to embed spiritual aspect.

  15. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  16. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  17. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that questioning is one of the most important learning-teaching tools available to both learner and educator, we have created a computer-based scaffolding environment in which students are required to generate questions to interrogate academic texts. Learners have been using this new scaffolding tool this year, and ...

  18. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  19. A qualitative study of older adults' responses to sitting-time questions: do we get the information we want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Robert L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the health effects of sedentary behavior, which is often assessed using self-report sitting-time questions. The aim of this qualitative study was to document older adults' understanding of sitting-time questions from the International Physical Activity (PA Questionnaire (IPAQ and the PA Scale for the Elderly (PASE. Methods Australian community-dwelling adults aged 65+ years answered the IPAQ and PASE sitting questions in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. IPAQ uses one open-ended question to assess sitting on a weekday in the last 7 days 'at work, at home, while doing coursework and during leisure time'; PASE uses a three-part closed question about daily leisure-time sitting in the last 7 days. Participants expressed their thoughts out loud while answering each question. They were then probed about their responses. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded into themes. Results Mean age of the 28 male and 27 female participants was 73 years (range 65-89. The most frequently reported activity was watching TV. For both questionnaires, many participants had difficulties understanding what activities to report. Some had difficulty understanding what activities should be classified as 'leisure-time sitting'. Some assumed they were being asked to only report activities provided as examples. Most reported activities they normally do, rather than those performed on a day in the previous week. Participants used a variety of strategies to select 'a day' for which they reported their sitting activities and to calculate sitting time on that day. Therefore, many different ways of estimating sitting time were used. Participants had particular difficulty reporting their daily sitting-time when their schedules were not consistent across days. Some participants declared the IPAQ sitting question too difficult to answer. Conclusion The accuracy of older adults' self

  20. The "Good Old Days" of Courtroom Questioning: Changes in the Format of Child Cross-Examination Questions Over 60 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; Westera, Nina; Kaladelfos, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an explosion of research into children's eyewitness capabilities and resulted in legal reform to render the adversarial trial process more child friendly. Many, however, have been left with the feeling that the most intimidating legal process for child complainants-cross-examination-has not changed meaningfully despite its potential to distort children's evidence. To test this possibility, we compared the cross-examination questioning of Australian child sexual abuse complainants in the 1950s to that used in contemporary cases. We found that the format of cross-examination questions has remained largely consistent over time, with leading questions still making up the bulk of the questions asked. The changes that we did observe, however, are concerning. Cross-examination questions posed to contemporary child complainants were less likely to be open-ended and more likely to be complex, relative to those asked in the 1950s. Crucially, contemporary complainants were asked 3 times as many cross-examination questions as they were 60 years ago. These changes are likely to have detrimental effects on child complainants and their evidence and could reduce the ability of jurors to reach just outcomes in these cases.

  1. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  2. The Questions of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

  3. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  4. An Integrated and Open-ended Experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. B M Deb1 Mainak Sadhukhan1 Sudarson Sekhar Sinha2 Sucheta Sengupta2 Ranjit Biswas2. Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, HC-VII, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 106, India. SN Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098, India.

  5. The Ongoing and Open-Ended Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores a novel form of classroom simulation that differs from published examples in two important respects. First, it is ongoing. While most simulations represent a single learning episode embedded within a course, the ongoing simulation is a continuous set of interrelated events and decisions that accompany learning throughout…

  6. OPEN-ENDED NARRATIVE AND MORAL FORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tradition without the possibility of testing it against other traditions. Reason as abstract or reason as it functions in the Kantian categorical imperative has no or a very limited role in Hauerwas's approach. Reason is not the foundation of morality, but narrative is. This does not mean that. Hauerwas rejects reason completely.

  7. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  8. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  9. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  10. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  11. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  12. Probation, 12 essential questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fergus McNeill; Rene Butter; Ioan Durnescu

    2016-01-01

    This volume poses a series of key questions about the practice of probation as an integral part of the European criminal justice system. The contributors are established experts in their respective fields of study and together their questions address the legitimacy, and perhaps continued existence,

  13. Research on Control Strategies of an Open-End Winding Permanent Magnet Synchronous Driving Motor (OW-PMSM-Equipped Dual Inverter with a Switchable Winding Mode for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has a larger range of speed regulation than normal PMSM with the same DC voltage, and the control method is more flexible. It can also manage energy distribution between two power sources without a DC/DC converter. This paper aims at an electric vehicle equipped with OW-PMSM drive system with dual power sources and dual inverters; based on analyzing the external characteristics of each winding mode, we propose a winding mode switching strategy whose torque saturation judgmental algorithm, which is insensitive to motor’s parameters, could automatically realize upswitching of the winding mode. The proposed multi-level current hysteresis modulation algorithm could set the major power source and switch it at any time in independent mode, which accomplishes energy distribution between two power sources; its two control methods, low switching frequency method and high power difference method, could achieve different energy distribution effects. Simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the winding mode switching strategy and current modulation method. They also show that an electric vehicle under the proposed control methods has better efficiency than one equipped with a traditional OW-PMSM drive system under traditional control.

  14. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  15. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  16. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  17. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  18. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes tetanus? Tetanus is caused by a toxin (poison) produced by ... to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? C. tetani spores can be found in ...

  19. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... frecuentes sobre la tosferina Q: Can vaccines prevent pertussis? A: Yes. Vaccines can prevent pertussis, or whooping ...

  20. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  1. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  2. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  3. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  4. Question Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  5. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  6. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    the family about things he had read and studied opened up the entire world of academia to me. Here, it seemed that one could as an adult pursue one's interests single-mindedly, without worries about earning a living! Until class ten, I also had very good teach- ers who encouraged questioning. I enjoyed listening to and re-.

  7. Transportation questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document summarizes the transport and handling of radioactive materials in a ''question'' and ''answer'' form. It explains what is radioactive material, how it is shipped, and in case there is a spill, who is responsible for it. It also provides safeguard measures for radioactive materials. (TC)

  8. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Why are triglycerides important? The amount of triglycerides (or blood fats) in blood are one important barometer of metabolic health; high levels are associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Metabolism refers to the chemical process that converts the ...

  9. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  10. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    in particular one young woman's telling of a likewise fictional romantic ending to Dalsgård's piece. The argument developed in the chapter leads to a definition of friendship, which is based on the mutual recognition of difference. It also leads to a question of responsi-bility, which transcends the framework......Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy...... excites it. The precondition for sympathy is thus a willingness to let oneself be moved by the situation of the other, which implies a thorough insight into all that this situation consists of. However, Dalsgård argues, sympathy may lead to a question about the proper response to the distress of another...

  11. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  12. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  13. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of t...... concerning thinking reflects these consequences and finally strives to find another way to think about thinking - a way that brings us back to another of Heidegger's thoughts and that makes it possible to appreciate the work of thought......Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However...

  14. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function......, and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  15. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  16. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  17. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena......? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...

  18. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  19. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary RAISE Questions and Answers Questions & Answers about Psychosis What is psychosis? What causes psychosis? How common ... we learn from RAISE-IES? Questions & Answers About Psychosis Q: What is psychosis? A: The word psychosis ...

  20. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  1. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  2. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  3. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  4. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  5. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  6. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  7. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  8. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  9. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  10. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  11. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  12. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that pass from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals. The Salmonella family includes over ... human infections. Strains that cause no symptoms in animals can make people sick, and vice versa. If present in food, ...

  13. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  14. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  15. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Aydemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.

  16. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  17. Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Climate Change Finance with Adaptation Projects and Research in Africa (RFEI #11120029) ... in the team.” IDRC response: Please be advised that references to be included with each submission, as indicated in Part A- Instructions, Item 4, should be individuals who may be contacted by ... “What is meant by 'an inventory'?

  18. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 280 types of foods, including 40 types of baby food, every year from different parts of the country. ... perchlorate at the levels present in water and foods. However, you should discuss ... for a baby's normal brain development, so it is particularly important ...

  19. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  20. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  1. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool.

  2. Which Are Our Next Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    The importance of posing the best questions in research studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) is undisputed. Researchers may spend long hours reflecting and discussing with colleagues how to improve a certain question they have in mind. The best questions are always original,

  3. PSD Increment Consumption Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. The burning question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, Ruth.

    1987-01-01

    The beginnings and development of the nuclear arms race from 1945 to 1987 is recounted. Alongside the arms race, the campaign to abolish nuclear weapons was born and has grown. The key moments and events in its development are considered and certain themes followed. These include the growing awareness of scientists of the part they play in modern warfare and their reactions to this, the different methods used by politicians and military leaders to diffuse unwelcome comment and the discrepancy between words and action. The peace movement has developed all over the world but this book deals mostly with its activities in the Western democracies. Political and religious aspects and public opinion about the peace movement are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Energy - a vital question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkenbuell, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The DAG has become involved with the topics and problems of energy policy very early and has already pointed on the necessity of an overall plan for energy policy for the Federal Republic of Germany in the sixties. The claim directed to the legislative bodies in the F. R. of Germany had sprung from the conclusion that endangering energy supply in the medium or long term would lead to a serious disorder within economic and thus social life. In order to meet the risks for industry and society which are related to an endangering of energy supply at an early stage and with regard to the future the DAG think it indispensable to further update the existing political energy programme of the Federal Government. The DAG hope that the political claims which are included in this brochure and which were worked out at the 8th Energiepolitische Bundestagung of the DAG might influence the German programme for energy policy. At the same time this brochure is meant to provide a factual contribution to the present energy discussion which, in general, is still based on emotional arguments. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Physics of Toys: The Joy of Asking Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverley

    2014-03-01

    Children are natural scientists. They ask questions, they observe, they try things to see what happens. Often school-based science does little to nurture the young scientist and, in fact, may do just the opposite with thick textbooks, fact heavy lessons, and too many equations. The exploration of common toys produces deep learning by emphasizing concepts and connections before formal definitions and mathematics. It also connects the classroom to the familiar world outside of school and gets students writing and talking about physics ideas. At the university level, investigating what toys do and how they do it can be a challenging application of undergraduate physics from the introductory course up through senior mechanics. Toys provide an ideal system for the kind of open-ended inquiry that introduces students to what scientists really do. They can pose their own questions, explore the behavior of the system sufficiently to create a hypothesis, use their theoretical knowledge to make a simplified model of the system and predict an outcome, design an experiment, discover that the real world is messy, think about what they haven't taken into account with their simple model and try to improve it. I have spent close to 30 years thinking about how to use toys to enhance physics education from 4th grade through college. In the process I have collected hundreds of toys the majority of which relate to mechanics, but also to sound, light, electricity and magnetism. I will discuss the pedagogical reasons for using toys in physics education and the many different ways to use them from demonstrations to laboratory experiments to discussion starters as well as how it is possible to use the same toy with many different age levels by approaching the analysis differently. I will share a number of my favorite toys, but focus particularly on those related to energy concepts.

  7. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  8. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  9. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  10. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  11. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  12. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  13. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  14. Grant recipients' rights in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    Although organizations that provide privately funded abortions or abortion referral and counseling are engaging in constitutionally protected activities, opponents of legal abortion are seeking to deny eligibility for federal family planning funding to them. The issue of the rights of organizations receiving federal funds has been simmering for several years, but in 1984 the US Congress must renew the key federal funding authorization for domestic and international family planning services. The question is an abortion issue but a much larger issue as well, involving the limits of the conditions any government agency can put on activities of organizations it helps to fund. Political activity regarding the question has increased, and includes attempts by 4 states to block award of state family planning funds to organizations using private funds for abortion activities, passage of the Adolescent Family Act which permits funding only to programs that do not advocate abortion, attempts to add antiabortion amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, termination of US Agency for International Development (AID) funding of the scientific journal International Family Planning Perspectives because it reported the findings of research on the health consequences of illegal abortions, attempts to block USAID funds to the Pathfinder Fund because it used nonfederal funds for abortion-related services, and attempts to exclude the Planned Parenthood Federation of America from the annual Combined Federal Campaign, the federal employee's charitable contributions drive. If new restrictions on government funding of family planning organizations become law in 1984, they could undermine the US commitment to family planning. Only 74 of the 5000 US family planning clinics receiving Title X family planning funds perform abortions, and they use state or private funds. Efforts to block Title X funding to agencies involved in abortion would run counter to the laws and policies of 15 states that

  15. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified…

  16. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  17. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  18. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  19. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  20. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  1. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

  3. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  4. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. To drive or not to drive, that isn't the question-the meaning of self-regulation among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donorfio, Laura K M; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F; Mohyde, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This research examines older drivers and how they rationalize and cope with their own changing psychological and physical functioning vis-à-vis self-regulation and driving. A national survey was mailed to a sample of drivers over the age of 50. An overall response rate of 53.11% was achieved, with 3,824 valid responses returned. This paper discusses the qualitative findings of the open-ended questions in this survey. A rich, multidimensional description of self-regulation emerged from the data. Driving self-regulation was not simply a checklist of behaviors performed but a combination of attitudes and behaviors, including important social and psychological processes and automobile attributes. Household composition played an important role in determining what one's options were for getting around and how serious they were in enforcing self-regulation behaviors. As a society, we must realize the importance of driving in maintaining independence, feelings of self-worth, and being connected to life and society. This research presents the qualitative findings of a nationwide survey of drivers over the age of 50. The results revealed that older drivers define self-regulation as much more than the changes in behaviors due to declining health and ability. The older adults in our research strongly emphasized the psychological processes surrounding independence, self-worth, remaining connected to life and society, and what role the automobile plays. Household composition impacted decisions related to self-regulation. For instance, those from a two-person household were more willing to let their partner drive or share in the driving, while those who lived alone were less likely to self-regulate their driving. Education programs targeting older adults need to be expanded to include not only the behavioral components of self-regulation, but also the psychological factors that play an equally meaningful role. Legislators devising policy programs need to reconsider what are

  7. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  8. Reflective Questioning in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge C. M. van Seggelen-Damen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key dimensions of reflective questioning: provocation, need for cognition, epistemology, locus of cognition, logic, heuristics, level of abstraction, and cognitive complexity. The data suggest that individual reflection by students and collective reflection in group meetings are highly complementary in management education. In particular, individual reflection by students combined with meetings that support and provoke collective reflection may create substantial synergies between individual and collective learning. We also discuss the implications of these findings for management education.

  9. Immediate occlusal loading of single lower molars using Brånemark System Wide-Platform TiUnite implants: an interim report of a prospective open-ended clinical multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandriello, Roberto; Tomatis, Massimiliano; Vallone, Roberto; Rangert, Bo; Gottlow, Jan

    2003-01-01

    First and second molars in the lower jaw are the most commonly missing teeth. As in other jaw regions with tooth loss, implant therapy is an attractive concept. Owing to the wide dimension of the molar teeth, wide implants seem to be a natural choice. However, wide implants in posterior mandibular regions sometimes present a problem. As an oxidized surface seems to facilitate implant integration and to result in a stronger fixation to bone, it was hypothesized that this surface would improve the performance of wide implants in posterior mandibles. As high initial stability most often is achieved in this region, it was hypothesized that the load per se is not a problem. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate immediate loading of Brånemark System TiUnite Wide-Platform implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) supporting single molar crowns in the lower jaw. The study includes 44 patients treated in three separate private dental offices between March 2001 and June 2002. A total of 50 implants were placed, and all implants have passed the 6-month follow-up; 24 have been followed up for 1 year. All implants were provided with provisional crowns in centric occlusion at the time of surgery. No implant has been lost. Marginal bone levels were found in accordance with normal biologic width requirements. Resonance frequency analysis showed high and consistent implant stability. No biomechanical problems were found associated with the use of wide implants, and the potential physiologic problem in dense mandibular bone was eliminated. Although limited by being a short-term study, the result encourages immediate loading of single Brånemark System TiUnite Wide-Platform implants placed in the molar regions in the lower jaw.

  10. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fit...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  11. Ten Questions about Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, R.; Carter, R.; Hughes, R.; Ivanic, R.; Masuhara, H.; Tomlinson, B.

    2003-01-01

    This article was written interactively over an extended period of consultation and explores questions concerning the theory and practice of language awareness, its descriptive orientations, its relationship with critical social dimensions, and its connections with current theories of language teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  12. Spinning top—the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2017-11-01

    The motion of a spinning top can be mystifying at times until some basic principles are understood. In this question the key to understanding what happens is the nature of the bottom tip of the top in contact with the surface on which it spins.

  13. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  14. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatially varying index of refraction: An open ended undergraduate topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    There are many commonplace examples of waves moving along a curved path in an inhomogeneous media. There are reports of a simple lecture demonstration of light bending in a sugar solution being used to motivate students in physics, geophysics, and acoustics courses. For those students who wish to pursue this topic we discuss many avenues of additional research. With relatively simple equipment one can measure the index of refraction n (y,t) and its first and second spatial derivatives as well as the time dependence. The analysis can be approached from a generalization of Snell's law, the equations for the eikonal, Fermat's principle, and the classical approximation and analogies with trajectories of particles

  16. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...

  17. Open Ended Intelligence: The individuation of Intelligent Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Weinbaum, David; Veitas, Viktoras

    2015-01-01

    Artificial General Intelligence is a field of research aiming to distill the principles of intelligence that operate independently of a specific problem domain or a predefined context and utilize these principles in order to synthesize systems capable of performing any intellectual task a human being is capable of and eventually go beyond that. While "narrow" artificial intelligence which focuses on solving specific problems such as speech recognition, text comprehension, visual pattern recog...

  18. On designing open-ended interpretations for collaborative design exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattelmäki, Tuuli; Brandt, Eva; Vaajakallio, Kirsikka

    2011-01-01

    User-centred design is a widely acknowledged practice. Much attention has been paid to the methods, tools and processes on how to conduct design research and field studies with and about ‘users’ and existing or possible ‘contexts of use’. The underlying driver is that the design team will be better...

  19. Creating Futures through Participation and open-ended experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Bladt, Mette; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum

    This workshop will engage participants in a process that enables ‘ordinary people’ to take responsibility for creating new futures and to bring about new anticipations for democratic developments of local and societal issues. Founded in the Critical Utopian Action Research Tradition, the workshop...... will engage participants in a brief version of a Future Creating Workshop....

  20. Progress In Research On Open - Ended Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglyakov, E. P.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    At present, three modern types of mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Multi-mirror,-GOL-3, Gas Dynamic Trap,-GDT, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). From the engineering point of view all these systems are very attractive because of simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In this paper, the status of GOL-3 and GDT machines is presented. The most crucial experiments for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of longitudinal electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of confinement of high β (more than 0.4) plasma in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field, an effective heating of a dense plasma (of order of 10 21 m-3) by high current relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), etc. In the case of multi-mirror geometry (GOL-3) significant increase of confinement time of hot plasma (up to several tens times) was obtained in comparison with single mirror geometry. Besides, electron heating (up to 2 keV) in result of high current electron beam — plasma interaction, the heating of ions (up to 2 keV) was discovered in the multi-mirror geometry (55 mirror cells with total length of the trap equal to 12 meters). There was no any effect of ion heating in the single mirror geometry. The reasons of appearance of the ion heating in multi-mirror geometry are discussed. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GOL-3 and GDT one can obtain an important information for ITER and for future fusion program. In the case of GOL-3 the longitudinal energy density flux of plasma after heating by REB can be so high as 50 MJ/m2. A lot of experiments can be made on plasma-wall interaction (evaporation, erosion and ionization of wall material, propagation of the impurity ions along magnetic field lines at long distances, etc). Some of these experiments are described in this paper. Using principle of confinement of "warm" collisional plasma placed in gas dynamic trap (GDT) together with oblique injection of fast atoms of D and T one can create a powerful 14 MeV neutron source for constructed materials tests of future fusion reactors with a moderate irradiation area (about 1 square meter) and, accordingly, with low tritium consumption. It should be mentioned that there is no one candidate to the plasma based neutron source with such moderate consumption of tritium (about 150 gram/year) and electric power (60 MW). The experimental results with NB injection of 4 MW are described and the experiments of the next step (GDT-U) with 10 MW injection are discussed.

  1. Open Ended Axially Symmetric Systems. Results and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdakov, A.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kruglyakov, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Significant progress of the simplest axisymmetric magnetic systems for plasma confinement and heating is described. Two of such systems are presented in this paper: multi mirror (GOL-3) and gas dynamic (GDT) traps. In the GOL-3 case the temperatures T e ∼T∼2 keV were obtained in a dense (of order of 10 21 m -3 ) plasma and the maximum value of nτ E ∼2·10 18 m -3 s was achieved. Any physical limitations which could prevent from further grow of plasma parameters did not find out. The most important results obtained in the experiments on GDT are described. A new step (GDT-U) has been prepared and the first preliminary experiments with quasi-stationary plasma heating have started. According to calculations, the parameters of the GDT-U should demonstrate the feasibility of 'moderate' (0.5 MW/m 2 ) 14 MeV neutron source for structural materials tests of fusion reactor

  2. Progress in research on open-ended magnetic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyakov, E.P.; Burdakov, A.V.; Ivanov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    At present, three modern types of mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Multi-mirror - GOL-3, Gas Dynamic Trap - GDT, and Tandem Mirror - AMBAL-M). From the engineering point of view all these systems are very attractive because of simple axi-symmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In this paper, the status of GOL-3 and GDT machines is presented. The most crucial experiments for the mirror concept are described, i.e. the demonstration of different principles for the suppression of electron heat conductivity (in GDT and GOL-3), finding of MHD-stable regimes for the confinement of high b (> 0.4) plasma in axi-symmetric geometry of the magnetic field, an effective heating of a dense (of the order of 10 21 m -3 ) plasma by high-current relativistic electron beam (in GOL-3), etc. In the case of multi-mirror geometry (GOL-3) a significant increase in confinement time of hot plasma (up to several tens times) was observed in a comparison with single-mirror geometry. Besides electron heating (up to 2 keV) the heating of ions (up to 2 keV) was discovered in the multi-mirror geometry (55 mirror cells of the total length of the trap equal to 12 meters), as a result of the interaction of high-current electron beam with plasma. There was no effect of the ion heating in the single-mirror geometry. The reasons of the appearance of the ion heating in the multi-mirror configuration are discussed. It should especially be mentioned that on the basis of the GDT experiment it is possible to make a very important intermediate step. Using 'warm' plasma and oblique injection of fast atoms of deuterium and tritium one can create a powerful 14-MeV neutron source with a moderate irradiation area for material tests (e.g. about 1 square meter), and with a low tritium consumption. It should also be mentioned that there is no other candidate for the construction of a plasma-based neutron source with such low tritium consumption (about 150 grams/year). (author)

  3. Progress In Research On Open - Ended Magnetic Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyakov, E. P.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    At present, three modern types of mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Multi-mirror,-GOL-3, Gas Dynamic Trap,-GDT, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). From the engineering point of view all these systems are very attractive because of simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In this paper, the status of GOL-3 and GDT machines is presented. The most crucial experiments for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of longitudinal electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of confinement of high β (more than 0.4) plasma in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field, an effective heating of a dense plasma (of order of 10 21 m-3) by high current relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), etc. In the case of multi-mirror geometry (GOL-3) significant increase of confinement time of hot plasma (up to several tens times) was obtained in comparison with single mirror geometry. Besides, electron heating (up to 2 keV) in result of high current electron beam -- plasma interaction, the heating of ions (up to 2 keV) was discovered in the multi-mirror geometry (55 mirror cells with total length of the trap equal to 12 meters). There was no any effect of ion heating in the single mirror geometry. The reasons of appearance of the ion heating in multi-mirror geometry are discussed. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GOL-3 and GDT one can obtain an important information for ITER and for future fusion program. In the case of GOL-3 the longitudinal energy density flux of plasma after heating by REB can be so high as 50 MJ/m2. A lot of experiments can be made on plasma-wall interaction (evaporation, erosion and ionization of wall material, propagation of the impurity ions along magnetic field lines at long distances, etc). Some of these experiments are described in this paper. Using principle of confinement of 'warm' collisional plasma placed in gas dynamic trap (GDT) together with oblique injection of fast atoms of D and T one can create a powerful 14 MeV neutron source for constructed materials tests of future fusion reactors with a moderate irradiation area (about 1 square meter) and, accordingly, with low tritium consumption. It should be mentioned that there is no one candidate to the plasma based neutron source with such moderate consumption of tritium (about 150 gram/year) and electric power (60 MW). The experimental results with NB injection of 4 MW are described and the experiments of the next step (GDT-U) with 10 MW injection are discussed

  4. Simple, Concept-Centred, Innovative, Open-Ended Experiments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectrometer and sodium lamp. Students should determine the grating element in each case. The laser beam should be perpendicular to the grating as well as to the wall. Measure the distance between grating and wall (which could be 2 m to 5 m), and between the successive diffraction spots. Use the formula. nA= d sin On ...

  5. Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are ''open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research ''high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux)

  6. An Open-Ended Approach to Evaluating Android Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    relevant to the portrayed facial expressions for the emotions of Surprise, Fear, Anger, and Happiness, and less relevant for the emotions of Disgust, and Sadness. Statistical analysis indicated the existence of a moderate degree of correlation between the emotions of Fear-Surprise, and a high degree...

  7. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective in an example......To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  8. Eight year experience in open ended instrumentation laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.; Marques, Paulo V. S.

    2015-10-01

    When designing laboratory courses in a Physics Major we consider a range of objectives: teaching Physics; developing lab competencies; instrument control and data acquisition; learning about measurement errors and error propagation; an introduction to project management; team work skills and scientific writing. But nowadays we face pressure to decrease laboratory hours due to the cost involved. Many universities are replacing lab classes for simulation activities, hiring PhD. and master students to give first year lab classes, and reducing lab hours. This leads to formatted lab scripts and poor autonomy of the students, and failure to enhance creativity and autonomy. In this paper we present our eight year experience with a laboratory course that is mandatory in the third year of Physics and Physical Engineering degrees. Since the students had previously two standard laboratory courses, we focused on teaching instrumentation and giving students autonomy. The course is divided in two parts: one third is dedicated to learn computer controlled instrumentation and data acquisition (based in LabView); the final 2/3 is dedicated to a group project. In this project, the team (2 or 3 students) must develop a project and present it in a typical conference format at the end of the semester. The project assignments are usually not very detailed (about two or three lines long), giving only general guidelines pointing to a successful project (students often recycle objectives putting forward a very personal project); all of them require assembling some hardware. Due to our background, about one third of the projects are related to Optics.

  9. Control of open end plasma flow utilizing orbital stochasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    It has been known that the control of plasma outside the confinement region of diverter plasma and others in a magnetic field confinement device is very important for improveing the confinement of bulk plasma. The control of plasma outside a confinement region bears two roles, one is the reduction of the thermal load on a diverter plate and others due to the plasma particles lost from the confinement region, and another is the restriction of the back flow of cold plasma and impurities generated outside the confinement region to a bulk plasma region. In this study, the new method of controlling plasma outside a confinement region called magnetic diverter is considered. To the plasma particles advancing along magnetic force lines, the reflection and capture of the plasma particles occur in the region of orbital stochasticity, and the thermal load on an end plate and the reverse flow to a bulk plasma region are restricted. The numerical computation model used regarding the particle control utilizing the orbital stochasticity and the results of calculating the orbit of plasma particles in a magnetic field are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Consequence of reputation in an open-ended naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, Edgardo

    2008-10-01

    We study a modified version of the naming game, a recently introduced model which describes how shared vocabulary can emerge spontaneously in a population without any central control. In particular, we introduce a mechanism that allows a continuous interchange with the external inventory of words. A playing strategy, influenced by the hierarchical structure that individuals’ reputation defines in the community, is implemented. We analyze how these features influence the convergence times, the cognitive efforts of the agents, and the scaling behavior in memory and time.

  11. Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-09-24

    Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux).

  12. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  13. The Alevi and questions of identity, including violence and insider/outsider perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alevilik is the second largest religious movement in Turkey after Sunnite Islam. The Alevi worship Ali and the twelve Imams of his family. Ali is more or less deified and therefore Alevis are considered as being ghulat (‘exaggerated’, ‘extremist’ and heterodox. The elevated Ali personifies an aspiration to justice and righteousness. He fought on the side of the weak and oppressed against those with power in society. Theologically, Ali is assumed to be blessed by the divine light and is therefore able to see into the mysterious spirituality of Islam. Many Alevis today however totally dissociate themselves from Shi’ism. Still, the degrading­ abel kızılbaş (‘red-head’ is associated with Ali and thus is something alleged to be anti-Osman, since Isma’il fought against the Osman Empire. The colour red represents the blood of Mohammed: he was wounded in battle and Ali saw the prophet’s blood flowing. As Ali grew older, he wanted to remind people of Mohammed’s struggle and therefore started wearing red headgear. Red thus became the colour of the Shi’ites and over time a symbol of Shi’ite martyrdom. Later red also gained political significance for the Alevis. The religious and the political are closely intertwined, but despite this, neither the Left nor Shi’ism does simply stand on one side and the Right/Sunni on the other – there are no such simple dichotomies in reality.

  14. JAVA Interview Questions with Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikky, James

    2014-01-01

    JAVA Interview Questions with Answers from ComputerTrainingsOnline.com is n interactive java online training provider to establish a standard present in programming languages training. It is a great opportunity to the people who wants to learn object oriented programming languages like java at their own pace as per the flexible schedules. Here you can share your views and thought procedures with our online community and clarify the queries in java with our core professional team. You can lear...

  15. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque,Bruno Saboia de; Callado,Marcelo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity. O objetivo deste trabalho é promover um desafio de investigação sobre a moeda digital chamada Bitcoins, bem como e...

  16. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  17. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  18. Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 10(exp 4) events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.

  19. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance paper 6: methods for question formulation, searching, and protocol development for qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janet L; Booth, Andrew; Cargo, Margaret; Hannes, Karin; Harden, Angela; Flemming, Kate; Garside, Ruth; Pantoja, Tomas; Thomas, James; Noyes, Jane

    2017-12-15

    This paper updates previous Cochrane guidance on question formulation, searching, and protocol development, reflecting recent developments in methods for conducting qualitative evidence syntheses to inform Cochrane intervention reviews. Examples are used to illustrate how decisions about boundaries for a review are formed via an iterative process of constructing lines of inquiry and mapping the available information to ascertain whether evidence exists to answer questions related to effectiveness, implementation, feasibility, appropriateness, economic evidence, and equity. The process of question formulation allows reviewers to situate the topic in relation to how it informs and explains effectiveness, using the criterion of meaningfulness, appropriateness, feasibility, and implementation. Questions related to complex questions and interventions can be structured by drawing on an increasingly wide range of question frameworks. Logic models and theoretical frameworks are useful tools for conceptually mapping the literature to illustrate the complexity of the phenomenon of interest. Furthermore, protocol development may require iterative question formulation and searching. Consequently, the final protocol may function as a guide rather than a prescriptive route map, particularly in qualitative reviews that ask more exploratory and open-ended questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  1. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  2. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  3. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  4. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions; Biocarburants - 5 questions qui derangent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L

    2008-07-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  5. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  6. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  7. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  8. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  9. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  10. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  11. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  12. Teachers' Experiences Relative to Successful Questioning and Discussion Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods, but there is often inconsistent implementation of these instructional methods. This case study explored teachers and evaluators' perceptions regarding exemplary questioning and discussion techniques. Participants included 9 teachers who earned exemplary marks on their…

  13. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  14. Big questions about the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  15. Statistical questions in experimental evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of models describing evolutionary dynamics are rapidly increasing our ability to make precise quantitative predictions. These advances have created a growing need for corresponding improvements in our ability to observe evolutionary dynamics in laboratory evolution experiments. High-throughput experimental methods are particularly crucial, in order to maintain many replicate populations and measure statistical differences in evolutionary outcomes at both phenotypic and genomic levels. In this paper, I describe recent technical developments which have greatly increased the throughput of laboratory evolution experiments, and outline a few promising directions for further improvements. I then highlight a few ways in which these new experimental methods can help to answer simple statistical questions about evolutionary dynamics, and potentially guide future theoretical work

  16. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    by setting up a chase for the heffalump entrepreneur. There has however been a break with this approach. Most commonly referenced is William B. Gartner who presents a critique of the field of entrepreneurship, wherein he questions the general investigative trend of charting the psychological make......-up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship......The psychological discipline has contributed to an increasingly individualized focus on the entrepreneur. When psychology entered the field of entrepreneurship the main focus was on mapping the different personality traits of the entrepreneur following McClelland, leading researchers astray...

  17. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  18. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  19. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Formation of public opinion on the question of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, K.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The aim of the report is double. Firstly will bases and issues behind the media studies within the research project be presented. Secondly will the empirical investigations which are included in this part of the project be shown. Headings: - The question of nuclear waste - a controversial question. - The mass media as intermediaries of information and opinion. - The information merit of the mass media. The bias of the mass media. - The decision merit of the mass media. - Empirical investigations. * The question of nuclear waste in the news-distribution. * The question of nuclear waste in the public debate. (O.S.)

  1. Qcorp: an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihong; Na, Xu; Li, Jiao

    2018-03-22

    Health question-answering (QA) systems have become a typical application scenario of Artificial Intelligent (AI). An annotated question corpus is prerequisite for training machines to understand health information needs of users. Thus, we aimed to develop an annotated classification corpus of Chinese health questions (Qcorp) and make it openly accessible. We developed a two-layered classification schema and corresponding annotation rules on basis of our previous work. Using the schema, we annotated 5000 questions that were randomly selected from 5 Chinese health websites within 6 broad sections. 8 annotators participated in the annotation task, and the inter-annotator agreement was evaluated to ensure the corpus quality. Furthermore, the distribution and relationship of the annotated tags were measured by descriptive statistics and social network map. The questions were annotated using 7101 tags that covers 29 topic categories in the two-layered schema. In our released corpus, the distribution of questions on the top-layered categories was treatment of 64.22%, diagnosis of 37.14%, epidemiology of 14.96%, healthy lifestyle of 10.38%, and health provider choice of 4.54% respectively. Both the annotated health questions and annotation schema were openly accessible on the Qcorp website. Users can download the annotated Chinese questions in CSV, XML, and HTML format. We developed a Chinese health question corpus including 5000 manually annotated questions. It is openly accessible and would contribute to the intelligent health QA system development.

  2. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  3. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  4. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  5. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  7. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  8. Three growing questions about Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Crimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through three capital questions, this short essay tries to offer a general panorama and a better understanding of the proteiform complex body or Masonry. Through by a multi-level hermeneutic, this study get the ambition to be comprehensible both to Readers who are not used to this kind of literature and to the ones advanced and skilled in symbolic thought. The main important conclusion owes the quality of the symbolic level, which is the property to refuse a single interpretation: notwithstanding, this does not prevent from a clear historical and political evaluation of the phenomena under analysis, according the methodologies of social sciences. This political evaluability drives to the main valuable output of the essay, which concerns the anthropological statement that the logical label of Masonry, with this name or many others, it exists since always. Under the category of initiatory institution, we may consider the step between individual and society, and a society inside a larger one. Evolving from the needs of the individuals to the ones of social groups, the matter joins to the land of political sciences. The sociological meaning can be posed under analytic view in reason of the functionalist meaning emerging from the alternative couples status-quo/emancipation and conservatism/progressivism. Through by this perspective, anyway the theme seems not to reveal much more, because this “proteiform complex body” manifest itself as something too much complex in its inner core to be considered in a way or in another. What remains is strictly symbolic, with some theological and eschatological points that refuse to be posed under restrain.

  9. Women’s Job Search Competence: A Question of Motivation, Behavior, or Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía I. Llinares-Insa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined motivation and behaviors in women’s active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women’s employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women. To analyze the active job search, the respondents were invited to write open-ended responses to questions about their job search behaviors and complete some questionnaires about their motivation for their active job search. The content analysis and quantitative results showed no significant differences in motivational attributes, but there were significant gender differences in the job search behavior (e.g., geographical mobility. Moreover, the results showed heterogeneity in unemployed women by educational level and family responsibilities. The asynchronies observed in a neoliberal context reveal the reproduction of social roles, social-labor vulnerability, and a gender gap. Thus, women’s behavior is an interface between employment and family work, but not their motivations or aspirations. Our results can have positive implications for labor gender equality by identifying indicators of effectiveness in training programs for women’s job search, and it can contribute to designing intervention empowerment policies for women.

  10. Women's Job Search Competence: A Question of Motivation, Behavior, or Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares-Insa, Lucía I; González-Navarro, Pilar; Córdoba-Iñesta, Ana I; Zacarés-González, Juan J

    2018-01-01

    We examined motivation and behaviors in women's active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women's employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women. To analyze the active job search, the respondents were invited to write open-ended responses to questions about their job search behaviors and complete some questionnaires about their motivation for their active job search. The content analysis and quantitative results showed no significant differences in motivational attributes, but there were significant gender differences in the job search behavior (e.g., geographical mobility). Moreover, the results showed heterogeneity in unemployed women by educational level and family responsibilities. The asynchronies observed in a neoliberal context reveal the reproduction of social roles, social-labor vulnerability, and a gender gap. Thus, women's behavior is an interface between employment and family work, but not their motivations or aspirations. Our results can have positive implications for labor gender equality by identifying indicators of effectiveness in training programs for women's job search, and it can contribute to designing intervention empowerment policies for women.

  11. Women’s Job Search Competence: A Question of Motivation, Behavior, or Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares-Insa, Lucía I.; Córdoba-Iñesta, Ana I.; Zacarés-González, Juan J.

    2018-01-01

    We examined motivation and behaviors in women’s active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women’s employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women. To analyze the active job search, the respondents were invited to write open-ended responses to questions about their job search behaviors and complete some questionnaires about their motivation for their active job search. The content analysis and quantitative results showed no significant differences in motivational attributes, but there were significant gender differences in the job search behavior (e.g., geographical mobility). Moreover, the results showed heterogeneity in unemployed women by educational level and family responsibilities. The asynchronies observed in a neoliberal context reveal the reproduction of social roles, social-labor vulnerability, and a gender gap. Thus, women’s behavior is an interface between employment and family work, but not their motivations or aspirations. Our results can have positive implications for labor gender equality by identifying indicators of effectiveness in training programs for women’s job search, and it can contribute to designing intervention empowerment policies for women. PMID:29487557

  12. 'Any questions?'--Clinicians' usage of invitations to ask questions (IAQs) in outpatient plastic surgery consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Patrick, Peter L

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of 'Invitations to Ask Questions' (IAQs) by plastic surgeons in outpatient consultations, and consider how type of IAQ impacts on patients' responses to, and recollection of, IAQs. Descriptive study: 63 patients were audio recorded in consultation with 5 plastic surgeons, and completed a brief questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Consultation transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods of Discourse Analysis and compared with questionnaire findings. A taxonomy of IAQs was developed, including three types of IAQ (Overt, Covert, and Borderline). Overt IAQs were rarely identified, and almost all IAQs occurred in the closing stages of the consultation. However, when an overt IAQ was used, patients always recollected being asked if they had any questions after the consultation. Patients are rarely explicitly offered the opportunity to ask questions. When this does occur, it is often in the closing stages of the consultation. Clinicians should openly encourage patients to ask questions frequently throughout the consultation, and be mindful that subtle differences in construction of these utterances may impact upon interpretation. Clear communication, of message and intention, is essential in clinical encounters to minimize misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or missed opportunities for patients to raise concerns. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Frequently Asked Questions - GHRI Calls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genevieve Prud'homme

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... 3) Co-principal application: a relevant local, district, or national level decision maker from the same country .... The role of the co-principal applicant includes similar responsibilities as those of the principal .... Considering the current political, economic and social instability in South Soudan, can international ...

  14. An Ensemble Method for Spelling Correction in Consumer Health Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic and grammatical errors are a common feature of informal texts written by lay people. Health-related questions asked by consumers are a case in point. Automatic interpretation of consumer health questions is hampered by such errors. In this paper, we propose a method that combines techniques based on edit distance and frequency counts with a contextual similarity-based method for detecting and correcting orthographic errors, including misspellings, word breaks, and punctuation errors. We evaluate our method on a set of spell-corrected questions extracted from the NLM collection of consumer health questions. Our method achieves a F1 score of 0.61, compared to an informed baseline of 0.29, achieved using ESpell, a spelling correction system developed for biomedical queries. Our results show that orthographic similarity is most relevant in spelling error correction in consumer health questions and that frequency and contextual information are complementary to orthographic features.

  15. Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, ... entry of HIV. This is Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women 2 especially true for girls and ...

  16. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  17. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  18. Heidegger and Derrida on the Nature of Questioning: Towards the Rehabilitation of Questioning in Contemporary Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Heidegger and Derrida controversy about the nature of questioning is revisited in order to rehabilitate questioning as an essential characteristic of contemporary philosophy. After exploring Heidegger's characterization of philosophy as questioning and Derrida's criticism of the

  19. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  20. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  2. Student and teacher questioning during conversations about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-02-01

    This paper summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. We investigated ways of speaking that encourage students to (a) formulate insightful questions about science topics and (b) express their own ideas during reflective discussions. The authors include elementary, high school, and college faculty. Subject-matter contexts included phases of the moon, motion, electricity, light, and waves. In developing case studies, we documented and interpreted student and teacher questions during the three ways of speaking we value most: guided discussions, student-generated inquiry discussions, and peer collaborations. Student questions occurred when we set up discourse structures that explicitly elicited student questions, engaged students in conversations about familiar contexts in which they had made many observations over a long time period, created comfortable discourse environments in which students could try to understand one another's thinking, and established small groups where students were collaborating with one another. Typically we elicited student thinking by asking questions that develop conceptual understanding. These included questions to help students clarify their meanings, explore various points of view in a neutral and respectful manner, and monitor the discussion and their own thinking. We also elicited student thinking by practicing quietness through long wait times, attentive silence, and reticence.

  3. Questioning the claims from Kaiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot-Smith, Alison; Gnani, Shamini; Pollock, Allyson M; Gray, Denis Pereira

    2004-06-01

    performance by at least 10%. Similar criticisms apply to their selective use of performance measures. Finally, Feachem et al claim that Kaiser is a more integrated system than the NHS. The NHS provides health care to around 60 million people free at the point of delivery, long-term and psychiatric care, and continuing care after 100 days whereas Kaiser provides care to 6 million people, mainly employed and privately insured. Important functions, such as health protection, education and training of healthcare professionals, and research and development are not included or properly costed in Feachem et al's integrated model. We have re-examined the statements made by Feachem et al and show that the claims are unsupported by the evidence. The NHS is not similar to Kaiser in coverage, costs or performance.

  4. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  5. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  6. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  7. Integrating K-W-L Prompts into Science Journal Writing: Can Simple Question Scaffolding Increase Student Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brandon Joel

    Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.

  8. Accuracy of questions related to allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C J; Burden, A D; Forsyth, A

    2000-12-01

    The ability of a physician to select individuals likely to benefit from patch testing depends on his or her ability to interpret responses to enquiries related to contact allergy. The significance of such responses to questions of nickel, fragrance and colophon allergy is unclear. The specificity, sensitivity and predictive value of questions relating to nickel, fragrance and colophony allergy were determined. A total of 258 patients attending for routine patch testing were questioned about skin reactions to nickel, fragrances and Elastoplast (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Hull, England). All subjects were then patch tested to nickel, fragrance mix, and colophony. Responses to questions were compared with patch test results. The sensitivity of questions relating to nickel, fragrance, and colophony was 82%, 49%, and 71%, respectively. The specificity of the same questions was 77%, 79%, and 90%; the positive predictive value was 54%, 46% and 29%, respectively. After adjustment to include clinical relevance, the sensitivity of nickel questions rose to 100%. These data permit greater understanding of the role of patient history in selection of patients for patch testing. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company

  9. Student teachers’ mathematical questioning and courage in metaphorical thinking learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriana, H.; Hidayat, W.; Ristiana, M. G.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed in the form of experiments with control group design and post-test only which aimed to examine the role of metaphorical thinking learning in the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers based on the level of mathematical courage. The population of this study was student teachers of mathematics education study program in West Java Province, while the sample of this study was 152 student teachers which were set purposively and then randomly to be included in the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (a) the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers who received Metaphorical Thinking learning was better than those who received conventional learning seen from mathematical courage level; (b) learning and mathematical courage level factors affected the achievement of student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and mathematical courage level (high, medium, and low) simultaneously in developing student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability; (c) achievement of mastering mathematical questioning ability of student teacher was still not well achieved on indicator of problem posing in the form of non-routine question and open question.

  10. Developing critical thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Sahamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research

  11. Asking the right questions of disadvantaged and homeless communities: the role of housing, patterns of illness and reporting behaviours in the measurement of health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, L J; Nutbeam, D; Simpson, J M

    2001-08-01

    To assess the self-reported health status and its relationship to key demographic variables among patrons of a charity-run meals service at The Exodus Foundation, in urban Sydney, Australia. Random-sample cross-sectional study of 100 face-to-face interviews (79% recruitment rate). Self-reported health status was measured by subjective rating scale, open-ended and checklist questions about presence and type of acute and chronic disease. Anaysis by logistic regression of fair-poor health status on demographic variables in Exodus patrons and genera Sydney population adjusted for age and sex using the 1995 National Health Survey. Compared to housed but poor counterparts within the Exodus sample, homeless people were significantly more likely to report fair-poor health status (age-adjusted OR-3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.1). Exodus patrons, as a whole, were much more likely than Sydney's general population to report fair-poor health status, after adjusting for age and sex (OR-4.5, 95% CI 2.9-7.0) and had a more serious pattern of illness (diseases of the digestive system; depression; common cold; bronchitis; refractive errors; drug and alcohol dependence; diabetes mellitus Type II). Exodus patrons reported fewer acute and chronic illnesses with open-ended questions than with a checklist (phomelessness. When patterns of illness and injury were measured within this disadvantaged group, they showed more serious illness types than in the general population. Such patterns may not be identified by methods often used in traditional population health surveys.

  12. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  13. Question Wording (Version 2.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzner, Timo; Menold, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the basic rules that should be observed when formulating survey questions. The structure of the chapter is oriented towards the cognitive response process that respondents undergo when answering survey questions. This process involves a total of four tasks: understanding the question text, retrieving information from memory, forming a judgment, and formulating a response in the format provided. Using practical examples, the authors demonstrate how que...

  14. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  15. Reviewing the regulatory barriers for nanomedicine: global questions and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Gatof, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine will play an increasing role in prevention and treatment across the entire healthcare spectrum. However, their precise market size, economic value and areas of application remain unclear. This opacity, including the question of what constitutes nanomedicine matters, especially when considered alongside the key regulatory questions and concerns. This article begins by placing these key questions into context in relation to the current scientific state of the art, focusing particular attention on the human health and safety context. In exploring these central questions surrounding the regulation of nanomedicine, this perspective also explores existing and suggested frameworks that aim to deal with emerging technologies more generally. It then outlines priority areas for action and general conclusions specific to nanomedicine.

  16. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... Israel, judiciaries have developed what is commonly referred to as the political question doctrine to ... The political question doctrine was first enunciated in Marbury by the United States. Supreme Court when it ..... of power from the then Government of Ghana was in conflict with the Constitution required an ...

  18. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  19. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  20. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  1. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…

  2. Questioning Techniques in the Gifted Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using questioning techniques for encouraging purposeful inquiry among gifted students in elementary grades through college levels. A variety of questioning strategies is recommended, focusing primarily on the higher end of Bloom's taxonomy to engage students in higher level thinking. A classroom example is provided.…

  3. The beat-wave accelerator: Twenty questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions in the field of accelerator physics, plasma physics and laser technology need to be addressed if a useful accelerator based on the beat-wave principle is to be constructed. Many of these must be considered together rather than sequentially. An attempt has been made to set out a number of the more important questions in a logical manner. (orig.)

  4. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  5. Statements on questions concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; May, H.

    1978-04-01

    Questions and answers compiled in this publication are excerpts from correspondence with citizens during the licensing procedure for the planned nuclear power plant. Subjects: Environmental impacts, environmental monitoring, earthquake safety, aircraft crashes, disaster control, questions concerning liability, waste management, energy and economy policies, and planning procedure. (HP) [de

  6. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  7. Preprocessing documents to answer Dutch questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a framework for offline extraction of certain types of information from a document collection, and discuss its usage for answering factoid questions. We implemented this approach as a part of the Dutch Question Answering System developed at the University of Amsterdam. The evaluation of

  8. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  9. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  10. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinsley

    Full Text Available Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  11. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Weiland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.

  12. Meaningless questions in cosmology and relativistic astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Reinhardt, M.

    1976-01-01

    After a general classification of meaningless questions in science we concentrate on empirically meaningless questions. Introducing the concepts of informationally connected, semiconnected and disconnected observers, a formalism for the analysis of the informational structure of space-time is developed. We discuss some problems of epistemological nature in cosmology and black hole physics. A number of questions like 'What was 'before' the initial singularity of the universe' or 'What is the fate of matter in gravitational collapse inside the event horizon' turn out to be empirically meaningless. We also show that a 'wormhole' does not violate causality for the set of informationally connected observers who do not enter it. (orig.) [de

  13. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  14. The functions and roles of questioning during nursing handovers in specialty settings: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixon, Sascha; Braaf, Sandra; Williams, Allison; Liew, Danny; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Nursing handovers are an important component of patient safety and quality in communicating across transitions of care. To determine the functions and roles of questions in nursing handovers, and of how questions contribute to handover quality improvement in specialty settings of an Australian tertiary hospital. An ethnographic research design was employed. Participant observations were conducted which were audiorecorded and transcribed. Question-response sequences and the roles of questions in the handovers were coded. Questions served many functions, and included: requests for information, requests for confirmation, other initiations of repair, outloud utterances, understanding checks, requests for action and agreement, and knowledge checks. Questioning was mostly used to transmit patient-related information, and nurses could use questioning to jointly construct understandings about patients. Future research should examine how questions function in diverse clinical environments, such as rural and regional hospitals, and how questioning occurs in multidisciplinary handover situations.

  15. Are Professors Professionals? A Fresh Look at This Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlyn, David

    2015-01-01

    Are university educators professionals? Whether or not university educators should be regarded as professionals is an important question that has an impact on a number of issues including job satisfaction, societal status and salary levels. This paper examines the need to classify this group as a profession and the consequences of that…

  16. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  17. Investing Wisely in Information Technology: Asking the Right Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1993-01-01

    College administrators are offered a series of questions to ask in evaluating the appropriateness of information technology for their campuses. Issues addressed include defining institutional goals and the role of information technology in them, determining the most effective organization of information resources and technology, and allocation of…

  18. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  19. Year-Round Education: Some Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy and Evaluation Branch.

    Questions concerning year-round schooling are presented and answered in this report. Following a definition of year-round education, examples of single-track and multitrack schedules are described, along with the calendar variations within them. Other issues that are addressed include holidays and intersessions, compliance with the Alberta School…

  20. Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Searching for a massage therapist? Get the ... 1. Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

  1. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  2. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  3. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  4. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of ... questions regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something ...

  5. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  6. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  7. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  8. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  9. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  10. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

  12. To Include or Not to Include--This Is the Question: Attitudes of Inclusive Teachers toward the Inclusion of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Sharon; Einat, Tomer

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have emphasized the relationship between success of policies of inclusion and acceptance and accommodation of students with intellectual disabilities in mainstream settings and teachers' positive attitudes toward them. Using semi-structured interviews and interpretive and constructivist strategies, the present study qualitatively…

  13. Creating robust vocabulary frequently asked questions and extended examples

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Isabel L

    2008-01-01

    Bringing Words to Life has enlivened the classrooms of hundreds of thousands of teachers. Responding to readers' success stories, practical questions, and requests for extended examples, this ideal volume builds on the groundbreaking work of Bringing Words to Life. The authors present additional tools, tips, and detailed explanations of such questions as which words to teach, when and how to teach them, and how to adapt instruction for English language learners. They provide specific instructional sequences, including assessments, for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12, as well as interactive less

  14. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J.; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for au...

  15. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  16. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  17. Assessing the psychometric questioner for students rating teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razaghi Reza Sharif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions use different ways to evaluate their teachers. Asking students to rate their teachers is common practice. The purpose of this research was to examine the reliability of the instruments used to evaluate the instructors in a college of medicine. This cross-sectional descriptive research used questioners that evaluated instructors. The questioner was targeting different dimensions of instructors. Item analysis in addition to exploratory factor analysis was performed on 1040questioners answered by the students of the College of Medicine of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. SPSS software was used to perform the analysis. The psychometric properties of questionnaires including Cronbach alpha was determined. The result of exploratory factor analysis and item analysis indicated that three of the subscales of the questioner showed sufficient reliability to evaluate the instructors and two subscales needed further examination. This type of evaluations is necessary to ensure quality of instructors working in an institution as well as providing reliable feedback to the instructors. The result showed that while some subscales of the questioner seems to target the concept of interest; a re-evaluation of the instrument would be valuable to increase its reliability for the administrators in the colleges.

  18. Facilitation of students' discussion in problem-based learning tutorials to create mechanisms: the use of five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-09-01

    Without the appropriate facilitation of discussion in a problem-based learning (PBL) course and the use of specific educational tools that enhance cognitive skills, students might deprive themselves of achieving the deep learning experience expected to take place in a PBL course. One of the educational tasks in PBL is the creation of mechanisms for hypotheses made by the students, based on their knowledge of the basic sciences and the psychosocial issues raised in a particular case scenario. The whole task is student-constructed and should enhance their ability to explain the scientific basis of the symptoms and clinical signs of the patient enlisted in the case. Because students usually discuss the case without enough prior related knowledge, they might find it difficult to address different aspects of their mechanisms. These gaps in knowledge may be considered part of their "learning issues". In tutorial 2 (a PBL case is usually discussed in 2 or 3 tutorials at the maximum; each tutorial is 2 hours long), students should be able to build a comprehensive mechanism reflecting their deep understanding of the problem. However, students might not be able to integrate information learnt and their mechanisms might show a number of shortcuts and/or lack integration of information, and the flow of the pathophysiological changes may not be logical. This manuscript describes 5 key open-ended questions in PBL tutorials to facilitate students' discussions as they create their mechanisms.

  19. RESEARCH REPORT: Eliciting students' understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.

    2003-05-01

    We examined ninth-grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of an open-ended essay question during a learning cycle. One form provided students with key terms to be used as 'anchors' upon which to base their essay, whereas the second form did not. The essays were administered at three points: pre-learning cycle, post-concept application, and after additional concept application activities. Students' explanations were qualitatively examined and grouped according to common patterns representing their understandings or misunderstandings. Findings indicated that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the non-use of key terms in the pre-test. Misunderstandings in the key term essay responses generally involved the misuse of these terms and their association with the concept. Findings also indicated significant positive shifts in students' understanding over the learning cycle. No perceptible increase in understanding occurred after additional application activities. Differences in gender were observed, with females showing equal or greater understanding compared to males, contradicting reports that males typically outperform females in the physical sciences and supporting the need to reconstruct assessment techniques to better reveal the conceptual understandings of all students.

  20. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  1. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  2. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2012-12-01

    Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary.

  4. On safety goals and related questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  5. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  6. How Do College Students Solve Logarithm Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Abdul Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate college students’ work with logarithm questions. Qualitative descriptive research is chosen to reach the research goal. The participants of the study were fourteen Indonesian students who were enrolled at different universities in Ankara, Turkey. They worked to solve ten logarithm questions which were classified according to the contents. After analysing their written responses, interviews were conducted to obtain further explanation about their strategies and common mistakes. The study found that participants’ works in dealing with logarithm questions comprised of (a processing base, (b holding the rule, (c separating, (d jumping, and (e conditioning. Therewith, several participants made common mistake because of misconception about logarithm, arithmetical problems, and misuse of algebra concept. Implication of the finding of the study for teaching and learning logarithm were presented.

  7. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  8. Student-Generated Questions during Chemistry Lectures: Patterns, Self-Appraisals, and Relations with Motivational Beliefs and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how…

  9. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  10. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  11. It's worth the wait: optimizing questioning methods for effective intraoperative teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Magas, Christopher P; Gruppen, Larry D; Dedhia, Priya H; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2017-07-01

    The use of questioning to engage learners is critical to furthering resident education intraoperatively. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher level questioning and optimal wait times (>3 s) result in learner responses reflective of higher cognition and retention. Given the importance of intraoperative learning, we investigated question delivery in the operating room. A total of 12 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were observed and recorded. All questions were transcribed and classified using Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework associated with hierarchical levels of learning outcomes. Wait time between question end and response was recorded. Six faculty attendings and seven house officers at our institution were observed. A total of 133 questions were recorded with an average number of questions per case of 11.2. The majority of questions 112 out of 133 (84%) were classified as Bloom's levels 1-3, with only 6% of questions of the highest level. The wait time before the resident answered the question averaged 1.75 s, with attendings interceding after 2.50 s. Question complexity and wait time did not vary based on resident postgraduate year level suggesting limited tailoring of question to learner. Intraoperative questioning is not aligned with higher level thinking. The majority of questions were Bloom's level 3 or below, limiting the complexity of answer formulation. Most responses were given within 2 s, hindering opportunity to pursue higher-order thinking. This suggests including higher level questions and tailoring questions to learner level may improve retention and maximize gains. In addition, with attendings answering 20% of their own questions, increasing their wait time offers another area for teaching development. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  13. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  14. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  15. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  16. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    WDM Questions and Answers. Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the most water-scarce region in the world. The renewable water resources per capita is currently 1,100 m. 3 per person per year, compared to a global average of 8,900.

  17. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  18. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  19. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  20. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  1. Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Simplifying a complex question, one may observe that the objectives of all Kurdish political movements of the past century have concerned two central issues, culture and territory. The Kurdish language and the region historically known as Kurdistan are the Kurds’ most important national symbols.

  2. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, X.; Bouma, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal

  3. Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of "difference" is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question "For whom does the intellectual speak?" in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: "To what extent, and in what ways, might…

  4. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  5. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  6. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM QUESTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUNEKREEF, B; GROOT, B; RIJCKEN, B; HOEK, G; STEENBEKKERS, A; DEBOER, A

    The reproducibility of answers to childhood respiratory symptom questions was investigated by administering two childhood respiratory symptom questionnaires twice, with a one month interval, to the same population of Dutch school children. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 410

  7. The Miracle Question & Therapy with College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Solution-focused therapy is based on the premise that client goals and solutions are more important than problems the client depicts in sessions. The miracle question technique is used in the first session to help the client construct and consider a future without the problem: "Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, there was a…

  8. The Predictive Power of Subjective Probability Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the predictive validity of stated intentions for actual behaviour. In the context of the 2017 Dutch parliamentary election, we compare how well polls based on probabilistic and deterministic questions line up with subsequent votes. Our empirical strategy is built around a

  9. Questioning the Technical Quality of Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing research finds that alternatives to formal tests carry hidden costs and require trade-offs. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is studying how performance assessments work so that they may be designed to help students reach their highest potential. This article raises priority questions,…

  10. Questions in Crocodilian Physiology | Gans | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphologists, physiologists, behaviourists and ecologists have traditionally asked different and often mutually exclusive questions within their different conceptual frameworks. Only the concept of natural selection and the idea that the animals have been modified for one or another mode of life history provide a common ...

  11. Interdisciplinarity and the Question of Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James, IV

    2012-01-01

    The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…

  12. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  13. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  14. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  15. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  16. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  17. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  18. Questions of Value to this presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Questions of Value to this presentation. Does a self assembly of collagen act smart? Can man make collagen based smart biomaterials? To what beneficial uses smart collagen based biomaterials can be put to?

  19. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  20. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  1. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  2. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  3. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, A

    1989-03-01

    The once-common doctrine that an athlete assumes the risks of the sport in which he or she competes almost disappeared in the 1970s. In the following interview, legal expert Gerald J. Todaro, JD, questions an athlete's right to sue for an injury that occurred in an inherently dangerous sport.

  4. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  5. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  6. "Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow the Earth?" Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource, and Other Students' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…

  7. Now That's a Good Question! How to Promote Cognitive Rigor through Classroom Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Erik M. Francis explores how one of the most fundamental instructional strategies--questioning--can provide the proper scaffolding to deepen student thinking, understanding, and application of knowledge. You'll learn: (1) Techniques for using questioning to extend and evaluate student learning experiences; (2) Eight different kinds…

  8. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  9. Formative questioning in computer learning environments: a course for pre-service mathematics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Hatice

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on a specific aspect of formative assessment, namely questioning. Given that computers have gained widespread use in learning and teaching, specific attention should be made when organizing formative assessment in computer learning environments (CLEs). A course including various workshops was designed to develop knowledge and skills of questioning in CLEs. This study investigates how pre-service mathematics teachers used formative questioning with technological tools such as Geogebra and Graphic Calculus software. Participants are 35 pre-service mathematics teachers. To analyse formative questioning, two types of questions are investigated: mathematical questions and technical questions. Data were collected through lesson plans, teaching notes, interviews and observations. Descriptive statistics of the number of questions in the lesson plans before and after the workshops are presented. Examples of two types of questions are discussed using the theoretical framework. One pre-service teacher was selected and a deeper analysis of the way he used questioning during his three lessons was also investigated. The findings indicated an improvement in using technical questions for formative purposes and that the course provided a guideline in planning and using mathematical and technical questions in CLEs.

  10. Exploration Life Support Critical Questions for Future Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions

  11. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  12. Outstanding questions: physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics agrees very well with experiment, but many important questions remain unanswered, among them are the following. What is the origin of particle masses and are they due to a Higgs boson? How does one understand the number of species of matter particles and how do they mix? What is the origin of the difference between matter and antimatter, and is it related to the origin of the matter in the Universe? What is the nature of the astrophysical dark matter? How does one unify the fundamental interactions? How does one quantize gravity? In this article, I introduce these questions and discuss how they may be addressed by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, with particular attention to the search for the Higgs boson and supersymmetry.

  13. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...... to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology....... scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones...

  14. Searching for a question and an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Roux

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on Eckart Otto’s theory of the Pentateuch, his contribution to Pro Pent (the “Project for the study of the Pentateuch” and his influence on our understanding of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There was something in his thinking that appealed to many South African scholars; an appeal that softened down the harsh criticism and blunted the sharp edges of Pentateuch study of the past two centuries. And this was accomplished by turning the focus to the theological and ethical issues, which were the driving forces behind the formation of the Pentateuch. Put differently: to show the Pentateuch as an answer to a question and Pentateuch criticism as a constant search for the questions to which the Pentateuch is answer.

  15. The ethics of physicists in questions

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Four CERN physicists, Peggie Rimmer, Ugo Amaldi, Alain Blondel, and Jean-Marie Le Goff, answered questions from 150 college students last Monday during a debate on the theme of the ethics of physics. Organized by CERN and the Department of public instruction of the Canton of Geneva, the meeting followed a reading by the students of the play Die Physiker, by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, which raises the problem of political exploitation of discoveries made during the second world war. The Minister of Education of the Canton de Genève, Mrs Martine Brunschwig-Graf, took part in the debate. The questions posed by students were not lacking in pertinence : Should a physicist reveal a discovery that is dangerous in his opinion ? Who are responsible, those who make the discoveries or those who use them ?

  16. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  17. Questions that calls for a genius

    CERN Multimedia

    McKie, Robin

    2006-01-01

    "Last week an eccentric Russian was tipped to win a "Maths Nobel" for solving the fiendishly difficult Poincare Conjecture, one of seven major "millennium" mathematical mysteries that have been earmarked for urgent solution. But these problems are just the tip of a scientific iceberg. Other fields are also beset by frustrating theoretical failures. Here Robin McKie highlights the most baffing of those questions and suggests how science will one day provide those elusive answers." (1 page)

  18. PROBLEM QUESTIONS OF QUALITATIVE EDUCATION OF PEDIATRICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Erman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the article put questions of qualitative higher education of pediatricians, necessity of addition of practical work hours in pediatric and maternity care institutions. Also the article describes the ways of skills acquisition corresponding to the tasks of priority national project «Health» with future specialists.Key words: children, education, pediatricians, national project «Health».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:5-9

  19. Essential Questions on Suicide Bereavement and Postvention

    OpenAIRE

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    During the past decades public and research interest in postvention, i.e., support for families and communities after a suicide, has increased. However, the postvention field is still facing a number of important challenges and questions. This article aims to discuss a series of essential issues on suicide bereavement and postvention, regarding the current state of the art and future developments. Who is a suicide survivor and how many suicide survivors are there? Is suicide bereavement diffe...

  20. Interviews concerning topical questions in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatz, U.; Schatz, A.; Stephany, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the Nuclex meeting, October 3-7, 1978, Basle/Switzerland, the editorial department of 'Atom und Strom' questioned some leading scientists in nuclear technology on particularly relevant topics. The following subjects were discussed: - How long can we do without nuclear energy, - Modern technology for nuclear power plants, - Nuclear fuel cycle and environment, - Nuclear energy and European Communities, - Nuclear energy and its risks (reflections on incidents). (orig./UA) [de

  1. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. The central question for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The principal question for the world's oil industry is how to replace today's and tomorrow's consumption of oil with new reserves. This is very important for the oil companies. Reduced reserves mean reduced values, which immediately has an impact on the balance sheet and the share price. The next ten years the world will consume over 300 billion barrels of oil and it may appear very difficult to replace this with new reserves

  3. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  4. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  5. Comments on topical questions of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.; Noll, M.

    1978-05-01

    During the 7th legislative period (1972/76) of the German Bundestag the Federal Government has repeatedly commented on questions concerning nuclear energy. The present documentation comprises a selection of the most important issues. The collection contains in particular: written and oral answers of the Federal Government to written or oral questions of members of parliament; answers of the Federal Government to major and minor interpellations of fractions or factions; statements of the chancellor, the ministers and permanent secretaries; bills of the Federal Government if they were issued as parliamentary documents or as plenary minutes. The main attention when selecting the documents was drawn to giving complete recording of the statements on the safety of nuclear plants and on radiation protection. Furthermore, the comments on questions concerning nuclear energy were considered both in general and in connection with alternative energy sources. Eventually, the general situation concerning energy could be verified. The selection of documents has certainly not thoroughly remained uninfluenced by subjective decisions. The parliamentary documents and plenary minutes given here are recorded by chronological order. An index of subject headings will facilitate access to all documents. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  6. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  7. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  8. In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Simple, Concept-Centred, Innovative, Open-Ended Experiments in Physics – 1. A W Joshi Vijay H Raybagkar F I Surve. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 76-84 ...

  9. CURBSIDE CONSULTATION IN KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: 49 CLINICAL QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig J. Della Vale

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A user- friendly reference for decision making in complicated cases of knee arthroplasty desingned in a question and answers format composed of articles containing current concepts and preferences of experts in total knee replacement surgery, enhanced by several images, diagrams and references and written in the form of a casual advice by Craig J. Della Vale, MD. and his collaborators. PURPOSE By this practical reference of knee arthroplasty, the editor and the contributors have aimed providing straightforward and brief answers, evidence-based advices, their preference and opinions containing current concepts for unanswered questions about complicated cases in total knee replacement surgery which are often controversial and not addressed clearly in traditional knee arthroplasty references. FEATURES There are 49 subjects each written by a different expert designed in 4 sections in a question and answers format including several images and diagrams and also essential references at the end of each article. In the first section preoperative questions is subjected including indications, unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee, patient with vascular problems, donating blood, bilateral arthroplasty, patellar resurfacing, range of motion, bearing surface, contraindications, teaching class for patients prior surgery. The second section is about intraoperative questions including skin incision, patella femoral maltracking, femoral component rotation, tibial component rotation, lateral release, femoral component sizing, flexion instability, varus deformity, and valgus deformity, tightness in extension, iatrogenic MCL injury, antibiotic-loaded cement, and perioperative pain. The third section subjects postoperative questions including wound drainage, preventing tromboembolic events, vascular complications, foot drop, manipulation under anesthesia, patella fractures, supracondylar femur fractures, acute extensor mechanism disruptions. In the fourth

  10. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  11. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  12. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles....... Perhaps it is only a part of a bigger picture of the modern physics which includes the deeper and hidden layer of subatomic world that has been dipped into the darkness of the universe. The question is, where is the hidden part of modern physics? Hidden part of modern physics lies beyond the uncertainty...

  13. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  14. Water-energy-food nexus: concepts, questions and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The term of water-energy -food nexus has gained increasing attention in the research and policy making communities as the security of water, energy and food becomes severe under changing environment. Ignorance of their closely interlinkages accompanied by their availability and service may result in unforeseeable, adverse consequences. This paper comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of water-energy-food, with a focus on concepts, research questions and methodologies. First, two types of nexus definition are compared and discussed to understand the essence of nexus research issues. Then, three kinds of nexus research questions are presented, including internal relationship analysis, external impact analysis, and evaluation of the nexus system. Five nexus modelling approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages and application, with an aim to identify research gaps in current nexus methods. Finally, future research areas and challenges are discussed, including system boundary, data uncertainty and modelling, underlying mechanism of nexus issues and system performance evaluation. This study helps bring research efforts together to address the challenging questions in the nexus and develop the consensus on building resilient water, energy and food systems.

  15. Fundamental questions before recording or measuring functioning and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Ros; Fortune, Nicola; Cheeseman, Danielle; Mpofu, Elias; Bundy, Anita

    2013-06-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to thoughtful description, recording and measurement of functioning, by discussing some fundamental questions to consider before starting, framed as: why, what, how and who. Generic literature on measurement methods and the more specialised literature on application of the ICF over the last decade inform the consideration of these questions. The context of recording or measurement is examined, including the moral and legal framework of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the technical framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Whatever the setting in which describing, recording or measuring is being undertaken - in policy development, service planning and management, clinical management or population health monitoring - determining the purpose is the key starting point. Purpose (why) frames the consideration of content (what), method (how) and source (who). Many generic measurement methods can be applied in the disability field, but there are challenges particular to the field. The perspectives of people with disabilities and "patients" require consideration, especially with the trend to person-centred care and the social justice principles emanating from the UNCRPD. Considering these basic questions is a pre-requisite to meaningful recording and measurement of functioning and disability. Future challenges include: incorporating environmental factors into measurement; setting thresholds on the disability spectrum; and combining the views of the person concerned with those of various professionals.

  16. Distance education programs for advanced practice nurses: questions to ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L M; Barnason, S; Pozehl, B

    1999-11-01

    This article reviews the use of distance learning in nursing education and to summarize key questions that must be addressed by programs or students considering advanced practice nursing education using distance technology. An acute care nurse practitioner program using distance learning strategies is provided as an example to illustrate delivery of a clinically based curriculum. Examples of questions to be addressed in evaluating a distance education program include: How much of the course or graduate nursing program is available on-line? What are the specific informational technologies used? How does communication occur between graduate students and faculty? How are clinical requirements of a course managed? Are there any requirements for time to be spent directly on campus? Is it necessary for the student to have a computer and Internet provider? Knowledge of the available technology and components of distance education can enhance the ability of the advanced practice nurse to evaluate better and choose educational program offerings.

  17. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  18. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.; Koelzer, W.

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.) [de

  20. Guarino Guarini open questions, possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Baroque architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini is the subject of this issue of the Nexus Network Journal. A group of international scholars were invited to contribute papers that shed light on the unanswered questions in several areas: Baroque architecture in general and Guarini’s architecture in particular; philosophy; history of structural mechanics; mathematics and history of mathematics, cosmology. As always, the NNJ takes an interdisciplinary approach to the broad range of subjects that Guarini concerned himself with, thus the final results will add significantly to our understanding of how Guarini’s actual practical and technical processes were informed by knowledge of his multifaceted scientific and philosophical interests.